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  1. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. East and Southern Africa English Accents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English pronunciation features in the anglophone countries of East and Southern Africa. Focus is on restructuring of the STRUT vowel to /a/,/i/, and /e/ epenthesis, and short tone groups.(Author/VWL)

  3. Emerging East Africa Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Although oil and natural gas exploration has been going on for decades in various East African countries, there has been limited success until recently. In the past there were doubts about the amount of recoverable resources in the region, along with regional and civil conflicts that presented challenges and risks to foreign companies.

  4. Brief communication: Drought likelihood for East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Huntingford, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The East Africa drought in autumn of year 2016 caused malnutrition, illness and death. Close to 16 million people across Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya needed food, water and medical assistance. Many factors influence drought stress and response. However, inevitably the following question is asked: are elevated greenhouse gas concentrations altering extreme rainfall deficit frequency? We investigate this with general circulation models (GCMs). After GCM bias correction to match the climatological mean of the CHIRPS data-based rainfall product, climate models project small decreases in probability of drought with the same (or worse) severity as 2016 ASO (August to October) East African event. This is by the end of the 21st century compared to the probabilities for present day. However, when further adjusting the climatological variability of GCMs to also match CHIRPS data, by additionally bias-correcting for variance, then the probability of drought occurrence will increase slightly over the same period.

  5. Andreas Goes to Africa: A Comparative Historical Study of the Teachers for East Africa Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2018-01-01

    This article uses a comparative historical approach to examine the Teachers for East Africa (TEA) and the Teacher Education in East Africa (TEEA) programs, an influential educational development effort that involved U.S. and British college graduates in East African schools and colleges during the decade of 1961-1971. Drawing on postcolonial…

  6. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. J.; Tugume, F.; Nyblade, A.; Julia, J.; Mulibo, G.

    2011-12-01

    We present new results on crustal structure from East Africa from analyzing P wave receiver functions. The data for this study come from temporary AfricaArray broadband seismic stations deployed between 2007 and 2011 in Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia. Receiver functions have been computed using an iterative deconvolution method. Crustal structure has been imaged using the H-k stacking method and by jointly inverting the receiver functions and surface wave phase and group velocities. The results show remarkably uniform crust throughout the Archean and Proterozoic terrains that comprise the Precambrian tectonic framework of the region. Crustal thickness for most terrains is between 37 and 40 km, and Poisson's ratio is between 0.25 and 0.27. Results from the joint inversion yield average crustal Vs values of 3.6 to 3.7 km/s. For most terrains, a thin (1-5 km) thick high velocity (Vs>4.0 km/s) is found at the base of the crust.

  7. The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Brett R; Barrett, Alan D T

    2008-01-01

    Despite a safe and effective vaccine, there are approximately 200,000 cases, including 30,000 deaths, due to yellow fever virus (YFV) each year, of which 90% are in Africa. The natural history of YFV has been well described, especially in West Africa, but in East Africa yellow fever (YF) remains characterised by unpredictable focal periodicity and a precarious potential for large epidemics. Recent outbreaks of YF in Kenya (1992-1993) and Sudan (2003 and 2005) are important because each of these outbreaks have involved the re-emergence of a YFV genotype (East Africa) that remained undetected for nearly 40 years and was previously unconfirmed in a clinically apparent outbreak. In addition, unlike West Africa and South America, YF has yet to emerge in urban areas of East Africa and be vectored by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti. This is a significant public health concern in a region where the majority of the population remains unvaccinated. This review describes historical findings, highlights a number of disease indicators, and provides clarification regarding the natural history, recent emergence and future risk of YF in East Africa. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  9. Translations on Near East and North Africa, Number 1647

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-28

    Production capacity of the two plants is to amount to 220,000 tons of ammonia and 800,000 tons of uric acid . Improving operations efficiency at the...JPRS 69019 28 April 1977 TRANSLATIONS’ON NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA No, 1647 < 2 w ÜJCEE »- .Q-5 ^ Q. C «MM H— —• £2 a« ES.Q...3. Recipient’s Accession No. 4. Title and Subtitle TRANSLATIONS ON NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA , No. 164 7 5. Report Date 28 April 1977 6

  10. Near East/North Africa Report No. 2642.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-19

    JPRS 82023 19 October 1982 Near East/North Africa Report No. 2642 0 0’- FBISl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE NATIONAl TECHNICALINFORMATION...itI ’s Iz ioo. i ’ tI. xfr .1k3 r A V’ JPRS 82023. 19 October 1982 NEAR EAST/NORTH AFRICA REPORT No. 2642 CONTENTS OPEC AFFAIRS Arab Investment...and tri-.e-6~ve urzgrarme Uricer Pit lattef, Awl-Babta’i of Kjv.a’:. Ai Suda’ry. UALenk C’i-vee! %w te givqn "ho Chance Sliotokshyaond Siia-0a1y of

  11. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived mo...

  12. Women of the World: Near East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamie, Mary

    The third in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 14 countries in the Near East and North Africa. Beginning with an overview of population distribution and changes in the region, the analysis continues with a description of women's…

  13. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  14. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  15. Does Family Background Matter for Learning in East Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sam; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the…

  16. Leveraging the Security -- Development Nexus in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    THE SECURITY-DEVELOPMENT NEXUS IN EAST AFRICA America is in a state of hypnosis . Many outside the beltway do not know, and/or care, how reckless...invariably, what policy makers are implicitly tasked to do, because America will not come out of its hypnosis at the count of three. Endnotes 1 Susan

  17. Socialisation in Architectural Education: A View from East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olweny, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Concern for the state of architectural education in East Africa was a catalyst for this exploration of socialisation, which sought to understand socialisation and its influence on educational outcomes in the region. Socialisation within architectural education has long been known to influence how students acquire important aspects of the…

  18. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  19. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial.

  20. Chemical ecology: studies from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Meinwald, J; Prestwich, G D; Nakanishi, K; Kubo, I

    1978-03-17

    The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in Nairobi, provides a laboratory at which a multinational group of scientists pursues interdisciplinary research. In collaboration with their colleagues in biology, ICIPE chemists have characterized the sex pheromones of the tick which serves as a vector of East Coast fever and have identified a termite queen-cell-building pheromone. The structure of many anthropod defensive chemicals have been determined; most interesting of these are the trinervitenes, structurally novel diterpenoids from nasute termites. Several highly active insect antifeedants were discovered using a simple bioassay to screen selected East African plants. These antifeedants may provide leads for the development of new insect-control techniques.

  1. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  2. Spatial phylodynamics of HIV-1 epidemic emergence in east Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lamers, Susanna; Hou, Wei; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson; Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria; Quinn, Thomas C.; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Salemi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Design We sought to investigate the evolutionary and historical reasons for the different epidemiological patterns of HIV-1 in the early epidemic. In order to characterize the demographic history of HIV-1 subtypes A and D in east Africa, we examined molecular epidemiology, geographical and historical data. Methodology We employed high-resolution phylodynamics to investigate the introduction of HIV-1A and D into east Africa, the geographic trends of viral spread, and the demographic growth of each subtype. We also used geographic information system data to investigate human migration trends, population growth, and human mobility. Results HIV-1A and D were introduced into east Africa after 1950 and spread exponentially during the 1970s, concurrent with eastward expansion. Spatiotemporal data failed to explain the establishment and spread of HIV based on urban population growth and migration. The low prevalence of the virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo before and after the emergence of the pandemic was, however, consistent with regional accessibility data, highlighting the difficulty in travel between major population centers in central Africa. In contrast, the strong interconnectivity between population centers across the east African region since colonial times has likely fostered the rapid growth of the epidemic in this locale. Conclusion This study illustrates how phylodynamic analysis of pathogens informed by geospatial data can provide a more holistic and evidence-based interpretation of past epidemics. We advocate that this ‘landscape phylodynamics’ approach has the potential to provide a framework both to understand epidemics' spread and to design optimal intervention strategies. PMID:19644346

  3. The Growth of Neurosurgery in East Africa: Challenges.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria M; Qureshi, Mubashir M; Budohoski, Karol P; Mangat, Halinder S; Ngerageza, Japhet G; Schöller, Karsten; Shabani, Hamisi K; Zubkov, Micaella R; Härtl, Roger

    2018-05-01

    As the second of 3 articles in this series, the aim of this article is to provide readers with an understanding of the development of neurosurgery in East Africa (foundations), the challenges that arise in providing neurosurgical care in developing countries (challenges), and an overview of traditional and novel approaches to overcoming these challenges and improving health care in the region (innovations). Recognizing the challenges that need to be addressed is the first step to implementing efficient and qualified surgery delivery systems in low- and middle-income countries. We reviewed the major challenges facing health care in East Africa and grouped them into 5 categories: 1) burden of surgical disease and workforce crisis; 2) global health view of surgery as "the neglected stepchild"; 3) need for recognizing the surgical system as an interdependent network and importance of organizational and equipment deficits; 4) lack of education in the community, failure of primary care systems, and net result of overwhelming tertiary care systems; 5) personal and professional burnout as well as brain drain of promising human resources from low- and middle-income countries in East Africa and similar regions across the world. Each major challenge was detailed and analyzed by authors who have worked or are currently working in the region, providing a personal perspective. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Terrestrial heat flow in east and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Pollack, Henry N.; Jones, D. L.; Podmore, Francis; Mushayandebvu, Martin

    1990-10-01

    We report 26 new heat flow and 13 radiogenic heat production measurements from Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania, together with details and some revisions of 18 previous heat flow measurements by other investigators from Kenya and Tanzania. These measurements come from Archean cratons, Proterozoic mobile belts, and Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts. Heat flow data from eight new sites in the Archean Zimbabwe Craton are consistent with previous measurements in the Archean Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Belt (Kalahari Craton) and do not change the mean heat flow of 47±2 mW m-2 (standard error of the mean) in the Kalahari Craton based on 53 previous measurements. Eight new sites in the Archean Tanzania Craton give a mean heat flow of 34±4 mW m-2. The mean heat flow from nine sites in the Proterozoic Mozambique Belt to the east of the Tanzania Craton in Kenya and Tanzania is 47±4 mW m-2. Twelve measurements in the Mesozoic rifted continental margin in east Africa give a mean heat flow of 68±4 mW m-2; four measurements in the Mesozoic Luangwa and Zambezi Rifts range from 44 to 110 mW m-2 with a mean of 76±14 mW m-2. In comparing heat flow in east and southern Africa, we observe a common heat flow pattern of increasing heat flow away from the centers of the Archean cratons. This pattern suggests a fundamental difference in lithospheric thermal structure between the Archean cratons and the Proterozoic and early Paleozoic mobile belts which surround them. Superimposed on this common pattern are two regional variations in heat flow. Heat flow in the Tanzania Craton is lower by about 13 mW m-2 than in the Kalahari Craton, and in the Mozambique Belt in east Africa heat flow is somewhat lower than in the southern African mobile belts at similar distances from the Archean cratonic margin. The two regional variations can be explained in several ways, none of which can as yet be elevated to a preferred status: (1) by variations in crustal heat production, (2) by thin

  5. Mantle transition zone structure beneath Tanzania, east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Thomas J.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Gurrola, Harold; Langston, Charles A.

    2000-03-01

    We apply a three-dimensional stacking method to receiver functions from the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment to determine relative variations in the thickness of the mantle transition zone beneath Tanzania. The transition zone under the Eastern rift is 30-40 km thinner than under areas of the Tanzania Craton in the interior of the East African Plateau unaffected by rift faulting. The region of transition zone thinning under the Eastern rift is several hundred kilometers wide and coincides with a 2-3% reduction in S wave velocities. The thinning of the transition zone, as well as the reduction in S wave velocities, can be attributed to a 200-300°K increase in temperature. This thermal anomaly at >400 km depth beneath the Eastern rift cannot be easily explained by passive rifting and but is consistent with a plume origin for the Cenozoic rifting, volcanism and plateau uplift in East Africa.

  6. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period.

  7. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  8. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  9. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  10. Johnsongrass mosaic virus contributes to maize lethal necrosis in East Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a severe virus disease of maize, has emerged in East Africa in recent years with devastating effects on production and food security where maize is a staple subsistence crop. In extensive surveys of MLN-symptomatic plants in East Africa, sequences of Johnsongrass mosaic ...

  11. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Luan C.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bird, Dale E.; Ball, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana and Pangea. Previous reconstruction models contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean-boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Antarctic margin near the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Crustal thicknesses together with fracture zone terminations reveal COBs that are significantly closer to the African and Antarctic coasts than previously recognized. Correlation of fracture zone azimuths and identified COBs suggests Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. An areal-balancing method has been used to restore the crust to a uniform prerift thickness so as to perform a nonrigid reconstruction for both nonvolcanic and volcanic margins. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Our results suggest Africa underwent extension of 60-120 km, while Antarctic crust was stretched by 105-180 km. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica moved away from Africa in a WNW-ESE direction during the period between 184 and 171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  12. The Somalian earthquakes of May, 1980, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, J. C.; Lépine, J. C.; Tarantola, A.; Lévêque, J. J.

    1981-04-01

    A seismic crisis, with a mb = 5.3 main shock, occured in the Somali Republic, East Africa (10°N, 43°E) from April to November 1980. Up to 2000 earthquakes with ML > 2 have been recorded during this period. This earthquake sequence is of particular interest because it occured in a seismically inactive zone and include a rather long aftershock sequence. Two groups of epicenters were identified using a relative location procedure. Aftershocks observed during the first two weeks fall very close to the Borama city, while latter shocks are situated 10km west. This may suggest that the second group of earthquakes has been induced by the first one. These data show that the continental margin between the Somalian Plateau shield and the quasi-oceanic crust of the Afar-Gulf of Aden region, remains active to day and is relevant to intraplate seismicity.

  13. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Rothschild, Max F.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized

  14. Cretaceous reconstructions of East Antarctica, Africa and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Tikku, A. A.

    2001-04-01

    Some Cretaceous reconstructions of East Antarctica, Africa, and Madagascar overlap the Mozambique ridge onto the margin of Dronning Maud Land, and others place Madagascar west of the Gunnerus ridge, into the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Our M10Ny (131.9 Ma), M0 (120.4 Ma), 96 Ma, and 34y (83 Ma) marine free-air gravity and topography reconstructions illustrate a solution to the overlap problem and also demonstrate that Madagascar separated from Antarctica east of the Gunnerus ridge. Our reconstructions chronicle the growth of the conjugate Mozambique and Riiser-Larsen Basins created at the Southwest Indian spreading ridge. Well defined spreading corridors, identified by conjugate fracture zones and Mesozoic magnetic anomaly identifications, extend from one basin into the other. We find that the eastern scarp of the Mozambique ridge aligns with the Astrid ridge, and there is no room for Madagascar west of the Gunnerus ridge. The overlap of the Mozambique ridge is solved by taking into account the motion of an independent Mozambique ridge microplate that existed from Chron M11 to circa M2.

  15. Seasonal Forecast Skill And Teleconnections Over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, D.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Many people living in East Africa are significantly exposed to risks arising from climate variability. The region experiences two rainy seasons and poor performance of either or both of these (such as seen recently in 2016/17) reduces agricultural productivity and threatens food security. In combination with other factors this can lead to famine. By utilizing seasonal climate forecasts, preparatory actions can be taken in order to mitigate the risks arising from such climate variability. As part of the project ForPAc: "Towards forecast-based preparedness action", we are working with humanitarian agencies in Kenya to build such early warning systems on subseasonal-to-seasonal timescales. Here, the seasonal predictability and forecast skill of the two East African rainy seasons will be presented. Results from the new ECMWF operational forecasting system SEAS5 will be shown and compared to the previous System 4. Analysis of a new 110 year long atmosphere-only simulation will also be discussed, demonstrating impacts of atmosphere-ocean coupling as well as putting operational forecast skill in a long-term context. Particular focus will be given to the model representation of teleconnections of seasonal climate with global sea surface temperatures; highlighting sources of forecast error and informing future model development.

  16. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  17. A Spring Forward for Human Evolution in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Ashley, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The current consensus is that humans evolved in Africa and then migrated in waves to other parts of the world starting as early as 2 Ma. The climate was both cooling and drying. One of the major unknowns connected with human survival in this climatically turbulent environment is the availability of resources, particularly water. A growing body of geological evidence shows an association between springs, stone tools and hominin fossils at a number of sites in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). The springs may have been vulnerable to climate variability, thus the role that groundwater availability may have played in human evolution and migration to other continents is not known. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the paleo-catchment of one such EARS site, Olduvai Gorge (3°S), we show how spring discharge was likely linked to climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100s to 1000 years. Our results show how groundwater would have provided 'drought proof' water supply and habitats during arid phases as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localized groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods. Thus, springs and associated wetlands may have been important factors in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during dispersal within and out of Africa. While further exploration is needed to test the geographical extent of groundwater use by early humans, we propose that groundwater flow systems produced in the EARS played a significant role in the evolution and dispersal of early humans.

  18. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Mahgoub, Mostafa M.; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007), Kenya (2006–2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007–2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  19. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... and 500 deaths! Foundation News Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  20. Mantle plumes and associated flow beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Van der Lee, Suzan

    2011-02-01

    We investigate mantle plumes and associated flow beneath the lithosphere by imaging the three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa. This image shows elongated vertical and horizontal low-velocity anomalies down to at least mid mantle depths. This three-dimensional S-velocity model is obtained through the joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. In the resolved parts of our S-velocity model we find that the Afar plume is distinctly separate from the Kenya plume, showing the Afar plume's origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identify another quasi-vertical low-velocity anomaly beneath Jordan and northern Arabia which extends into the lower mantle and may be related to volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirm horizontal mantle flow radially away from Afar. Low-velocity channels in our model support southwestward flow beneath Ethiopia, eastward flow beneath the Gulf of Aden, but not northwestwards beneath the entire Red Sea. Instead, northward mantle flow from Afar appears to be channeled beneath Arabia.

  1. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  2. Multi Plumes and Their Flows beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; van der Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa is estimated down to the lower mantle to investigate vertical and horizontal extension of low-velocity anomalies that bear out the presence of mantle plumes and their flows beneath lithosphere. We estimated this model through joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. With the unprecedented resolution in our S-velocity model, we found different flow patterns of hot materials upwelling beneath Afar beneath the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. While the low-velocity anomaly from Afar is well confined beneath the Gulf of Aden, inferring mantle flow along the gulf, N-S channel of low velocity is found beneath Arabia, not along the Red Sea. The Afar plume is distinctively separate from the Kenya plume, showing its origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identified another low-velocity extension to the lower mantle beneath Jordan and northern Arabia, which is thought to have caused volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirmed horizontal plume flow from Afar in NS direction beneath Arabia and in NE-SW direction beneath Ethiopia as a likely cause of the observed seismic anisotropy.

  3. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa.

    PubMed

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D; Verdin, James P

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R>0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  4. An overview of the transboundary aquifers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu

    2010-11-01

    A transboundary aquifer is a body of groundwater intersected by two or more countries with the potential threat of dispute over a shared groundwater resource. A large portion of the population in East Africa relies on surface water resources for day-to-day activities; in turn, this is dependent on episodic rainfall. Surface water in the region is vulnerable to pollution and potential climate change. Consequently, frequent conflict over the water use is a regular event in the region. This paper examines the transboundary aquifers and their significance for water supply in the six adjacent Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti). Analysis of available literature and short field visits to accessible areas were undertaken in order to examine the geology, hydrogeological dynamics, and water use. The geology of the transboundary aquifers is mainly represented by Precambrian basement, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Cenozoic volcanics and recent alluvial deposits. Taking into consideration the topographic setting and water circulation, the Ethiopian highlands are the major sources of recharge to the transboundary aquifers of the adjacent countries. The surface runoff drains through 11 major rivers into the neighbouring countries. The groundwater contained in the transboundary aquifers is yet to receive attention by the various countries, but the future trend is towards exploiting the resources to alleviate water shortages in the region. It is hoped that the systematic development of these groundwater resources would strengthen cooperation in this conflict-dominated region.

  5. Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the East African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 < mb < 5.5) from poorly sampled regions in order to have a more uniform data coverage. The tomographic results allow us to image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern East-Africa rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km

  6. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  7. Skylab (SL)-3 - East Africa View - Ravaged by Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    S73-35082 (July-Sept. 1973) --- A near vertical view of a portion of west Africa ravaged by drought for the past five years is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The semi-desert scene is in southeastern Niger about 200 nautical miles east-northeast of the capital city of Niamey. A polygonal-shaped area (dark) in the lower right corner of the picture represents a range-management ranch. The dry stream beds trending diagonally across the photograph locally contain some water or vegetation (green). The beds are sources of water through shallow drilling and contain soils suitable for production of crops. The variety of tans, browns and grays are typical desert colors that represent barren rocks and soil or sand-filled ancient stream valleys. Absence of vegetation is the singular feature of the area. Dr. G. Stuckmann of the Geographic Institute, University of Technology, Mannover, Federal Republic of Germany, will use this photograph in the study of the hydrologic regime of the region through analysis of fossil drainage patterns, geological structures and accumulations of surface water. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. (Alternate number SL3-86-166) Photo credit: NASA

  8. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968

  9. Late Pleistocene temperature, hydrology, and glaciation in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Verschuren, D.; Kelly, M. A.; Loomis, S. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Morrill, C.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Doughty, A. M.; De Cort, G.; Olago, D.; Street-Perrott, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the coming century the world's high tropical mountains are predicted to experience a magnitude of climate change second only to the Arctic due to amplification of warming with elevation in the tropics. Proxy data suggest that substantial changes in tropical temperature and hydroclimate also occurred during the last deglaciation, the most recent time period when rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused large changes in global climate. Determining whether the rate of temperature change with elevation (the lapse rate) was different from today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is therefore critical to understanding the future of tropical mountain environments and resources. Here we present a new 25,000-year temperature reconstruction based upon organic geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Lake Rutundu (3,078 m asl), Mount Kenya, East Africa. Through comparison with regional reconstructions of lower elevation temperature, we show that LGM cooling was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our lapse rate reconstructions with equilibrium line altitude reconstructions from glacial moraines indicates that temperature, rather than precipitation, was the dominant control on tropical alpine glacier fluctuations at this time scale. Nevertheless, our results have important implications for the tropical hydrological cycle, as changes in the lapse rate are intimately linked with changes in atmospheric water vapour concentrations. Indeed, we attribute the steeper lapse rate to drying of the tropical ice-age atmosphere, a hypothesis supported by palaeoclimate models. However, comparison of our data to these simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models significantly underestimate tropical temperature changes at high elevation and therefore the lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than currently predicted.

  10. Rethinking health sector procurement as developmental linkages in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Tibandebage, Paula; Karimi Njeru, Mercy; Kariuki Kungu, Joan; Israel, Caroline; Mujinja, Phares G M

    2018-03-01

    Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy. This article uses fieldwork in Tanzania and Kenya in 2012-15 to analyse procurement of essential medicines and supplies as a governance process for the health system and its industrial links, drawing on aspects of global value chain theory. We describe procurement work processes as experienced by front line staff in public, faith-based and private sectors, linking these experiences to wholesale funding sources and purchasing practices, and examining their implications for medicines access and for local industrial development within these East African countries. We show that in a context of poor access to reliable medicines, extensive reliance on private medicines purchase, and increasing globalisation of procurement systems, domestic linkages between health and industrial sectors have been weakened, especially in Tanzania. We argue in consequence for a more developmental perspective on health sector procurement design, including closer policy attention to strengthening vertical and horizontal relational working within local health-industry value chains, in the interests of both wider access to treatment and improved industrial development in Africa. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factor burden in Africa and the Middle East: the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    PubMed

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Omar, Mohamed I; Raal, Frederick J; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M

    2014-01-01

    Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼ 80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46 ± 14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions.

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Africa and the Middle East: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638

  13. AAAS: Politics. . . and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed during the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting held in Washington, D.C. Topics included: the equal rights amendment, laetrile, nuclear radiation hazards, sociobiology, and various science topics. (SL)

  14. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  15. A Revised Holocene History of Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, J. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Hecky, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The great lakes of the East African Rift valley are a vast chain of lakes formed in a region of active tectonics. These large, deep lakes are relatively old and many (e.g. Tanganyika, Malawi, and Turkana) have greatly influenced our understanding of terrestrial, tropical East African paleoclimate. Lake Kivu (max depth, 485m) sits at the heart of these rift lakes, north of Lake Tanganyika between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda (roughly 250 km west of Lake Victoria). At over 1,400 meters in elevation, this 2,060 km2 mesotrophic lake has a complex stratification regime imposed by hydrothermal springs and deep waters supersaturated at STP in CO2 and CH4 gasses. The active Virunga Volcanoes to the north of the lake supply heated, high-salinity waters below 280 meters water depth maintaining the modern crenogenic meromixis. Based on detailed studies of diatom assemblages and bulk sedimentology, previous workers have suggested this hydrothermal activity began roughly 5,000 years BP. Unfortunately, dating and stratigraphic correlations of these original cores from the 1970 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's expedition have been problematic. Here we offer an improved chronology and new carbonate analyses from cores recovered in 2012 and 2013. Our AMS radiocarbon ages come from six terrigeneous macrofossils spanning the last 9,100 years (cal BP). These ages suggest a rather high sedimentation rate on the order of 70cm/kyr, and hence, our 8 m-long core provides us with a high-resolution lake history for the past 10,000 years. Most notable over the past 5,000 years in the lake history is the repeated onset and cessation of carbonate deposition, punctuated by organic-rich intervals. Earlier studies of the Woods Hole cores placed the onset of carbonate deposition at ca. 11,000 years BP suggesting changes in lake hydrology (i.e. closed to open), while the abrupt cessation of carbonate was dated at ca. 5,000 years BP and attributed to the beginning of

  16. The gravity field of the Red Sea and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Jannis; Henke, Christian H.; Egloff, Frank; Akamaluk, Thomas

    1991-11-01

    Reevaluation of all gravity data from the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and East Africa permitted the compilation of a new Bouguer anomaly map. The intensity of the gravity field and its regional pattern correlate closely with the topographic features of the region. The maximum Bouguer values (> + 100 mGal) are located over the median troughs of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Dense juvenile oceanic crust in these rifts and intruding magmas in stretched continental areas produce excess mass responsible for the anomaly highs. In the Red Sea the orientation of the gravity highs is NW-SE in the south, turning to NE-SW in the north, almost parallel to the Aqaba-Dead Sea strike. This pattern reveals that the present basin axis is not identical with that which formed the Tertiary coastal margins and the pre-Red Sea zones of crustal weakness. In the Gulf of Aden, new oceanic crust along the Tadjura Trench and its eastward extension is also expressed in the Bouguer anomaly map by gravity highs and a sharp bending of the isolines. A maximum of approx. +150 mGal is located over the central section of the Sheba Ridge. Bouguer gravity values over the East African and Yemen Plateaus are of the order of -180 to -240 mGal, indicating significant crustal thickening. On the Somali Plateau, the Marda Fault also has a strong gravity signature that can be traced towards Somalia. By constraining crustal thickness and structure with seismic data and density values from the velocity distribution by means of the Nafe-Drake and Birch relationships, we computed density models for the crust and upper mantle. The crustal thickness is of the order of 40 km beneath the plateaus and only 5 to 6 km at the oceanized parts in the central and southern portions of the Red Sea median trough. The flanks of the southern Red Sea and the corresponding Arabian side are underlain by 12 to 16 km thick stretched continental type crust. Oceanization offshore Sudan and Egypt is asymmetrical. The continental crust

  17. Black Marble - Africa, Europe, and the Middle East

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired April 18 - October 23, 2012 This new image of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East at night is a composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi NPP satellite in April and October 2012. The new data was mapped over existing Blue Marble imagery of Earth to provide a realistic view of the planet. The nighttime view was made possible by the new satellite’s “day-night band” of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. VIIRS detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe dim signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. In this case, auroras, fires, and other stray light have been removed to emphasize the city lights. “Night time imagery provides an intuitively graspable view of our planet,” says William Stefanov, senior remote sensing scientist for the International Space Station program office. “They provide a fairly straightforward means to map urban versus rural areas, and to show where the major population centers are and where they are not.” Named for satellite meteorology pioneer Verner Suomi, NPP flies over any given point on Earth's surface twice each day at roughly 1:30 a.m. and p.m. The polar-orbiting satellite flies 824 kilometers (512 miles) above the surface, sending its data once per orbit to a ground station in Svalbard, Norway, and continuously to local direct broadcast users distributed around the world. The mission is managed by NASA with operational support from NOAA and its Joint Polar Satellite System, which manages the satellite's ground system. NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon, using Suomi NPP VIIRS data provided courtesy of Chris Elvidge (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center). Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, NOAA, and the Department of Defense. Caption by Mike Carlowicz. Instrument: Suomi NPP - VIIRS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Click here to view all of the Earth

  18. Observations of equatorial ionization anomaly over Africa and Middle East during a year of deep minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, Olawale; Owolabi, Oluwafisayo; Falayi, Elijah; Jimoh, Emmanuel; Kotoye, Afolabi; Odeyemi, Olumide; Rabiu, Babatunde; Doherty, Patricia; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Adeniyi, Jacob; Kaka, Rafiat; Onanuga, Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the veracity of an ion continuity equation in controlling equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) morphology using total electron content (TEC) of 22 GPS receivers and three ground-based magnetometers (Magnetic Data Acquisition System, MAGDAS) over Africa and the Middle East (Africa-Middle East) during the quietest periods. Apart from further confirmation of the roles of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) in determining hemispheric extent of EIA crest over higher latitudes, we found some additional roles played by thermospheric meridional neutral wind. Interestingly, the simultaneous observations of EIA crests in both hemispheres of Africa-Middle East showed different morphology compared to that reported over Asia. We also observed interesting latitudinal twin EIA crests domiciled at the low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Our results further showed that weak EEJ strength associated with counter electrojet (CEJ) during sunrise hours could also trigger twin EIA crests over higher latitudes.

  19. Using Satellite Data to Build Climate Resilience: A Novel East Africa Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is affected by recurrent drought. The 2015-2016 El Niño triggered a severe drought across East Africa causing serious impacts to regional water security, health, and livelihoods. Ethiopia was the hardest hit, with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs calling the recent drought the worst in 50 years. Resources to monitor the severity and progression of droughts are a critical component to disaster risk reduction, but are challenging to implement in regions with sparse data collection networks such as East Africa. Satellite data is used by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System, the USAID Famine Early Warning System, and the Africa Drought and Flood Monitor. These systems use remotely sensed vegetation, soil moisture, and meteorological data to develop drought indices. However, they do not directly monitor impacts to water resources, which is necessary to appropriately target drought mitigation efforts. The current study combines new radar data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 mission with satellite imagery to perform a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2015-2016 drought in East Africa on regional surface water. Inland water body extents during the drought are compared to historical trends to identify the most severely impacted areas. The developed tool has the potential to support on-the-ground humanitarian relief efforts and to refine predictions of water scarcity and crop impacts from existing hydrologic models and famine early warning systems.

  20. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    PubMed

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  1. Annotated list of Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania and new Tettigoniidae species from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-12-21

    A list of the Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) of the East Usambara Mountains is presented and 16 new species are described from East Africa. A total number of 29 Tettigoniidae species is recorded for the East Usambara Mountains. New species are described from the Shimba Hills in Kenya, coastal Tanzania from the Kazimzumbwi forest reserve, Mt Kilimanjaro, the East and West Usambara and Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, namely in Conocephalinae Afroagraecia pwania n. sp., Afroagraecia shimbaensis n. sp., Afroanthracites discolor n. sp., Afroanthracites jagoi n. sp. and Afroanthracites viridis n. sp., in Meconematinae Afrophisis flagellata n. sp., Afrophisis kisarawe n. sp., Afrophisis mazumbaiensis n. sp. and Afrophisis pseudoflagellata n. sp., in Hexacentrinae Aerotegmina megaloptera n. sp., in Mecopodinae Apteroscirtus cristatus n. sp., and A. planidorsatus n. sp., in Phaneropterinae Gelotopoia amabilis n. sp., and in Pseudophyllinae Cymatomerella pardopunctata n. sp. and Cymatomera viridimaculata n. sp. Seven species are endemic to the East Usambara Mountains which are 25% of the recorded forest-bound bush crickets. The Tettigoniidae fauna is compared between the East Usambara Mountains and Mt Kilimanjaro and mechanisms of speciation discussed in Orthoptera for the area. New Tettigoniidae records are given for Mt Kilimanjaro (Oxyecous apertus Ragge, Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge and Eurycorypha conclusa Hemp).

  2. Evaluating the Madrasa Preschool Programme in East Africa: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaura, Peter A. M.; Sylva, Kathy; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of preschool experience (two types of preschool: Madrasa and non-Madrasa) on the cognitive development of children in East Africa. In the three countries studied (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania/Zanzibar) preschool education is burgeoning and government standards are being set. This quasi experimental evaluation used…

  3. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  4. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

  5. Complete sequence and diversity of a maize-associated Polerovirus in East Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae,...

  6. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND POLITICAL INTEGRATION IN THE ISLAMIC NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    trends in these countries, about the constraints on their foreign policies and about their potential for achieving political stability . More...specifically, this research has been directed at the question of whether the countries of the Near East and North Africa can achieve political stability without

  7. A Developmental Assets Approach in East Africa: Can Swahili Measures Capture Adolescent Strengths and Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drescher, Christopher F.; Johnson, Laura R.; Kurz, A. Solomon; Scales, Peter C.; Kiliho, Ray P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Assets-based approaches are well-suited to youth living in majority world contexts, such as East Africa. However, positive psychology research with African adolescents is rare. One hindering factor is the lack of translated measures for conducting research. Objective: This study builds capacity for positive youth development research…

  8. Investigating Students' Behavioural Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Learning in Higher Education in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raisamo, Roope

    2014-01-01

    Recent penetration of mobile technologies and its services in East Africa has provided a new platform for institutions to widen access to education through mobile learning. Mobile technologies provide learners with flexibility and ubiquity to learn anytime and anywhere via wireless Internet. However, far too little research has been conducted to…

  9. Near East and North Africa: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This selected bibliography focuses on the Near East and North Africa. Among the topics covered are: Documentary Collections, History, Politics, and International Relations, Islam and the Islamic World, the Arabs, Geography, Art, Literature, Education and Sociocultural Patterns, and Economics, Labor and Oil. An introduction to the series is in SO…

  10. Near East and North Africa: A Question Syllabus. Center for Area and Country Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Harry N.

    This study syllabus on the Near East and North Africa is divided into twelve units. Designed to familiarize government personnel assigned to the area with the region and people, each unit consists of a statement of the main objectives to be studied, questions for consideration, and a list of suggested readings from books and periodicals. Units…

  11. Dietary trends in the Middle East and North Africa: an ecological study (1961 to 2007).

    PubMed

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Jessri, Mahsa; Toolabi, Karamollah; Mojarrad, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-10-01

    Middle Eastern and North African countries are undergoing nutrition transition, a transition which is associated with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This necessitates the evaluation of dietary patterns in these regions. The present study aimed to assess changes in dietary patterns in Middle Eastern and North African countries between 1961 and 2007. Availability of energy and fifteen main food items during 1961-2007 was examined using FAO food balance sheets from the FAOSTAT database. Fifteen countries including nine in the Middle East and six in North Africa were selected and the average availability of total energy and different food items in these regions were compared. Over the 47 years studied, energy and food availability (apart from animal fats and alcoholic beverages) has increased in the Middle East and North Africa. In both regions the proportion of energy derived from meat and vegetable oils has increased significantly while that from cereals decreased significantly. In addition, the proportion of energy from milk and dairy products and vegetables has shown an ascending trend in North Africa while the proportion of energy from fruits has shown a descending trend in the Middle East. The study results reveal an unfavourable trend towards a Westernized diet in the Middle East and, to a certain extent, in North Africa. Tailored nutritional education encouraging healthy eating for prevention of the burden of chronic diseases in these countries seems essential.

  12. Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in East Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    This book presents an ethnographic study of a school and community in East Africa. It focuses on the role school plays in the development of the children's identity and relationships to their parents and community, and in the development of the region. At issue here are the competing influences of Western modernity and the cultural traditions of…

  13. Traditional Music of East Africa: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern Africa. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…

  14. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle. PMID:28589125

  15. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  16. Near East/North Africa Report, Number 2603

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-17

    Electricity Stations 118 Gum Arabic Belt 118 Popular Development 118 Foreign Exchange Regulating Measures 118 Tombura on HEC Policy 119...Middle East and that this underlines the need for a just solution to the Palestinian problem—a solution that guar - antees the legitimate rights of the...last months of 1360. It must be noted that prices of a number of goods & services, such as cold drinks, washing powder , some cigarettes and telephone

  17. Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Amin K.; Ichoku, Charles M.; Mohr, Karen I.; Huffman, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data, three precipitation classes are identified for rainy seasons of West and East Africa: weak convective rainfall (WCR), strong convective rainfall (SCR), and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs).Nearly 75% of the total seasonal precipitation is produced by the SCR and MCSs, even though they represent only 8% of the rain events. Rain events in East Africa tend to have a longer duration and lower intensity than in West Africa, reflecting different characteristics of the SCR and MCS events in these two regions. Surface heating seems to be the primary convection trigger for the SCR, particularly in East Africa, whereas the WCR requires a dynamical trigger such as low-level convergence. The data are used to evaluate the performance of the recently launched Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG)project. The IMERG-based precipitation shows significant improvement over its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), particularly in capturing the MCSs, due to its improved temporal resolution.

  18. Heart Failure in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America: The INTER-CHF study.

    PubMed

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; AlHabib, Khalid F; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo-Villaneuva, Lia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Tibazarwa, Kemi; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Balasubramanian, Kumar; Yacoub, Magdi H; Huffman, Mark D; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-02-01

    There are few data on heart failure (HF) patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America. INTER-CHF is a prospective study that enrolled HF patients in 108 centers in 16 countries from 2012 to 2014. Consecutive ambulatory or hospitalized adult patients with HF were enrolled. Baseline data were recorded on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, HF etiology and treatments. Age- and sex-adjusted results are reported. We recruited 5813 HF patients: mean(SE) age=59(0.2)years, 39% female, 65% outpatients, 31% from rural areas, 26% with HF with preserved ejection fraction, with 1294 from Africa, 2661 from Asia, 1000 from the Middle-East, and 858 from South America. Participants from Africa-closely followed by Asians-were younger, had lower literacy levels, and were less likely to have health or medication insurance or be on beta-blockers compared with participants from other regions, but were most likely to be in NYHA class IV. Participants from South America were older, had higher insurance and literacy levels, and, along with Middle Eastern participants, were more likely to be on beta-blockers, but had the lowest proportion in NYHA IV. Ischemic heart disease was the most common HF etiology in all regions except Africa where hypertensive heart disease was most common. INTER-CHF describes significant regional variability in socioeconomic and clinical factors, etiologies and treatments in HF patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America. Opportunities exist for improvement in health/medication insurance rates and proportions of patients on beta blockers, particularly in Africa and Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  20. a Heritage Inventory for Documenting Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrick, N.; Zerbini, A.

    2017-08-01

    The heritage of the Middle East and North Africa is under growing threat from a variety of factors, including agricultural expansion, urban development, looting, and conflict. Recording and documenting this heritage is therefore a key priority to aid heritage practitioners tasked with protecting sites and evaluating their condition on the ground. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project has developed a methodology for the identification, documentation, analysis, and monitoring of sites across the region to aid heritage professionals in these efforts. The project uses remote sensing techniques along with traditional archaeological research and prospection methods to collect data, which are stored and managed in a custom-designed database adapted from open-source Arches v.3 software, using CIDOC CRM standards and controlled vocabularies. In addition to these activities, the EAMENA project has initiated an international conference series and training workshops to support and establish partnerships with heritage professionals and institutions across the region.

  1. The upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of East Africa derived from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2012-12-01

    An expanded model of the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath East Africa has been developed using data from the latest phases of the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from preceding studies. The combined dataset consists of 331 events recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this latest study, 149 events were used to determine fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 seconds using the two-plane-wave method. These were subsequently combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for an updated upper mantle three-dimensional shear wave velocity model. Newly imaged features include a substantial fast anomaly in eastern Zambia that may have exerted a controlling influence on the evolution of the Western Rift Branch. Furthermore, there is a suggestion that the Eastern Rift Branch trends southeastward offshore eastern Tanzania.

  2. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  3. East Africa seminar and workshop of remote sensing of natural resources and environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    Report on total program covering East Africa Seminar and Workshop on remote sensing of natural resources and the environment held in Nairobi, Kenya, March 21 April 3, 1974, attended by participants from 10 English-speaking African nations. Appendices are included for Seminar proceedings, workshop lectures and outlines, field trip reports and critiques by participants, and reports on potential applications of an operational earth resources satellite for the participating countries.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  5. The rise of injecting drug use in east Africa: a case study from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Beckerleg, Susan; Telfer, Maggie; Hundt, Gillian Lewando

    2005-01-01

    Studies on injecting drug use in East Africa are reviewed. The existingstudies document the spread of heroin injection in Kenya and Tanzania, both countries where HIV rates are high. No data from Uganda on injecting drug use was found by the authors. A case study of the growth of heroin injection in a Kenyan coastal town is presented. The need for needle-exchange programmes and other prevention services is discussed. PMID:16122382

  6. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  7. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's Capacity Building Activities in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Gavin; Robin, Enora; Hanlin, Rebecca; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; MacLure, Calum; Parks, Sarah; Chataway, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is one of a number of Product Development Partnerships created to bridge the gap between scientific and technological potential and the needs of low income populations in low and middle income countries. Specifically IAVI is focused on creating a preventative vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Whilst the remit of IAVI is to create new science, technology and products, its work necessarily involves a wide range of stakeholders and different constituencies in industrially developing and developed countries. Its capacity building activities relate to strengthening the ability to conduct clinical trials and are broad based, spanning scientific and technological capacity through to organisational, advocacy and broader development capabilities. The aim of this study was to deepen IAVI's understanding of how it contributes to capacity building activities in East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda), spanning scientific and technological capacity through to organisational, advocacy and broader development capabilities. IAVI's mission to develop an HIV vaccine has become increasingly connected to wider health systems strengthening, through its clinical research activities in East Africa. Since it began its operations in the region, IAVI has made a significant contribution to training interventions to support scientific excellence and good clinical practice and invested in infrastructure and laboratories at Clinical Research Centres in East Africa. Although clear challenges still exist with ensuring sustained investment, accessing marginalized populations and demonstrating progress in capacity building, the experiences of IAVI to date suggest that substantial progress is being made towards wider health systems strengthening in the region. PMID:28083400

  8. Cenozoic magmatism throughout east Africa resulting from impact of a single plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Sleep, N. H.

    1998-10-01

    The geology of northern and central Africa is characterized by broad plateaux, narrower swells and volcanism occurring from ~45Myr ago to the present. The greatest magma volumes occur on the >1,000-km-wide Ethiopian and east African plateaux, which are transected by the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and east African rift systems, active since the late Oligocene epoch. Evidence for one or more mantle plumes having impinged beneath the plateaux comes from the dynamic compensation inferred from gravity studies, the generally small degrees of extension observed and the geochemistry of voluminous eruptive products. Here we present a model of a single large plume impinging beneath the Ethiopian plateau that takes into account lateral flow and ponding of plume material in pre-existing zones of lithospheric thinning. We show that this single plume can explain the distribution and timing of magmatism and uplift throughout east Africa. The thin lithosphere beneath the Mesozoic-Palaeogene rifts and passive margins of Africa and Arabia guides the lateral flow of plume material west to the Cameroon volcanic line and south to the Comoros Islands. Our results demonstrate the strong control that the lithosphere exerts on the spatial distribution of plume-related melting and magmatism.

  9. Mantle Structure Beneath East Africa and Zambia from Body Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Nyblade, A.; Tugume, F.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, P and S travel time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are being inverted, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds variations extending to a depth of 1200 km. Preliminary results show that at depths of 200 km of less, low wave speed anomalies are well developed beneath the Eastern and Western Branches of the East African Rift System. At deep depths, the low wave speed anomalies focus under the center and southern part of the East African Plateau and extend into the transition zone. At transition zone depths and within the top part of the lower mantle, the low wave speed anomaly shifts to the southwest beneath Zambia, indicating that the low wave speed anomaly is continuous across the transition zone and that it extends into the lower mantle. This result suggests that the upper mantle low wave speed anomaly beneath East Africa is connected to the African superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

  10. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  11. The influence of urbanisation on measures of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Omumbo, J.A.; Guerra, C.A.; Hay, S.I.; Snow, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the effects of urbanisation in Africa on Plasmodium falciparum risks and disease outcomes. We undertook a review of published and unpublished literature to identify parasite survey data from communities in East Africa. Data were selected to represent the most reliable and contemporary estimates of infection prevalence and were categorised by urban or rural status using a number of approaches. We identified 329 spatially distinct surveys undertaken since 1980 in the sub-region of which 37 were undertaken in urban settlements and 292 in rural settlements. Overall rural settlements reported significantly higher parasite prevalence among children aged 0–14 than urban settlements (on average 10% higher infection rates; p < 0.05). No urban settlements recorded parasite prevalence in excess of 75%. In areas of East Africa where climatic conditions are likely to support higher parasite transmission, the rural–urban difference was most marked. There was a significant trend towards documenting higher classes of parasite prevalence in rural compared to urban settlements (p < 0.05) and the mean difference between rural and urban samples was 18% (p < 0.001). These results further highlight the need to better define urban extents in Africa in order to capture the non-climatic determinants of infection and disease risk and provide a more informed approach to describing the burden of disease across the continent. PMID:15589793

  12. Diet Changes in the Plio-Pleistocene of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Diets of modern mammals are often used as presumed analogues for the diets of their respective immediate ancestors. Morphological change along lineages provides other evidence previously used to infer diet change within lineages. Stable isotopes provide an independent test of diet, especially in tropical regions over the past 6 Myr, and also especially the distinction between grazing and browsing. Diet changes within lineages using stable carbon isotopes shows that the "like" analogies and "morphological" changes are in general "correct", but that diet changes often precede the previously paleontological interpretations of change from browsing to grazing, and in some cases are "flat-out" incorrect about diet preferences. Of particular interest is the observation that many taxa that are now "browsing" taxa had, for a considerable part of their evolutionary pathway, a significant C4 (i.e., grass) component to the diet. The current distribution of "grazing-", "browsing-", and "mixed-" diet taxa in Africa is unusual in comparison to other time periods in the Pleistocene and Pliocene.

  13. Inferring Past Climate in Equatorial East Africa using Glacier Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, A. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Anderson, B.; Russell, J. M.; Jackson, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain glaciers in the northern and southern middle latitudes advanced nearly synchronously during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the timing and magnitude of cooling is less certain for the tropics. Knowing the degree of cooling in high altitude, low latitude regions advances our understanding of the cryosphere in understudied areas and contributes to our understanding of what causes ice ages. Here we use a 2-D ice flow and mass balance model to simulate glacier extents in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the Last Glacial Maximum. In particular, we model steady-state ice extent that matches the dated moraines in the Rwenzori Mountains to infer past climate. Steady-state simulations of LGM glacier extents, which match moraines dated to 20,000 years ago, can be obtained with a 20% reduction in precipitation and a 7°C cooling to match the associated moraines. A 0-50% reduction in precipitation combined with a 5-8°C cooling, respectively, agrees well with paleoclimate estimates from independent proxy records. As expected in a high precipitation environment, these glaciers are very sensitive to decreases in temperature, converting large volumes of precipitation from rain to snow as well as decreasing melting. Glaciers in equatorial Africa appear to have been waxing and waning synchronously and by the same magnitude as glaciers in the middle latitudes, suggesting a common, global forcing mechanism.

  14. Persistence of Rift Valley fever virus in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gachohi, J.; Hansen, F.; Bett, B.; Kitala, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock, wildlife and humans that causes severe outbreaks in intervals of several years. One of the open questions is how the virus persists between outbreaks. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation model of the RVFv transmission dynamics to investigate this question. The model, is based on livestock and mosquito population dynamics. Spatial aspects are explicitly represented by a set of grid cells that represent mosquito breeding sites. A grid cell measures 500 by 500m and the model considers a grid of 100 by 100 grid cells; the model thus operates on the regional scale of 2500km2. Livestock herds move between grid cells, and provide connectivity between the cells. The model is used to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of RVFv persistence in absence of a wildlife reservoir in an east African semi-arid context. Specifically, the model assesses the importance of local virus persistence in mosquito breeding sites relative to global virus persistence mitigated by movement of hosts. Local persistence is determined by the length of time the virus remains in a mosquito breeding site once introduced. In the model, this is a function of the number of mosquitoes that emerge infected and their lifespan. Global persistence is determined by the level of connectivity between isolated grid cells. Our work gives insights into the ecological and epidemiological conditions under which RVFv persists. The implication for disease surveillance and management are discussed.

  15. Water Uses and Children's Lives in East Africa. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  16. Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stager, J. Curt; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Conway, Declan; Verburg, Piet; Mason, Peter J.

    2007-08-01

    An association of high sunspot numbers with rises in the level of Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the focus of many investigations and vigorous debate during the last century. In this paper, we show that peaks in the ~11-year sunspot cycle were accompanied by Victoria level maxima throughout the 20th century, due to the occurrence of positive rainfall anomalies ~1 year before solar maxima. Similar patterns also occurred in at least five other East African lakes, which indicates that these sunspot-rainfall relationships were broadly regional in scale. Although irradiance fluctuations associated with the sunspot cycle are weak, their effects on tropical rainfall could be amplified through interactions with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation systems, including ENSO. If this Sun-rainfall relationship persists in the future, then sunspot cycles can be used for long-term prediction of precipitation anomalies and associated outbreaks of insect-borne disease in much of East Africa. In that case, unusually wet rainy seasons and Rift Valley Fever epidemics should occur a year or so before the next solar maximum, which is expected to occur in 2011-2012 AD.

  17. The Governance of Animal Care and Use for Scientific Purposes in Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Bert J; Fakoya, Francis A; Hau, Jann; Souilem, Ouajdi; Anestidou, Lida

    2016-05-01

    Animals are commonly used for scientific purposes in Africa and the Middle East. However, this field is often inadequately regulated, with many countries lacking national legislation, policies, or guidelines for the care and use of animals used for research, testing, or education. This results in an essentially uncontrolled system where scientific quality and animal wellbeing cannot robustly be guaranteed, which may hinder acceptance (i.e., publication) of results by the scientific community and limit public confidence. Though accepted international guidelines and best practice recommendations exist that could be adopted or adapted to meet local needs, the responsible conduct of research and animal welfare may not be prioritized in regions that are affected by instability, poverty, disease, or malnutrition. Some notable exceptions do, however, exist in individual countries or institutions where ethical review processes, oversight of animal health and welfare, the competence of personnel, and other scientific standards are appropriately regulated and implemented. These countries and institutions represent nodes of expertise that could act as platforms of support for surrounding regions in terms of the provision of education, training, and sharing of experience and resources. To make such regional capacity-strengthening efforts sustainable will require regional cooperation, the establishment of regional networks, harmonization of policies, pooled resources, and long-term investment in education, training, and infrastructure. An overarching system is needed to oversee the efficient promotion of scientific and ethical standards and the dissemination of information on laboratory animal science in Africa and the Middle East, while each country should remain able to maintain a system of oversight that reflects its own cultures, traditions, religions, laws, and regulations. This article provides an overview of the governance of the care and use of animals for scientific

  18. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  19. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  20. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  1. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  2. Current kinematics and dynamics of Africa and the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D. S.; Flesch, L. M.; Calais, E.; Ghosh, A.

    2014-06-01

    Although the East African Rift System (EARS) is an archetype continental rift, the forces driving its evolution remain debated. Some contend buoyancy forces arising from gravitational potential energy (GPE) gradients within the lithosphere drive rifting. Others argue for a major role of the diverging mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. Here we quantify the forces driving present-day continental rifting in East Africa by (1) solving the depth averaged 3-D force balance equations for 3-D deviatoric stress associated with GPE, (2) inverting for a stress field boundary condition that we interpret as originating from large-scale mantle tractions, (3) calculating dynamic velocities due to lithospheric buoyancy forces, lateral viscosity variations, and velocity boundary conditions, and (4) calculating dynamic velocities that result from the stress response of horizontal mantle tractions acting on a viscous lithosphere in Africa and surroundings. We find deviatoric stress associated with lithospheric GPE gradients are ˜8-20 MPa in EARS, and the minimum deviatoric stress resulting from basal shear is ˜1.6 MPa along the EARS. Our dynamic velocity calculations confirm that a force contribution from GPE gradients alone is sufficient to drive Nubia-Somalia divergence and that additional forcing from horizontal mantle tractions overestimates surface kinematics. Stresses from GPE gradients appear sufficient to sustain present-day rifting in East Africa; however, they are lower than the vertically integrated strength of the lithosphere along most of the EARS. This indicates additional processes are required to initiate rupture of continental lithosphere, but once it is initiated, lithospheric buoyancy forces are enough to maintain rifting.

  3. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions.

  4. Community-based carbon sequestration in East Africa: Linking science and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, N. E.

    2004-12-01

    International agreements on climate change have set the stage for an expanding market for greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits. Projects that can generate credits for trading are diverse, but one of the more controversial types involve biological carbon sequestration. For several reasons, most of the activity on these "sinks" projects has been in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Yet people in sub-saharan Africa could benefit from properly implemented projects. This poster will discuss estimates of the potential and risks of such projects in East Africa, and will describe in detail a case study located in central Tanzania and now part of the World Bank's BioCarbon Fund portfolio. Understanding climate variability and risk can effectively link international agreements on climate change, local realities of individual projects, and the characteristics of targeted ecosystems.

  5. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    PubMed

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Revision of the genus Amytta (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, Meconematinae) and new species from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard

    2017-05-09

    New species of Amytta are described from East Africa. Beside tegminal length, they differ mainly in the structure of the complicated male genitalic organs, notably the last abdominal tergite and cerci. Data on habitat and the acoustics of some species and a key to the species are provided. The songs of all seven Amytta species studied are very similar, consisting of long trills with a syllable repetition rate of about 60 Hz (at 20ºC) and a broad frequency peak in the ultrasound at around 40 kHz. The biogeographic pattern and phylogenetic relationships are discussed for the group.

  7. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    PubMed

    Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with

  8. Honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive.

  9. A biocultural framework for examining maternal cravings and aversions among pastoral women in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Young, Alyson G; Pike, Ivy L

    2012-01-01

    Food preferences during pregnancy result from a complex set of biocultural interactions with important implications for maternal and child health. This article explores the social context of maternal food choice in marginal environments of East Africa. Biocultural data collected among Turkana and Datoga women living in Kenya and Tanzania indicate there is a significant social context to food choice that influences the types of food that women report craving and the food that is consumed. Our framework argues for a deeper understanding of how culture shapes food preferences and how marginalization can constrain access to favored and healthy foods.

  10. Incarceration or mandatory treatment: Drug use and the law in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Shazly, Fattouh; Tinasti, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), drug policies are embedded in the prohibition paradigm. Laws and legislation criminalize all types of activities related to illicit drugs. This article gives a detailed assessment of the provisions of Arab national laws to control the use of illicit drugs across the areas of punishment of drug users, penalties for drug dependence, legislation on use and dependence treatment, and the right of the convicted people who use drugs to confidentiality. It reviews the national legislations on drug control of 16 Arab countries as amended in January 2011. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Bahiri; El Zorkany, Bassel; Youseif, Ehab; Tikly, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototype for spondyloarthritis primarily affecting young men. Geographic and ethnic variations exist in the prevalence and severity of AS and relate to the wide disparity in the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, a major genetic risk factor. The strength of the disease association with HLA-B27 is lower in most Arab populations (25-75 %) than in Western European populations (>90 %), and there is no association in sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of HLA-B27 is <1 %. Other epidemiologic differences between European and African populations are the apparent later age at presentation in sub-Saharan Africa, and the high rate of spondyloarthropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosis of AS is often delayed 8-10 years; potential reasons for the delay in Africa and the Middle East include low awareness among physicians and patients, the requirement for radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis for diagnosis, and limited access to magnetic resonance imaging in some countries. Treatment should be initiated early to prevent or reduce skeletal deformity and physical disability. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective first-line treatment and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α drugs are indicated for patients who have an inadequate response to first-line therapy. In Africa and the Middle East, such treatments may be precluded either by cost or contraindicated because of the high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection. Research is sorely needed to develop cost-effective tools to diagnose AS early as well as effective, inexpensive, and safe treatments for these developing regions.

  12. Summary of the East Africa Training Consortium Biorisk Management Practices and Training Needs Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Julie; Mancini, Giulio M.; Wakabi, Timothy

    A survey was designed to query former Biorisk management (BRM) trainees in the East Africa region about their practices post-training and their perceived future training needs. A subset of those surveyed had been trained as BRM trainers. The survey was conducted to obtain a baseline of BRM practices that can serve as a benchmark for performance monitoring, to identify priorities for future BRM training and to gauge local BRM trainers' abilities to deliver effective training. The survey revealed that less than 50% of the respondents could identify evidence of a BRM system in their institute. Coaching and mentoring by BRMmore » experts was identified as being of highest benefit to enable success as BRM practitioners. Local trainers reached 1538 trainees in the previous year and reported that trainings positively correlated with desired BRM behavior. Acknowledgements The authors wish to sincerely thank all of the former biorisk management trainees in East Africa who agreed to participate in this survey. Their candid and honest input was extremely insightful. We also thank Lora Grainger (06826) and Ben Brodsky (Manager, 06824) for careful and critical review of the report. We are grateful for the financial support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Cooperative Biological Engagement Program.« less

  13. Dust Tsunamis, Blackouts and 50 deg C: Teaching MATLAB in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    MATLAB is the tool of choice when analyzing earth and environmental data from East Africa. The software and companion toolboxes helps to process satellite images and digital elevation models, to detect trends, cycles, and recurrent, characteristic types of climate transitions in climate time series, and to model the hydrological balance of ancient lakes. The advantage of MATLAB is that the user can do many different types of analyses with the same software, making the software very attractive for young scientists at African universities. Since 2009 we are organizing summer schools on the subject of data analysis with various tools including MATLAB in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Throughout the summerschool, participants are instructed by teams of senior researchers, together with young scientists, some of which were participants of an earlier summerschool. The participants are themselves integrated in teaching, depending on previous knowledge, so that the boundary between teachers and learners constantly shifts or even dissolves. From the extraordinarily positive experience, but also the difficulties in teaching data analysis methods with MATLAB in East Africa is reported.

  14. Cases of human brucellosis in Sweden linked to Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Fasanella, Antonio; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Platone, Ilenia; Sacchini, Lorena; Persiani, Tiziana; Boskani, Talar; Rizzardi, Kristina; Wahab, Tara

    2016-05-17

    Human brucellosis cases are still reported each year in Sweden despite eradication of the disease in animals. Epidemiological investigation has never been conducted to trace back the source of human infection in the country. The purpose of the study was to identify the source of infection for 16 human brucellosis cases that occurred in Sweden, during the period 2008-2012. The isolates were identified as Brucella melitensis and MLVA-16 genotyping revealed 14 different genotypes of East Mediterranean and Africa lineages. We also reported one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) that was shown to be epidemiological linked to one of the cases in the current study. Brucella melitensis was the only species diagnosed, confirming its highest zoonotic potential in the genus Brucella, and MLVA-16 results demonstrated that the cases of brucellosis in Sweden herein investigated, are imported and linked to travel in the Middle East and Africa. Due to its zoonotic concerns, any acute febrile illness linked to recent travel within those regions should be investigated for brucellosis and samples should be processed according to biosafety level 3 regulations.

  15. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Measurement and evaluation of digital cervicography programs in two cervical cancer screening camps in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curtis W.; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women living in low- and middle-income countries. To address this global crisis, many governments and NGOs have implemented community-based screening and treatment programs at outreach camps. Here, high volumes of patients are able to access care: screening and diagnosis followed by immediate treatment of precancerous lesions onsite. However, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of these efforts presents challenges, since each event typically relies on a different health workforce, and refers patients to different facilities for follow up and advanced care. To address these challenges, a digital imaging intervention was deployed at several screening camps in East Africa. Trained nurses screened women using a connected low-cost mobile colposcope built around a smartphone. A decision support job aid was integrated into the app controlling the device, guiding nurses and recording their diagnosis and treatment decisions. Aggregating the data from the job aid allowed M&E of the screening camp in real-time. In this paper, the M&E data from 2 different screening camps in East Africa are compared. Additionally, screening camps are compared to stationary clinics. Differences in the patient screening times, treatment rates, and individual nurse statistics were all documented through the job aid allowing for much improved epidemiological information following outreach events thus enabling targeted program improvements and provider training. Reporting data from screening camps were also shared online via public web pages, facilitating broader dissemination of health needs in specific East African communities, and sparking conversations with regional stakeholders about local disease burden.

  17. Complete sequence and diversity of a maize-associated Polerovirus in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Massawe, Deogracious P; Stewart, Lucy R; Kamatenesi, Jovia; Asiimwe, Theodore; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2018-06-01

    Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae, primarily sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae), which are known to cause MLN by synergistic co-infection. In addition to these expected viruses, we identified a virus in the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) in 104/172 samples selected for MLN or other potential virus symptoms from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania. This polerovirus (MF974579) nucleotide sequence is 97% identical to maize-associated viruses recently reported in China, termed 'maize yellow mosaic virus' (MaYMV) and maize yellow dwarf virus (MaYMV; KU291101, KU291107, MYDV-RMV2; KT992824); and 99% identical to MaYMV (KY684356) infecting sugarcane and itch grass in Nigeria; 83% identical to a barley-associated polerovirus recently identified in Korea (BVG; KT962089); and 79% identical to the U.S. maize-infecting polerovirus maize yellow dwarf virus (MYDV-RMV; KT992824). Nucleotide sequences from ORF0 of 20 individual East African isolates collected from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania shared 98% or higher identity, and were detected in 104/172 (60.5%) of samples collected for virus-like symptoms, indicating extensive prevalence but limited diversity of this virus in East Africa. We refer to this virus as "MYDV-like polerovirus" until symptoms of the virus in maize are known.

  18. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  19. [Sociocultural aspects of albinism in Sub-Saharan Africa: mutilations and ritual murders committed in east Africa (Burundi and Tanzania)].

    PubMed

    Aquaron, R; Djatou, M; Kamdem, L

    2009-10-01

    This report presents an overview of the many sociocultural prejudices confronting albinos and their parents in Sub-Saharan Africa at each stage of life (infancy, adolescence, and adulthood). The birth of an albino child to two black parents has always been an enigma for African peoples. French-speaking and English-speaking populations in Central, East and South African countries have invented numerous myths to account for this event. Albinos are believed to possess good and evil magical powers. On the white magic side, some organs are believed to confer luck, health, and prosperity. For this reason albinos in Tanzania and Burundi are still in 2008 prey to ritual murders and mutilations to obtain various body parts such as arms, legs, and genitals for preparation of amulets. This barbaric and iniquitous practice has been severely condemned by authorities in both countries as well as by the European Parliament. To end these atrocities disseminating accurate medical information explaining the genetic basis of albinism will be necessary to eliminate ignorance and superstition.

  20. A Heated Debate: Evidence for Two Thermal Upwellings in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T.; Herzberg, C.; Bastow, I.

    2008-12-01

    East African Cenozoic magmatism records the thermal influence of one or more long-lived mantle plumes. We present primary magma compositions, mantle potential temperatures (Tp), and mantle melt fractions using PRIMELT2 in order to examine the geographic and historical distribution of upper mantle thermal anomalies in East Africa. Regional magmatism can be divided into an early flood basalt phase in Ethiopia/Yemen (~30 Ma), a longer-lived episode of basaltic magmatism in Kenya and Southern Ethiopia (~45 to 23 Ma), and a more recent phase (~23 Ma to Present) that is coincidental with the development of the East African Rift (EAR). We have carefully selected a total of 54 samples from these time periods, excluding erroneous results derived from lavas with evidence of clinopyroxene fractionation or volatile rich and pyroxenitic sources. Our results show that elevated Tp in the Ethiopian/Yemen flood basalt province (Tp max =1520°C) and in the early Kenya/S. Ethiopia magmatism (Tp max = 1510°C) are virtually identical. Our results indicate that the existing geochemical division between high and low Ti Ethiopia/Yemen flood basalts has a thermal basis: low-Ti lavas are hotter than the high-Ti lavas. Magmatism in the region subsequent to 23 Ma exhibits only minor cooling (Tp max = 1490°C), though more substantial cooling is observed in Turkana, Kenya (60°C) and Yemen (80°C). Rift lavas from Ethiopia exhibit a clear decrease in Tp away from Afar southwestward along the EAR before progressively rising again in Southern Ethiopia towards Turkana. South of Turkana, elevated Tp is observed in the western and eastern branches of the EAR surrounding the Tanzania Craton. The modern spatial distribution of Tp in EAR magmatism indicate two distinct heat sources, one in Afar and another under the Tanzania craton. We suggest that hot mantle plume material from Afar and Turkana (which may or may not merge at depth) is channeled beneath the thinned rift lithosphere and provides a

  1. Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oluoch, George O.; Ainsworth, Stuart; Alsolaiss, Jaffer; Bolton, Fiona; Arias, Ana-Silvia; Gutiérrez, José-María; Rowley, Paul; Kalya, Stephen; Ozwara, Hastings; Casewell, Nicholas R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antivenom is the treatment of choice for snakebite, which annually kills an estimated 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa and leaves approximately 100,000 survivors with permanent physical disabilities that exert a considerable socioeconomic burden. Over the past two decades, the high costs of the most polyspecifically-effective antivenoms have sequentially reduced demand, commercial manufacturing incentives and production volumes that have combined to create a continent-wide vacuum of effective snakebite therapy. This was quickly filled with new, less expensive antivenoms, many of which are of untested efficacy. Some of these successfully marketed antivenoms for Africa are inappropriately manufactured with venoms from non-African snakes and are dangerously ineffective. The uncertain efficacy of available antivenoms exacerbates the complexity of designing intervention measures to reduce the burden of snakebite in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to preclinically determine the ability of antivenoms available in Kenya to neutralise the lethal effects of venoms from the most medically important snakes in East Africa. Methods We collected venom samples from the most medically important snakes in East Africa and determined their toxicity in a mouse model. Using a ‘gold standard’ comparison protocol, we preclinically tested the comparative venom-neutralising efficacy of four antivenoms available in Kenya with two antivenoms of clinically-proven efficacy. To explain the variant efficacies of these antivenoms we tested the IgG-venom binding characteristics of each antivenom using in vitro IgG titre, avidity and venom-protein specificity assays. We also measured the IgG concentration of each antivenom. Findings None of the six antivenoms are preclinically effective, at the doses tested, against all of the most medically important snakes of the region. The very limited snake polyspecific efficacy of two locally available antivenoms is of

  2. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in…

  3. Girls' Drop-Out from Primary Schooling in the Middle East and North Africa: Challenges and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrah, Golnar

    The present situation in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) regarding primary school drop-out and repetition, with special reference to the situation of the girl child, is examined in this study. The in-school as well as out-of-school causes of primary school drop-out are examined, and solutions that help reduce or eliminate the…

  4. The Quality of Secondary Education in the Middle East and North Africa: What Can We Learn from TIMSS' Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhlila, Donia Smaali

    2011-01-01

    Research on educational quality has been scarce in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, whereas the debates over educational quality date from 1966 in the USA with the Coleman Report. Fortunately TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) starts to fill this gap by providing data on students' achievement and for many…

  5. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the culture…

  6. Strategies for Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa. Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rihani, May; Prather, Cynthia J.

    This paper is designed to assist education planners and policymakers in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to identify a range of strategic options to increase the access and retention of girls in the education system. It provides a review of materials relating to the status of female education in the MENA region, statistical data on…

  7. Multi-environment selection of small sieve snap beans reduces production constraints in East Africa and subtropical regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, and heat stress lower the yield and quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in East Africa. Four snap bean breeding lines previously selected for broad-spectrum rust resistance (involving Ur-4 and Ur-11 rust genes) and heat tolerance followin...

  8. Languages of the Middle East and North Africa. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of the Middle East and North Africa. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult…

  9. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  10. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D. E.; Harman, P. K.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) is a three-part professional development (PD) program for high school physics and astronomy teachers. The AAA experience consists of: (1) blended-learning professional development composed of webinars, asynchronous content learning, and a series of hands-on workshops (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing participation in the AAA community of practice (CoP) connecting participants with astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SETI Institute (SI) is partnering with school districts in Santa Clara and Los Angeles Counties during the AAA program's "incubation" period, calendar years 2016 through 2018. AAAs will be selected by the school districts based on criteria developed during spring 2016 focus group meetings led by the program's external evaluator, WestEd.. Teachers with 3+ years teaching experience who are assigned to teach at least 2 sections in any combination of the high school courses Physics (non-AP), Physics of the Universe (California integrated model), Astronomy, or Earth & Space Sciences are eligible. Partner districts will select at least 48 eligible applicants with SI oversight. WestEd will randomly assign selected AAAs to group A or group B. Group A will complete PD in January - June of 2017 and then participate in SOFIA science flights during fall 2017 (SOFIA Cycle 5). Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year. Group B will then complete PD in January - June of 2018 and participate in SOFIA science flights in fall 2018 (Cycle 6). Under the current plan, opportunities for additional districts to seek AAA partnerships with SI will be offered in 2018 or 2019. A nominal two-week AAA curriculum component will be developed by SI for classroom delivery that will be aligned with selected California Draft Science Framework Disciplinary Core Ideas

  11. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modification and implementation of NCCN guidelines on lymphomas in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Bazarbachi, Ali; Azim, Hamdy A; Alizadeh, Hussain; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Barista, Ibrahim; Chaudhri, Naeem A; Fahed, Zahira; Fahmy, Omar A; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Khalaf, Mohamed H; Khatib, Sami; Kutoubi, Aghiad; Paydas, Semra; Elayoubi, Hanadi Rafii; Zaatari, Ghazi; Zawam, Hamdy M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2010-07-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, cancer has many epidemiologic and clinical features that are different from those in the rest of the world. Additionally, the region has a relatively young population and large disparities in the availability of resources at diagnostic and treatment levels. A critical need exists for regional guidelines on cancer care, including those for lymphoid malignancies. A panel of lymphoma experts from MENA reviewed the 2009 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Hodgkin Lymphoma and suggested modifications for the region that were discussed with the United States NCCN Lymphoma Panels. This article presents the consensus recommendations.

  13. Chronology of volcanism and rift basin propagation - Rungwe volcanic province, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Deino, A. L.; Drake, R. E.; Tesha, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and temporal development of along-axis segmentation in youthful continental rifts was investigated using the results of field, remote sensing, and K-Ar geochronology studies conducted in four (Rukwa, Songwe, Usangu, and Karonga) rift basins within the Rungwe volcanic province in East Africa. Results indicated that the Rukwa and Karonga border fault segments formed between 7.25 and 5 m.y. ago, the Usangu border fault segment developed between 3 and 2 m.y. ago, and subsidence along the Songwe border fault segment had occurred by 0.5 Ma. It is shown that individual basins developed diachronously, each following a similar sequence: (1) initial border fault development; (2) asymmetric basin subsidence/flank uplift and the development of monoclines opposite the border faults; and (3) continued subsidence and tilting along intrabasinal faults with flexural upwarping of the rift flanks, enhancing basinal asymmetries.

  14. A seismic gap along an accreting plate boundary : Example of the Djibouti Ridge, Afar, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Lépine, Jean-Claude

    1983-05-01

    A segment of the Gulf of Tadjoura (Djibouti, East-Africa) accreting plate boundary, shows a period of quiescence in the seismic activity since 1974. This segment corresponds to the extension area of the aftershock activity that has occured after a cluster of magnitude 5.5 earthquakes in April 1973. From this example we propose that the seismic gap concept can be extended to moderate earthquakes occuring at extensional plate boundaries. The magnitude of the largest earthquakes at the spreading axis is limited by the size of the rupture length and by the strength of the brittle lithosphere. In the case of the Djibouti ridge recurrence time of 10-20 years are found for earthquakes of about M =6.

  15. Mycotoxin occurrence in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients sourced in the Middle East and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, I.; Handl, J.; Binder, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Between February and October 2009, 324 grain, feed and feed commodity samples were sourced directly at animal farms or feed production sites in Middle East and Africa and tested for the presence of A- and B-trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, or for selected groups of mycotoxins only. Samples were analyzed after clean-up by immunoaffinity or solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC with derivatization where appropriate and fluorescence, UV or mass spectrometric detection. The percentage of positive samples of B-trichothecenes ranged from 0 to 87% of tested samples. The prevalence of fumonisins in the different countries was >50% in most cases. Zearalenone was present in tested commodities from all countries except three. The presence of aflatoxin in analyzed samples varied from 0 to 94%. Ochratoxin A was present in 67% of samples in Sudan and in 100% of Nigerian samples. No A-trichothecenes were found in this survey. PMID:24786003

  16. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  17. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  18. Khat in East Africa: taking women into or out of sex work?

    PubMed

    Beckerleg, Susan

    2008-07-01

    Women's drug use is often associated with sex work as a means of raising money for consumption. Similarly, in Kenya and Uganda, journalists, the general public and aid agencies associate female consumption of the stimulant drug, khat (Catha edulis), as pulling women into prostitution. In contrast to Yemen and Ethiopia, these views are expressed by people living in areas where there are no rituals or traditions of female khat consumption. This paper presents data from a study carried out in Kenya and Uganda in 2004 and 2005 that documents that the majority of women engaging in khat chewing are not sex workers. Frequently, however, women who retail khat are often assumed by men to be sexually immoral. The role of women in the retail and wholesale khat trade is examined. The stigma attached to selling khat is linked to the overall situation of independent women in East Africa and the place of commercial sex in urban life.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  20. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a varietymore » of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.« less

  1. Evaluation and inter-comparison of modern day reanalysis datasets over Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Hobbins, M.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalysis datasets are potentially very valuable for otherwise data-sparse regions such as Africa and the Middle East. They are potentially useful for long-term climate and hydrologic analyses and, given their availability in real-time, they are particularity attractive for real-time hydrologic monitoring purposes (e.g. to monitor flood and drought events). Generally in data-sparse regions, reanalysis variables such as precipitation, temperature, radiation and humidity are used in conjunction with in-situ and/or satellite-based datasets to generate long-term gridded atmospheric forcing datasets. These atmospheric forcing datasets are used to drive offline land surface models and simulate soil moisture and runoff, which are natural indicators of hydrologic conditions. Therefore, any uncertainty or bias in the reanalysis datasets contributes to uncertainties in hydrologic monitoring estimates. In this presentation, we report on a comprehensive analysis that evaluates several modern-day reanalysis products (such as NASA's MERRA-1 and -2, ECMWF's ERA-Interim and NCEP's CFS Reanalysis) over Africa and the Middle East region. We compare the precipitation and temperature from the reanalysis products with other independent gridded datasets such as GPCC, CRU, and USGS/UCSB's CHIRPS precipitation datasets, and CRU's temperature datasets. The evaluations are conducted at a monthly time scale, since some of these independent datasets are only available at this temporal resolution. The evaluations range from the comparison of the monthly mean climatology to inter-annual variability and long-term changes. Finally, we also present the results of inter-comparisons of radiation and humidity variables from the different reanalysis datasets.

  2. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  3. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  4. Capacity Building to Support Governmental Meteorological and Agricultural Communities in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Macharia, D.; Das, N.; Andreadis, K.; Ines, A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a recognized need for data to support decision-making and planning in East Africa where people and national economies depend on rain fed agriculture and are vulnerable to a changing climate and extreme weather events. However, capacity to use existing global data stores and transition promising tools is a gap that severely limits the use and adoption of these data and tools. Although most people think of capacity building as simply training, it is really much more than that and has been more thoroughly described in the public health community as…."the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world." Data and tools from NASA and other providers are often not used as they could be for technical and institutional reasons. On the technical side, there is the perception that global data stores are impenetrable requiring special expertise to access them, even if the data can be accessed, the technical expertise to understand and use the data and tools may be lacking, and there can be a mismatch between science data and existing user tools. On the institutional side, it may be perceived that remote sensing data and tools are too "expensive", support from upper management may be non-existent due to limited resources or lack of interest, and there can be a lack of appreciation of data and statistics in decision making. How do we overcome some of these barriers to advance the use of remote sensing for applications and to ease transition of data and tools to stakeholders? Experience from recent capacity building efforts in East Africa in support of a NASA-SERVIR Applied Science Project to provide estimates of hydrologic extremes tied to crop yield will be discussed.

  5. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wichura, Henry; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Clemens, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates. PMID:25775586

  6. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L.; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Clemens, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates.

  7. What factors influence the production of orthopaedic research in East Africa? A qualitative analysis of interviews.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Iain S; Sonshine, Daniel B; Akhavan, Sina; Slade Shantz, Angelique; Caldwell, Amber; Slade Shantz, Jesse; Gosselin, Richard A; Coughlin, R Richard

    2015-06-01

    Research addressing the burden of musculoskeletal disease in low- and middle-income countries does not reflect the magnitude of the epidemic in these countries as only 9% of the world's biomedical resources are devoted to addressing problems that affect the health of 90% of the world's population. Little is known regarding the barriers to and drivers of orthopaedic surgery research in such resource-poor settings, the knowledge of which would help direct specific interventions for increasing research capacity and help surgeons from high-income countries support the efforts of our colleagues in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to identify through surveying academic orthopaedic surgeons in East Africa: (1) barriers impeding research, (2) factors that support or drive research, and (3) factors that were identified by some surgeons as barriers and others as drivers (what we term barrier-driver overlap) as they considered the production of clinical research in resource-poor environments. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 orthopaedic surgeon faculty members at four academic medical centers in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Qualitative content analysis of the interviews was conducted using methods based in grounded theory. Grounded theory begins with qualitative data, such as interview transcripts, and analyzes the data for repeated ideas or concepts which then are coded and grouped into categories which allow for identification of subjects or problems that may not have been apparent previously to the interviewer. We identified and quantified 19 barriers to and 21 drivers of orthopaedic surgery research (mentioned n = 1688 and n = 1729, respectively). Resource, research process, and institutional domains were identified to categorize the barriers (n = 7, n = 5, n = 7, respectively) and drivers (n = 7, n = 8, n = 6, respectively). Resource barriers (46%) were discussed more often by interview subjects compared with the

  8. Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro) sediments as recorder of present and past seasonality in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristen, I.; Wolff, C.; Schettler, G.; Dulski, P.; Naumann, R.; Haug, G. H.; Blaauw, M.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    In discussions on the impact of global warming on moisture balance and human water resources, natural archives of past hydrological variability in tropical regions are attracting increasing attention. The EuroCLIMATE project CHALLACEA studies the sediment archive of Lake Challa, a 4.5 km² and ~94 m deep crater lake located on the lower eastern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro with the aim to produce a continuous, high-resolution and multi-proxy reconstruction of past temperature and moisture-balance variability in equatorial East Africa over the past 25,000 years. Lake Challa is a freshwater lake with a water budget controlled mostly by sub-surface in- and outflow and lake-surface evaporation. Accordingly, microscopic thin-section investigation of sediment composition reveals an overall dominance of autochthonous components (diatom frustules, calcite, and organic matter). First results from an ongoing sediment trap study point to distinct seasonality in sediment input: calcite and organic matter accumulate during the warm southern hemisphere summer months (November - March), whereas the principal diatom blooms occur during the cool and windy period between June and October. Here we present the results of physical and chemical investigations of the lake water column between September 1999 and November 2007, which document the concomitant seasonal changes in lake mixing/stratification and related element cycling. High-resolution μXRF profiles of these elements in the laminated sediments of Lake Challa thus also show marked seasonal cycles, as well as longer-term variability. In particular, variability in the Mn/Fe ratio along the top 15 cm of the sediment record is interpreted to reflect changes in lake stratification during the last ~100 years. This proxy record is evaluated in comparison with records of historical weather variability in East Africa, and of potentially influencing parameters such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. Eventually

  9. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  10. Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka.

    PubMed

    Lane, Christine S; Chorn, Ben T; Johnson, Thomas C

    2013-05-14

    The most explosive volcanic event of the Quaternary was the eruption of Mt. Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 y ago, which produced voluminous ash deposits found across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula, and South China Sea. A major climatic downturn observed within the Greenland ice cores has been attributed to the cooling effects of the ash and aerosols ejected during the eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). These events coincided roughly with a hypothesized human genetic bottleneck, when the number of our species in Africa may have been reduced to near extinction. Some have speculated that the demise of early modern humans at that time was due in part to a dramatic climate shift triggered by the supereruption. Others have argued that environmental conditions would not have been so severe to have such an impact on our ancestors, and furthermore, that modern humans may have already expanded beyond Africa by this time. We report an observation of the YTT in Africa, recovered as a cryptotephra layer in Lake Malawi sediments, >7,000 km west of the source volcano. The YTT isochron provides an accurate and precise age estimate for the Lake Malawi paleoclimate record, which revises the chronology of past climatic events in East Africa. The YTT in Lake Malawi is not accompanied by a major change in sediment composition or evidence for substantial temperature change, implying that the eruption did not significantly impact the climate of East Africa and was not the cause of a human genetic bottleneck at that time.

  11. Application of a GCM Ensemble Seasonal Climate Forecasts to Crop Yield Prediction in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, G.; Franssen, W.; Supit, I.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the potential use of ECMWF System-4 seasonal climate forecasts (S4) for impacts analysis over East Africa. Using the 15 member, 7 months ensemble forecasts initiated every month for 1981-2010, we tested precipitation (tp), air temperature (tas) and surface shortwave radiation (rsds) forecast skill against the WATCH forcing Data ERA-Interim (WFDEI) re-analysis and other data. We used these forecasts as input in the WOFOST crop model to predict maize yields. Forecast skill is assessed using anomaly correlation (ACC), Ranked Probability Skill Score (RPSS) and the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) for MAM, JJA and OND growing seasons. Predicted maize yields (S4-yields) are verified against historical observed FAO and nationally reported (NAT) yield statistics, and yields from the same crop model forced by WFDEI (WFDEI-yields). Predictability of the climate forecasts vary with season, location and lead-time. The OND tp forecasts show skill over a larger area up to three months lead-time compared to MAM and JJA. Upper- and lower-tercile tp forecasts are 20-80% better than climatology. Good tas forecast skill is apparent with three months lead-time. The rsds is less skillful than tp and tas in all seasons when verified against WFDEI but higher against others. S4-forecasts captures ENSO related anomalous years with region dependent skill. Anomalous ENSO influence is also seen in simulated yields. Focussing on the main sowing dates in the northern (July), equatorial (March-April) and southern (December) regions, WFDEI-yields are lower than FAO and NAT but anomalies are comparable. Yield anomalies are predictable 3-months before sowing in most of the regions. Differences in interannual variability in the range of ±40% may be related to sensitivity of WOFOST to drought stress while the ACCs are largely positive ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. Above and below-normal yields are predictable with 2-months lead time. We evidenced a potential use of seasonal

  12. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a clinical cohort of HIV-infected children in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Ayaya, Samuel O; Musick, Beverly S; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Cohen, Craig R; Nash, Denis; Wabwire, Deo; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2018-01-01

    To describe antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and associated factors for a large HIV-infected pediatric cohort followed by sites of the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. This study utilized prospectively collected clinical data from HIV-infected children less than 13 years of age who initiated ART within 4 clinical care programs (with 26 clinical sites) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania and were followed for up to 6 years. Programs used one of 3 adherence measures, including 7-day quantitative recall, 7-day categorical recall, and clinician pill assessments. We fit a hierarchical, three-level, logistic-regression model to examine adherence, with observations nested within patient, and patients within the 26 sites providing pediatric HIV data to this analysis. In East Africa, 3,304 children, 52.0% male, were enrolled in care and were subsequently observed for a median of 92 weeks (inter-quartile range [IQR] 50.3-145.0 weeks). Median age at ART initiation was 5.5 years ([IQR] 3.0-8.5 years). "Good" adherence, as reported by each clinic's measures, was extremely high, remaining on average above 90% throughout all years of follow-up. Longer time on ART was associated with higher adherence (adjusted Odds Ratio-aOR-per log-transformed week on ART: 1.095, 95% Confidence Interval-CI-[1.052-1.150].) Patients enrolled in higher-volume programs exhibited higher rates of clinician-assessed adherence (aOR per log-500 patients: 1.174, 95% CI [1.108-1.245]). Significant site-level variability in reported adherence was observed (0.28), with even higher variability among patients (0.71). In a sub-analysis, being an orphan at the start of ART was strongly associated with lower ART adherence rates (aOR: 0.919, 95% CI [0.864-0.976]). Self-reported adherence remained high over a median of 1.8 years in HIV care, but varied according to patient-level and site-level factors. Consistent adherence monitoring with validated measures and

  13. Monitoring the water balance of Lake Victoria, East Africa, from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Sean; Wahr, John

    2009-05-01

    SummaryUsing satellite gravimetric and altimetric data, we examine trends in water storage and lake levels of multiple lakes in the Great Rift Valley region of East Africa for the years 2003-2008. GRACE total water storage estimates reveal that water storage declined in much of East Africa, by as much as 60 {mm}/{year}, while altimetric data show that lake levels in some large lakes dropped by as much as 1-2 m. The largest declines occurred in Lake Victoria, the Earth's second largest freshwater body. Because the discharge from the outlet of Lake Victoria is used to generate hydroelectric power, the role of human management in the lake's decline has been questioned. By comparing catchment water storage trends to lake level trends, we confirm that climatic forcing explains only about 50decline. This analysis provides an independent means of assessing the relative impacts of climate and human management on the water balance of Lake Victoria that does not depend on observations of dam discharge, which may not be publically available. In the second part of the study, the individual components of the lake water balance are estimated. Satellite estimates of changes in lake level, precipitation, and evaporation are used with observed lake discharge to develop a parameterization for estimating subsurface inflows due to changes in groundwater storage estimated from satellite gravimetry. At seasonal timescales, this approach provides closure to Lake Victoria's water balance to within 17 {mm}/{month}. The third part of this study uses the water balance of a downstream water body, Lake Kyoga, to estimate the outflow from Lake Victoria remotely. Because Lake Kyoga is roughly 20 times smaller in area than Lake Victoria, its water balance is strongly influenced by inflow from Lake Victoria. Lake Kyoga has been shown to act as a linear reservoir, where its outflow is proportional to the height of the lake. This model can be used with satellite altimetric lake levels to estimate a

  14. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  15. The Rovuma Transform Margin: the enigmatic continent-ocean boundary of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phethean, Jordan; Kalnins, Lara; van Hunen, Jeroen; McCaffrey, Ken; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The N-S trending Davie Fracture Zone (DFZ) is often assumed to form the continent-ocean transform margin (COTM) of the Western Somali Basin. However, multiple plate tectonic reconstructions favour a pre-breakup location for Madagascar that crosses the DFZ, incompatible with its interpretation as the COTM (e.g., Lottes & Rowley, 1990; Reeves, 2014; Phethean et al., 2016). For the first time, we have identified classic COTM features in seismic reflection data from the Southern Rovuma Basin, to the west and inboard of the DFZ. These suggest a NNW trend to the margin, consistent with the tectonic reconstructions. 2D gravity models, with the seabed and top basement constrained by seismic data, are used to investigate the Moho structure across the Rovuma margin and are best fit using steep 'transform style' geometries, confirming the nature of the margin. We thus model generic COTM geometries elsewhere along the East African and Madagascan transform margins to locate best-fitting positions for these conjugate COTMs. This analysis confirms that the COTMs follow a NNW trend along the Rovuma Basin and Southern Madagascar, respectively, and allows a restoration of the conjugate COTMs. This restoration is used alongside geological maps and satellite imagery from Madagascar and East Africa to refine early plate motions and further constrain the precise origin of Madagascar within Gondwana. Our refined plate tectonic model independently predicts major observations made from seismic reflection and gravity data across the basin, including: regions of major transpression/transtension along the DFZ, merging of fracture zones to form the DFZ, oceanic crust on either side of the DFZ and within the Tanzania coastal basin, and the location of an abandoned MOR within the Tanzania coastal basin. We believe that this study finally provides conclusive evidence that Madagascar originated from within the Tanzania Coastal Basin, inboard of the DFZ, after some 30 years of debate regarding this

  16. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2018-02-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  17. The Cenozoic magmatism of East-Africa: Part I - Flood basalts and pulsed magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Tyrone O.

    2017-08-01

    Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa results from the interplay between lithospheric extension and material upwelling from the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP). The modern focusing of East African magmatism into oceanic spreading centers and continental rifts highlights the modern control of lithospheric thinning in magma generation processes, however the widespread, and volumetrically significant flood basalt events of the Eocene to Early Miocene suggest a significant role for material upwelling from the African LLSVP. The slow relative motion of the African plate during the Cenozoic has resulted in significant spatial overlap in lavas derived from different magmatic events. This complexity is being resolved with enhanced geochronological precision and a focus on the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic products. It is now apparent that there are three distinct pulses of basaltic volcanism, followed by either bimodal lavas or silicic volcanic products during this period: (A) Eocene Initial Phase from 45 to 34 Ma. This is a period of dominantly basaltic volcanism focused in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya (Turkana). (B) Oligocene Traps phase from 33.9 to 27 Ma. This period coincides with a significant increase in the aerial extent of volcanism with broadly age equivalent 1 to 2 km thick sequences of dominantly basalt centered on the NW Ethiopian Plateau and Yemen, (C) Early Miocene resurgence phase from 26.9 to 22 Ma. This resurgence in basaltic volcanism is seen throughout the region at ca. 24-23 Ma, but is less volumetrically significant than the prior two basaltic pulses. With our developing understanding of the persistence of LLSVP anomalies within the mantle, I propose that the three basaltic pulses are ostensibly manifestations of the same plume-lithosphere interaction, requiring revision to the duration, magmatic extent, and magma volume of the African-Arabian Large Igneous Province.

  18. Capacity Building in NASA Remote Sensing Data for Meteorological and Agricultural Communities in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N. N.; Macharia, D.

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are hampered by a lack of historic data and scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. Data is often sorely lacking in poorly developed regions such as East Africa where people are vulnerable to a changing climate, extreme weather events, and economies and food security are tied directly to rain fed agriculture or pastoral cultures. NASA global remote sensing observations and research are promising in this regard, as they have great potential to inform policy- and decision-making at global, regional and even local scales the world over, However that potential is not realized as often as it should for a variety of reasons: the data stores are often impenetrable requiring special expertise to "crack the code", sustainability of observations remains a concern, and research and data are not focused on applications, thus results don't "fit" in existing tools or are developed for a short-term science objective without long-term use in mind. Although there are good examples of the use of NASA Earth Science research and observations for applications, capacity is lacking and must be built to advance the use of remote sensing for applications and to ease transition of research to the stakeholder. Capacity building is a critical component to transition Earth science research results to stakeholder communities, and is more than traditional training,, it has been described as…."the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world. Best practices and lessons learned from recent capacity building efforts for Agricultural and Environmental Ministires in East African in support of a NASA-SERVIR Applied Science Project to provide estimates of hydrologic extremes tied to crop yield are described.

  19. Establishing an online continuing and professional development library for nurses and midwives in east, central, and southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hosey, Kristen N.; Kalula, Alphonce; Voss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Over the previous 4 years, the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for nurses and midwives has supported 12 countries to establish national continuing and professional development frameworks and programs, linking continuing education to nursing and midwifery re-licensure through technical assistance and improvement grants. However, lack of electronic media and rural practice sites, differences in priority content, and varying legal frameworks make providing accessible, certifiable, and up-to-date online continuing education content for the more than 300,000 nurses and midwives in the 17 member countries of the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing a major challenge. We report here on how the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing, with technical assistance from an Afya Bora Fellow, developed an online continuing professional development library hosted on their Website using data collected in a survey of nursing and midwifery leaders in the region. PMID:27086190

  20. Exploring Evidence of Land Surface Dynamics of River Basin Development in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluwa, C.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the productivity of agricultural lands in Africa in the face of climate variability and change is vital to achieving food security. A variety of possible approaches exist, many of which focus on the development and expansion of irrigation - at times associated with dam construction to provide co-benefits of hydropower and water supply. Optimal development of river basin infrastructure such as this has long been a topic of interest in water resources systems analysis. Recent advances have focused on addressing the uncertainty associated with climate change in the development of river basin plans. However, such studies rarely consider either the uncertainty from changing local surface-atmosphere interactions via basin development or the attendant effects on local ecosystems, precipitation, evapotranspiration and consequently the availability of water for the proposed projects. Some numerical experiments have described and reproduced the mechanisms via which river basin infrastructure influences local climatology in Sahelian Africa. However, no studies have explored available data for evidence of land-atmosphere interactions associated with actual development projects. This study explores the correlation of seasonal soil moisture and latent heat flux over currently dammed/irrigated areas on downwind precipitation in the East Africa region (bounded by 0N, -15N, 25E, 40E) at the mesoscale (30km - 100km) to unearth evidence of local climatological effects of river basin development (irrigation schemes). The adopted process is (1) use reanalysis data to derive mean wind directions at 800hPa for selected regions (2) use mean wind directions (and orthogonal directions) to locate high (and low) impact areas 30 -100km downwind (3) extract precipitation time series for downwind locations from three different gridded products (CRU, GCPC, PRINCETON) (4) compare precipitation time series across datasets in high/low impact areas and correlate with upwind latent heat flux

  1. Snowpack Variation and Hydrologic Impacts across the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. A.; Ward, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle East is a region historically sensitive to climate variability and change, and contains snowpacks that have been shown to be important inputs to key regional water resources, including the Tigris-Euphrates river system. Focusing on the Middle East (and the smaller snowpacks of northwestern Africa), this presentation aims to (i) quantify each year's snowpack development and recession over recent decades, highlighting interannual to decadal variability, and (ii) advance understanding on the connection between the snowpack variations and aspects of regional hydrology. The presentation draws on satellite-based products, station data, and model reanalyses. Variation is summarized using space-time statistical techniques, as well as simpler regional indices: Northwestern Iran / Southern Caucasus (NWIC, includes Zagros Mountains); Eastern Turkey (ETKY, includes Taurus Mountains); and smaller scale indices for Lebanon and the Atlas Mountains. The Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System archives daily snow cover extent at 24 km resolution for 1999-present (primarily from visible satellite imagery). These data show that for both NWIC and ETKY, the mean snow extent peaks in late January with substantial coverage ( 300,000 km2 in each region), contracting to near zero by late June. A very large mid-winter interannual variance is also shown, implying substantial variation in hydrologic impacts during spring melt. Variability and decadal trends are compared with station snow depth reports (Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily). Strong agreement gives confidence in data quality, as well as, indicating high covariation of depth and extent. The connection with hydrologic impacts is investigated using reanalysis products, including the Global Land Data Assimilation System V2, which for the Middle East, shows broad agreement with observed maximum snow extent and spring retreat. The connections internal to the reanalysis between snow cover, melt and

  2. Genetic and antigenic characterization of serotype O FMD viruses from East Africa for the selection of suitable vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Katie; Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Paton, David J; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-14

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eastern Africa with circulation of multiple serotypes of the virus in the region. Most of the outbreaks are caused by serotype O followed by serotype A. The lack of concerted FMD control programmes in Africa has provided little incentive for vaccine producers to select vaccines that are tailored to circulating regional isolates creating further negative feedback to deter the introduction of vaccine-based control schemes. In this study a total of 80 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 1993 to 2012 from East and North Africa were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using bovine antisera to three existing (O/KEN/77/78, O/Manisa and O/PanAsia-2) and three putative (O/EA/2002, O/EA/2009 and O/EA/2010) vaccine strains and by capsid sequencing. Genetically, these viruses were grouped as either of East African origin with subdivision into four topotypes (EA-1, 2, 3 and 4) or of Middle-East South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Egypt and Libya reflecting the trade links with the Middle East countries. There was good serological cross-reactivity between the vaccine strains and most of the field isolates analysed, indicating that vaccine selection should not be a major constraint for control of serotype O FMD by vaccination, and that both local and internationally available commercial vaccines could be used. The O/KEN/77/78 vaccine, commonly used in the region, exhibited comparatively lower percent in vitro match against the predominant topotypes (EA-2 and EA-3) circulating in the region whereas O/PanAsia-2 and O/Manisa vaccines revealed broader protection against East African serotype O viruses, even though they genetically belong to the ME-SA topotype. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals.

  4. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  5. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  6. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  7. Socially Inclusive Development: The Foundations for Decent Societies in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Pamela; Wallace, Claire; Sapsford, Roger

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with how social processes and social provision are conceptualised and measured in societies in order to offer guidance on how to improve developmental progress. Significant advances have been made in developing multidimensional measures of development, but they provide little guidance to governments on how to build sustainable societies. We argue for the need to develop a theoretically informed social and policy framework that permits the foundations for building decent societies to be put in place by governments. In our view the recently developed Decent Society Model provides such a framework. Our example is the assessment of government provision, by function, within fourteen countries of East and Southern Africa. The context is the current debates about socially inclusive development, but we argue that it is necessary to range more widely, as social processes of different kinds are multiply interrelated. Social inclusion is recognised by governments as well as international agencies, including the World Bank and the United Nations, as not only an ethical imperative but smart economics; socially inclusive societies are more stable and have greater potential for economic growth. Societies that can develop sustainably need not only to be inclusive, however, but to provide economic security for all, to be socially cohesive and to empower citizens so that as individuals and communities they can take control over their own lives.

  8. Have wet and dry Precambrian crust largely governed Cenozoic intraplate magmatism from Arabia to East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavia, Franco F.; Chorowicz, Jean; Collet, Bernard

    To explain Cenozoic continental volcanism between Arabia and East Africa, the existing model infers that a plume impinged beneath Ethiopia, between 30 Ma and 20 Ma, and volcanism extruded within a 1000 km radius. Because relative motion of the Afro-Arabian plate was about northeast in the last 120 Ma, we infer that at 84 Ma a plume, originated from the core-mantle boundary, impinged beneath Nubia-Arabia and is now under the Tanzania craton. This plume caused uplift (Afro-Arabian swell) and magma under-plating. After Fyfe's idea (1992), the conceptual model proposed herein suggests that, following plume impact, there was in Nubia-Arabia only intrusion of mafic dykes because the crust was largely unprocessed (wet). At about 50 Ma the plume was under Ethiopia, and coeval volcanism extruded because the crust was highly recycled (dry). In Zaire-Burundi and Tanzania, volcanism is explained to be coeval with the arrival of the plume because there also the crust is recycled. In Arabia and Yemen-Ethiopia continental-flood basalts younger than 30 Ma formed because lithospheric extension along the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden was the cause of (or the result of) plume(s), probably originated from the upper mantle.

  9. Regional Climate Response to Volcanic Radiative Forcing in Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G.; Dogar, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have tested the regional climate sensitivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to radiation perturbations caused by the large explosive equatorial volcanic eruptions of the second part of 20th century, El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred, respectively, in 1982 and 1991. The observations and reanalysis data show that the surface volcanic cooling in the MENA region is two-three times larger than the global mean response to volcanic forcing. The Red Sea surface temperature appears to be also very sensitive to the external radiative impact. E.g., the sea surface cooling, associated with the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, caused deep water mixing and coral bleaching for a few years. To better quantify these effects we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to conduct simulations of both the El Chichon and Pinatubo impacts with the effectively 25-km grid spacing. We find that the circulation changes associated with the positive phase of the arctic oscillation amplified the winter temperature anomalies in 1982-1984 and 1991-1993. The dynamic response to volcanic cooling also is characterized by the southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in summer and associated impact on the precipitation patterns. Thus, these results suggest that the climate regime in the MENA region is highly sensitive to external forcing. This is important for better understanding of the climate variability and change in this region.

  10. Cost of illness due to typhoid Fever in pemba, zanzibar, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piatti, Moritz; Ley, Benedikt; Deen, Jacqueline; Thriemer, Kamala; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Salehjiddawi, Mohammad; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Schmied, Wolfgang H; Ali, Said Mohammed; The Typhoid Economic Study Group GiDeok Pak Leon R Ochiai Mahesh K Puri Na Yoon Chang Thomas F Wierzba And John D Clemens

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar, East Africa. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective. It covered new episodes of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in patients presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of three district hospitals between May 2010 and December 2010. Cost of illness was the sum of direct costs and costs for productivity loss. Direct costs covered treatment, travel, and meals. Productivity costs were loss of income by patients and caregivers. The analysis included 17 episodes. The mean age of the patients, was 23 years (range=5-65, median=22). Thirty-five percent were inpatients, with a mean of 4.75 days of hospital stay (range=3-7, median=4.50). The mean cost for treatment alone during hospital care was US$ 21.97 at 2010 prices (US$ 1=1,430.50 Tanzanian Shilling─TSH). The average societal cost was US$ 154.47 per typhoid episode. The major expenditure was productivity cost due to lost wages of US$ 128.02 (83%). Our results contribute to the further economic evaluation of typhoid fever vaccination in Zanzibar and other sub-Saharan African countries.

  11. Realizing Universal Health Coverage in East Africa: the relevance of human rights.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Maleche, Allan

    2017-08-03

    Applying a robust human rights framework would change thinking and decision-making in efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), and advance efforts to promote women's, children's, and adolescents' health in East Africa, which is a priority under the Sustainable Development Agenda. Nevertheless, there is a gap between global rhetoric of human rights and ongoing health reform efforts. This debate article seeks to fill part of that gap by setting out principles of human rights-based approaches (HRBAs), and then applying those principles to questions that countries undertaking efforts toward UHC and promoting women's, children's and adolescents' health, will need to face, focusing in particular on ensuring enabling legal and policy frameworks, establishing fair financing; priority-setting processes, and meaningful oversight and accountability mechanisms. In a region where democratic institutions are notoriously weak, we argue that the explicit application of a meaningful human rights framework could enhance equity, participation and accountability, and in turn the democratic legitimacy of health reform initiatives being undertaken in the region.

  12. Climate variability and conflict risk in East Africa, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, John; Witmer, Frank D W; Linke, Andrew M; Laing, Arlene; Gettelman, Andrew; Dudhia, Jimy

    2012-11-06

    Recent studies concerning the possible relationship between climate trends and the risks of violent conflict have yielded contradictory results, partly because of choices of conflict measures and modeling design. In this study, we examine climate-conflict relationships using a geographically disaggregated approach. We consider the effects of climate change to be both local and national in character, and we use a conflict database that contains 16,359 individual geolocated violent events for East Africa from 1990 to 2009. Unlike previous studies that relied exclusively on political and economic controls, we analyze the many geographical factors that have been shown to be important in understanding the distribution and causes of violence while also considering yearly and country fixed effects. For our main climate indicators at gridded 1° resolution (~100 km), wetter deviations from the precipitation norms decrease the risk of violence, whereas drier and normal periods show no effects. The relationship between temperature and conflict shows that much warmer than normal temperatures raise the risk of violence, whereas average and cooler temperatures have no effect. These precipitation and temperature effects are statistically significant but have modest influence in terms of predictive power in a model with political, economic, and physical geographic predictors. Large variations in the climate-conflict relationships are evident between the nine countries of the study region and across time periods.

  13. Climate variability and conflict risk in East Africa, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    O’Loughlin, John; Witmer, Frank D. W.; Linke, Andrew M.; Laing, Arlene; Gettelman, Andrew; Dudhia, Jimy

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies concerning the possible relationship between climate trends and the risks of violent conflict have yielded contradictory results, partly because of choices of conflict measures and modeling design. In this study, we examine climate–conflict relationships using a geographically disaggregated approach. We consider the effects of climate change to be both local and national in character, and we use a conflict database that contains 16,359 individual geolocated violent events for East Africa from 1990 to 2009. Unlike previous studies that relied exclusively on political and economic controls, we analyze the many geographical factors that have been shown to be important in understanding the distribution and causes of violence while also considering yearly and country fixed effects. For our main climate indicators at gridded 1° resolution (∼100 km), wetter deviations from the precipitation norms decrease the risk of violence, whereas drier and normal periods show no effects. The relationship between temperature and conflict shows that much warmer than normal temperatures raise the risk of violence, whereas average and cooler temperatures have no effect. These precipitation and temperature effects are statistically significant but have modest influence in terms of predictive power in a model with political, economic, and physical geographic predictors. Large variations in the climate–conflict relationships are evident between the nine countries of the study region and across time periods. PMID:23090992

  14. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa. Arabic edition

    SciTech Connect

    Berkoff, J.

    1995-03-21

    Proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to managing water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. The people of the Middle East and North Africa have faced scarce water resources since time immemorial. Today, burgeoning populations dwarf the concerns of the past. New strategies for planning and managing water are urgently needed to avoid escalating conflicts and to reverse environmental degradation. This booklet details the implications of a new World Bank policy for the region, calling for a strong effort by governments and Bank staff to manage water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. A practical, step-by-step strategy is proposedmore » that could lead to new Bank-funded operations throughout the water sector. The issues involved are complex but must be addressed if water scarcity is not to hinder development projects. The strategy proposed in this booklet could help build a new partnership for sustainable water management between the World Bank and regional governments.« less

  15. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  16. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  17. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  18. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbella, S.; Stretch, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m-1 yr-1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  19. Indian Ocean dipole and rainfall drive a Moran effect in East Africa malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Satake, Akiko; Hashizume, Masahiro; Minakawa, Noboru

    2012-06-15

    Patterns of concerted fluctuation in populations-synchrony-can reveal impacts of climatic variability on disease dynamics. We examined whether malaria transmission has been synchronous in an area with a common rainfall regime and sensitive to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), a global climatic phenomenon affecting weather patterns in East Africa. We studied malaria synchrony in 5 15-year long (1984-1999) monthly time series that encompass an altitudinal gradient, approximately 1000 m to 2000 m, along Lake Victoria basin. We quantified the association patterns between rainfall and malaria time series at different altitudes and across the altitudinal gradient encompassed by the study locations. We found a positive seasonal association of rainfall with malaria, which decreased with altitude. By contrast, IOD and interannual rainfall impacts on interannual disease cycles increased with altitude. Our analysis revealed a nondecaying synchrony of similar magnitude in both malaria and rainfall, as expected under a Moran effect, supporting a role for climatic variability on malaria epidemic frequency, which might reflect rainfall-mediated changes in mosquito abundance. Synchronous malaria epidemics call for the integration of knowledge on the forcing of malaria transmission by environmental variability to develop robust malaria control and elimination programs.

  20. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter

  1. Designing a Frost Forecasting Service for Small Scale Tea Farmers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. C.; Nyaga, J. W.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Limaye, A. S.; Mugo, R. M.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Irwin, D.; Case, J.; Malaso, S.; Sedah, A.

    2017-12-01

    our partner network developed at the stakeholder engagement meeting. This presentation will illustrate the efficacy of our frost forecasting algorithm, and a way forward for incorporating these forecasts in a meaningful way to the key decision makers - the small-scale farmers of East Africa.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Borse, Rebekah H.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Gambhir, Manoj; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Kahn, Emily B.; Dyer, Jessie L.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Dog rabies annually causes 24,000–70,000 deaths globally. We built a spreadsheet tool, RabiesEcon, to aid public health officials to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa. Methods RabiesEcon uses a mathematical model of dog-dog and dog-human rabies transmission to estimate dog rabies cases averted, the cost per human rabies death averted and cost per year of life gained (YLG) due to dog vaccination programs (US 2015 dollars). We used an East African human population of 1 million (approximately 2/3 living in urban setting, 1/3 rural). We considered, using data from the literature, three vaccination options; no vaccination, annual vaccination of 50% of dogs and 20% of dogs vaccinated semi-annually. We assessed 2 transmission scenarios: low (1.2 dogs infected per infectious dog) and high (1.7 dogs infected). We also examined the impact of annually vaccinating 70% of all dogs (World Health Organization recommendation for dog rabies elimination). Results Without dog vaccination, over 10 years there would a total of be approximately 44,000–65,000 rabid dogs and 2,100–2,900 human deaths. Annually vaccinating 50% of dogs results in 10-year reductions of 97% and 75% in rabid dogs (low and high transmissions scenarios, respectively), approximately 2,000–1,600 human deaths averted, and an undiscounted cost-effectiveness of $451-$385 per life saved. Semi-annual vaccination of 20% of dogs results in in 10-year reductions of 94% and 78% in rabid dogs, and approximately 2,000–1,900 human deaths averted, and cost $404-$305 per life saved. In the low transmission scenario, vaccinating either 50% or 70% of dogs eliminated dog rabies. Results were most sensitive to dog birth rate and the initial rate of dog-to-dog transmission (Ro). Conclusions Dog rabies vaccination programs can control, and potentially eliminate, dog rabies. The frequency and coverage of vaccination programs, along with the level of dog rabies

  3. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  4. The epidemiology of Norovirus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kreidieh, Khalil; Charide, Rana; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Melhem, Nada M

    2017-11-10

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Consequently, we conducted an extensive systematic literature review on articles studying NoV in the 24 countries of the MENA region during the past 15 years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 PRISMA-P and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). We retrieved 38 studies meeting our predefined inclusion criteria and were used to extract full data. Studies reporting on NoV were conducted in 15 out of the 24 countries of the region. The reported NoV infection rates in MENA countries ranged between 0.82% and 36.84%. The majority of studies were clinical observational studies assessing NoV rates mainly among children. Participants were recruited from in- and outpatient clinics. NoV infection was reported all year round with with peaks observed mainly during cold months. GII.4 was the predominant genotype detected in stool of participants as reported by 16 out of 25 studies (64%). Overall, there is an increasing recognition of NoV as an important causative agent of AGE across all age groups in the MENA region. Further studies are needed to assess the national and the regional burden of NoV among different age groups, its molecular diversity and seasonal variability.

  5. Dynamical downscaling with WRF for the Middle-East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezfuli, A. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Bergaoui, K.; Zaaboul, R.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) experience the highest risk of water stress in the world. This underlines the importance of climate analysis for water resources management and climate change adaptation for this region, particularly in transboundary basins such as the Tigris-Euphrates system. Such analysis, however, is difficult due to a paucity of high quality precipitation data. The network of gauge stations is quite sparse and the data are often available only at monthly time-scale. Satellite-based products, such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), offer better temporal resolution; however, these data are available only for periods that are short for hydroclimatic analysis, and they often misrepresent precipitation over regions with complex topography or strong convection. To fill this gap, we have implemented the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, initialized with the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis II, to generate high-resolution precipitation estimates for MENA. Several sensitivity analyses have been performed in order to find a set of physics parameters that appropriately captures the annual cycle and year-to-year variability of rainfall over select areas in MENA. The results show that WRF, particularly over highlands, estimates the precipitation more accurately than the satellite products. In addition to these reanalysis-driven simulations, we have performed several simulations using the historical and twenty first century outputs of a select number of GCMs available at the CMIP5 archive. These runs enable us to detect changes in rainfall behavior under different greenhouse gas scenarios and reveal synoptic to mesoscale mechanisms responsible for such changes.

  6. Monitoring Water Resources in Pastoral Areas of East Africa Using Satellite Data and Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    The nomadic pastoral communities in East Africa heavily depend on small water bodies and artificial lakes for domestic and livestock uses. The shortage of water in the region has made these water resources of great importance to them and sometimes even the reason for conflicts amongst rival communities in the region. Satellite-based data has significantly transformed the way we track and estimate hydrological processes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. This approach has been particularly useful in remote places where conventional station-based weather networks are scarce. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were extracted for the study region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data were used to extract the climatic parameters needed to calculate reference evapotranspiration. The elevation data needed to delineate the watersheds were extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with spatial resolution of 90m. The waterholes (most of which have average surface area less than a hectare) were identified using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images with a spatial resolution of 15 m. As part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) funded enhancement to a livestock early warning decision support system, a simple hydrologic water balance model was developed to estimate daily waterhole depth variations. The model was run for over 10 years from 1998 till 2008 for 10 representative waterholes in the region. Although there were no independent datasets to validate the results, the temporal patterns captured both the seasonal and inter-annual variations, depicting known drought and flood years. Future research includes the installation of staff-gauges for model calibration and validation. The simple modeling approach demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating dynamic coarse resolution datasets such as TRMM with

  7. How critical are wetlands for provisioning ecosystem services in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, G. M.; van Dam, A. A.; Hes, E.; Irvine, K.

    2017-12-01

    East Africa is rapidly losing wetlands as the region intensifies agricultural development in rice, sugarcane, and aquaculture production. However, these wetlands are critically important to the livelihoods of region's most vulnerable smallholders, who depend on them for fisheries, water abstraction, and dry-season subsistence agriculture, including livestock grazing. At the same time, wetlands are used for their regulating services, including for water purification of waste-water in some of the region's largest capital cities (e.g. Kampala and Kigali). They also store an enormous, but poorly quantified amount of below-ground carbon and prevent excess nitrogen inputs to sensitive downstream ecosystems. Our research in papyrus wetlands in the Lake Victoria Basin aims to quantify trade-offs in provisioning and regulating services and link these services to socio-economic conditions of the smallholders. We present a framework for evaluating these trade-offs, which can ultimately be used for more informed management decisions for sustainable wetland management and for evaluating impacts on livelihoods. Specifically, we have found that papyrus wetlands can maintain many of their regulating functions, including high plant productivity and denitrification rates when native vegetation is allowed to grow back during wet-seasons, while during dry seasons they can be developed for economically important agricultural activities, including livestock grazing and crop production. This shows the possibility to include wetlands in management plans aimed to increase agricultural production without jeopardizing their ability to maintain other important regulating services. These patterns highlight the need to evaluate the regional importance of these wetlands for both food production and regulating services.

  8. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Middle East and North Africa: Distribution, diversity, and patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Sarwat; Al‐Kanaani, Zaina; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P.

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize the distribution, diversity and patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Source of data was a database of HCV genotype studies in MENA populated using a series of systematic literature searches. Pooled mean proportions were estimated for each genotype and by country using DerSimonian‐Laird random‐effects meta‐analyses. Genotype diversity within countries was assessed using Shannon Diversity Index. Number of chronic infections by genotype and country was calculated using the pooled proportions and country‐specific numbers of chronic infection. Analyses were conducted on 338 genotype studies including 82 257 genotyped individuals. Genotype 1 was dominant (≥50%) in Algeria, Iran, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia, and UAE, and was overall ubiquitous across the region. Genotype 2 was common (10‐50%) in Algeria, Bahrain, Libya, and Morocco. Genotype 3 was dominant in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Genotype 4 was dominant in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Genotypes 5, 6, and 7 had limited or no presence across countries. Genotype diversity varied immensely throughout MENA. Weighted by population size, MENA's chronic infections were highest among genotype 3, followed by genotype 4, genotype 1, genotype 2, genotype 5, and genotype 6. Despite ubiquitous presence of genotype 1, the vast majority of chronic infections were of genotypes 3 or 4, because of the sizable epidemics in Pakistan and Egypt. Three sub‐regional patterns were identified: genotype 3 pattern centered in Pakistan, genotype 4 pattern centered in Egypt, and genotype 1 pattern ubiquitous in most MENA countries. PMID:28842995

  9. Evaluation of CMIP5 twentieth century rainfall simulation over the equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Gao, Chujie

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the performance of 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations of rainfall over East Africa (EA) against reanalyzed datasets during 1951-2005. The datasets were sourced from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Climate Research Unit (CRU). The metrics used to rank CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) based on their performance in reproducing the observed rainfall include correlation coefficient, standard deviation, bias, percentage bias, root mean square error, and trend. Performances of individual models vary widely. The overall performance of the models over EA is generally low. The models reproduce the observed bimodal rainfall over EA. However, majority of them overestimate and underestimate the October-December (OND) and March-May (MAM) rainfall, respectively. The monthly (inter-annual) correlation between model and reanalyzed is high (low). More than a third of the models show a positive bias of the annual rainfall. High standard deviation in rainfall is recorded in the Lake Victoria Basin, central Kenya, and eastern Tanzania. A number of models reproduce the spatial standard deviation of rainfall during MAM season as compared to OND. The top eight models that produce rainfall over EA relatively well are as follows: CanESM2, CESM1-CAM5, CMCC-CESM, CNRM-CM5, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, EC-EARTH, INMCM4, and MICROC5. Although these results form a fairly good basis for selection of GCMs for carrying out climate projections and downscaling over EA, it is evident that there is still need for critical improvement in rainfall-related processes in the models assessed. Therefore, climate users are advised to use the projections of rainfall from CMIP5 models over EA cautiously when making decisions on adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

  10. Along-axis segmentation and isostasy in the Western rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upcott, N. M.; Mukasa, R. K.; Ebinger, C. J.; Karner, G. D.

    1996-02-01

    Structural variations along the southern sectors of the Western rift, East Africa, have previously been described, but subsurface structures in the northern sector (Uganda, Zaire) are virtually unknown. Our aims are to investigate the along-axis segmentation of the northern sector, thereby adding to the structural picture of the Western rift, and to study the isostatic compensation of the varying rift morphology along the sector's length. This study describes the first gravity survey to be carried out on the shallow Lake Albert, forward models of these and existing gravity data, and the results from inverse modeling of existing aeromagnetic data designed to delimit border and transfer fault systems. Our tectonic model shows that the northern rift sector is segmented along-axis into five 25 to 65-km-wide, 80 to 100-km-long rift segments, characterized by closed-contour Bouguer anomaly lows, and bounded by steep gravity, aeromagnetic, and topographic/bathymetric gradients. Werner and Euler deconvolution results and gravity anomaly data reveal that some faulted basins are separated by structural highs and cross-rift ramps or faults and suggest sedimentary basin depths of 4-6 km. Forward modeling of structural and free-air gravity profiles across individual basins and flanks using a model that assumes flexural compensation also suggests sediment thicknesses of up to 5.5 km, similar to the estimates from magnetic data. The basin and flank morphology can be explained by 6-9 km of extension of a lithosphere with an effective elastic thickness (Te) of 25 km (equivalent to a flexural rigidity of 1.4 × 1023 N m), similar to results in other Western rift basins. Potential field data and lithospheric strength estimates in the Western rift system show small along-axis variations in lithospheric structure, regardless of the presence or absence of Cenozoic magmatism.

  11. Kanda fault: A major seismogenic element west of the Rukwa Rift (Tanzania, East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori, Eutizio; Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François

    1997-09-01

    The NW-SE trending Rukwa Rift, part of the East African Rift System, links the approximately N-S oriented Tanganyika and Nyassa (Malawi) depressions. The rift has a complex half-graben structure, generally interpreted as the result of normal and strike-slip faulting. Morphological and structural data (e.g. fault scarps, faceted spurs, tilting of Quaternary continental deposits, volcanism, seismicity) indicate Late Quaternary activity within the rift. In 1910 an earthquake of M = 7.4 (historically the largest felt in Africa) struck the Rukwa region. The epicentre was located near the Kanda fault, which affects the Ufipa plateau, separating the Rukwa depression from the south-Tanganyika basin. The geomorphic expression of the Kanda fault is a prominent fresh-looking scarp more than 180 km long, from Tunduma to north of Sumbawanga, that strikes roughly NW-SE, and dips constantly northeast. No evidence for horizontal slip was observed. Generally, the active faulting affects a very narrow zone, and is only locally distributed over several subparallel scarps. The height of the scarp progressively decreases towards the northwest, from about 40-50 m to a few metres north of Sumbawanga. Faulted lacustrine deposits exposed in a road cut near Kaengesa were dated as 8340 ± 700 and 13 600 ± 1240 radiocarbon years. These low-energy deposits now hang more than 15 m above the present-day valley floor, suggesting rapid uplift during the Holocene. Due to its high rate of activity in very recent times, the Kanda Fault could have produced the 1910 earthquake. Detailed paleoseismological studies are used to characterize its recent history. In addition, the seismic hazard posed by this fault, which crosses the fast growing town of Sumbawanga, must be seriously considered in urban planning.

  12. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  13. Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Hanan F; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. Methods Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. Results A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications. PMID:23596206

  14. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (<20 kg N km-2 yr-1), nitrogen release to the watershed must be derived from the mining of soil N stocks. The fraction of riverine N export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Hersi, Ahmad; Mashhoud, Walid; Arafah, Mohammed R; Abreu, Paula C; Al Rowaily, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia, particularly in relation to the differences between Saudi nationals and expatriates in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics across Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, abdominal obesity) was evaluated in adults attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Group comparisons were made between patients of Saudi ethnicity (SA nationals) and patients who were not of Saudi ethnicity (expatriates). A total of 550 participants were enrolled from different clinics across Saudi Arabia [aged (mean ± standard deviation) 43 ± 11 years; 71% male]. Nearly half of the study cohort (49.8%) had more than three cardiovascular risk factors. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent risk factor (68.6%). The prevalence of hypertension (47.5%) and dyslipidemia (75.5%) was higher among expatriates when compared with SA nationals (31.4% vs. 55.1%, p  = 0.0003 vs. p  < 0.0001, respectively). Conversely, obesity (52.6% vs. 41.0%; p  = 0.008) and abdominal obesity (65.5% vs. 52.2%; p  = 0.0028) were higher among SA nationals vs. expatriates. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in SA nationals and expatriates. Programmed community-based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Improving primary care services to focus on risk factor control may ultimately decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  16. The Value of Information in Decision-Analytic Modeling for Malaria Vector Control in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Brown, Zachary; Anderson, Richard; Mutero, Clifford; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Wiener, Jonathan; Kramer, Randall

    2017-02-01

    Decision analysis tools and mathematical modeling are increasingly emphasized in malaria control programs worldwide to improve resource allocation and address ongoing challenges with sustainability. However, such tools require substantial scientific evidence, which is costly to acquire. The value of information (VOI) has been proposed as a metric for gauging the value of reduced model uncertainty. We apply this concept to an evidenced-based Malaria Decision Analysis Support Tool (MDAST) designed for application in East Africa. In developing MDAST, substantial gaps in the scientific evidence base were identified regarding insecticide resistance in malaria vector control and the effectiveness of alternative mosquito control approaches, including larviciding. We identify four entomological parameters in the model (two for insecticide resistance and two for larviciding) that involve high levels of uncertainty and to which outputs in MDAST are sensitive. We estimate and compare a VOI for combinations of these parameters in evaluating three policy alternatives relative to a status quo policy. We find having perfect information on the uncertain parameters could improve program net benefits by up to 5-21%, with the highest VOI associated with jointly eliminating uncertainty about reproductive speed of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and initial efficacy of larviciding at reducing the emergence of new adult mosquitoes. Future research on parameter uncertainty in decision analysis of malaria control policy should investigate the VOI with respect to other aspects of malaria transmission (such as antimalarial resistance), the costs of reducing uncertainty in these parameters, and the extent to which imperfect information about these parameters can improve payoffs. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Christine S.; Chorn, Ben T.; Johnson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The most explosive volcanic event of the Quaternary was the eruption of Mt. Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 y ago, which produced voluminous ash deposits found across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula, and South China Sea. A major climatic downturn observed within the Greenland ice cores has been attributed to the cooling effects of the ash and aerosols ejected during the eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). These events coincided roughly with a hypothesized human genetic bottleneck, when the number of our species in Africa may have been reduced to near extinction. Some have speculated that the demise of early modern humans at that time was due in part to a dramatic climate shift triggered by the supereruption. Others have argued that environmental conditions would not have been so severe to have such an impact on our ancestors, and furthermore, that modern humans may have already expanded beyond Africa by this time. We report an observation of the YTT in Africa, recovered as a cryptotephra layer in Lake Malawi sediments, >7,000 km west of the source volcano. The YTT isochron provides an accurate and precise age estimate for the Lake Malawi paleoclimate record, which revises the chronology of past climatic events in East Africa. The YTT in Lake Malawi is not accompanied by a major change in sediment composition or evidence for substantial temperature change, implying that the eruption did not significantly impact the climate of East Africa and was not the cause of a human genetic bottleneck at that time. PMID:23630269

  18. AAA-ATPases in Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Wendler, Petra; Enenkel, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic machineries containing multisubunit protease complexes and AAA-ATPases play a key role in protein quality control and the regulation of protein homeostasis. In these protein degradation machineries, the proteolytically active sites are formed by either threonines or serines which are buried inside interior cavities of cylinder-shaped complexes. In eukaryotic cells, the proteasome is the most prominent protease complex harboring AAA-ATPases. To degrade protein substrates, the gates of the axial entry ports of the protease need to be open. Gate opening is accomplished by AAA-ATPases, which form a hexameric ring flanking the entry ports of the protease. Protein substrates with unstructured domains can loop into the entry ports without the assistance of AAA-ATPases. However, folded proteins require the action of AAA-ATPases to unveil an unstructured terminus or domain. Cycles of ATP binding/hydrolysis fuel the unfolding of protein substrates which are gripped by loops lining up the central pore of the AAA-ATPase ring. The AAA-ATPases pull on the unfolded polypeptide chain for translocation into the proteolytic cavity of the protease. Conformational changes within the AAA-ATPase ring and the adjacent protease chamber create a peristaltic movement for substrate degradation. The review focuses on new technologies toward the understanding of the function and structure of AAA-ATPases to achieve substrate recognition, unfolding and translocation into proteasomes in yeast and mammalian cells and into proteasome-equivalent proteases in bacteria and archaea. PMID:28676851

  19. AAA-ATPases in Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S; Wendler, Petra; Enenkel, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic machineries containing multisubunit protease complexes and AAA-ATPases play a key role in protein quality control and the regulation of protein homeostasis. In these protein degradation machineries, the proteolytically active sites are formed by either threonines or serines which are buried inside interior cavities of cylinder-shaped complexes. In eukaryotic cells, the proteasome is the most prominent protease complex harboring AAA-ATPases. To degrade protein substrates, the gates of the axial entry ports of the protease need to be open. Gate opening is accomplished by AAA-ATPases, which form a hexameric ring flanking the entry ports of the protease. Protein substrates with unstructured domains can loop into the entry ports without the assistance of AAA-ATPases. However, folded proteins require the action of AAA-ATPases to unveil an unstructured terminus or domain. Cycles of ATP binding/hydrolysis fuel the unfolding of protein substrates which are gripped by loops lining up the central pore of the AAA-ATPase ring. The AAA-ATPases pull on the unfolded polypeptide chain for translocation into the proteolytic cavity of the protease. Conformational changes within the AAA-ATPase ring and the adjacent protease chamber create a peristaltic movement for substrate degradation. The review focuses on new technologies toward the understanding of the function and structure of AAA-ATPases to achieve substrate recognition, unfolding and translocation into proteasomes in yeast and mammalian cells and into proteasome-equivalent proteases in bacteria and archaea.

  20. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-06-21

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.

  1. Morphotectonic evolution of the central Kenya rift flanks: Implications for late Cenozoic environmental change in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Kohn, Barry P.; Belton, David X.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.

    2007-05-01

    The Kenya rift valley is the classic example of an active continental rift zone. We report the rift flank cooling history based on a combination of previous apatite fission track (AFT) and new (U-Th)/He (AHe) data. Our results corroborate the Late Cretaceous rapid cooling episode of continent-wide significance revealed previously by AFT dating. Post-Cretaceous cooling of the eastern rift flank was slow with net cooling of <20 °C through much of the Cenozoic. We interpret this cooling style in terms of the absence of significant relief. Samples from the western rift flank and from low elevations of the eastern rift flank reveal a late Neogene cooling episode associated with net cooling of ˜38 °C, indicating that this flank was eroded to a deeper level than that to the east. The late Neogene cooling episode is interpreted as the time of uplift and shaping of the present-day relief of the graben shoulders, which attain elevations of >3400 m in central Kenya. This timing also largely coincides with the uplift of the Western Rift flanks in Uganda and Congo and with the change toward drier conditions and grassland-dominated vegetation in East Africa. We propose that the regional morphotectonic evolution of the Kenyan rift flanks contributed to late Cenozoic environmental change in East Africa, thus superimposing a pronounced local effect on global climate change at that time.

  2. Phylogeographic reconstruction of African yellow fever virus isolates indicates recent simultaneous dispersal into east and west Africa.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew; Guzman, Hilda; Li, Li; Ellis, Brett; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease.

  3. Is There an Enabling Environment for Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture in East Africa? Stakeholder Perspectives From Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Judith; Herforth, Anna; Gillespie, Stuart; Beyero, Mesfin; Wagah, Margaret; Semakula, Richard

    2015-12-01

    There is growing recognition that "nutrition-sensitive" development is necessary to ensure nutrition security and reduce malnutrition. While agriculture has the potential to be a strong driver of malnutrition reduction and serves as the main source of livelihood for approximately two-thirds of East Africa's population, its potential to reduce malnutrition is currently not being realized. Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in East Africa is a research study based in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda that seeks to understand the enabling environment necessary for optimizing the contribution of the food and agriculture sector to nutrition outcomes. Its objectives were to explore stakeholder perceptions of nutrition-agriculture linkages, of political and institutional challenges and opportunities, of evidence that is available and influential for policy making, and of key issues with regard to capacity. Open-ended and semistructured interviews were conducted with 53 stakeholders from government, civil society, donors, United Nations organizations, private sector, and research/academic institutions in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda in 2014. Although policy opportunities and contexts are different between the 3 countries, stakeholders identified similar barriers to greater action, including a narrow focus on solely market-oriented and staple crop production, a lack of clarity and incentives within the agriculture sector about improving nutrition and how to translate policy into action, and lack of capacity in human and financial resources. Many actions to improve the nutrition sensitivity of agriculture were mentioned, including crop diversification, value chain activities and improved market access, nutrition education, and reduction in time and labor costs to women. Many opportunities exist to strengthen the impact of agriculture on nutrition in East Africa, but stronger formulation and implementation of policies will require adequate human resources, funds, timely data on

  4. Phylogeographic Reconstruction of African Yellow Fever Virus Isolates Indicates Recent Simultaneous Dispersal into East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew; Guzman, Hilda; Li, Li; Ellis, Brett; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease. PMID:23516640

  5. The Menengai Tuff: A 36 ka widespread tephra and its chronological relevance to Late Pleistocene human evolution in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Binetti, Katie M.; Faith, J. Tyler; Ferraro, Joseph V.; Gathogo, Patrick N.; Richardson, Jonathan L.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-11-01

    The East African Rift preserves the world's richest Middle and Late Pleistocene (∼780-12 ka) geological, archaeological and paleontological archives relevant to the emergence of Homo sapiens. This region also provides unparalleled chronological control for many important sites through tephrochronology, the dating and correlation of volcanic ashes as widespread isochronous markers in the geological record. There are many well-characterized Pliocene-Early Pleistocene tephras that are widespread across East Africa. A comparable framework is lacking for the Middle and Late Pleistocene; a period characterized by spatially and temporally complex patterns of climate change, as well as the emergence of modern Homo sapiens and the dispersal of this species across and out of Africa. Unraveling relationships among these spatial and temporally complex phenomena requires a precise chronology. To this end we report the Menengai Tuff, a widespread volcanic ash produced by the large-scale caldera-forming eruption in Kenya and 40Ar/39Ar dated to 35.62 ± 0.26 ka. Geochemical characterization of 565 glass shards from 36 samples by wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalysis show the Menengai Tuff was deposited over >115,000 km2 and is found in the Baringo, Chalbi, Elmenteita, Nakuru, Olorgesailie, Turkana, and Victoria basins, all of which preserve rich Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives. Correlation and dating of the Menengai Tuff demonstrate that it is the most widespread tephra and largest eruption currently known from the Late Pleistocene of East Africa. As such, it is a valuable marker in establishing a Late Pleistocene chronology for paleoclimatic, archeological, and paleontological records relevant to the study of human evolution.

  6. Identification of dust source regions and dust emission trends across North Africa and the Middle East using MISR satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Notaro, M.

    2017-12-01

    Global arid and semi-arid regions supply 1100 to 5000 Tg of Aeolian dust to the atmosphere each year, primarily from North Africa and secondarily from the Middle East. Previous dust source identification methods, based on either remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD) or dust activity, yield distinct dust source maps, largely due to the limitations in each method and remote-sensing product. Here we apply a novel motion-based method for dust source identification. Dust plume thickness and motion vectors from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Cloud Motion Vector Product (CMVP) are examined to identify the regions with high frequency of fast moving-dust plumes, by season. According to MISR CMVP, Bodele depression is the most important dust source across North Africa, consistent with previous studies. Seasonal variability of dust emission across the North Africa is largely driven by climatology of wind and precipitation, featuring the influence of Sharav Cyclone and western African monsoon. In the Middle East, Iraq, Kuwait, and eastern Saudi Arabia are identified as dust source regions, especially during summer months, when the Middle Eastern Shamal wind is active. Furthermore, dust emission trend at each dust source are diagnosed from the motion-based dust source dataset. Increase in dust emission from the Fertile Crescent, Sahel, and eastern African dust sources are identified from MISR CMVP, implying potential contribution from these dust sources to the upward trend in AOD and dust AOD over the Middle East in the 21st century. By comparing with various dust source identification studies, we conclude that the motion-based identification of dust sources is an encouraging alternative and compliment to the AOD-only source identification method.

  7. Towards the prediction of the East Africa short rains based on sea-surface temperature-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutai, C. C.; Ward, M. N.; Colman, A. W.

    1998-07-01

    It is shown that the July-September sea-surface temperature (SST) pattern contains moderately strong relationships with the October-December (OND) seasonal rainfall total averaged across East Africa 15°S-5°N, 30°-41.25°E. The relations can be described by using three rotated global SST empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), mainly measuring aspects of SST patterns in the tropical Pacific (related to El Niño/Southern Oscillation), tropical Indian and, to a lesser extent, tropical Atlantic. Confidence in the relationships is raised because the three EOFs correlate significantly with OND near-surface divergence over the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans (extending into Northern mid-latitudes), as well as with the rainfall in East Africa and also with rainfall across southern and western tropical Africa.For the East African region, multiple linear regression (MLR) and linear discriminant analysis prediction models are tested. The predictors are pre-rainfall season values of the three rotated SST EOFs. The predictors use information through September. Validating MLR hindcasts using a 1945-1966 (1967-1988) training period and a 1967-1988 (1945-1966) testing period between 30 to 60% of the area-averaged rainfall variance is explained. To achieve unbiased estimates of the expected skill of a forecast system, it is safest to keep model training and testing periods completely separate. The above strategy achieves this in the most important step of ensuring that the models fit the SST predictors to the rainfall predictand using years independent of the testing period. However, the EOFs were calculated over 1901-1980, so for hindcasts prior to 1981, the EOFs describe the SST variability a little better than could be achieved in real-time, which could inflate skill estimates. Tests in the years 1981-1994, independent of the 1901-1980 eigenvector analysis period, do produce similar levels of skill, but a few more forecast years are needed to confirm this result

  8. Understanding Air Quality in East Africa: Estimating Biomass Burning and Anthropogenic Influence with Long-Term Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, L.; Gasore, J.; Rupakheti, M.; Potter, K. E.; Prinn, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is largely unstudied in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in a large gap in scientific understanding of emissions, atmospheric processes and impacts of air pollutants in this region. The Rwanda Climate Observatory, a joint partnership between MIT and the government of Rwanda, has been measuring ambient concentrations of key long-lived greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-forcing pollutants (CO2, CO, CH4, BC, O3) on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (1.586°S, 29.566°E, 2500 m above sea level) since May 2015. Rwanda is a small, mountainous, and densely populated country in equatorial East Africa currently undergoing rapid development. The location and meteorology of Rwanda is such that emissions transported from both the northern and southern African biomass burning seasons affect BC, CO, and O3 concentrations in Rwanda. Black carbon concentrations during Rwanda's two dry seasons are higher at Mt. Mugogo, a rural site, than in major European cities. Higher BC baseline concentrations at Mugogo are correlated with fire radiative power data for the region acquired with MODIS satellite instrument. Spectral absorption of aerosol measured with a dual-spot aethalometer also varies seasonally, likely due to change in fuel burned and direction of pollution transport to the site. Ozone concentration was found to be higher in air masses from southern Africa than from northern Africa during their respective biomass burning seasons. The higher ozone concentration in air masses from the south could be indicative of more anthropogenic influence as Rwanda is downwind of major East African capitals in this season. During the rainy seasons, local emitting activities (e.g., cooking, driving, trash burning) remain steady, regional biomass burning is low, and transport distances are shorter as rainout of pollution occurs regularly, which allows estimation of local pollution during this time period. Urban PM2.5 measurements in the capital city of Kigali and from the neighboring

  9. Geochemical and Sedimentological Records of Late Quaternary Climate Change, Lake Tanganyika, Tropical East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, A. A.; Russell, J. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Baker, M. E.; McGlue, M. M.; Lezzar, K. E.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed piston core records from Lake Tanganyika (western Tanzania, East African Rift Valley) to investigate possible signals of tropical paleoclimate change during the Late Quaternary. Long paleoclimate records from East Africa are of importance for understanding climatic processes such as the role of solar variability in regulating tropical climates at Milankovitch time scales, and the relationship between abrupt climate changes, migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone, and regional climate variability (Nicholson, 2000). However, records of pre-Holocene climate variability from tropical African lakes (>25ka) are still quite rare. Long records from Lake Tanganyika are of particular interest given the lake's antiquity and its demonstrated potential for producing high resolution (frequently annually laminated) sedimentary records (Cohen et al., 1993). We analyzed physical properties, grain size, total organic carbon, major, minor and trace element variability, and biogenic silica data for a 7.75 m core from the Kalya slope and horst region of central Lake Tanganyika at 640m water depth. Nine 14C dates provide an age model for the core, which spans ~62 cal kyr. Elemental concentrations preserved in Lake Tanganyika sediments record variability in deposition and runoff into the lake basin. Under conditions of rapid erosion, exposure and rapid weathering of bedrock has been shown to generate high concentrations of original silicate minerals enriched in soluble cations such as sodium and potassium, elements that are also biologically conservative. Prior to 40ka cal yr. core sediments are characterized by high magnetic susceptibility, intermediate levels of organic carbon, low to intermediate levels of biogenic silica, and fine grain size, indicative of relatively high precipitation. There is a profound decrease in magnetic susceptibility, a decrease in organic carbon and an increase in grain size at 40ka cal yr, which persists until ~16ka cal yr. Seismic

  10. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  11. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981-2013.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Afreen; Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics-using population and publications data that are available for most countries-allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)-a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981-2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find repeated

  12. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  13. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  14. Microgrid Utilities for Rural Electrification in East Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Nathaniel J.

    Expanding access to electricity is central to development in East Africa but massive increases in investment are required to achieve universal access. Private sector participation in electrification is essential to meeting electricity access targets. Policy makers have acknowledged that grid extension in many remote rural areas is not as cost effective as decentralized alternatives such as microgrids. Microgrid companies have been unable to scale beyond pilot projects due in part to challenges in raising capital for a business model that is perceived to be risky. This thesis aims to identify and quantify the primary sources of investment risk in microgrid utilities and study ways to mitigate these risks to make these businesses more viable. Two modeling tools have been developed to this end. The Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM) models the technical and financial performance of microgrid utilities using uncertain and dynamic inputs to permit explicit modeling of financial risk. This model is applied in an investment risk assessment and case study in Rwanda. Key findings suggest that the most important drivers of risk are fuel prices, foreign exchange rates, demand for electricity, and price elasticity of demand for electricity. The relative importance of these factors is technology dependent with demand uncertainty figuring stronger for solar and high solar penetration hybrid systems and fuel prices driving risk in diesel power and low solar penetration hybrid systems. Considering uncertainty in system sizing presents a tradeoff whereby a decrease in expected equity return decreases downside risk. High solar penetration systems are also found to be more attractive to lenders. The second modeling tool leverages electricity consumption and demographic data from four microgrids in Tanzania to forecast demand for electricity in newly electrified communities. Using statistical learning techniques, improvements in prediction performance was achieved over

  15. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981–2013

    PubMed Central

    Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics—using population and publications data that are available for most countries–allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)—a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981–2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find

  16. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: implications for human and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the site of many recent studies measuring mercury (Hg) concentrations in water, fish, sediment, soil, and humans. Most of these studies were motivated by concerns about Hg contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in fish were usually below permissible World Health Organization (WHO) concentrations and international marketing limits and do not threaten the lucrative export industry. Nile perch 3-10 kg and most >10 kg had THg concentrations above the WHO threshold concentrations for at-risk groups (200 ng/g). Elevated THg concentrations in large Nile perch are not of major concern because Nile perch are rarely consumed by the people living on Lake Victoria and very large Nile perch are becoming increasingly rare in catches. Water THg concentrations were below Canadian drinking water guidelines but were elevated relative to those in the northern Great Lakes. Sediment and soil THg concentrations were within inter-national guidelines and are comparable to those in northern latitudes but are lower than those in the Amazon basin. Biomass burning and soil erosion are estimated to be the major sources of THg for the lake and probably constitute a larger source of THg than gold mining in Tanzania.THg concentrations in urine and hair from human volunteers indicate that while gold miners and frequent skin-bleaching cream users are at risk of inorganic mercury poisoning, the rest of the population, including fishermen, is not. Human exposure assessments demonstrated that fish consumption and soil geophagy constitute major sources of THg for humans, but the total estimated daily intake of THg was below the Health Canada tolerable daily intake (TDI) limits. The use of beauty creams containing high inorganic Hg concentrations, however, caused the estimated THg exposure to exceed the TDI. The high THg content in the hair of regular cream users supports this assessment. The nutritional

  17. Risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) among male and female relatives of AAA patients.

    PubMed

    van de Luijtgaarden, Koen M; Rouwet, Ellen V; Hoeks, Sanne E; Stolker, Robert J; Verhagen, Hence Jm; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle

    2017-04-01

    Sex affects the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although AAAs are less prevalent in women, at least in the general population, women with an AAA have a poorer prognosis in comparison to men. Sex differences in the genetic predisposition for aneurysm disease remain to be established. In this study we investigated the familial risk of AAA for women compared to men. All living AAA patients included in a 2004-2012 prospective database were invited to the multidisciplinary vascular/genetics outpatient clinic between 2009 and 2012 for assessment of family history using detailed questionnaires. AAA risk for male and female relatives was calculated separately and stratified by sex of the AAA patients. Families of 568 AAA patients were investigated and 22.5% of the patients had at least one affected relative. Female relatives had a 2.8-fold and male relatives had a 1.7-fold higher risk than the estimated sex-specific population risk. Relatives of female AAA patients had a higher aneurysm risk than relatives of male patients (9.0 vs 5.9%, p = 0.022), corresponding to 5.5- and 2.0-fold increases in aneurysm risk in the female and male relatives, respectively. The risk for aortic aneurysm in relatives of AAA patients is higher than expected from population risk. The excess risk is highest for the female relatives of AAA patients and for the relatives of female AAA patients. These findings endorse targeted AAA family screening for female and male relatives of all AAA patients.

  18. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Vivienne L; Loveridge, Andrew J; Newton, David J; Macdonald, David W

    2017-01-01

    The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa to Asia from

  19. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Loveridge, Andrew J.; Newton, David J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute ‘tiger bone’ market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008–2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012–2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008–2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008–2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013–2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa

  20. Challenges of diagnosis and management of axial spondyloarthritis in North Africa and the Middle East: An expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Abdulaziz, Sultana; Alosaimi, Hanan; Al-Rayes, Hanan; Aldeen Sarakbi, Hussam; Baamer, Matouqa; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Dahou Makhloufi, Chafia; Janoudi, Nahid; Shirazy, Khalid; Sieper, Joachim; Sukhbir, Uppal

    2016-04-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a spectrum of inflammatory disease with stages characterized by both nonradiographic and radiographic sacroiliitis. Nonradiographic axial SpA is associated with health-related quality-of-life impairment and may progress to ankylosing spondylitis. Axial SpA has a low prevalence in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and pooling of data and resources is needed to increase understanding of the regional picture. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to reduce disease burden and prevent progression. Anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional treatment, and has been shown to be effective in patients without radiographic damage. Diagnostic delays can be an obstacle to early treatment and appropriate referral strategies are needed. In some countries, restricted access to magnetic resonance imaging and anti-TNF agents presents a challenge. In this article, a group of experts from North Africa and the Middle East evaluated the diagnosis and management of axial SpA with particular reference to this region. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Evidence for mafic lower crust in Tanzania, East Africa, from joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julià, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2005-08-01

    The S-wave velocity structure of Precambrian terranes in Tanzania, East Africa is modelled by jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities from the 1994-1995 Tanzania broad-band seismic experiment. The study region, which consists of an Archean craton surrounded by Proterozoic mobile belts, forms a unique setting for evaluating Precambrian crustal evolution. Our results show a uniform crustal structure across the region, with a 10-15 km thick upper crust with VS= 3.4-3.5 km s-1, overlying a gradational lower crust with S-wave velocities up to 4.1 km s-1 at 38-42 km depth. The upper-mantle lid displays uniform S-wave velocities of 4.5-4.7 km s-1 to depths of 100-150 km and overlays a prominent low-velocity zone. This low-velocity zone is required by the dispersion and receiver function data, but its depth interval is uncertain. The high crustal velocities within the lowermost crust characterize the entire region and suggest that mafic lithologies are present in both Archean and Proterozoic terranes. The ubiquitous mafic lower crust can be attributed to underplating associated with mafic dyke emplacement. This finding suggests that in East Africa there has been little secular variation in Precambrian crustal development.

  2. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  3. Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Triviño Durán, Laura; Gasch, Angel; Desmond, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men's adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation.

  4. Ecosystem productivity and water stress in tropical East Africa: A Case Study of the 2010-11 drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E. S.; Yang, X.; Lee, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of changes in ecosystem productivity as a consequence of water stress and changing precipitation regimes is critical in defining the response of tropical ecosystems to water stress and projecting future land cover transitions in the East African tropics. Through the analysis of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), soil moisture, rainfall and reanalysis data, this paper characterizes the 2010-11 drought in tropical East Africa. We demonstrated that SIF, a proxy of ecosystem productivity, varied with water availability during the 2010-11 drought. A comparison of the 2010-11 drought to previous regional droughts revealed that the consecutive failure of rainy seasons in fall 2010 and spring 2011 yielded a drought that is distinguished not only in intensity, but also in spatial and temporal extent as compared to an average of previous regional droughts: the 2010-11 event extended further east and with greater intensity in the southern hemisphere. Anomalously low SIF values during the 2010-11 drought are strongly correlated with those of soil moisture and precipitation. SIF also demonstrated a stronger temporal sensitivity to accumulated water deficit as compared to the conventional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which approximates photosynthetic potential (chlorophyll content and leaf mass), from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Anomalously high rainfall during the dry seasons preceding failed rainy seasons suggest that the seasonality of East African rainfall may be transitioning from a regime characterized by biannual monsoons to one with increasing convective rainfall. Rising boundary layer height during the dry season further substantiates this conclusion by suggesting a transition towards increased deep convection during the summers. This work demonstrated the unique characteristics of the 2010-11 East African drought, and the ability of SIF to track the levels of water stress during the

  5. The 17 Ma old Turkana beaked whale fossil: new paleoaltimetry constraints for uplift and environmental change in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Matthew, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Timing and magnitude of vertical motions of the Earth's crust is key to evaluate the impact of tectonic processes on changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, rainfall, and environmental conditions. The East African Plateau (EAP) is a major topographic feature that fundamentally impacts the patterns of the Indian-African Monsoon and the eastward transport of air masses from the Congo Basin. Uplift of the EAP in Kenya has been linked to mantle processes, but due to the lack of reliable palaeoaltimetric data it has been challenging to unambiguously constrain plateau evolution, vertical motions associated with late Cenozoic rifting of the East African Rift System, and ensuing environmental change. We explored the fossil remains of a beaked whale (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region in the northern Kenya Rift, 700 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean. The whale fossil, preserved near sea level, was discovered at an elevation of 620 m and thus constrains the uplift of the northeastern flanks of the EAP. The Kenyan ziphiid was discovered in fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the extensional Oligo-Miocene Lokichar basin (Mead, 1975) along with terrestrial mammals and freshwater molluscs below a basalt dated at 17.1 ± 1.0 Ma (Boschetto et al., 1992). The unifying characteristics of riverine occurrences of modern marine mammals include sufficient discharge in low-gradient rivers to maintain pathways deep enough to facilitate migration, and the absence of shallow bedrock, rapids, and waterfalls. The most likely route, which may have had these characteristics is a fluvial corridor controlled by protracted thermal subsidence of the Cretaceous Anza Rift, which once linked extensional processes in Central and East Africa with the continental margin of northeastern Africa. The fossil locality and analogies with present-day occurrences of marine mammals in terrestrial realms suggest that the ziphiid stranded slightly above sea level. In combination with

  6. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006-2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    and Hygiene INTRODUCTION Rift Valley fever ( RVF ) is a mosquito-borne viral disease with pronounced health and economic impacts on domestic...animals and humans in much of sub-Saharan Africa. 1 The eco- nomic loss from RVF in East Africa is estimated to exceed $60 million because of disruption in...morbidity and mortality in humans. The RVF epizootics and epidemics are closely linked to the occurrence of the warm phase of the El Niño/Southern

  7. Early childhood obesity: a survey of knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Gies, Inge; AlSaleem, Bader; Olang, Beheshteh; Karima, Berkouk; Samy, Gamal; Husain, Khaled; Elhalik, Mahmoud; Miqdady, Mohamad; Rawashdeh, Mohamad; Salah, Mohamed; Mouane, Nezha; Rohani, Pejman; Singhal, Atul; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2017-04-28

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health issues of the twenty-first century affecting even low- and middle-income countries. Overweight and obese children are more likely to stay obese into adulthood. Due to the paucity of data on local practices, our study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa region with respect to early-onset obesity. A specific questionnaire investigating the perception and knowledge on early-onset obesity was circulated to healthcare providers (general physicians, pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologist, neonatologists) practicing in 17 Middle East and North African countries. A total of 999/1051 completed forms (95% response) were evaluated. Of all respondents, 28.9% did not consistently use growth charts to monitor growth during every visit and only 25.2% and 46.6% of respondents were aware of the correct cut-off criterion for overweight and obesity, respectively. Of those surveyed, 22.3, 14.0, 36.1, 48.2, and 49.1% of respondents did not consider hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, and decreased life span, respectively, to be a long-term complication of early childhood obesity. Furthermore, only 0.7% of respondents correctly answered all survey questions pertaining to knowledge of early childhood overweight and obesity. The survey highlights the low use of growth charts in the evaluation of early childhood growth in Middle East and North Africa region, and demonstrated poor knowledge of healthcare providers on the short- and long-term complications of early-onset obesity. This suggests a need for both continued professional education and development, and implementation of guidelines for the prevention and management of early childhood overweight and obesity.

  8. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Nuha; Gebremeskel, Eyoab Iyasu; Elnour, Mohamed Ali; Isabirye, Dan; Okello, John; Hussien, Ayman; Kwiatksowski, Dominic; Hirbo, Jibril; Tishkoff, Sara; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2), and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne) of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  9. The genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) in East Africa: phylogeny and the role of rifting and climate in shaping the current pattern of species diversity.

    PubMed

    Menegon, M; Loader, S P; Marsden, S J; Branch, W R; Davenport, T R B; Ursenbacher, S

    2014-10-01

    Past climatic and tectonic events are believed to have strongly influenced species diversity in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the East African genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae), and explored temporal and spatial relationships between Atheris species across Africa, and the impact of palaeoclimatic fluctuations and tectonic movements on cladogenesis of the genus. Using mitochondrial sequence data, the phylogeny of East African species of Atheris shows congruent temporal patterns that link diversification to major tectonic and aridification events within East Africa over the last 15million years (my). Our results are consistent with a scenario of a delayed direct west-east colonisation of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Atheris by the formation of the western rift. Based on the phylogenetic patterns, this terrestrial, forest-associated genus has dispersed into East Africa across a divided route, on both west-southeasterly and west-northeasterly directions (a C-shaped route). Cladogenesis in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Southern Highlands of Tanzania corresponds to late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene climatic shifts. Taxonomically, our data confirmed the monophyly of Atheris as currently defined, and reveal four major East African clades, three of which occur in discrete mountain ranges. Possible cryptic taxa are identified in the Atheris rungweensis and A. ceratophora clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential of Gdgts as Temperature Proxies Along Altitudinal Transects in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Fosse, Céline; Anquetil, Christine; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are lipids of high molecular weight and include the isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) produced by Archaea and the branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) produced by unknown bacteria. Several indices were developed to describe the relationship between GDGT distribution and environmental parameters: the TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons), based on the relative abundances of iGDGTs in sediments, and the MBT (methylation index of branched tetraethers) and CBT (cyclisation ratio of branched tetraethers), based on the relative abundance of brGDGTs in soils. The TEX86 was shown to correlate well with water surface temperature, and the MBT and CBT with mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. The GDGTs are increasingly used as temperature proxies. In this study, 41 surface soils were sampled along two altitudinal transects, from 500 to 2800 meters in Mount Rungwe (South western, Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 meters in Mount Kenya (Central Kenya). MAAT was reconstructed along the two transects using the MBT/CBT proxies. A linear correlation between the MBT/CBT-derived temperatures and the altitude (R2=0.83) was obtained by combining results of the two transects. The reconstructed temperature lapse rate (0.5 ° C/100 m) was consistent with the one determined from temperature measurements at six altitudes. These results show that the MBT/CBT is a suitable and robust temperature proxy in East Africa. In Mt. Rungwe soil samples, the TEX86 index, which was mainly used to reconstruct water surface temperatures until now, was found to vary linearly with altitude (R2=0.50). Such a relationship between TEX86 and altitude in organic soils has also been recently noticed in Mt. Xiangpi, China (Liu et al., 2013; R2=0.68). The adiabatic cooling of air with altitude could explain the TEX86 variation with altitude. If such a relationship is confirmed, the use of the TEX86 as a temperature proxy could be extended to soil

  11. Vitamin D Replacement in Children, Adolescents and Pregnant Women in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chakhtoura, M; El Ghandour, S; Shawwa, K; Akl, EA; Arabi, A; Mahfoud, Z; Habib, RH; Hoballah, H; El Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hypovitaminosis D affects one-third to two-thirds of children and pregnant women from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Objective To evaluate in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women, from the MENA region, the effect of supplementation with different vitamin D doses on the change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level reached, and other skeletal and non-skeletal outcomes. Methods This is a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation conducted in the MENA region. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in 7 databases, without language or time restriction, until November 2016. Two reviewers abstracted data from the included studies, independently and in duplicate. We calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI of 25(OH)D level reached when at least 2 studies were eligible in each comparison (low (< 800 IU), intermediate (800–2,000 IU) or high (> 2,000 IU) daily dose of vitamin D, or placebo). We pooled data using RevMan version 5.3. Results We identified a total of 15 eligible trials: one in infants, 4 in children and adolescents and 10 in pregnant women. In children and adolescents, an intermediate vitamin D dose (1,901 IU/d), resulted in a mean difference in 25(OH)D level of 13.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 8.1;18.8) ng/ml, compared to placebo, favoring the intermediate dose (p < 0.001). The proportion of children and adolescents reaching a 25(OH)D level ≥ 20 ng/ml was 74% in the intermediate dose group. In pregnant women, four trials started supplementation at 12–16 weeks of gestation and continued until delivery, and six trials started supplementation at 20–28 weeks gestation and stopped it at delivery. The MD in 25(OH)D level reached was 8.6 (95% CI 5.3–11.9) ng/ml (p <0.001) comparing the high dose (3,662 IU/d) to the intermediate dose (1,836 IU/d), and 12.3 (95% CI 6.4–18.2) ng/ml (p <0.001), comparing the high dose (3,399 IU/d) to the low dose (375 IU

  12. Mapping crustal heterogeneity using Lg propagation efficiency throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can give significantly biased results if the Lg phase is reduced or blocked by discontinuous structure or thin crust. Mapping these structures using quantitative techniques for determining Lg amplitude attenuation can break down when the phase is below background noise. In such cases Lg blockage and inefficient propagation zones are often mapped out by hand. With our approach, we attempt to visually simplify this information by imaging crustal structure anomalies that significantly diminish the amplitude of Lg. The visualization of such anomalies is achieved by defining a grid of cells that covers the entire region of interest. We trace Lg rays for each event/ station pair, which is simply the great circle path, and attribute to each cell a value equal to the maximum value of the Lg/P-coda amplitude ratio for all paths traversing that particular cell. The resulting map, from this empirical approach, is easily interpreted in terms of crustal structure and can successfully image small blockage features often missed by analysis of raypaths alone. This map can then be used to screen out events with blocked Lg prior to performing Q tomography, and to avoid using Lg-based methods of event identification for the CTBT in regions where they cannot work. For this study we applied our technique to one of the most tectonically complex regions on the earth. Nearly 9000 earthquake/station raypaths, traversing the vast region comprised of the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa, have been

  13. Cardiovascular risk factor burden in Africa and the Middle East across country income categories: a post hoc analysis of the cross-sectional Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    PubMed

    Raal, Frederick J; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Omar, Mohamed I; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M

    2018-01-01

    A significant number of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related deaths occur in developing countries. An increasing prevalence of CVD is associated with a change in the macro-economy of these countries. In this post hoc analysis, CVD risk factor (CVDRF) prevalence is evaluated across countries based on national income in the Africa and Middle East Region (AfME). Data from the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study were used; a cross-sectional study in 14 AfME countries (94 clinics) from July 2011-April 2012, which evaluated CVDRF prevalence in stable adult outpatients. World Bank definitions were used to classify countries as low-income (LI), lower-middle-income (LMI), upper-middle-income (UMI) or high-income (HI) countries. Four thousand three hundred seventy-eight subjects were recruited where 260 (6%), 1324 (30%), 1509 (35%) and 1285 (29%) were from LI, LMI, UMI, and HI countries, respectively. Of all the CVDRFs evaluated, almost two-thirds of the study population across the national income groups had abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Countries in the HI category were associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes (32%), obesity (44%) and smoking (16%). UMI and HI countries were associated with higher clustering of CVDRFs where at least one-third of subjects having four or more CVDRFs. Lower income countries had lower blood pressure control rates and lower percentages of outpatients achieving LDL-cholesterol targets. The burden of CVDRFs in stable outpatients is high across the national income categories in the AfME region, with HI countries showing a higher prevalence of CVDRFs. The high burden in lower income countries is associated with sub-optimal control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Lowering the CVDRF burden would need specific public health actions in line with positive changes in the macro-economy of these countries. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  14. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  15. The Impact of Cultural and Economic Globalization on the Planning and Function of Higher Education in North Africa and the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabour, M'Hammed

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on higher education in the Arab World, particularly North Africa and the Middle East. The influence has been positive regarding the university's openness to the world and involvement in global intellectual and scientific activity and culture. However, globalization is also seen in the academia as tantamount to…

  16. The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and Africa: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush. Grade 6 Model Lesson for Unit II. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    This model lesson for sixth graders about the beginnings of civilization in the Near East and Africa aims to have students focus on the cultural and geographical features of a region: landforms, climate, and vegetation. The lesson features three major topics: (1) Sumer and Mesopotamia, (2) Egypt, and (3) Kush. It addresses the uses and…

  17. Knowledge of High School Learners Regarding Substance Use within High School Premises in the Buffalo Flats of East London, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Emmanuel; Maluleke, Xavela T.; Douglas, Mbuyiselo

    2017-01-01

    South Africa has a high rate of substance abuse among youths both in and out of school with East London in the Eastern Cape Province experiencing an increase in young people ages 20 years and below seeking treatment for substance abuse. The purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge of high school learners (grades 10 to 12) regarding…

  18. The state of harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: A focus on Iran and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Himmich, Hakima; Madani, Navid

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. But the regional response to the epidemic falls short both in terms of the quality and scale of response. From the threat of the death sentence for drug offenses to the burden of refugees fleeing conflict, there are many legal, political and social barriers that hinder the introduction and expansion of harm reduction in the region. However Iran and Morocco are two pioneering countries and over the last decade they have been providing evidence that harm reduction is feasible and acceptable in MENA. Using different approaches, these two countries have overcome various obstacles and encouraged discussion and collaboration among stakeholders, including government, health professionals, civil society and community-based organizations. In so doing they have created an enabling environment to endorse a national harm strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Social context of human immunodeficiency virus transmission in Africa: historical and cultural bases of east and central African sexual relations.

    PubMed

    Larson, A

    1989-01-01

    The literature relating to the social context of sexual relations in East and Central Africa has several implications for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Colonially created cities in the region still discriminate economically and socially against women. Rapid urbanization is occurring, but migrants maintain strong ties with rural areas. Traditional attitudes towards marriage and sexuality affect urban behavior in the extent of marital stability, the frequency of polygyny, and the emotional bond between spouses. Ethnic groups in Kampala and Nairobi exemplify the cultural foundations of two forms of sexual relations found in the region, one characterized by prostitution and the other by small circles of interchanging lovers. The first results in a more rapid spread of HIV through the urban population and outwards into rural areas. Each pattern exerts unique constraints on behavioral change and requires different prevention campaigns.

  20. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kagurusi, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  1. Perspectives of host faculty and trainees on international visiting faculty to paediatric academic departments in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Christiana M; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Marangu, Diana; Silverman, Melanie; Kija, Edward; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Laving, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits? Methods We recruited 36 faculty members and residents from among four paediatric departments in East Africa to participate in semistructured interviews which were audio recorded and transcribed. Data were qualitatively analysed using principles of open coding and thematic analysis. We achieved saturation of themes. Results Benefits of faculty visits varied based on the size and needs of host institutions. Emergent themes included the importance of guest faculty time commitment, and mutual preparation to ensure that visit goals and scheduling met host needs. We documented conflicts that developed around guest emotional responses and ethical approaches to clinical resource limitations, which some hosts tried to prepare for and mitigate. Imbalance in resources led to power differentials; some hosts sought partnerships to re-establish control over the process of having guests. Conclusions We identified that guest faculty can assist paediatric institutions in building capacity; however, effective visits require: (1) mutually agreed on goals with appropriate scheduling, visit length and commitment to ensure that the visits meet the host's needs, (2) careful selection and preparation of guest faculty to meet the host's goals, (3) emotional preparation by prospective guests along with host orientation to clinical work in the host's setting and (4) attention to funding sources for the visit and mitigation of resulting power differentials. PMID

  2. Holistic view to integrated climate change assessment and extreme weather adaptation in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutua, F.; Koike, T.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world.The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Also, recent climate projections showed a pattern consistent with increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in the East African region.We propose a holistic integrated approach to climate change assessment and extreme event adaptation through coupling of analysis techniques, tools and data. The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) in East Africa supports over three million livelihoods and is a valuable resource to five East African countries as a source of water and means of transport. However, with a Mesoscale weather regime driven by land and lake dynamics,extreme Mesoscale events have been prevalent and the region has been on the receiving end during anomalously wet years in the region. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacements, and food insecurity. In the LVB, the effects of climate change are increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to poverty, by its linkage to agriculture, food security and water resources. Of particular importance are the likely impacts of climate change in frequency and intensity of extreme events. To tackle this aspect, this study adopted an integrated regional, mesoscale and basin scale approach to climate change assessment. We investigated the projected changes in mean climate over East Africa, diagnosed the signals of climate change in the atmosphere, and transferred this understanding to mesoscale and basin scale. Changes in rainfall were analyzed and similar to the IPCC AR4 report; the selected three General Circulation Models (GCMs) project a wetter East Africa with intermittent dry periods in June-August. Extreme events in the region are projected to increase; with the number of wet days

  3. Improving Early-Grade Literacy in East Africa: Experimental Evidence from Kenya and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…

  4. Theatre Safari in East Africa: An Exploration of Theatre in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, P. William

    Six months of observation--at two universities, at a drama festival, and with several independent theatre companies--form the basis for this evaluation of theatre in Kenya, Africa. While Kenyan dramas deal with a variety of themes, the majority are topical rather than universal in their treatment of issues. In many, the emphasis is on the…

  5. Translations on Near East and North Africa. Number 1593, New Valley Development Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-17

    People’s Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen _Persian Gulf Area Qatar _Saudi Arabia _Spanish North Africa Sudan _Sultanate of Oman _Syria...and organizing the drainage situation. We have acquired the use of the highest-quality pipe materials used in wells and a knowledge of aquifers . We

  6. A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T C; Werne, J P; Brown, E T; Abbott, A; Berke, M; Steinman, B A; Halbur, J; Contreras, S; Grosshuesch, S; Deino, A; Scholz, C A; Lyons, R P; Schouten, S; Damsté, J S Sinninghe

    2016-09-08

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towards progressively drier conditions over the past few million years, with increased variability as glacial-interglacial change intensified worldwide. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northern Africa exhibit a 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycle overprinted on a pronounced 20,000-year (precession) beat, driven by orbital forcing of summer insolation, global ice volume and long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we present a 1.3-million-year-long climate history from the Lake Malawi basin (10°-14° S in eastern Africa), which displays strong 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycles of temperature and rainfall following the Mid-Pleistocene Transition around 900,000 years ago. Interglacial periods were relatively warm and moist, while ice ages were cool and dry. The Malawi record shows limited evidence for precessional variability, which we attribute to the opposing effects of austral summer insolation and the temporal/spatial pattern of sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean. The temperature history of the Malawi basin, at least for the past 500,000 years, strongly resembles past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrigenous dust flux in the tropical Pacific Ocean, but not in global ice volume. Climate in this sector of eastern Africa (unlike northern Africa) evolved from a predominantly arid environment with high-frequency variability to generally wetter conditions with more prolonged wet and dry intervals.

  7. A General Survey of Religious Concepts and Art of North, East, South, and West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rohn

    This paper, a summary of a multi-carousel slide presentation, reviews literature on the cultures, religions, and art of African people. Before focusing on West Africa, highlights of the lifestyles, religions, and icons of non-maskmaking cultures of North, West and South African people are presented. Clarification of West African religious concepts…

  8. Academic Programmes in Universities in East Africa: A Catalyst to Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2015-01-01

    The types of academic programmes offered by universities, both public and private, are considered to be critical to the realization of development agendas. This study was descriptive in nature and sought to establish whether universities in the East African region were offering academic programmes that were relevant to the realization of the…

  9. Maritime vessels carry more than half of growing U.S.-East Africa trade

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    Trade between the United States and East African countries : (defi ned in this special report as Burundi, Kenya, : Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) has grown substantially : in recent years, reaching $1.3 billion in value in 2007. : Between 1997 and 200...

  10. Chapter 5: Policies on Free Primary and Secondary Education in East Africa--Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses; Rolleston, Caine

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of education policies in the East African region in a historical context. The focus is on the formulation of policies for access to primary and secondary education in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania since their independence in the 1960s. The three countries have common characteristics and historical backgrounds. For…

  11. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kortepeter, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography.

  12. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard AJ; Peterson, A Townsend

    2009-01-01

    Background The emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 ("HPAI-H5N1") has spread broadly in the past decade, and is now the focus of considerable concern. We tested the hypothesis that spatial distributions of HPAI-H5N1 cases are related consistently and predictably to coarse-scale environmental features in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. We used ecological niche models to relate virus occurrences to 8 km resolution digital data layers summarizing parameters of monthly surface reflectance and landform. Predictive challenges included a variety of spatial stratification schemes in which models were challenged to predict case distributions in broadly unsampled areas. Results In almost all tests, HPAI-H5N1 cases were indeed occurring under predictable sets of environmental conditions, generally predicted absent from areas with low NDVI values and minimal seasonal variation, and present in areas with a broad range of and appreciable seasonal variation in NDVI values. Although we documented significant predictive ability of our models, even between our study region and West Africa, case occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula appear to follow a distinct environmental regime. Conclusion Overall, we documented a variable environmental "fingerprint" for areas suitable for HPAI-H5N1 transmission. PMID:19619336

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution of diurnal yellow fever vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) at two sylvan interfaces in Kenya, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Brett Richard; Wesson, Dawn M; Sang, Rosemary C

    2007-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) remains a significant public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa in which 90% of the estimated 200,000 cases occur annually. In East Africa, human cases of YFV are characterized by unpredictable focal periodicity, lengthy inter-epidemic periods, and a precarious potential for large epidemics. YFV had remained undetected in this region for nearly 40 years until emerging in Kenya in 1992-93 and more recently in Sudan during 2003 and 2005. From an ecological perspective the emergence and epidemiological outcomes associated with YFV, and related vector-borne diseases, are critically dependent upon the underlying vector ecology at a local scale. The study here was aimed at defining the dynamics of important vector interactions at two important sites in Kenya with previous YFV or related arbovirus activity. The temporal abundance, spatial distribution, and human host seeking behavior of diurnal man-landing mosquito species along sylvan interfaces were investigated. A number of YFV vectors were identified including their abundances for the duration of the main rainy season. Spatially, results indicated that the greatest human-mosquito interactions occurred within the forest and decreased across more domesticated biotopes. A discussion of significant differences, ecological associations, and epidemiological implications is included.

  14. Analysis of diurnal and seasonal climate patterns in the Rwenzori Mountains, East Africa, using satellite data and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. B.; Doughty, A. M.; Hatchett, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo are one of only three remaining glaciated sites in Africa. Because of their remoteness and sparsity of meteorological data, the climate patterns are not well-known or well understood, which may lead to high uncertainty in glacier mass-balance estimates and paleoclimate reconstructions. This project uses remotely-sensed precipitation data, automatic weather station data, and back-trajectory modeling of air parcels to characterize the diurnal and seasonal climate patterns at the Rwenzori. Of the two wet seasons, we estimate that the short-rains (SON) provide up to 500% more snow accumulation. Precipitation is highly diurnal and driven by convection to the east of the Rwenzori as well as local up-valley convection (Mölg et al., 2003). Back-trajectory modeling shows that precipitation tends to occur at the Rwenzori when airstreams are able to pick up moisture during peak daytime convection on the East African Plateau the day before arriving at the Rwenzori. This relationship is supported by the fact that precipitation rates at the western end of the plateau follow a stronger diurnal cycle than precipitation rates at the eastern end, at Mount Kenya.

  15. Cumulative Total Middle East/North Africa Freshwater Losses as Seen by NASA GRACE, 2002-15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-08

    Cumulative total freshwater losses in North Africa and the Middle East from 2002 to 2015 (in inches) observed by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Total water refers to all of the snow, surface water, soil water and groundwater combined. Groundwater depletion in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran, and along the Arabian Peninsula, are leading to large changes in total water storage in the region. Likewise, drought and groundwater pumping is contributing to the drying of the Caspian Sea Region. The Northwest Sahara Aquifer System, which underlies Tunisia and Libya, is also experiencing increasing water stress as shown in the map. Image updated from Voss et al., 2013. Citation of Record: Voss, K. A., J. S. Famiglietti, M. Lo, C. R. de Linage, M. Rodell and S. C. Swenson, Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region, Wat. Resour. Res., 49(2), 904-914, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20078. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20207

  16. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  17. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  18. Existing capacity to manage pharmaceuticals and related commodities in East Africa: an assessment with specific reference to antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Waako, Paul J; Odoi-adome, Richard; Obua, Celestino; Owino, Erisa; Tumwikirize, Winnie; Ogwal-okeng, Jasper; Anokbonggo, Willy W; Matowe, Lloyd; Aupont, Onesky

    2009-01-01

    managing medicines and related commodities in East Africa. There is an urgent need for training in aspects of pharmaceutical management to different categories of health workers. Skills building activities that do not take healthcare workers from their places of work are preferred. PMID:19272134

  19. Has Rift Valley fever virus evolved with increasing severity in human populations in East Africa?

    PubMed

    Baba, Marycelin; Masiga, Daniel K; Sang, Rosemary; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2016-06-22

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred across eastern Africa from 1912 to 2010 approximately every 4-15 years, most of which have not been accompanied by significant epidemics in human populations. However, human epidemics during RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa have involved 478 deaths in 1998, 1107 reported cases with 350 deaths from 2006 to 2007 and 1174 cases with 241 deaths in 2008. We review the history of RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa to identify the epidemiological factors that could have influenced its increasing severity in humans. Diverse ecological factors influence outbreak frequency, whereas virus evolution has a greater impact on its virulence in hosts. Several factors could have influenced the lack of information on RVF in humans during earlier outbreaks, but the explosive nature of human RVF epidemics in recent years mirrors the evolutionary trend of the virus. Comparisons between isolates from different outbreaks have revealed an accumulation of genetic mutations and genomic reassortments that have diversified RVF virus genomes over several decades. The threat to humans posed by the diversified RVF virus strains increases the potential public health and socioeconomic impacts of future outbreaks. Understanding the shifting RVF epidemiology as determined by its evolution is key to developing new strategies for outbreak mitigation and prevention of future human RVF casualties.

  20. Has Rift Valley fever virus evolved with increasing severity in human populations in East Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Marycelin; Masiga, Daniel K; Sang, Rosemary; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred across eastern Africa from 1912 to 2010 approximately every 4–15 years, most of which have not been accompanied by significant epidemics in human populations. However, human epidemics during RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa have involved 478 deaths in 1998, 1107 reported cases with 350 deaths from 2006 to 2007 and 1174 cases with 241 deaths in 2008. We review the history of RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa to identify the epidemiological factors that could have influenced its increasing severity in humans. Diverse ecological factors influence outbreak frequency, whereas virus evolution has a greater impact on its virulence in hosts. Several factors could have influenced the lack of information on RVF in humans during earlier outbreaks, but the explosive nature of human RVF epidemics in recent years mirrors the evolutionary trend of the virus. Comparisons between isolates from different outbreaks have revealed an accumulation of genetic mutations and genomic reassortments that have diversified RVF virus genomes over several decades. The threat to humans posed by the diversified RVF virus strains increases the potential public health and socioeconomic impacts of future outbreaks. Understanding the shifting RVF epidemiology as determined by its evolution is key to developing new strategies for outbreak mitigation and prevention of future human RVF casualties. PMID:27329846

  1. Taking on breast cancer in East Africa: global challenges in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kantelhardt, Eva Johanna; Cubasch, Herbert; Hanson, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    To provide an update on breast cancer epidemiology, early detection, and therapy in Africa. Breast cancer has been a long neglected topic in Africa. Due to increased activities of population-based cancer registries, cancer incidence rates become available. Data from 26 African countries for 2012 suggest that in the majority of countries, breast cancer has turned into the leading cancer among the female population. Yet data from hospital-based registries show that patients often present late. Efforts are being made to implement early detection programs; however, there are open questions how best to organize screening activities, referral and how to assure pathology service. Adjuvant treatment is still limited to a small number of centers; neoadjuvant treatment is underutilized. New data have become available from different countries reporting high proportions of estrogen receptor-positive tumors, which would possibly justify the administration of tamoxifen in unknown receptor status. Breast cancer is an increasing health problem in low-resource countries. More information on incidence, clinical presentation, outcome, and tumor biology in Africa has become available. Further evidence is needed on strategies to improve awareness, appropriate treatment options, and implementation of palliative care. http://links.lww.com/COOG/A17

  2. Genetic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Jean, P.L.; Hart, B.K.; Zhang, X.C.

    1994-09-01

    The association between AAA and gender, smoking (SM), hypertension (HTN) and inguinal herniation (IH) was examined in 141 AAA probands and 139 of their 1st degree relatives with aortic exam (36 affected, 103 unaffected). There was no significant difference between age at diagnosis of affecteds and age at exam of unaffecteds. Of 181 males, 142 had AAA; of 99 females, 35 had AAA. Using log-linear modeling AAA was significantly associated at the 5% level with gender, SM and HTN but not IH. The association of AAA with SM and HTN held when males and females were analyzed separately. HTN wasmore » -1.5 times more common in both affected males and females, while SM was 1.5 and 2 times more common in affected males and females, respectively. Tests of association and linkage analyses were performed with relevant candidate genes: 3 COL3A1 polymorphisms (C/T, ALA/THR, AvaII), 2 ELN polymorphisms (SER/GLY, (CA)n), FBN1(TAAA)n, 2 APOB polymorphisms (Xbal,Ins/Del), CLB4B (CA)n, PI and markers D1S243 (CA)n, HPR (CA)n and MFD23(CA)n. The loci were genotyped in > 100 AAA probands and > 95 normal controls. No statistically significant evidence of association at the 5% level was obtained for any of the loci using chi-square test of association. 28 families with 2 or more affecteds were analyzed using the affected pedigree member method (APM) and lod-score analyses. There was no evidence for linkage with any loci using APM. Lod-score analysis under an autosomal recessive model resulted in excluding linkage (lod score < -2) of all loci to AAA at {theta}=0.0. Under an autosomal dominant model, linkage was excluded at {theta}=0.0 to ELN, APOB, CLG4B, D1S243, HPR and MFD23. The various genes previously proposed in AAA pathogenesis are neither associated nor casually related in our study population.« less

  3. Pathophysiology of AAA: heredity vs environment.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin; Wanhainen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a complex pathophysiology, in which both environmental and genetic factors play important roles, the most important being smoking. The recently reported falling prevalence rates of AAA in northern Europe and Australia/New Zeeland are largely explained by healthier smoking habits. Dietary factors and obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, are also of importance. A family history of AAA among first-degree relatives is present in approximately 13% of incident cases. The probability that a monozygotic twin of a person with an AAA has the disease is 24%, 71 times higher than that for a monozygotic twin of a person without AAA. Approximately 1000 SNPs in 100 candidate genes have been studied, and three genome-wide association studies were published, identifying different diverse weak associations. An example of interaction between environmental and genetic factors is the effect of cholesterol, where genetic and dietary factors affect levels of both HDL and LDL. True epigenetic studies have not yet been published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tectonics and Volcanism of East Africa as Seen Using Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, Duncan John

    1996-01-01

    The East African Rift is the largest area of active continental geology. The tectonics of this area has been studied with remote sensing data, including AVHRR, Landsat MSS and TM, SPOT, and electronic still camera from Shuttle. Lineation trends have been compared to centers of volcanic and earthquake activity as well as the trends shown on existing geologic maps. Remote sensing data can be used effectively to reveal and analyze significant tectonic features in this area.

  5. A Geological and Geophysical Information System for the Middle East and North Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    Saad, D., Sawaf, T., and Gebran, A., 1990, Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian ...that occurred between 1977 and 1992 (Figure 2). We have finished compiling a crustal scale Bouguer gravity data for Syria, Israel and Lebanon (Figure...3). This Bouguer gravity database is a part of our attempt to form a uniform grided Bouguer gravity data set for the entire Middle East, which then

  6. Updates on AAA screening and surveillance

    PubMed

    Theivendran, Mayo; Chuen, Jason

    2018-05-01

    Screening and diagnostic surveillance of latent conditions have a profound impact on public healthcare expenditure and clinical outcomes. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. This article is the second of two that will outline current areas of controversy and research in AAA disease in order to support a more detailed understanding of issues in managing patients with this condition, and inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Screening and surveillance of AAA should be evidence-based and follow clinical guidelines; however, advances in treatment technology and epidemiological data have influenced results. Goals of care and cost‑effectiveness should play central parts in screening and surveillance strategies.

  7. 18O 16O ratios in cherts associated with the saline lake deposits of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Hay, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    The cherts formed from sodium silicate precursors in East African saline, alkaline lakes have ??18O values ranging from 31.1 to 44.1. The ??18O values correlate in general with lake salinities as inferred from geologic evidence, indicating that most chert was formed from its precursor in contact with lake water trapped at the time of deposition. A few of the analyzed cherts probably formed in contact with dilute meteoric water. From the widely varying ??18O values we conclude that precursors were transformed to chert in fluids of widely varying salinity and aNa+/aH+ ratio. ?? 1973.

  8. Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Caugant, Dominique A; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Christensen, Hannah; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Findlow, Jamie; Glennie, Linda; Von Gottberg, Anne; Kechrid, Amel; Vázquez Moreno, Julio; Razki, Aziza; Smith, Vincent; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Tali-Maamar, Hassiba; Zerouali, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) has recently considered current issues in Middle Eastern and African countries, and produced two recommendations: (i) that vaccination of attendees should be considered for some types of mass-gathering events, as some countries mandate for the Hajj, and (ii) vaccination of people with human immunodeficiency virus should be used routinely, because of increased meningococcal disease (MD) risk. Differences exist between Middle Eastern and African countries regarding case and syndrome definitions, surveillance, and epidemiologic data gaps. Sentinel surveillance provides an overview of trends and prevalence of different capsular groups supporting vaccine selection and planning, whereas cost-effectiveness decisions require comprehensive disease burden data, ideally counting every case. Surveillance data showed importance of serogroup B MD in North Africa and serogroup W expansion in Turkey and South Africa. Success of MenAfriVac ® in the African "meningitis belt" was reviewed; the GMI believes similar benefits may follow development of a low-cost meningococcal pentavalent vaccine, currently in phase 1 clinical trial, by 2022. The importance of carriage and herd protection for controlling invasive MD and the importance of advocacy and awareness campaigns were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenait, Manel

    Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

  10. What are the emerging features of community health insurance schemes in East Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Basaza, Robert; Pariyo, George; Criel, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Background The three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya are characterized by high poverty levels, population growth rates, prevalence of HIV/AIDS, under-funding of the health sector, poor access to quality health care, and small health insurance coverage. Tanzania and Kenya have user-fees whereas Uganda abolished user-fees in public-owned health units. Objective To provide comparative description of community health insurance (CHI) schemes in three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya and thereafter provide a basis for future policy research for development of CHI schemes. Methods An analytical grid of 10 distinctive items pertaining to the nature of CHI schemes was developed so as to have a uniform lens of comparing country situations of CHI. Results and conclusions The majority of the schemes have been in existence for a relatively short time of less than 10 years and their number remains small. There is need for further research to identify what is the mix and weight of factors that cause people to refrain from joining schemes. Specific issues that could also be addressed in subsequent studies are whether the current schemes provide financial protection, increase access to quality of care and impact on the equity of health services financing and delivery. On the basis of this knowledge, rational policy decisions can be taken. The governments thereafter could consider an option of playing more roles in advocacy, paying for the poorest, and developing an enabling policy and legal framework. PMID:22312207

  11. High-elevation amplification of warming since the Last Glacial Maximum in East Africa: New perspectives from biomarker paleotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, S. E.; Russell, J. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Eggermont, H.; Verschuren, D.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical lapse rate variability on glacial/interglacial time scales has been hotly debated since the publication of CLIMAP in 1976. Low-elevation paleotemperature reconstructions from the tropics have repeatedly shown less warming from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present than reconstructions from high elevations, leading to widespread difficulty in estimating the true LGM-present temperature change in the tropics. This debate is further complicated by the fact that most paleotemperature estimates from high elevations in the tropics are derived from pollen- and moraine-based reconstructions of altitudinal shifts in vegetation belts and glacial equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). These traditional approaches rely on the assumption that lapse rates have remained constant through time. However, this assumption is problematic in the case of the LGM, when pervasive tropical aridity most likely led to substantial changes in lapse rates. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can be used to reconstruct paleotemperatures independent of hydrological changes, making them the ideal proxy to reconstruct high elevation temperature change and assess lapse rate variability through time. Here we present two new equatorial paleotemperature records from high elevations in East Africa (Lake Rutundu, Mt. Kenya and Lake Mahoma, Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda) based on branched GDGTs. Our record from Lake Rutundu shows deglacial warming starting near 17 ka and a mid-Holocene thermal maximum near 5 ka. The overall amplitude of warming in the Lake Rutundu record is 6.8×1.0°C from the LGM to the present, with mid-Holocene temperatures 1.6×0.9°C warmer than modern. Our record from Lake Mahoma extends back to 7 ka and shows similar temperature trends to our record from Lake Rutundu, indicating similar temporal resolution of high-elevation temperature change throughout the region. Combining these new records with three previously published GDGT temperature records from different

  12. Using Satellite Data and Land Surface Models to Monitor and Forecast Drought Conditions in Africa and Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Getirana, A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; McNally, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Funk, C. C.; Koster, R. D.; Narapusetty, B.; Jung, H. C.; Roningen, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and water scarcity are among the important issues facing several regions within Africa and the Middle East. In addition, these regions typically have sparse ground-based data networks, where sometimes remotely sensed observations may be the only data available. Long-term satellite records can help with determining historic and current drought conditions. In recent years, several new satellites have come on-line that monitor different hydrological variables, including soil moisture and terrestrial water storage. Though these recent data records may be considered too short for the use in identifying major droughts, they do provide additional information that can better characterize where water deficits may occur. We utilize recent satellite data records of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the European Space Agency's Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture retrievals. Combining these records with land surface models (LSMs), NASA's Catchment and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP), is aimed at improving the land model states and initialization for seasonal drought forecasts. The LSMs' total runoff is routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics, which can provide an additional means of validation against in situ streamflow data. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) software framework drives the LSMs and HyMAP and also supports the capability to assimilate these satellite retrievals, such as soil moisture and TWS. The LSMs are driven for 30+ years with NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS/UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall dataset. The seasonal water deficit forecasts are generated using downscaled and bias-corrected versions of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5), and NOAA's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) forecasts

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of common mental disorders among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Habtamu, Kassahun; Minaye, Abebaw; Zeleke, Waganesh A

    2017-04-19

    Ethiopian migrants to the Middle East and South Africa experience a range of problems at various stages of their migration including overwork, sleep deprivation, denial of food, emotional abuse, difficulty adapting to the host culture, salary denial, sexual abuse, labor exploitation, confiscation of their travel documents, confinement, denial of medication, lack of access to legal service and degrading attitude by employers, traffickers and smugglers. These experiences can be associated with different types of mental disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and socio-demographic and other migration related associated factors among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted using non-probability (i.e. purposive, availability and snowball) sampling techniques. Migrant returnees (n = 1036) were contacted individually at their homes in eight high prevalent immigrant returnee locations in Ethiopia. Common mental disorders were assessed using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) and a structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on socio-demographic and migration related characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of CMD among migrant returnees was found to be 27.6%. Highly prevalent specific CMD symptoms included headaches, poor appetite, being tired, sleeping problems, and feeling unhappy or nervous. Being originally from Amhara and Oromia regions, being Christian, being divorced, not receiving salary on time, not being able to contact family, unable to prepare for domestic labor abroad, lack of cross- cultural awareness, and lack of knowledge and skills for work were all important risk factors for CMD. Migrants experienced adversities at different stages of their migration which are associated with psychological distress and even to long

  14. Evaluation of the Distribution and Impacts of Parasites, Pathogens, and Pesticides on Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Populations in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, James; Torto, Baldwyn; Baumgarten, Tracey; Kilonzo, Joseph; Kimani, James Ng'ang'a; Mumoki, Fiona; Masiga, Daniel; Tumlinson, James; Grozinger, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In East Africa, honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and income for small-holder farmers and rural families. While honey bee populations in North America and Europe are in decline, little is known about the status of honey bee populations in Africa. We initiated a nationwide survey encompassing 24 locations across Kenya in 2010 to evaluate the numbers and sizes of honey bee colonies, assess the presence of parasites (Varroa mites and Nosema microsporidia) and viruses, identify and quantify pesticide contaminants in hives, and assay for levels of hygienic behavior. Varroa mites were present throughout Kenya, except in the remote north. Levels of Varroa were positively correlated with elevation, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in honey bee host-parasite interactions. Levels of Varroa were negatively correlated with levels of hygienic behavior: however, while Varroa infestation dramatically reduces honey bee colony survival in the US and Europe, in Kenya Varroa presence alone does not appear to impact colony size. Nosema apis was found at three sites along the coast and one interior site. Only a small number of pesticides at low concentrations were found. Of the seven common US/European honey bee viruses, only three were identified but, like Varroa, were absent from northern Kenya. The number of viruses present was positively correlated with Varroa levels, but was not correlated with colony size or hygienic behavior. Our results suggest that Varroa, the three viruses, and Nosema have been relatively recently introduced into Kenya, but these factors do not yet appear to be impacting Kenyan bee populations. Thus chemical control for Varroa and Nosema are not necessary for Kenyan bees at this time. This study provides baseline data for future analyses of the possible mechanisms underlying resistance to and the long-term impacts of these factors on African bee populations. PMID:24740399

  15. Evaluation of the distribution and impacts of parasites, pathogens, and pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Muli, Elliud; Patch, Harland; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, James; Torto, Baldwyn; Baumgarten, Tracey; Kilonzo, Joseph; Kimani, James Ng'ang'a; Mumoki, Fiona; Masiga, Daniel; Tumlinson, James; Grozinger, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In East Africa, honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and income for small-holder farmers and rural families. While honey bee populations in North America and Europe are in decline, little is known about the status of honey bee populations in Africa. We initiated a nationwide survey encompassing 24 locations across Kenya in 2010 to evaluate the numbers and sizes of honey bee colonies, assess the presence of parasites (Varroa mites and Nosema microsporidia) and viruses, identify and quantify pesticide contaminants in hives, and assay for levels of hygienic behavior. Varroa mites were present throughout Kenya, except in the remote north. Levels of Varroa were positively correlated with elevation, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in honey bee host-parasite interactions. Levels of Varroa were negatively correlated with levels of hygienic behavior: however, while Varroa infestation dramatically reduces honey bee colony survival in the US and Europe, in Kenya Varroa presence alone does not appear to impact colony size. Nosema apis was found at three sites along the coast and one interior site. Only a small number of pesticides at low concentrations were found. Of the seven common US/European honey bee viruses, only three were identified but, like Varroa, were absent from northern Kenya. The number of viruses present was positively correlated with Varroa levels, but was not correlated with colony size or hygienic behavior. Our results suggest that Varroa, the three viruses, and Nosema have been relatively recently introduced into Kenya, but these factors do not yet appear to be impacting Kenyan bee populations. Thus chemical control for Varroa and Nosema are not necessary for Kenyan bees at this time. This study provides baseline data for future analyses of the possible mechanisms underlying resistance to and the long-term impacts of these factors on African bee populations.

  16. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  17. Contrasting long-term records of biomass burning in wet and dry savannas of equatorial East Africa.

    PubMed

    Colombaroli, Daniele; Ssemmanda, Immaculate; Gelorini, Vanessa; Verschuren, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Rainfall controls fire in tropical savanna ecosystems through impacting both the amount and flammability of plant biomass, and consequently, predicted changes in tropical precipitation over the next century are likely to have contrasting effects on the fire regimes of wet and dry savannas. We reconstructed the long-term dynamics of biomass burning in equatorial East Africa, using fossil charcoal particles from two well-dated lake-sediment records in western Uganda and central Kenya. We compared these high-resolution (5 years/sample) time series of biomass burning, spanning the last 3800 and 1200 years, with independent data on past hydroclimatic variability and vegetation dynamics. In western Uganda, a rapid (<100 years) and permanent increase in burning occurred around 2170 years ago, when climatic drying replaced semideciduous forest by wooded grassland. At the century time scale, biomass burning was inversely related to moisture balance for much of the next two millennia until ca. 1750 ad, when burning increased strongly despite regional climate becoming wetter. A sustained decrease in burning since the mid20th century reflects the intensified modern-day landscape conversion into cropland and plantations. In contrast, in semiarid central Kenya, biomass burning peaked at intermediate moisture-balance levels, whereas it was lower both during the wettest and driest multidecadal periods of the last 1200 years. Here, burning steadily increased since the mid20th century, presumably due to more frequent deliberate ignitions for bush clearing and cattle ranching. Both the observed historical trends and regional contrasts in biomass burning are consistent with spatial variability in fire regimes across the African savanna biome today. They demonstrate the strong dependence of East African fire regimes on both climatic moisture balance and vegetation, and the extent to which this dependence is now being overridden by anthropogenic activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Plio-Pleistocene Evolution of the Indian Ocean Monsoonal System: Evidence from the Arabian Sea and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Maslin, M. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Leng, M. J.; Kingston, J.; Deino, A.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to identify the teleconnections between high latitude forcing and tropical monsoonal circulation in order to understand climate change in East Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Here we present a record of aeolian dust transport to the Arabian Sea between approximately 2.9 and 2.3 million years ago (Ma), constructed from the high-resolution XRF scanning of sediment cores from ODP Sites 721 and 722. Variations in the delivery of aeolian dust to the Arabian Sea, reflected in normalised flux of titanium, show that monsoonal circulation prior to 2.6 Ma, and after 2.5 Ma, was highly variable and primarily driven by orbitally-forced changes in tropical summer insolation, strongly modulated by the 400,000 year cycle of orbital eccentricity. This is confirmed by the presence of lakes in the East African Rift Valley during key eccentricity maxima. The dust record is coupled with the analysis of a well-dated series of diatomite units from the Baringo-Bogoria Basin which document the rhythmic cycling of large, precessionally-driven freshwater lakes which periodically occupied the Central Kenyan Rift Valley between 2.7 and 2.58 Ma. Analysis of one of these lake sequences using stable oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica, combined with the XRF analysis of whole-sample geochemistry, reveals that the deep lake phase was characterised by fluctuations in rainfall and lake depth over cycles lasting, on average, 1,400 years. The presence of these millennial-scale fluctuations is confirmed by evidence of abrupt climate cycles in the oceanic dust record from the Arabian Sea.

  19. Integrating Ubunifu, informal science, and community innovations in science classrooms in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Hristova, Adelina; Owiny, Sylvia A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between informal science and indigenous innovations in local communities in which students matured. The discussion considers methods for bridging the gap that exists between parents' understanding of informal science ( Ubunifu) and what students learn in secondary schools in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. In an effort to reconcile the difference between students' lived experiences and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) taught in classrooms, this study presents an experiential iSPACES instructional model as an example of curriculum integration in science classrooms. The culmination is presentation of lessons learned from history, including Africa's unique contributions to science, theory, and indigenous innovations, in the hope that these lessons can spur the development of new instructional practices, standards, curriculum materials, professional and community development, and dialogue among nations.

  20. Special characteristics of population policy in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C; Montague, J

    1973-01-01

    The 22 countries stretching from Morocco to Afghanistan, ranging fro m the tip of Africa to the rim of Asia, present a spectrum of population positions ranging from explicit governmental pronatalist to antinatalist policies to no explicity policy at all. High population growth rates throughout the area have evoked various interpretations and responses fr om these largely Islamic nations, which have been arbitrarily group for presentation into 5 categories. Practically all the nations offer some family planning services, even though the laws vary from strict prohibition to promotion through national family planning programs. However, in the past decade there has been remarkable movement toward articulated national population policies. This is likely to increase in the future despite problems due to intranational heterogeneity, Arab-Isr aeli hostility, certain values of Islamic culture and theology, and the current paucity of demographic and developmental data.

  1. Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Anupama; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2004-08-01

    We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ~ 175 beneath the cratonic lithosphere, while it is ~ 80 beneath the rifted lithosphere. By combining the QP values and a model of P wave velocity perturbations, we estimate that the temperature beneath the rifted lithosphere (100-400 km depth) is 140-280 K higher than ambient mantle temperatures, consistent with the observation that the 410 km discontinuity in this region is depressed by 30-40 km.

  2. Focal mechanisms and the stress regime in NE and SW Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Florentin, Juliette

    2005-07-01

    We report 12 new focal mechanisms from earthquakes in NE and SW Tanzania where the stress regime within the East African rift system is not well constrained. Focal mechanisms for events at the intersection of the Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa rifts in SW Tanzania indicate a complicated stress pattern with possible dextral strike-slip motion on some faults but oblique motion on others (either sinistral on NW striking faults or dextral on NE striking faults). Within the Rukwa rift, focal mechanisms indicate normal dip-slip motion with NE-SW opening. In NE Tanzania where the Eastern rift impinges on the margin of the Tanzania Craton, fault motions are consistent with a zone of distributed block faults and sub E-W extension. All twelve earthquakes likely nucleated within the crust.

  3. Who delivers where? The effect of obstetric risk on facility delivery in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Virgo, Sandra; Gon, Giorgia; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Graham, Wendy; Woodd, Susannah

    2017-09-01

    Skilled attendance at birth is key for the survival of pregnant women. This study investigates whether women at increased risk of maternal and newborn complications in four East African countries are more likely to deliver in a health facility than those at lower risk. Demographic and Health Survey data for Kenya 2014, Rwanda 2014-15, Tanzania 2015-16 and Uganda 2011 were used to study women with a live birth in the three years preceding the survey. A three-level obstetric risk index was created using known risk factors. Generalised linear Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between obstetric risk and facility delivery. We analysed data from 13 119 women across the four countries of whom 42-45% were considered at medium risk and 12-17% at high risk, and the remainder were at low risk. In Rwanda, 93% of all women delivered in facilities but this was lower (59-66%) in the other three countries. There was no association between a woman's obstetric risk level and her place of delivery in any country; greater wealth and more education were, however, independently strongly associated with facility delivery. In four East African countries, women at higher obstetric risk were not more likely to deliver in a facility than those with lower risk. This calls for a renewed focus on antenatal risk screening and improved communication on birth planning to ensure women with an increased chance of maternal and newborn complications are supported to deliver in facilities with skilled care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles B; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Elul, Batya; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Ssali, John; Kambugu, Andrew; Musick, Beverly S; Cohen, Craig; Williams, Carolyn; Diero, Lameck; Padian, Nancy; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute

  5. Uptake contexts and perceived impacts of HIV testing and counselling among adults in East and Southern Africa: A meta-ethnographic review.

    PubMed

    Witzel, T Charles; Lora, Wezzie; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing and counselling (HTC) interventions are key to controlling the HIV epidemic in East and Southern Africa where HTC is primarily delivered through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC), and home-based counselling and testing (HBVCT). Decision making processes around uptake of HTC models must be taken into account when designing new interventions. Counselling in HTC aims to reduce post-test risk taking behaviour and to link individuals to care but its efficacy is unclear. This meta-ethnography aims to understand the contexts of HTC uptake in East and Southern Africa and to analyse the perceived impacts of counselling-based interventions in relation to sexual behaviour and linkage to care. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies investigating HTC in East and Southern Africa from 2003 -April 2014. The search and additional snowballing identified 20 studies that fit our selection criteria. These studies were synthesised through a thematic framework analysis. Twenty qualitative and mixed-methods studies examining impacts of HTC models in East and Southern Africa were meta-synthesised. VCT decisions were made individually while HBVCT decisions were located in family and community units. PITC was associated with coercion from healthcare providers. Low quality counselling components and multiple-intersecting barriers faced by individuals mean that counselling in HTC was not perceived to be effective in reducing post-test risk behaviour and had limited perceived effect in facilitating linkage to care. HBVCT is associated with minimal stigma and should be considered as an area of priority. Counselling components in HTC interventions were effective in transmitting information about HIV and sexual risk, but were perceived as ineffective in addressing the broader personal circumstances preventing sexual behaviour change and modulating access to care.

  6. Uptake contexts and perceived impacts of HIV testing and counselling among adults in East and Southern Africa: A meta-ethnographic review

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, T. Charles; Lora, Wezzie; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing and counselling (HTC) interventions are key to controlling the HIV epidemic in East and Southern Africa where HTC is primarily delivered through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC), and home-based counselling and testing (HBVCT). Decision making processes around uptake of HTC models must be taken into account when designing new interventions. Counselling in HTC aims to reduce post-test risk taking behaviour and to link individuals to care but its efficacy is unclear. This meta-ethnography aims to understand the contexts of HTC uptake in East and Southern Africa and to analyse the perceived impacts of counselling-based interventions in relation to sexual behaviour and linkage to care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of studies investigating HTC in East and Southern Africa from 2003 –April 2014. The search and additional snowballing identified 20 studies that fit our selection criteria. These studies were synthesised through a thematic framework analysis. Results Twenty qualitative and mixed-methods studies examining impacts of HTC models in East and Southern Africa were meta-synthesised. VCT decisions were made individually while HBVCT decisions were located in family and community units. PITC was associated with coercion from healthcare providers. Low quality counselling components and multiple-intersecting barriers faced by individuals mean that counselling in HTC was not perceived to be effective in reducing post-test risk behaviour and had limited perceived effect in facilitating linkage to care. Conclusion HBVCT is associated with minimal stigma and should be considered as an area of priority. Counselling components in HTC interventions were effective in transmitting information about HIV and sexual risk, but were perceived as ineffective in addressing the broader personal circumstances preventing sexual behaviour change and modulating access to care. PMID

  7. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  8. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  9. Epidemiology of seasonal influenza in the Middle East and North Africa regions, 2010-2016: Circulating influenza A and B viruses and spatial timing of epidemics.

    PubMed

    Caini, Saverio; El-Guerche Séblain, Clotilde; Ciblak, Meral A; Paget, John

    2018-05-01

    There is a limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of influenza in Middle East and North Africa. We described the patterns of influenza circulation and the timing of seasonal epidemics in countries of Middle East and North Africa. We used virological surveillance data for 2010-2016 from the WHO FluNet database. In each country, we calculated the median proportion of cases that were caused by each virus type and subtype; determined the timing and amplitude of the primary and secondary peaks; and used linear regression models to test for spatial trends in the timing of epidemics. We included 70 532 influenza cases from seventeen countries. Influenza A and B accounted for a median 76.5% and 23.5% of cases in a season and were the dominant type in 86.8% and 13.2% of seasons. The proportion of influenza A cases that were subtyped was 85.9%, while only 4.4% of influenza B cases were characterized. For most countries, influenza seasonality was similar to the Northern Hemisphere, with a single large peak between January and March; exceptions were the countries in the Arabian Peninsula and Jordan, all of which showed clear secondary peaks, and some countries had an earlier primary peak (in November-December in Bahrain and Qatar). The direction of the timing of influenza activity was east to west and south to north in 2012-2013 and 2015-2016, and west to east in 2014-2015. The epidemiology of influenza is generally uniform in countries of Middle East and North Africa, with influenza B playing an important role in the seasonal disease burden. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Smoking prevention and cessation in the Africa and Middle East region: a consensus draft guideline for healthcare providers--executive summary.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed Yousif M; Safwat, Tarek; Onyemelukwe, Geoffrey; Otaibi, Moh'd Amin Al; Amir, Ashraf A; Nawas, Yousef N; Aouina, Hichem; Afif, Moulay Hicham; Bolliger, Chris T

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundance of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and other forms of tobacco use, the tobacco epidemic remains an important public health problem and by 2030 it is predicted that more than 80% of tobacco deaths will be in developing countries. In Africa and the Middle East, many local factors contribute to the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Although efforts to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with smoking and tobacco dependence are underway, there is a need for guidance on how to utilize appropriate tobacco control policies and psychology- and pharmacology-based therapies to counter tobacco dependence as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A group of tobacco cessation experts from public health services and/or academic institutions in Africa and the Middle East participated in a series of four meetings held in Cairo, Cape Town, and Dubai between May 2008 and February 2011 to develop a draft guideline tailored to their region. This article provides the background to the development of this draft smoking cessation guideline and discusses how the recommendations can be implemented and progress monitored to promote both primary prevention and cessation of tobacco use within our countries. The draft guideline for Africa and the Middle East provides an important resource in combating the devastating effects of tobacco use in these regions which can be further localized through engagement with local stakeholders in the countries of the region. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Do trauma courses change practice? A qualitative review of 20 courses in East, Central and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Ologunde, Rele; Le, Grace; Turner, Jim; Pandit, Hemant; Peter, Noel; Maurer, David; Hodgson, Sam; Larvin, Joseph; Lavy, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Trauma courses have been shown to improve clinical knowledge and patient outcomes. However, little is known about the individual drivers of change in practice amongst course participants in their home clinic environment. Front-line healthcare workers participated in a two-day Primary Trauma Care (PTC) course. Immediately after the course participants completed an evaluation survey on intended change in the management of trauma patients. Six months after the course, participants completed a survey on actual changes that had occurred. A total of 451 participants were sampled, with 321 responding at 6 months, from 40 courses across East, Central and Southern Africa. The most commonly reported intended change was the adoption of an ABCDE/systematic approach (53%). Six months after the course, 92.7% of respondents reported that they had made changes in their management, with adoption of an ABCDE/systematic approach (50.0%) remaining most common. 77% of participants reported an improvement in departmental trauma management, 26% reported an increase in staffing, 29% an increase in equipment and 68% of participants had gone on to train other healthcare workers in PTC. The findings suggest that PTC courses not only improve individual management of trauma patients but also but is also associated with beneficial effects for participants' host institutions with regards to staffing, equipment and training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Health impact and management.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  13. Escalating heat-stress mortality risk due to global warming in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

    PubMed

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2018-08-01

    Climate change will substantially exacerbate extreme temperature and heatwaves. The impacts will be more intense across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a region mostly characterized by hot and arid climate, already intolerable for human beings in many parts. In this study, daily climate data from 17 fine-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are acquired to calculate wet-bulb temperature and investigate the mortality risk for people aged over 65 years caused by excessive heat stress across the MENA region. Spatially adaptive temperature thresholds are implemented for quantifying the mortality risk, and the analysis is conducted for the historical period of 1951-2005 and two future scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during the 2006-2100 period. Results show that the mortality risk will increase in distant future to 8-20 times higher than that of the historical period if no climate change mitigation is implemented. The coastal regions of the Red sea, Persian Gulf, and Mediterranean Sea indicate substantial increase in mortality risk. Nonetheless, the risk ratio will be limited to 3-7 times if global warming is limited to 2 °C. Climate change planning and adaptation is imperative for mitigating heat-related mortality risk across the region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of Glycerol Diakyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Surface Soil and Crater Lake Sediments from Mount Kenya, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omuombo, C.; Huguet, A.; Olago, D.; Williamson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), a palaeoclimate proxy based on the relative abundance of lipids produced by archaea and bacteria, is gaining wide acceptance for the determination of past temperature and pH conditions. This study looks at the spatial distribution and abundance of GDGTs in soil and sediment samples along an altitudinal transect from 3 crater lakes of Mt. Kenya (Lake Nkunga, Sacred Lake and Lake Rutundu) ranging in elevation from 1700m - 3080m above sea level. GDGTs were extracted with solvents and then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Mean annual air temperature and pH were estimated based on the relative abundance of the different branched GDGTs, i.e. on the MBT (Methylation index of Branched Tetraethers) and CBT (Cyclization ratio of Branched Tetraethers) indices. Substantial amount of GDGTs were detected in both soil and sediment samples. In addition, branched GDGT distribution was observed to vary with altitude. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the branched GDGTs to understand the environmental parameters controlling the distribution of these lipids. The MBT/CBT proxy is a promising tool to infer palaeotemperatures and characterize the climate events of the past millennia in equatorial east Africa.

  15. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  16. An isotopic study of a fluvial-lacustrine sequence: The Plio-Pleistocene koobi fora sequence, East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cerling, T.E.; Bowman, J.R.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopic analyses of Plio-Pleistocene and modern sediments in the fluvial-lacustrine system occupying the Turkana Basin, East Africa provide constraints on the paleoenvironmental and diagenetic histories of the Pliocene through the Recent sediments in the basin. The ??13C values for carbonates in lacustrine sediments range from -15 to +22??? relative to PDB, depending on the varying proportions of CO2 from the atmospheric reservoir and from various metabolic sources. The ??18O values of carbonates in lacustrine sediments indicate that the isotopic composition of paleolake water varied by over 10??? from the Pliocene to the present. The ??13C values for pedogenic carbonates record paleoccologic variations and suggest that C4 plants did not become well established in the preserved depositional parts of the basin until about 1.8 myr ago. The ??18O values pedogenic carbonates suggest a range of over 10??? for the isotopic composition of soil water during this interval. They also suggest a period of major climatic instability from about 3.4 to 3.1 myr and at about 1.8 myr. Together, the ??13C and ??18O values of pedogenic carbonates indicate that the present conditions are as arid and hot as any that had prevailed during deposition of these Plio-Pleistocene sediments. ?? 1988.

  17. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Highly Consanguineous Populations from Middle East and North Africa: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousa, Hamoud; Al-Saud, Bandar

    2017-01-01

    Middle East and North Africa region (MENA)1 populations are of different ethnic origins. Consanguineous marriages are common practice with an overall incidence ranging between 20 and 50%. Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders caused by defects in the immune system that predisposes patients to recurrent infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. PIDs are more common in areas with high rates of consanguineous marriage since most have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Studies of PIDs in the region had contributed into the discovery and the understanding of several novel immunodeficiency disorders. Few MENA countries have established national registries that helped in estimating the prevalence and defining common PID phenotypes. Available reports from those registries suggest a predominance of combined immunodeficiency disorders in comparison to antibody deficiencies seen in other populations. Access to a comprehensive clinical immunology management services is limited in most MENA countries. Few countries had established advanced clinical immunology service, capable to provide extensive genetic testing and stem cell transplantation for various immunodeficiency disorders. Newborn screening for PIDs is an essential need in this population considering the high incidence of illness and can be implemented and incorporated into existing newborn screening programs in some MENA countries. Increased awareness, subspecialty training in clinical immunology, and establishing collaborating research centers are necessary to improve patient care. In this review, we highlight some of the available epidemiological data, challenges in establishing diagnosis, and available therapy for PID patients in the region. PMID:28694805

  18. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  19. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inappropriate enrollment of children in schools for the visually impaired in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Tumwesigye, C; Msukwa, G; Njuguna, M; Shilio, B; Courtright, P; Lewallen, S

    2009-06-01

    Many visually impaired children can learn to read print with appropriate training and simple visual aids. This may allow them to attend normal schools and to be integrated into society, which has lifelong benefits. Yet, in Africa, many visually impaired children are enrolled in special schools and taught only Braille. The purpose of this analysis was to document the extent of inappropriate enrollment of visually impaired children in special schools and annexes for the blind in four African countries. Schools were selected through a population-proportional-to-size method so that they would represent all children attending special schools in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. Children were examined by ophthalmologists trained in standardised methods to determine visual acuity and the cause of decreased acuity. Of 1062 children examined in special schools and annexes for the blind, 361 (34%, 95% CI 31.2, 36.8) had visual acuity >or=6/60; the most common cause of visual impairment was retinal disease. Of the 120 children with normal vision (>or=6/18), 69 (57.5%) had two normal eyes, 21 (17.5%) had an obvious ocular disfigurement in the fellow eye and 10 (8.4%) had had successful cataract surgery. In these countries, many children are placed inappropriately in special schools and annexes for the blind. The reasons are multiple and to rectify the situation will require advocacy and cooperation between ministries of health and education.

  1. Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: evidence from ground-based observations in East Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. G.; Owor, M.; Kaponda, A.

    2013-12-01

    Global greenhouse-gas emissions serve to warm Africa more rapidly than the rest of the world. The intensification of precipitation that is associated with this warming, strongly influences terrestrial water budgets. This shift toward fewer but heavier rainfall events is expected to lead to more frequent and intense floods as well as more variable and lower soil moisture. However, its impact on groundwater recharge is unclear and in dispute. We review evidence from long (1 to 5 decades) time series of groundwater levels recorded in deeply weathered crystalline rock aquifers systems underlying land surfaces of low relief in Uganda and Tanzania. Borehole hydrographs consistently demonstrate a non-linear relationship between rainfall and recharge wherein heavy rainfalls exceeding a threshold contribute disproportionately to the recharge flux. Rapid responses observed in groundwater levels to rainfall events attest further to the importance of preferential pathways in enabling rain-fed recharge via soil macro-pores. Our results suggest that, in these environments, increased use of groundwater to offset periods of low surface flow and to supplement soil moisture through irrigation may prove a logical strategy to enhance regional water and food security.

  2. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted “mountain refugia hypothesis” states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity. PMID:24223262

  3. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted "mountain refugia hypothesis" states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity.

  4. Equity and achievement in access to contraceptives in East Africa between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag M; Griffith, April M; Ciera, James; Zulu, Eliya M; Palermo, Tia M

    2016-04-01

    To examine trends in equity in contraceptive use, and in contraceptive-prevalence rates in six East African countries. In this repeated cross-sectional study, Demographic and Health Surveys Program data from women aged 15-49 years in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. Individuals were ranked according to wealth quintile, stratified urban/rural populations, and calculated concentration index-a statistic integrating information from all wealth quintiles to analyze disparities. Equity and contraceptive-prevalence rates increased in most country regions over the study period. Notably, in rural Rwanda, contraceptive-prevalence rates increased from 3.9 to 44.0, and urban Kenya became the most equitable country region, with a concentration index of 0.02. The Pearson correlation coefficient between improvements in concentration index and contraceptive-prevalence rates was 0.52 (P=0.011). The results indicate that countries seeking to increase contraceptive use should prioritize equity in access to services and contraceptives. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Boron Isotopic Composition of Metasomatized Mantle Xenoliths from the Western Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, T.; Nelson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Western Branch of the East African Rift System is known to have a thick lithosphere and sparse, alkaline volcanism associated with a metasomatized mantle source. Recent work investigating the relationship between Western Branch metasomatized mantle xenoliths and associated lavas has suggested that these metasomes are a significant factor in the evolution of the rift. Hydrous/carbonated fluids or silicate melts are potent metasomatic agents, however gaining insight into the source of a metasomatic agent proves challenging. Here we investigate the potential metasomatic fluid sources using B isotope analysis of mineral separates from Western Branch xenoliths. Preliminary SIMS analyses of phlogopite from Katwe Kikorongo and Bufumbira have and average B isotopic composition of -28.2‰ ± 5.1 and -16.4‰ ± 3.6, respectively. These values are are dissimilar to MORB (-7.5‰ ± 0.7; Marschall and Monteleone, 2015), primitive mantle (-10‰ ± 2; Chaussidon and Marty, 1995), and bulk continental crust (-9.1‰ ± 2.4; Marschall et al., 2017) and display significant heterogeneity across a relatively short ( 150km) portion of the Western Branch. Though displaying large variability, these B isotopic compositions are indicative of a metasomatic agent with a more negative B isotopic composition than MORB, PM, or BCC. These results are consistent with fluids that released from a subducting slab and may be related to 700 Ma Pan-African subduction.

  6. High Mobility and HIV Prevalence Among Female Market Traders in East Africa in 2014.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; El Ayadi, Alison M; Kwena, Zachary A; McFarland, Willi; Johnson, Mallory O; Neilands, Torsten B; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2017-04-15

    The contribution of women's mobility to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is poorly understood, despite women's high mobility and evidence that it is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior. We sought to measure levels of mobility, HIV prevalence, and related risk behaviors among female traders in Kisumu, Kenya. We used global positioning system mapping to develop a probability-based sample and recruited 305 female market traders for participation in a survey and voluntary HIV counseling and testing in 2014. We estimated HIV prevalence and fitted logistic regression models to measure associations between mobility, risk behaviors, and HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 25.6% (95% confidence interval: 21.0 to 30.8); 11.5% had migrated (changed residence, over county, or national boundary) in the past year and 39.3% in the past 5 years. More than one-third (38.3%) spent nights away from main residence in the past month, with 11.4% spending more than a week away. Multiple partners were reported by 13.1% of women in the last year; 16% of married women reported a concurrent partnership. Mobility was not significantly associated with HIV prevalence, although recent short-term mobility was significantly correlated with higher numbers of sexual partners in the past year. Female market traders were highly mobile, and HIV prevalence among traders was higher than in the general population of women of reproductive age in Kisumu (15.3% in 2013), and Nyanza Province, Kenya (16.1% in 2012). High HIV prevalence and risk behavior among women in this study warrant accelerated attention to HIV prevention and care needs of mobile women, including market traders.

  7. High Mobility and HIV Prevalence among Female Market Traders in East Africa in 2014

    PubMed Central

    CAMLIN, Carol S.; EL AYADI, Alison M.; KWENA, Zachary A.; MCFARLAND, Willi; JOHNSON, Mallory O.; NEILANDS, Torsten B.; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The contribution of women’s mobility to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is poorly understood, despite women’s high mobility and evidence that it is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior. We sought to measure levels of mobility, HIV prevalence, and related risk behaviors among female traders in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods We used GPS mapping to develop a probability-based sample and recruited 305 female market traders for participation in a survey and voluntary HIV counseling and testing in 2014. We estimated HIV prevalence and fitted logistic regression models to measure associations between mobility, risk behaviors, and HIV infection. Results HIV prevalence was 25.6% (95% CI 21.0–30.8); 11.5% had migrated (changed residence, over county or national boundary) in past year and 39.3% in past five years. Over one-third (38.3%) spent nights away from main residence in past month, with 11.4% spending more than a week away. Multiple partners were reported by 13.1% of women in the last year; 16% of married women reported a concurrent partnership. Mobility was not significantly associated with HIV prevalence, although recent short-term mobility was significantly correlated with higher numbers of sexual partners in the past year. Conclusions Female market traders were highly mobile, and HIV prevalence among traders was higher than in the general population of women of reproductive age in Kisumu (15.3% in 2013), and Nyanza Province, Kenya (16.1% in 2012). High HIV prevalence and risk behavior among women in this study warrant accelerated attention to HIV prevention and care needs of mobile women, including market traders. PMID:27875361

  8. Late Quaternary hydrology in North Africa and the Near East (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasse, Françoise

    2010-05-01

    The present-day arid-semiarid belt from North Africa to West Asia has experienced huge hydrological changes together with a long history of human civilisations. This belt straddles the boundary between a temperate domain (winter rains linked to the mid-latitude Westerlies), and a subtropical one (rare monsoonal summer precipitation). What are the timing and direction of major hydrological changes in these two domains ? How does the transitional zone migrate through time, and why ? How did human societies respond to changes in water availability ? These questions are addressed using records illustrating both long and short-term environmental changes. At the glacial-interglacial time scale, hydrological changes broadly follow the orbitally-induced Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, but with different regional expressions. In the winter rain domain, the best-dated records come from southern Levant : stable isotope records from speleothems in Israel (120-230 ka) show a remarkable consistency with those from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea(1,2), but the prominant role of rainfall amount or of moisture source isotopic composition on inland records is still debated (1-4); lake-level reconstructions in the Lisan-Dead Sea basin during the past 70 ka demonstrate higher winter rains during the last glacial period than during the Holocene (4,5). However, a new multi-proxy lacustrine record (230 ka) from northern Levant (Yammoûneh, Lebanon) shows relatively wet environments during interglacial periods(6,7), suggesting temporal changes in the NS climatic gradients over the Levantine region. Extratropical rainfalls apparently remained predominant over northern Sahara, with a major period of aquifer recharge during the Late Pleistocene(8). Conversely, south of about 25-22° N, the subtropical deserts experienced pluvial periods during interglacials, including the remarkable early-Mid Holocene wetting of the Saharan heart(8). Older pluvial periods, precisely dated in speleothems

  9. Penetration of Atlantic Walker Circulation Into East Africa During Early to mid-Holocene: Hydrogen Isotope Evidence From Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, J.; Russell, J. M.; Huang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The tropics play a very important role in global climate variability, yet the mechanisms behind the tropical climate variation remain poorly understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, well-dated record from Sacred Lake, Kenya, East Africa. We measured D/H ratios of botryococcenes, a class of highly specific biomarkers produced by freshwater algae ( Botrycoccus braunii) in a sediment core obtained from this open lake. Our main goal is to examine changes in East African rainfall amount and moisture source during the past 18kyr BP. During the late Pleistocene and late Holocene, the hydrogen isotope records track local hydrological variations inferred from numerous lake level and pollen records from the region. However, during the early to mid-Holocene (10-5ka cal yr BP), the D/H values from Sacred Lake were as much as 90 per mil heavier than during the late Pleistocene and late Holocene. If the "amount effect" is the main control on the isotopic compositions of rainfall during the early to mid Holocene, Our data would suggest drier conditions, which is inconsistent with the "African Humid Period" inferred by numerous records of the mid-Holocene. We propose that the high isotopic ratios in precipitation in East Africa during the early to mid-Holocene is due to an eastward shift in the large-scale atmospheric circulation of the tropics. In East Africa, this shift involves a major increase in moisture source from the Atlantic Ocean relative to Indian Ocean. Heavier isotope ratios of precipitation originated from Atlantic Ocean result from the intensive convection and recycling of water vapor over the Congo Basin, as opposed to Indian moisture that traverses dry land masses and losses moisture rapidly. In comparison to the late Holocene, the early to mid-Holocene is characterized by relatively northerly positioning of the ITCZ and intense monsoon systems as well as weak ENSO. These factors combine to shift the walker circulation eastward, allowing the Atlantic

  10. The Effect of Plume Impingement on Lithospheric Preservation Beneath the Kenya Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblock, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Chesley, J. T.; Omenda, P. A.

    2003-12-01

    peridotite. Discrepancies between geophysical and geochemical data exist for other parts of the East African Rift as well. In the axis of the rift in Tanzania, tomography suggests that upwelling asthenosphere has eroded the lithosphere (Nyblade, 2002). However, gravity models (Simiyu and Keller, 1997, 2001) and the presence of subchondritic 187Os/188Os in spinel and garnet-bearing xenoliths (TRD of 2.6 Ga) suggest that the lithosphere is intact (Chesley et al., 1999). In contrast, for the Tanzanian craton, Os isotopes, gravity, and tomography are consistent with 2.5-2.9 Ga lithosphere existing to depths of 140 km and a broad thermal and geochemical anomaly (plume?) below the lithosphere (Chesley et al., 1999; Owens et al., 2000; Nyblade et al., 2000; Simiyu and Keller, 1997, 2001). In the Sidamo region of Ethiopia, Os isotopes suggest that ancient depleted mantle is present and has been modified by recent melt percolation (Lorand et al., 2003; Reisberg et al., in press). Finally, for Ethiopian flood basalts, element chemistry, petrology, and 3He/4He (Marty et al., 1996; Scarsi and Craig, 1996) indicate a dominant role for plume. Os isotopes (Davies et al., 2003), however, are lower than PUM, indicating that an ancient lithospheric mantle reservoir is present. In order to help resolve the discrepancies between geophysical and geochemical interpretations, we will obtain petrologic and isotopic data for xenoliths and mafic lavas in both east-west and north-south directions. The lavas span a wide range of silica saturation and La/Yb ratios, and thus are intended to represent lithospheric as well as asthenospheric sources.

  11. Activation of preexisting transverse structures in an evolving magmatic rift in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J. D.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Inherited crustal weaknesses have long been recognized as important factors in strain localization and basin development in the East African Rift System (EARS). However, the timing and kinematics (e.g., sense of slip) of transverse (rift-oblique) faults that exploit these weaknesses are debated, and thus the roles of inherited weaknesses at different stages of rift basin evolution are often overlooked. The mechanics of transverse faulting were addressed through an analysis of the Kordjya fault of the Magadi basin (Kenya Rift). Fault kinematics were investigated from field and remote-sensing data collected on fault and joint systems. Our analysis indicates that the Kordjya fault consists of a complex system of predominantly NNE-striking, rift-parallel fault segments that collectively form a NNW-trending array of en echelon faults. The transverse Kordjya fault therefore reactivated existing rift-parallel faults in ∼1 Ma lavas as oblique-normal faults with a component of sinistral shear. In all, these fault motions accommodate dip-slip on an underlying transverse structure that exploits the Aswa basement shear zone. This study shows that transverse faults may be activated through a complex interplay among magma-assisted strain localization, preexisting structures, and local stress rotations. Rather than forming during rift initiation, transverse structures can develop after the establishment of pervasive rift-parallel fault systems, and may exhibit dip-slip kinematics when activated from local stress rotations. The Kordjya fault is shown here to form a kinematic linkage that transfers strain to a newly developing center of concentrated magmatism and normal faulting. It is concluded that recently activated transverse faults not only reveal the effects of inherited basement weaknesses on fault development, but also provide important clues regarding developing magmatic and tectonic systems as young continental rift basins evolve.

  12. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Rachlis, Beth; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Easterbrook, Philippa; Genberg, Becky; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kambugu, Andrew; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Somi, Geoffrey R; Geng, Elvin H; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Losses to follow-up (LTFU) remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA) Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1), 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval) of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7-25.6) and 16.7 (16.3-17.2) per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only), when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only), and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only). Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention.

  13. An integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework for climate change and malaria transmission in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Esther Achieng; Sahin, Oz; Awiti, Alex; Chu, Cordia; Mackey, Brendan

    2016-11-11

    Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies provide evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures, adversely impacting on vulnerable communities in the East African highlands. While there exist multiple lines of evidence for the influence of climate change on malaria transmission, there is insufficient understanding of the complex and interdependent factors that determine the risk and vulnerability of human populations at the community level. Moreover, existing studies have had limited focus on the nature of the impacts on vulnerable communities or how well they are prepared to cope. In order to address these gaps, a systems approach was used to present an integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework for studies of community level risk and vulnerability to malaria due to climate change. Drawing upon published literature on existing frameworks, a systems approach was applied to characterize the factors influencing the interactions between climate change and malaria transmission. This involved structural analysis to determine influential, relay, dependent and autonomous variables in order to construct a detailed causal loop conceptual model that illustrates the relationships among key variables. An integrated assessment framework that considers indicators of both biophysical and social vulnerability was proposed based on the conceptual model. A major conclusion was that this integrated assessment framework can be implemented using Bayesian Belief Networks, and applied at a community level using both quantitative and qualitative methods with stakeholder engagement. The approach enables a robust assessment of community level risk and vulnerability to malaria, along with contextually relevant and targeted adaptation strategies for dealing with malaria transmission that incorporate both scientific and community perspectives.

  14. Rejection of an innovation: health information management training materials in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, J; Dixon, R A; Wilson, T D

    2002-12-01

    A shift towards decentralization in many low-income countries has meant more skills are demanded of primary health care managers, including data and information handling at all levels of the health care system. Ministries of Health are changing their central reporting health information systems to health management information systems with emphasis on managers utilizing information at the point of collection. This paper reports on a research study to investigate the introduction of new information management strategies intended to promote an informational approach to management at the operational health service level in low-income countries. It aims to understand the process taking place when externally developed training materials (PHC MAP), which are intended to strengthen health management information systems, are introduced to potential users in an east African country. A case study has been undertaken and this research has demonstrated that the dynamic equilibrium approach to organizational change is applicable to the introduction of new information management strategies and management approaches in low-income countries. Although PHC MAP developers envisaged a technical innovation needing implementation, potential users saw the situation as one of organizational change. Contributions to theory have been made and many implications for introducing new information systems or the informational approach to management are identified. This theoretical framework could also facilitate the introduction of future information management innovations and would allow practitioners to perceive the introduction of information management innovations as one of organizational change that needs to be managed. Consequently, issues that may facilitate or inhibit adoption could be identified in advance.

  15. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano

  16. AAA-DDD triple hydrogen bond complexes.

    PubMed

    Blight, Barry A; Camara-Campos, Amaya; Djurdjevic, Smilja; Kaller, Martin; Leigh, David A; McMillan, Fiona M; McNab, Hamish; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2009-10-07

    Experiment and theory both suggest that the AAA-DDD pattern of hydrogen bond acceptors (A) and donors (D) is the arrangement of three contiguous hydrogen bonding centers that results in the strongest association between two species. Murray and Zimmerman prepared the first example of such a system (complex 3*2) and determined the lower limit of its association constant (K(a)) in CDCl(3) to be 10(5) M(-1) by (1)H NMR spectroscopy (Murray, T. J. and Zimmerman, S. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4010-4011). The first cationic AAA-DDD pair (3*4(+)) was described by Bell and Anslyn (Bell, D. A. and Anslyn, E. A. Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 7161-7172), with a K(a) > 5 x 10(5) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. We were recently able to quantify the strength of a neutral AAA-DDD arrangement using a more chemically stable AAA-DDD system, 6*2, which has an association constant of 2 x 10(7) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) (Djurdjevic, S., Leigh, D. A., McNab, H., Parsons, S., Teobaldi, G. and Zerbetto, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 476-477). Here we report on further AA(A) and DDD partners, together with the first precise measurement of the association constant of a cationic AAA-DDD species. Complex 6*10(+)[B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3))(4)(-)] has a K(a) = 3 x 10(10) M(-1) at RT in CH(2)Cl(2), by far the most strongly bound triple hydrogen bonded system measured to date. The X-ray crystal structure of 6*10(+) with a BPh(4)(-) counteranion shows a planar array of three short (NH...N distances 1.95-2.15 A), parallel (but staggered rather than strictly linear; N-H...N angles 165.4-168.8 degrees), primary hydrogen bonds. These are apparently reinforced, as theory predicts, by close electrostatic interactions (NH-*-N distances 2.78-3.29 A) between each proton and the acceptor atoms of the adjacent primary hydrogen bonds.

  17. Paleolimnology of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, over the past 100 k yr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholz, C.A.; King, J.W.; Ellis, G.S.; Swart, Peter K.; Stager, J.C.; Colman, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    New sediment core data from a unique slow-sedimentation rate site in Lake Tanganyika contain a much longer and continuous record of limnological response to climate change than have been previously observed in equatorial regions of central Africa. The new core site was first located through an extensive seismic reflection survey over the Kavala Island Ridge (KIR), a sedimented basement high that separates the Kigoma and Kalemie Basins in Lake Tanganyika. Proxy analyses of paleoclimate response carried out on core T97-52V include paleomagnetic and index properties, TOC and isotopic analyses of organic carbon, and diatom and biogenic silica analyses. A robust age model based on 11 radiocarbon (AMS) dates indicates a linear, continuous sedimentation rate nearly an order of magnitude slower here compared to other core sites around the lake. This age model indicates continuous sedimentation over the past 79 k yr, and a basal age in excess of 100 k yr. The results of the proxy analyses for the past ??? 20 k yr are comparable to previous studies focused on that interval in Lake Tanganyika, and show that the lake was about 350 m lower than present at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Repetitive peaks in TOC and corresponding drops in ??13C over the past 79 k yr indicate periods of high productivity and mixing above the T97-52V core site, probably due to cooler and perhaps windier conditions. From ??? 80 through ??? 58 k yr the ??13C values are relatively negative (-26 to -28???) suggesting predominance of algal contributions to bottom sediments at this site during this time. Following this interval there is a shift to higher values of ??13C, indicating a possible shift to C-4 pathway-dominated grassland-type vegetation in the catchment, and indicating cooler, dryer conditions from ??? 55 k yr through the LGM. Two seismic sequence boundaries are observed at shallow stratigraphic levels in the seismic reflection data, and the upper boundary correlates to a major discontinuity

  18. Spatial-explicit modeling of social vulnerability to malaria in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite efforts in eradication and control, malaria remains a global challenge, particularly affecting vulnerable groups. Despite the recession in malaria cases, previously malaria free areas are increasingly confronted with epidemics as a result of changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Next to modeling transmission intensities and probabilities, integrated spatial methods targeting the complex interplay of factors that contribute to social vulnerability are required to effectively reduce malaria burden. We propose an integrative method for mapping relative levels of social vulnerability in a spatially explicit manner to support the identification of intervention measures. Methods Based on a literature review, a holistic risk and vulnerability framework has been developed to guide the assessment of social vulnerability to water-related vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the context of changing environmental and societal conditions. Building on the framework, this paper applies spatially explicit modeling for delineating homogeneous regions of social vulnerability to malaria in eastern Africa, while taking into account expert knowledge for weighting the single vulnerability indicators. To assess the influence of the selected indicators on the final index a local sensitivity analysis is carried out. Results Results indicate that high levels of malaria vulnerability are concentrated in the highlands, where immunity within the population is currently low. Additionally, regions with a lack of access to education and health services aggravate vulnerability. Lower values can be found in regions with relatively low poverty, low population pressure, low conflict density and reduced contributions from the biological susceptibility domain. Overall, the factors characterizing vulnerability vary spatially in the region. The vulnerability index reveals a high level of robustness in regard to the final choice of input datasets, with the exception of the

  19. Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plasman, M.; Tiberi, C.; Ebinger, C.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.; Déverchère, J.; Le Gall, B.; Tarits, P.; Roecker, S.; Wambura, F.; Muzuka, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mtelela, K.; Msabi, M.; Kianji, G.; Hautot, S.; Perrot, J.; Gama, R.

    2017-07-01

    Rifting in a cratonic lithosphere is strongly controlled by several interacting processes including crust/mantle rheology, magmatism, inherited structure and stress regime. In order to better understand how these physical parameters interact, a 2 yr long seismological experiment has been carried out in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD), at the southern tip of the eastern magmatic branch of the East African rift, where the southward-propagating continental rift is at its earliest stage. We analyse teleseismic data from 38 broad-band stations ca. 25 km spaced and present here results from their receiver function (RF) analysis. The crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio are retrieved over a ca. 200 × 200 km2 area encompassing the South Kenya magmatic rift, the NTD and the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic chain. Cratonic nature of the lithosphere is clearly evinced through thick (up to ca. 40 km) homogeneous crust beneath the rift shoulders. Where rifting is present, Moho rises up to 27 km depth and the crust is strongly layered with clear velocity contrasts in the RF signal. The Vp/Vs ratio reaches its highest values (ca. 1.9) beneath volcanic edifices location and thinner crust, advocating for melting within the crust. We also clearly identify two major low-velocity zones (LVZs) within the NTD, one in the lower crust and the second in the upper part of the mantle. The first one starts at 15-18 km depth and correlates well with recent tomographic models. This LVZ does not always coexist with high Vp/Vs ratio, pleading for a supplementary source of velocity decrease, such as temperature or composition. At a greater depth of ca. 60 km, a mid-lithospheric discontinuity roughly mimics the step-like and symmetrically outward-dipping geometry of the Moho but with a more slanting direction (NE-SW) compared to the NS rift. By comparison with synthetic RF, we estimate the associated velocity reduction to be 8-9 per cent. We relate this interface to melt ponding

  20. Peralkaline nephelinites. I. Comparative petrology of Shombole and Oldoinyo L'engai, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Tony D.

    1989-04-01

    Shombole, a nephelinite-carbonatite volcano in south Kenya, erupted silicate lavas, carbonatite dikes and tuffs, and pyroclastic rocks similar to those at other East African alkaline centres. Shombole lavas containing cpx + nepheline + accessory minerals range from perovskite-bearing nephelinites (43% SiO2, volatile-free) to sphene-bearing and phonolitic nephelinites (46 49% SiO2) and phonolites (49 56% SiO2) and have low peralkalinity ([Na+K]/Al ≈ 1.15) which does not correlate with SiO2. Early fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene strongly depleted Ni and Cr concentrations (≈10 ppm); fractionation of perovskite, melanite, sphene, and apatite produced negative correlations of all REE with SiO2. Many lavas contain cognate intrusive xenoliths and xenocrysts and oscillatory zoning is a common feature of clinopyroxene, nepheline, and melanite crystals, indicating recycling of intrusive material. Irregular calcite-rich bodies in many samples are interpreted as quenched immiscible Ca-carbonatite liquid, and [Ca-carbonate]-silicate liquid immiscibility is observed in experiments with one nephelinite. Chemical variation in the Shombole suite can be modeled as a combination of crystal fractionation (clinopyroxene and heavy minor phases) and retention of neutral density nepheline derived from disaggregated xenoliths entrained during emplacement of dike swarms. Six newly analyzed lavas from Oldoinyo L'engai, northern Tanzania, are geochemically similar to Shombole nephelinites except that they have relatively high Na2O+K2O (average 18% vs 12%) and Zr (average 680 ppm vs 400 ppm). They are extremely peralkaline and are not typical of nephelinites from other centres. Three with [Na+K]/Al≈1.5 contain euhedral wollastonite phenocrysts; three with [Na+K]/Al≈2.0 contain combeite (Na2Ca2Si3O9) phenocrysts and pseudomorphs after wollastonite. Both types contain abundant sodalite phenocrysts (+nepheline+clinopyroxene+melanite+sphene). Seven other wollastonite nephelinite

  1. GC13I-0857: Designing a Frost Forecasting Service for Small Scale Tea Farmers in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Emily C.; Wanjohi, James Nyaga; Ellenburg, Walter Lee; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Mugo, Robinson M.; Flores Cordova, Africa Ixmucane; Irwin, Daniel; Case, Jonathan; Malaso, Susan; Sedah, Absae

    2017-01-01

    through our partner network developed at the stakeholder engagement meeting. This presentation will illustrate the efficacy of our frost forecasting algorithm, and a way forward for incorporating these forecasts in a meaningful way to the key decision makers - the small-scale farmers of East Africa.

  2. A new tephrochronology for early diverse stone tool technologies and long-distance raw material transport in the Middle to Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Blegen, Nick; Jicha, Brian R; McBrearty, Sally

    2018-05-09

    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates, provides new ages between 395.6 ± 3.5 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance (166 km) obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. A tephra correlation between the Baringo and Victoria basins also provides a new date of ∼100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new and older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by ∼130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks of Middle through Late Pleistocene East Africa. This tephrochronology thus provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The seismic-stratigraphic record of lake-level fluctuations in Lake Challa: Hydrological stability and change in equatorial East Africa over the last 140 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moernaut, J.; Verschuren, D.; Charlet, F.; Kristen, I.; Fagot, M.; De Batist, M.

    2010-02-01

    Seismic-reflection data from crater lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro, equatorial East Africa) reveal a ˜ 210-m thick sedimentary infill containing distinct seismic-stratigraphic signatures of late-Quaternary lake-level fluctuations. Extrapolation of a well-constrained age model on the cored upper part of the sequence suggests that these lake-level fluctuations represent a detailed and continuous record of moisture-balance variation in equatorial East Africa over the last 140 kyr. This record indicates that the most severe aridity occurred during peak Penultimate glaciation immediately before ˜ 128 kyr BP (coeval with Heinrich event 11) and during a Last Interglacial 'megadrought' period between ˜ 114 and ˜ 97 kyr BP; in comparison, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) aridity was modest. It was preceded by ˜ 75 000 years of relatively stable and moist climate conditions interrupted by eleven short-lived dry spells, five of which match the timing of Heinrich events 2 to 6. Climate history near the East African equator reflects variation in the precessional forcing of monsoon rainfall modulated by orbital eccentricity, but precession-driven moisture fluctuations were less extreme than those observed in northern and southern tropical Africa. The near-continuous moist climate from ˜ 97 to 20.5 kyr BP recorded in the Lake Challa record contrasts with the trend towards greater aridity after ˜ 70 kyr BP documented in equatorial West Africa. This long period of moist glacial climate and a short, relatively modest LGM drought can be attributed to greater independence of western Indian Ocean monsoon dynamics from northern high-latitude glaciation than those in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. This rather persistent moist glacial climate regime may have helped maintain high biodiversity in the tropical forest ecosystems of the Eastern Arc mountains in Tanzania.

  4. Statistical Inter-comparison Analysis of MODIS, MISR, and AERONET Over the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, A.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Several space-borne and ground based sensors can provide long-standing monitoring of aerosols characteristics, but inconsistencies among different sensors reduce data reliability and lead to uncertainty in analysing long-term data. In this study, we perform statistical inter-comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) among MISR, MODIS/Terra, MODIS/Aqua and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) over seven sites located in the Middle East and North Africa during the period (1995 -2015). The sites are categorized into two regions based on their geographic location and possible dominate particles composition. Compared to MISR, MODIS and AERONET AOD data retrievals indicate larger uncertainty over all sites with a larger daily variability in MODIS measurements. In general, MISR and MODIS AOD matches during high dust seasons but MODIS tends to under estimate the AOD values on low dust seasons. While Terra measurements give a negative trend over the time series at the dust-dominated sites, Aqua, MISR and AERONET show a positive trend. In general, MODIS/Aqua displays stable measurements over the time line at the dust dominated sites. MODIS/Terra, MODIS/Aqua and MISR display a positive trend over Cairo_EMA site while AERONET shows a negative trend over the time line. Terra was found to overestimate AOD during 2002 - 2004 and underestimates it after 2004. We also observe a deviation between Aqua and Terra regardless of the region and data sampling. Excluding Bahrain and Cairo_EMA for low data retrievals the performance of MODIS tends to be similar over all region with 68 % of the retrieved AOD values fall within the confidence range of the AERONET matched data, within global averaged level (> 66 %). MISR indicated better data performance with 72 % falls within the same confidence range. Complimentary MISR and MODIS data was found to provide a better picture of dust storms evolution over Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Acknowledgement The authors would like to

  5. Color reflectance spectroscopy of profundal lake sediments: a novel moisture-balance proxy for tropical East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Inka; Van Daele, Maarten; Fiers, Geraldine; Verleyen, Eli; De Batist, Marc; Verschuren, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Investigations of the continuous sediment record from Lake Challa, a deep freshwater crater lake on the eastern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, are expanding our knowledge about past climate and environmental changes in equatorial East Africa. During a field campaign in 2005 a 20.65-m long composite sediment sequence was retrieved from the center of the lake, covering the past 25,000 years. Unlike many other East African lakes, Lake Challa never dried out during this period and therefore provides one of the few continuous and high-resolution regional climate-proxy records since before the LGM. Continuously taken digital line-scan images (GeoTek MSCL core logger) revealed systematic colour variation from greenish to yellow-brownish sediments throughout the core sequence. To characterize the origin of these colour variations, high-resolution colour reflectance spectrometry was carried out. The relative absorption band depth (RABD) at different wavelengths was calculated to distinguish between sediment components with distinct absorption/ reflection characteristics. RABD660/670 can be used as a proxy for chlorophyll and its derivates, and RABD610 as a proxy for carotenoids and their derivates. Comparison of RABD660/670 with independent reconstructions of rainfall (the Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT) index of bacterial lipids) and seismic lake level reconstructions showed a positive correlation between these proxies. During times of wetter climate and higher lake level, e.g. the early Holocene, the RABD660/670 value is higher than during times of inferred dry conditions and low lake level, e.g. the early late-Glacial period (during which no chlorophyll or its derivates were detected). We attribute this positive correlation to reduced preservation of chlorophyll contained in the settling remains of dead phytoplankton during lowstands, when bottom waters may have been better oxygenated. This data is supported by the variation in fossil pigment concentration and

  6. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  7. Agricultural Early Warning Informing Humanitarian Response in East Africa for 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    Long rains during the March-April-May (MAM) 2011 growing season were a failure for much of the Greater Horn of Africa. These conditions resulted in severe food shortages, with the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) estimating that 12.4 million people were in need of food assistance in Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Heading into the 2012 season, La Niña conditions, an exceptionally strong western-to-central Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, and warm SSTs in the eastern Indian Ocean foretold further dryness, compounding the difficulties faced by the already vulnerable populations of this region. In an effort to assess the potential for greater food insecurity in the region, FEWS NET scientists attempted to quantify the likelihood of a dry event. This work used satellite rainfall estimates with a 13-year rainfall history. Weights were assigned to previous years based on the similarity of existing SST conditions to those of previous years in the rainfall record. Scenarios were created by randomly combining dekadal rainfall from the historical record, in accordance with the weights. This bootstrapping resulted in a suite of simulations which could be used to identify the likelihood of specific rainfall outcomes. Areal averages of each simulation were used in the analysis. Analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) rainfall record, a gridded rainfall product based on available station data, showed that the mean rainfall value for the time period of the satellite data for this region was only about 80% of the 30-year mean. The bootstrapped scenarios were corrected for this bias during the period of the satellite record. Results were expressed as percent of average rather than in absolute rainfall amounts, to account for biases in the satellite products as well as variability in spatial amounts. The results showed that during a normal year the interquartile range is typically 80-120% of normal. However, using the

  8. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16 (Supplement), March 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; Strey, Gerry, Comp.

    A supplement to the bibliography of materials dealing with Africa in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin, this bibliography on rural development in Africa is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) General (400 entries); (2) Central Africa including a general section (2 entries); Cameroon (26 entries); Central…

  9. The Weekend Effect in AAA Repair.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Thomas F X; Li, Chun; Swerdlow, Nicholas J; Liang, Patric; Pothof, Alexander B; Patel, Virendra I; Giles, Kristina A; Malas, Mahmoud B; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2018-04-18

    Conflicting reports exist regarding whether patients undergoing surgery on the weekend or later in the week experience worse outcomes. We identified patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2009 and 2017 [n = 38,498; 30,537 endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and 7961 open repair]. We utilized mixed effects logistic regression to compare adjusted rates of perioperative mortality based on the day of repair. Tuesday was the most common day for elective repair (22%), Friday for symptomatic repairs (20%), and ruptured aneurysms were evenly distributed. Patients with ruptured aneurysms experienced similar adjusted mortality whether they underwent repair during the week or on weekends. Transfers of ruptured AAA were more common over the weekend. However, patients transferred on the weekend experienced higher adjusted mortality than those transferred during the week (28% vs 21%, P = 0.02), despite the fact that during the week, transferred patients actually experienced lower adjusted mortality than patients treated at the index hospital (21% vs 31%, P < 0.01). Among symptomatic patients, adjusted mortality was higher for those undergoing repair over the weekend than those whose surgeries were delayed until a weekday (7.9% vs 3.1%, P = 0.02). Adjusted mortality in elective cases did not vary across the days of the week. Results were consistent between open and EVAR patients. We found no evidence of a weekend effect for ruptured or symptomatic AAA repair. However, patients with ruptured AAA transferred on the weekend experienced higher mortality than those transferred during the week, suggesting a need for improvement in weekend transfer processes.

  10. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Algeria. Analysis of the subgroup from the "Africa/Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological" Study].

    PubMed

    Brouri, M; Ouadahi, N; Nibouche, D; Benabbas, Y; El Hassar, M; Bouraoui, S; Abad, N; Abreu, P C; Ikardouchene, L

    2018-04-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed at determining the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF; including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking), among patients from the Algerian sub-population of the "Africa/Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological" study attending general practitioners at primary healthcare facilities, and stratified according to their environment (rural/urban), sex and age. The study sites, located in 10 wilayas (administrative regions), were situated in urban and rural areas (rural populations defined as living at least 50km away from urban centres, or lacking access to suburban transport). Four hundred and ten subjects (262 female, 148 male) were enrolled; 287 subjects were from an urban environment and 123 from a rural environment. Mean age was 50.4 years. Ninety one point eight percent of patients had ≥1 CVRF; 48.2% had ≥3 CVRF. Prevalence for the different CVRF was: 61.7% for dyslipidaemia; 39.5% for hypertension; 25.0% for diabetes; 10.0% for smoking, 70.0% for abdominal obesity and 32.0% for a body mass index ≥30kg/m 2 . The high prevalence of all CVRF observed in the Algeria sub-group, especially among the rural population, should encourage us to develop a carefully planned strategy for primary prevention, opportunistic screening and early management, in both urban and rural settings, and with particular attention to young adults. These actions should involve all state bodies and those active in civil society, in order to guarantee full achievement of set goals. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Observed rainfall trends and precipitation uncertainty in the vicinity of the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zittis, G.

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the century-long and more recent rainfall trends over the greater region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Five up-to-date gridded observational datasets are employed. Besides mean annual values, trends of six indices of drought and extreme precipitation are also considered in the analysis. Most important findings include the significant negative trends over the Maghreb, Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Sahel regions that are evident since the beginning of the twentieth century and are more or less extended to today. On the other hand, for some Mediterranean regions such as the Balkans and the Anatolian Plateau, precipitation records during the most recent decades indicate a significant increasing trend and a recovering from the dry conditions that occurred during the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. The fact that over parts of the study region the selected datasets were found to have substantial differences in terms of mean climate, trends, and interannual variability, motivated the more thorough investigation of the precipitation observational uncertainty. Several aspects, such as annual and monthly mean climatologies and also discrepancies in the monthly time-series distribution, are discussed using common methods in the field of climatology but also more sophisticated, nonparametric approaches such as the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Results indicate that in the best case, the data sources are found to have statistically significant differences in the distribution of monthly precipitation for about 50% of the study region extent. This percentage is increased up to 70% when particular datasets are compared. Indicatively, the range between the tested rainfall datasets is found to be more than 20% of their mean annual values for most of the extent of MENA, while locally, for the hyper-arid regions, this percentage is increased up to 100%. Precipitation observational uncertainty is also profound for parts of southern Europe. Outlier

  13. Measuring Efficiency of Health Systems of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Samer; Akinci, Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of twenty health systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to inform evidence-based health policy decisions. In addition, the effects of alternative stochastic frontier model specification on the empirical results are examined. We conducted a stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the country-level technical efficiencies using secondary panel data for 20 MENA countries for the period of 1995-2012 from the World Bank database. We also tested the effect of alternative frontier model specification using three random-effects approaches: a time-invariant model where efficiency effects are assumed to be static with regard to time, and a time-varying efficiency model where efficiency effects have temporal variation, and one model to account for heterogeneity. The average estimated technical inefficiency of health systems in the MENA region was 6.9 % with a range of 5.7-7.9 % across the three models. Among the top performers, Lebanon, Qatar, and Morocco are ranked consistently high according to the three different inefficiency model specifications. On the opposite side, Sudan, Yemen and Djibouti ranked among the worst performers. On average, the two most technically efficient countries were Qatar and Lebanon. We found that the estimated technical efficiency scores vary substantially across alternative parametric models. Based on the findings reported in this study, most MENA countries appear to be operating, on average, with a reasonably high degree of technical efficiency compared with other countries in the region. However, there is evidence to suggest that there are considerable efficiency gains yet to be made by some MENA countries. Additional empirical research is needed to inform future health policies aimed at improving both the efficiency and sustainability of the health systems in the MENA region.

  14. Socioeconomic indicators are strong predictors of hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Demiray, Tayfur; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Altindis, Mustafa

    The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between age-specific hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates and various socioeconomic indicators within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We conducted a systematic review of all recently published studies on HAV conducted in the MENA region and identified the highest quality studies for inclusion in our analysis. We calculated the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) for each study and estimated seroprevalence rates at the ages of 5, 10, and 15 years. Next, we identified the correlations between these metrics and several socioeconomic variables. HAV data collected in or after 2000 were available for 14 of the 19 countries in the MENA region. Four of the 14 included countries had intermediate HAV endemicity (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE), five had high endemicity (Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), and five had very high endemicity (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen). Water and sanitation were not significant predictors of AMPI or seroprevalence, most likely because most countries in this region have high rates of access to these utilities. However, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), and the human development index (HDI) were all highly associated with AMPI and prevalence. The observed correlations suggest that of the MENA countries without recent HAV data, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar most likely have low endemicity, Oman likely has intermediate endemicity, and Libya likely has high endemicity. While it is unlikely that a single correlation model would be suitable for use in all world regions, the approach utilized in this analysis might provide a simple but accurate method for using economic data to impute the endemicity profiles of countries without recent data in regions where at least several neighboring countries have conducted recent serostudies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug policy and harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: The role of civil society.

    PubMed

    Aaraj, Elie; Jreij Abou Chrouch, Micheline

    2016-05-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are the principal partners of government in scaling up the response to HIV and in implementing national policies. In return, CSOs expect endorsement of their work by the governments. Some CSOs face weaknesses and need capacity-building in order for them to reach the level of response required for reducing drug-related harm in this region. Substance use and the transmission of HIV are increasing in the MENA region. The limited data available on drug use show that there are approximately 630,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) across the region. The HIV epidemic remains concentrated among PWID and other key populations in the region. Comprehensive harm reduction programs which include prevention, care, and HIV treatment for PWID are being implemented by CSOs. This could not happen without the presence of a conducive environment which has been facilitated by the CSOs, and which aims to lead to a positive response in health policies, and thus to harm reduction programs in some countries in the region. However, based on the international data, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage remains low in these countries, even if the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART is increasing. This increase can sometimes mask important challenges in equity: in several countries PWID are the most likely to be infected with HIV while being the least likely to be receiving care and ART. Therefore, concentrated efforts need to continue toward the goal of having mainstream harm reduction approaches in region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Brief Report: Context Matters: PrEP Adherence is Associated With Sexual Behavior Among HIV Serodiscordant Couples in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Haberer, Jessica E; Ngure, Kenneth; Muwonge, Timothy; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Heffron, Renee; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Bangsberg, David R; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-12-15

    Short message service (SMS) surveys are a promising tool for understanding whether preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence aligns with risk for HIV acquisition-a concept known as prevention-effective adherence. The Partners Demonstration Project was an open-label study of integrated PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in East Africa. HIV-uninfected partners were offered PrEP until their HIV-infected partner had taken ART for ≥6 months. At 2 study sites, HIV-uninfected partners were offered enrollment into the Partners Mobile Adherence to PrEP (PMAP) substudy based on ongoing PrEP use, personal cell phone ownership, and ability to use SMS. SMS surveys asked about PrEP adherence and sexual activity in the previous 24 hours; these surveys were sent daily for the 7 days before and 7 days after routine study visits in the Partners Demonstration Project. The PMAP substudy enrolled 373 HIV-uninfected partners; 69% were men and mean age was 31 years. Participants completed 17,030 of 23,056 SMS surveys sent (74%) with a mean of 47 surveys per participant over 9.8 months of follow-up. While HIV-infected partner use of ART was <6 months, mean reported PrEP adherence was 92% on surveys concurrently reporting sex within the serodiscordant partnership, and 84% on surveys reporting no sex (P < 0.001). SMS surveys provided daily assessment of concurrent PrEP adherence and sexual behavior. Higher PrEP adherence was temporally associated with increased risk for HIV acquisition.

  17. Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination. PMID:22389729

  18. Variability of extreme weather events over the equatorial East Africa, a case study of rainfall in Kenya and Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Omony, George William

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variability of extreme rainfall events over East Africa (EA), using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The analysis was based on observed daily rainfall from 23 weather stations, with length varying within 1961 and 2010. The indices considered are: wet days ( R ≥1 mm), annual total precipitation in wet days (PRCPTOT), simple daily intensity index (SDII), heavy precipitation days ( R ≥ 10 mm), very heavy precipitation days ( R ≥ 20 mm), and severe precipitation ( R ≥ 50 mm). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical analysis was carried out to identify trends in the data. Temporal precipitation distribution was different from station to station. Almost all indices considered are decreasing with time. The analysis shows that the PRCPTOT, very heavy precipitation, and severe precipitation are generally declining insignificantly at 5 % significant level. The PRCPTOT is evidently decreasing over Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) as compared to other parts of EA. The number of days that recorded heavy rainfall is generally decreasing but starts to rise in the last decade although the changes are insignificant. Both PRCPTOT and heavy precipitation show a recovery in trend starting in the 1990s. The SDII shows a reduction in most areas, especially the in ASAL. The changes give a possible indication of the ongoing climate variability and change which modify the rainfall regime of EA. The results form a basis for further research, utilizing longer datasets over the entire region to reduce the generalizations made herein. Continuous monitoring of extreme events in EA is critical, given that rainfall is projected to increase in the twenty-first century.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East and North Africa: the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Wali, Siraj; Javed, Arshad; Khattab, Adel; Mahboub, Bassam; Iraqi, Ghali; Nejjari, Chakib; Taright, Samya; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Data on COPD-related healthcare resources use are rarely documented in developing countries. This article presents data on COPD-related healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan and addresses the association of this variable with illness severity. A large survey of COPD was conducted in eleven countries of the region, namely Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened. This identified 2,187 subjects fulfilling the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to document data on COPD-related healthcare consumption. Symptom severity was assessed using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). 1,392 subjects were analysable. Physician consultations were the most frequently used healthcare resource, ranging from 43,118 [95% CI: 755-85,548] consultations in UAE to 4,276,800 [95% CI: 2,320,164-6,230,763] in Pakistan, followed by emergency room visits, ranging from 15,917 [95% CI: 0-34,807] visits in UAE to 683,697 [95% CI: 496,993-869,737] in Turkey and hospitalisations, ranging from 15,563 [95% CI: 7,911-23,215] in UAE to 476,674 [95% CI: 301,258-652,090] in Turkey. The use of each resource increased proportionally with the GOLD 2011 severity groups and was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in subjects with more symptoms compared to those with lower symptoms and in subjects with exacerbations to those without exacerbations. The occurrence of exacerbations and the CAT score were independently associated with use of each healthcare resource. In conclusion, the BREATHE study revealed that physician consultation is the most frequently COPD-related healthcare resource used in the region. It showed that the deterioration of COPD symptoms and the frequency of exacerbations raised healthcare resource consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-resolution 14C dating of a 25,000-year lake-sediment record from equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauw, Maarten; van Geel, Bas; Kristen, Iris; Plessen, Birgit; Lyaruu, Anna; Engstrom, Daniel R.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Verschuren, Dirk

    2011-10-01

    We dated a continuous, ˜22-m long sediment sequence from Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro area, Kenya/Tanzania) to produce a solid chronological framework for multi-proxy reconstructions of climate and environmental change in equatorial East Africa over the past 25,000 years. The age model is based on a total of 168 AMS 14C dates on bulk-organic matter, combined with a 210Pb chronology for recent sediments and corrected for a variable old-carbon age offset. This offset was estimated by i) pairing bulk-organic 14C dates with either 210Pb-derived time markers or 14C dates on grass charcoal, and ii) wiggle-matching high-density series of bulk-organic 14C dates. Variation in the old-carbon age offset through time is relatively modest, ranging from ˜450 yr during glacial and late glacial time to ˜200 yr during the early and mid-Holocene, and increasing again to ˜250 yr today. The screened and corrected 14C dates were calibrated sequentially, statistically constrained by their stratigraphical order. As a result their constrained calendar-age distributions are much narrower, and the calibrated dates more precise, than if each 14C date had been calibrated on its own. The smooth-spline age-depth model has 95% age uncertainty ranges of ˜50-230 yr during the Holocene and ˜250-550 yr in the glacial section of the record. The δ 13C values of paired bulk-organic and grass-charcoal samples, and additional 14C dating on selected turbidite horizons, indicates that the old-carbon age offset in Lake Challa is caused by a variable contribution of old terrestrial organic matter eroded from soils, and controlled mainly by changes in vegetation cover within the crater basin.

  1. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Uzaslan, Esra; Mahboub, Bassam; Beji, Majed; Nejjari, Chakib; Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Nafti, Salim; Obeidat, Nathir M; Sayiner, Abdullah; Wali, Siraj; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    COPD is a progressive pulmonary disease which may have a profound impact on general health status and quality of life. This article presents data on the burden of COPD obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in eleven countries of the region using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. Data on symptoms, perceived disease severity, impact on work, limitations in activities and psychological distress were collected. 1,392 subjects were analysable of whom 661 (47.5%) reported experiencing an exacerbation of their respiratory condition, 49.4% reported comorbidities and 5.5% reported severe breathlessness as measured with the MRC breathlessness questionnaire. The degree of breathlessness, as well as the perceived severity, was correlated with the overall disease impact as measured with the COPD Assessment Test (p < 0.001). 374 subjects (28.4%) reported that their respiratory condition prevented them from working and this proportion rose to 47.8% in subjects who perceived their respiratory condition as severe. 47.9% of subjects reported difficulties in normal physical exertion, 37.5% in social activities and 31.7% in family activities. Psychological distress was reported by between 42.3% and 53.2% of subjects, depending on the item. In conclusion, the burden of COPD is important, and covers central aspects of daily life. For this reason, physicians should take time to discuss it with their patients, and ensure that the management strategy proposed addresses all their needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive biology knowledge, and behaviour of teenagers in East, Central and Southern Africa: the Zimbabwe case study.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Rusakaniko, S; Gumbo, J; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Sebina-Zziwa; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1995-11-01

    Sexuality in the teenager is often complicated by unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the risks of STDs including AIDS. There is therefore a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, risk awareness and subsequent behavioural outcomes. A multicentre study of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour followed by a health education intervention was undertaken amongst teenagers in selected countries of East, Central and Southern Africa. Reported here are findings at baseline derived from the Zimbabwe component on reproductive biology knowledge and behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used among 1 689 adolescent pupils drawn from rural, urban, co-education, single sex, boarding and day secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Correct knowledge on reproductive biology as measured by the meaning and interpretation of menstruation and wet dreams varied by school from 68 pc to 86 pc, with a significant trend (p < 0,01) based on level of education at baseline. The reported mean age at which menarche took place was 13,5 years +/- 1,3 (mean +/- SD). First coitus was reported to have taken place at the mean age of 12 years for boys and 13,6 years for girls. Seventeen pc of the adolescent pupils reported that they were sexually experienced and 33,2 had relationships. There were misconceptions reported on menstruation with 23 pc reporting that it was an illness. Peers, followed by magazines were the first sources of information on various aspects of reproductive biology, both of which might not provide the correct first information. Among pupils reporting that they were sexually experienced, the largest proportion (56 pc) had unprotected sex. The findings point to the need for targeting the adolescent pupils for information on reproductive biology and increased awareness on the risks of pregnancy, STDs and HIV.

  3. AAA+ Machines of Protein Destruction in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Alhuwaider, Adnan Ali H; Dougan, David A

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial cytosol is a complex mixture of macromolecules (proteins, DNA, and RNA), which collectively are responsible for an enormous array of cellular tasks. Proteins are central to most, if not all, of these tasks and as such their maintenance (commonly referred to as protein homeostasis or proteostasis) is vital for cell survival during normal and stressful conditions. The two key aspects of protein homeostasis are, (i) the correct folding and assembly of proteins (coupled with their delivery to the correct cellular location) and (ii) the timely removal of unwanted or damaged proteins from the cell, which are performed by molecular chaperones and proteases, respectively. A major class of proteins that contribute to both of these tasks are the AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) protein superfamily. Although much is known about the structure of these machines and how they function in the model Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli , we are only just beginning to discover the molecular details of these machines and how they function in mycobacteria. Here we review the different AAA+ machines, that contribute to proteostasis in mycobacteria. Primarily we will focus on the recent advances in the structure and function of AAA+ proteases, the substrates they recognize and the cellular pathways they control. Finally, we will discuss the recent developments related to these machines as novel drug targets.

  4. Continental rift evolution: From rift initiation to incipient break-up in the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo

    2009-09-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift is a key sector of the East African Rift System that connects the Afar depression, at Red Sea-Gulf of Aden junction, with the Turkana depression and Kenya Rift to the South. It is a magmatic rift that records all the different stages of rift evolution from rift initiation to break-up and incipient oceanic spreading: it is thus an ideal place to analyse the evolution of continental extension, the rupture of lithospheric plates and the dynamics by which distributed continental deformation is progressively focused at oceanic spreading centres. The first tectono-magmatic event related to the Tertiary rifting was the eruption of voluminous flood basalts that apparently occurred in a rather short time interval at around 30 Ma; strong plateau uplift, which resulted in the development of the Ethiopian and Somalian plateaus now surrounding the rift valley, has been suggested to have initiated contemporaneously or shortly after the extensive flood-basalt volcanism, although its exact timing remains controversial. Voluminous volcanism and uplift started prior to the main rifting phases, suggesting a mantle plume influence on the Tertiary deformation in East Africa. Different plume hypothesis have been suggested, with recent models indicating the existence of deep superplume originating at the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa, rising in a north-northeastward direction toward eastern Africa, and feeding multiple plume stems in the upper mantle. However, the existence of this whole-mantle feature and its possible connection with Tertiary rifting are highly debated. The main rifting phases started diachronously along the MER in the Mio-Pliocene; rift propagation was not a smooth process but rather a process with punctuated episodes of extension and relative quiescence. Rift location was most probably controlled by the reactivation of a lithospheric-scale pre-Cambrian weakness; the orientation of this weakness (roughly NE-SW) and the Late

  5. Some Like It Hot: The Influence and Implications of Climate Change on Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and Coffee Production in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Fernando E.; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin

    2011-01-01

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1. PMID:21935419

  6. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa: results from the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS).

    PubMed

    Ringborg, A; Cropet, C; Jönsson, B; Gagliardino, J J; Ramachandran, A; Lindgren, P

    2009-07-01

    To estimate diabetes-related resource use and investigate its predictors among individuals with type 2 diabetes in 24 countries in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. Cross-sectional observational data on diabetes-related resource use were collected from 15,016 individuals with type 2 diabetes within the second wave of International Diabetes Management Practices Study. Mean (SD) annual quantities were determined and predictors of diabetes-related hospitalisations, inpatient days, emergency room visits and absenteeism were investigated using negative binomial regression. Patients in Asia (n = 4678), Latin America (n = 6090) and the Middle East and Africa (n = 4248) made a mean (SD) of 3.4 (6.9), 5.4 (6.7) and 2.5 (4.4) General Practitioner visits per year. The mean (SD) number of inpatient days amounted to 3.8 (18.1), 2.2 (13.9) and 2.6 (13.5) per year. Results of the regression analysis showed the major influence of diabetes-related complications and inadequate glycaemic control on resource use. The expected annual rate of hospitalisation of patients with macrovascular complications compared with those without was 4.7 times greater in Asia [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.8-7.8, n = 2551], 5.4 times greater in Latin America (IRR = 5.4, 95% CI: 3.0-9.8, n = 3228) and 4.4 times greater in the Middle East and Africa (IRR = 4.4, 95% CI: 2.8-6.9, n = 2630). Micro- and macrovascular complications and inadequate glycaemic control are significant predictors of resource use in people with type 2 diabetes of developing countries. This knowledge confirms the health economic importance of early diagnosis of diabetes, education of patients and glycaemic control.

  7. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Muchugu, Eric; Vega, Fernando E; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin

    2011-01-01

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  8. A New Tephrochronology for Early Diverse Stone Tool Technologies and Long-Distance Raw Material Transport in the Middle-Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, N.; Jicha, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records significant behavioral change, the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in the Middle to Late Pleistocene thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating the appearances of various behaviors preserved in archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments preserved in the fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40Ar/ 39Ar dates, provides new ages between 396.3 ± 3.4 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing some of the earliest evidence of diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40Ar/ 39Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. Long-distance tephra correlation between the Baringo and Lake Victoria basins also provides a new date of 100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new or older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by 130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks relevant to modern human evolution. In conjunction with recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental data, this tephrochronology provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution through the East African Middle and Late Pleistocene as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances.

  9. Guidelines for sinkhole and subsidence rehabilitation based on generic geological models of a dolomite environment on the East Rand, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, Ilse; Van Rooy, J. Louis

    2016-05-01

    A sound understanding of the various factors influencing and associated with the formation of sinkholes or subsidences on dolomite land is essential for the selection of appropriate rehabilitation methods. The investigation and rehabilitation of numerous sinkholes and subsidences located on dolomite in the East Rand of South Africa, created an opportunity to develop a broad based understanding of different karst environments, their susceptibility to sinkhole and subsidence formation and best practice rehabilitation methods. This paper is based on the guidelines developed whereby the geological model of the sinkhole or subsidence is used to recommend an appropriate rehabilitation method. Nine typical geological models with recommended rehabilitation methods are presented in this paper.

  10. Statistical intercomparison and validation of multisensory aerosol optical depth retrievals over three AERONET sites in Kenya, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiyo, Richard; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Zhao, Tianliang

    2017-11-01

    Over the last two decades, a number of space-borne sensors have been used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD). The reliability of these datasets over East Africa (EA), however, is an important issue in the interpretation of regional aerosol variability. This study provides an intercomparison and validation of AOD retrievals from the MODIS-Terra (DT and DB), MISR and OMI sensors against ground-based measurements from the AERONET over three sites (CRPSM_Malindi, Nairobi, and ICIPE_Mbita) in Kenya, EA during the periods 2008-2013, 2005-2009 and 2006-2015, respectively. The analysis revealed that MISR performed better over the three sites with about 82.5% of paired AOD data falling within the error envelope (EE). MODIS-DT showed good agreement against AERONET with 59.05% of paired AOD falling within the sensor EE over terrestrial surfaces with relatively high vegetation cover. The comparison between MODIS-DB and AERONET revealed an overall lower performance with lower Gfraction (48.93%) and lower correlation r = 0.58; while AOD retrieved from OMI showed less correspondence with AERONET data with lower Gfraction (68.89%) and lowest correlation r = 0.31. The monthly evaluation of AODs retrieved from the sensors against AERONET AOD indicates that MODIS-DT has the best performance over the three sites with highest correlation (0.71-0.84), lowest RMSE and spread closer to the AERONET. Regarding seasonal analysis, MISR performed well during most seasons over Nairobi and Mbita; while MODIS-DT performed better than all other sensors during most seasons over Malindi. Furthermore, the best seasonal performance of most sensors relative to AERONET data occurred during June-August (JJA) attributed to modulations induced by a precipitation-vegetation factor to AOD satellite retrieval algorithms. The study revealed the strength and weakness of each of the retrieval algorithm and forms the basis for further research on the validation of satellite retrieved aerosol products over EA.

  11. Seasonal scale water deficit forecasting in Africa and the Middle East using NASA's Land Information System (LIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Getirana, A.; McNally, A.; Koster, R. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Roningen, J. M.; Kumar, S.; Funk, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    A seamless and effective water deficit monitoring and early warning system is critical for assessing food security in Africa and the Middle East. In this presentation, we report on the ongoing development and validation of a seasonal scale water deficit forecasting system based on NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and seasonal climate forecasts. First, our presentation will focus on the implementation and validation of drought and water availability monitoring products in the region. Next, it will focus on evaluating drought and water availability forecasts. Finally, details will be provided of our ongoing collaboration with end-user partners in the region (e.g., USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network, FEWS NET), on formulating meaningful early warning indicators, effective communication and seamless dissemination of the products through NASA's web-services. The water deficit forecasting system thus far incorporates NASA GMAO's Catchment and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP) LSMs. In addition, the LSMs' surface and subsurface runoff are routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics. To establish a climatology from 1981-2015, the two LSMs are driven by NASA/GMAO's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS and UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) daily rainfall dataset. Comparison of the models' energy and hydrological budgets with independent observations suggests that major droughts are well-reflected in the climatology. The system uses seasonal climate forecasts from NASA's GEOS-5 (the Goddard Earth Observing System Model-5) and NCEP's Climate Forecast System-2, and it produces forecasts of soil moisture, ET and streamflow out to 6 months in the future. Forecasts of those variables are formulated in terms of indicators to provide forecasts of drought and water availability in the region. Current work suggests

  12. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015). Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of large HIV epidemics in

  13. Correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene tephra layers between the Turkana Basin of East Africa and the Gulf of Aden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, F.H.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.; Haileab, B.

    1992-01-01

    Electron-microprobe analyses of glass shards from volcanic ash in Pliocene and Pleistocene deep-sea sediments in the Gulf of Aden and the Somali Basin demonstrate that most of the tephra layers correlate with tephra layers known on land in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Previous correlations are reviewed, and new correlations proposed. Together these data provide correlations between the deep-sea cores, and to the land-based sections at eight levels ranging in age from about 4 to 0.7 Ma. Specifically, we correlate the Moiti Tuff (???4.1 Ma) with a tephra layer at 188.6 m depth in DSDP hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 150 m depth in DSDP hole 241, the Wargolo Tuff with a tephra layer at 179.7 m in DSDP Hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 155.3 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Lomogol Tuff (defined here) with a tephra layer at 165 m in DSDP Hole 232A, the Lokochot Tuff with a tephra layer at 140.1 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Tulu Bor Tuff with a tephra layer at 160.8 m depth in DSDP Hole 231, the Kokiselei Tuff with a tephra layer at 120 m depth in DSDP Hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 90.3 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Silbo Tuff (0.74 Ma) with a tephra layer at 35.5 m depth in DSDP Hole 231 and possibly with a tephra layer at 10.9 m depth in DSDP Hole 241. We also present analyses of other tephra from the deep sea cores for which correlative units on land are not yet known. The correlated tephra layers provide eight chronostratigraphic horizons that make it possible to temporally correlate paleoecological and paleoclimatic data between the terrestrial and deep-sea sites. Such correlations may make it possible to interpret faunal evolution in the Lake Turkana basin and other sites in East Africa within a broader regional or global paleoclimatic context. ?? 1992.

  14. Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Alys; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-12-28

    Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses. We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings. International definitions of "sexual exploitation" and "sex trafficking" set the indicator parameters. We focused on sexual exploitation in forms of early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation and sexual slavery. We extracted prevalence measures, health outcomes and sexual exploitation terminology definitions. The review adhered to PRISMA guidelines and includes quality appraisal. The search identified 29 eligible papers with evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in armed conflict settings in twelve countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The evidence was limited and not generalizable, due to few prevalence estimates and inconsistent definitions of "sexual exploitation". The prevalence estimates available indicate that females were more likely than males to be victims of sexual exploitation in conflict settings. In some settings, as many as one in four forced marriages took place before the girls reached 18 years old. Findings suggest that the vast majority of former female combatants were sexually exploited during the conflict. These studies provided various indicators of sexual exploitation compatible to the United Nation's definition of sex trafficking, but only 2 studies identified the exploitation as trafficking. None of the studies solely aimed to measure the prevalence of sex trafficking or sexual exploitation. Similar descriptions of types of sexual exploitation and trafficking were found, but the inconsistent terminology or measurements inhibited a meta-analysis. Findings indicate there are various forms of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in

  15. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of isoprenylated coumarin mammea A/AA isolated from Mammea africana.

    PubMed

    Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Ji, Xiangming; Gupta, Smiti; Zhou, Kequan

    2013-05-02

    The stem bark of Mammea africana is widely distributed in tropical Africa and commonly used in traditional medicine. This study aims to identify the active compound in Mammea africana and to evaluate its antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity. Methanol extract from the bark of the Mammea africana was separated by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by open column chromatography. A principal antimicrobial compound was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its structure was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The antibacterial activity of the purified compound was determined using the broth microdilution method against 7 common pathogenic bacteria. The compound was also evaluated for cytotoxicity by cell proliferation assay (MTS) using the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 and the non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. The purified active compound was determined to be mammea A/AA and was found to be highly active against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC=0.5 μg/ml), Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC=0.25 μg/ml), and Clostridium difficile (MIC=0.25 μg/ml). The compound exhibited significant antiproliferative activities against both NIH 3T3 and A549 cell lines. Mammea A/AA isolated from Mammea africana exerts specific inhibitory activity against Campylobacter jejuni, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Campylobacter difficile. Mammea A/AA was also found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity against both cancer and normal cell lines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  17. Diagnosis and predictive molecular analysis of non-small-cell lung cancer in the Africa-Middle East region: challenges and strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Slavik, Tomas; Asselah, Fatima; Fakhruddin, Najla; El Khodary, Ahmed; Torjman, Fairouz; Anis, Elia; Quinn, Martin; Khankan, Azzam; Kerr, Keith M

    2014-11-01

    The identification of tumor biomarkers provides information on the prognosis and guides the implementation of appropriate treatment in patients with many different cancer types. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), targeted treatment plans based on biomarker identification have already been used in the clinic. However, such predictive molecular testing is not currently a universally used practice. This is the case, in particular, in developing countries where lung cancer is increasingly prevalent. In September 2012 and November 2013, a committee of 16 lung cancer experts from Africa and the Middle East met to discuss key issues related to diagnosis and biomarker testing in NSCLC and the implementation of personalized medicine in the region. The committee identified current challenges for effective diagnosis and predictive analysis in Africa and the Middle East. Moreover, strategies to encourage the implementation of biomarker testing were discussed. A practical approach for the effective diagnosis and predictive molecular testing of NSCLC in these regions was derived. We present the key issues and recommendations arising from the meetings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced, Analytic, Automated (AAA) Measurement of Engagement during Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney; Dieterle, Ed; Duckworth, Angela

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in…

  19. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  20. Development and evaluation of tailored specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Mero, Herieth R; Wadsworth, Jemma; Mioulet, Valerie; Sallu, Raphael; Belsham, Graham J; Kasanga, Christopher J; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P

    2016-11-01

    Rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). While pan-specific molecular tests for FMD virus (FMDV) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and FMD-free countries, current serotyping methods mainly rely either on antigen detection ELISAs or nucleotide sequencing approaches. This report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays (rRT-PCR) tailored to detect FMDV lineages currently circulating in East Africa. These assays target sequences within the VP1-coding region that share high intra-lineage identity, but do not cross-react with FMD viruses from other serotypes that circulate in the region. These serotype-specific assays operate with the same thermal profile as the pan-diagnostic tests making it possible to run them in parallel to produce C T values comparable to the pan-diagnostic test detecting the 3D-coding region. These assays were evaluated alongside the established pan-specific molecular test using field samples and virus isolates collected from Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia that had been previously characterised by nucleotide sequencing. Samples (n=71) representing serotype A (topotype AFRICA, lineage G-I), serotype O (topotypes EA-2 and EA-4), serotype SAT 1 (topotype I (NWZ)) and serotype SAT2 (topotype IV) were correctly identified with these rRT-PCR assays. Furthermore, FMDV RNA from samples that did not contain infectious virus could still be serotyped using these assays. These serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays can detect and characterise FMDVs currently circulating in East Africa and hence improve disease control in this region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Barriers to the delivery of diabetes care in the Middle East and South Africa: a survey of 1,082 practising physicians in five countries.

    PubMed

    Assaad-Khalil, S H; Al Arouj, M; Almaatouq, M; Amod, A; Assaad, S N; Azar, S T; Belkhadir, J; Esmat, K; Hassoun, A A K; Jarrah, N; Zatari, S; Alberti, K G M M

    2013-11-01

    Developing countries face a high and growing burden of type 2 diabetes. We surveyed physicians in a diverse range of countries in the Middle East and Africa (Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, South Africa and Lebanon) with regard to their perceptions of barriers to type 2 diabetes care identified as potentially important in the literature and by the authors. One thousand and eighty-two physicians completed a questionnaire developed by the authors. Most physicians enrolled in the study employed guideline-driven care; 80-100% of physicians prescribed metformin (with lifestyle intervention, where there are no contraindications) for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, with lifestyle intervention alone used where metformin was not prescribed. Sulfonylureas were prescribed widely, consistent with the poor economic status of many patients. About one quarter of physicians were not undertaking any form of continuing medical education, and relatively low proportions of practices had their own diabetes educators, dieticians or diabetic foot specialists. Physicians identified the deficiencies of their patients (unhealthy lifestyles, lack of education and poor diet) as the most important barriers to optimal diabetes care. Low-treatment compliance was not ranked highly. Access to physicians did not appear to be a problem, as most patients were seen multiple times per year. Physicians in the Middle East and South Africa identified limitations relating to their patients as the main barrier to delivering care for diabetes, without giving high priority to issues relating to processes of care delivery. Further study would be needed to ascertain whether these findings reflect an unduly physician-centred view of their practice. More effective provision of services relating to the prevention of complications and improved lifestyles may be needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Nigeria Between 2007 and 2014: Evidence for Epidemiological Links Between West and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ularamu, H G; Ibu, J O; Wood, B A; Abenga, J N; Lazarus, D D; Wungak, Y S; Knowles, N J; Wadsworth, J; Mioulet, V; King, D P; Shamaki, D; Adah, M I

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in Nigeria between 2007 and 2014. Antigen ELISA of viral isolates was used to identify FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT 2. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype SAT 2, and O/EAST AFRICA 3 (EA-3) and O/WEST AFRICA topotypes in the country. In contrast, for serotype A, a single monophyletic cluster of viruses has persisted within Nigeria (2009-2013). These results demonstrate the close genetic relatedness of viruses in Nigeria to those from other African countries, including the first formal characterization of serotype O/EA-3 viruses in Nigeria. The introductions and persistence of certain viral lineages in Nigeria may reflect transmission patterns via nomadic pastoralism and animal trade. Continuous monitoring of field outbreaks is necessary to dissect the complexity of FMD epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) Professional Development and NASA Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D. E.; Clark, C.; Harman, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a three-part professional development (PD) experience for high school physics, astronomy, and earth science teachers. AAA PD consists of: (1) blended learning via webinars, asynchronous content learning, and in-person workshops, (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing opportunities for connection with NASA astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). AAA implementation in 2016-18 involves partnerships between the SETI Institute and seven school districts in northern and southern California. AAAs in the current cohort were selected by the school districts based on criteria developed by AAA program staff working with WestEd evaluation consultants. The selected teachers were then randomly assigned by WestEd to a Group A or B to support controlled testing of student learning. Group A completed their PD during January - August 2017, then participated in NASA SOFIA science flights during fall 2017. Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year, then will complete their professional development and SOFIA flights during 2018. A two-week AAA electromagnetic spectrum and multi-wavelength astronomy curriculum aligned with the Science Framework for California Public Schools and Next Generation Science Standards was developed by program staff for classroom delivery. The curriculum (as well as the AAA's pre-flight PD) capitalizes on NASA content by using "science snapshot" case studies regarding astronomy research conducted by SOFIA. AAAs also interact with NASA SMEs during flight weeks and will translate that interaction into classroom content. The AAA program will make controlled measurements of student gains in standards-based learning plus changes in student attitudes towards STEM, and observe & record the AAAs' implementation of curricular changes. Funded by NASA: NNX16AC51

  4. Seasonal scale water deficit forecasting in Africa and the Middle East using NASA's Land Information System (LIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Getirana, Augusto; Kumar, Sujay V.; Roningen, Jeanne; Zaitchik, Ben; McNally, Amy; Koster, Randal D.; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are among the important issues facing several regions within Africa and the Middle East. A seamless and effective monitoring and early warning system is needed by regional/national stakeholders. Such system should support a proactive drought management approach and mitigate the socio-economic losses up to the extent possible. In this presentation, we report on the ongoing development and validation of a seasonal scale water deficit forecasting system based on NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and seasonal climate forecasts. First, our presentation will focus on the implementation and validation of the LIS models used for drought and water availability monitoring in the region. The second part will focus on evaluating drought and water availability forecasts. Finally, details will be provided of our ongoing collaboration with end-user partners in the region (e.g., USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network, FEWS NET), on formulating meaningful early warning indicators, effective communication and seamless dissemination of the monitoring and forecasting products through NASA's web-services. The water deficit forecasting system thus far incorporates NOAA's Noah land surface model (LSM), version 3.3, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, version 4.12, NASA GMAO's Catchment LSM, and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP) LSM (the latter two incorporate prognostic water table schemes). In addition, the LSMs' surface and subsurface runoff are routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics. The LSMs are driven by NASA/GMAO's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS and UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) daily rainfall dataset. The LIS software framework integrates these forcing datasets and drives the four LSMs and HyMAP. The Land Verification Toolkit (LVT) is used for the evaluation of the

  5. HIV among People Who Inject Drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Thomas, Sara L.; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Semini, Iris; Tawil, Oussama; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000–1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%–15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high

  6. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  7. Early- to Mid-Holocene hydroclimate shifts in tropical East Africa: the multi-proxy sediment record from Lake Rutundu, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cort, Gijs; Creutz, Mike; Barao, Lucia; Conley, Daniel; Haug, Gerald; Bodé, Samuel; Blaauw, Maarten; Engstrom, Dan; Verschuren, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Following the generally arid conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a large part of the African continent experienced the Early to Mid-Holocene as a much more humid period than today. This so-called African Humid Period (AHP) coincided with high summertime insolation over the Northern Hemisphere subtropics, causing invigorated monsoons to create moist conditions over the northern parts of the continent. Similarly, equatorial and even low-latitude southeastern Africa experienced a wetter climate due to the post-glacial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses ultimately leading to altered Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoon dynamics. The timing and abruptness of the onset and ending of the AHP in the different regions of the continent have been the subject of major discussion. On the other hand, shorter-lived climate fluctuations within the AHP have received much less attention, due to a scarcity of well-dated, high-resolution African paleoclimate records spanning the entire Holocene. In this study we used the sediment record of Lake Rutundu, a high-altitude crater lake on Mount Kenya, to document multidecadal to millennial-scale hydroclimate variability on the East African equator from the LGM to the present. A multiproxy approach combining core-surface scanning techniques (magnetic susceptibility, X-ray fluorescence) and close-interval bulk-sediment analyses (organic matter and biogenic Si content, grain size, organic δ15N and δ13C) resulted in a high-resolution record firmly anchored in time by an age model based on 210Pb dating and sixteen calibrated radiocarbon ages. This new Lake Rutundu hydroclimate record confirms that moister conditions following the LGM returned to East Africa ca.16 kyr BP, and it contains a perfectly timed Younger Dryas episode (12.8-11.5 kyr BP) of intermittent drought. We find that the Early- to Mid-Holocene period, which in African records is often described as uniformly wet, was in fact punctuated by three distinct, century

  8. Protein quality control in organelles - AAA/FtsH story.

    PubMed

    Janska, Hanna; Kwasniak, Malgorzata; Szczepanowska, Joanna

    2013-02-01

    This review focuses on organellar AAA/FtsH proteases, whose proteolytic and chaperone-like activity is a crucial component of the protein quality control systems of mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes. We compare the AAA/FtsH proteases from yeast, mammals and plants. The nature of the complexes formed by AAA/FtsH proteases and the current view on their involvement in degradation of non-native organellar proteins or assembly of membrane complexes are discussed. Additional functions of AAA proteases not directly connected with protein quality control found in yeast and mammals but not yet in plants are also described shortly. Following an overview of the molecular functions of the AAA/FtsH proteases we discuss physiological consequences of their inactivation in yeast, mammals and plants. The molecular basis of phenotypes associated with inactivation of the AAA/FtsH proteases is not fully understood yet, with the notable exception of those observed in m-AAA protease-deficient yeast cells, which are caused by impaired maturation of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. Finally, examples of cytosolic events affecting protein quality control in mitochondria and chloroplasts are given. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of Bibliographies and Reference Works on Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Russia and East Europe and Compilation of Bibliographies on East Asia, South Asia, and Africa South of the Sahara for Undergraduate Libraries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Ward

    The project was concerned with developing three up-to-date, accurate bibliographies on Asia and Africa as resource guides and book selection tools for undergraduate libraries. Existing bibliographies and information on newer books favorably received in journals were entered on a computer system. A preliminary, unedited, unselected bibliography was…

  10. Can leaf wax n-alkane δ²H and GDGTs be used conjointly to reconstruct past environmental changes along altitudinal transects in East Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Bergonzini, Laurent; Wagner, Thomas; Derenne, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes (C27-C31) and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br GDGTs) are increasingly being used as molecular proxies to investigate past environmental conditions. Indices were previously developed to relate the br GDGT distribution to temperature and pH in soils. Furthermore, the δ²Hwax of leaf wax n-alkanes in soils was shown to track the 'altitude effect', suggesting it could be used to reconstruct paleoelevation. Combination of these two proxies could bring information on both past uplift elevation and past temperature changes, as illustrated by the pioneer paleostudy of Hren et al. (2010) in the Sierra Nevada. In the present study, δ²Hwax and br GDGTs were analysed in ca. 60 surface soils collected along Mt. Rungwe (Southwest Tanzania) and Mt. Kenya (Central Kenya). A weak link was identified between δ²Hwax and altitude (R² = 0.33) along Mt. Kenya, whereas no trend was observed along Mt. Rungwe, as also previously shown by Peterse et al. (2009) for Mt. Kilimanjaro. This shows that the strength of the relationship between soil δ²Hwax and elevation depends on which mountain is considered in East Africa and can be overprinted by numerous poorly understood environmental and/or physiological parameters. In contrast, br GDGT-derived mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and temperature lapse rate (5 °C/1000 m) were in agreement with values recorded along both Mt. Rungwe and Mt. Kenya, highlighting the robustness of this proxy for paleotemperature reconstruction in East Africa. Moreover, the combination of these br GDGT data with previous results obtained from East African surface soils (along Mts. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), Sinninghe Damsté et al., 2008; Rwenzori (Uganda), Loomis et al., 2011; Rungwe (Tanzania), Coffinet et al., 2014), allowed the establishment of a regional soil calibration between br GDGT distribution and MAAT. This new East African calibration, based on 105 samples, leads to a substantial improvement of both the R2 (0

  11. What Do We Need To Live on Planet Earth? A Case Study of Traditional Rural Life in East Africa. A Curriculum Unit for History and Social Studies, Grades 2-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Carol; Wallace, Kendra R.

    The unit focuses on the lifestyles of two social groups in East Africa: the traditional nomadic Masai and the traditional agrarian Kikuyu. The activities engage students in an exploration of the dynamic interactions between these people and the animals that share the same land. Activities include: (1) "Houses"; (2) "Elephants";…

  12. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration.

  13. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa; Strategie pour la gestion de l`eau au moyen-orient et en afrique du nord

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Water has always been of central concern to life in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Burgeoning populations are placing unprecendented pressures on the resource, calling urgently for new approaches to water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and if environmental degradation is to be reversed. The booklet sets out the implications of the new Bank policy for the MENA region, calling for a concerted effort by government and Bank staff to address water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. It proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to achieving this objective that could lead tomore » new Bank-supported operations to address the water sector as a whole.« less

  14. Trends of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection in female prostitutes and males diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease in Djibouti, east Africa.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Couzineau, B; Gray, G C; Omar, C S; Fox, E; Bouloumie, J; Watts, D

    1993-05-01

    A cross-sectional serosurvey for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was conducted during the first quarter of 1991 among high risk groups in Djibouti, East Africa, and compared with previous surveys in 1987, 1988, and 1990. The survey demonstrated evidence of HIV-1 infection in 36.0% (n = 292) of street prostitutes, 15.3% (n = 360) of prostitutes working as bar hostesses, and 10.4% (n = 193) of males diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease. By multivariate modeling, HIV-1 seropositivity in prostitutes was associated with Ethiopian nationality, working as a street prostitute, and residing in Djibouti for two years or less. We suggest that prostitution, particularly street prostitution, is a major route of HIV-1 transmission in Djibouti.

  15. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS)

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. Research design and methods In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011–2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3–6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Results Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. Conclusions In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU. PMID:28123754

  16. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    PubMed

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011-2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3-6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU.

  17. Joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances for East Africa: a WRF-Hydro case study for the upper Tana River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah; Arnault, Joel; Laux, Patrick; Wagner, Sven; Kitheka, Johnson; Kunstmann, Harald

    2018-02-01

    For an improved understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions of the Tana River basin of Kenya, East Africa, its joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances are investigated. This is achieved through the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the fully coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system over the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km2) and its surroundings in the upper Tana River basin for 4 years (2011-2014). The model setup consists of an outer domain at 25 km (East Africa) and an inner one at 5-km (Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment) horizontal resolution. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at 500-m horizontal resolution. The results from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF-only model. The coupled WRF-Hydro slightly reduces precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the soil water storage but increases runoff. The total precipitation from March to May and October to December for WRF-only (974 mm/year) and coupled WRF-Hydro (940 mm/year) is closer to that derived from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data (989 mm/year) than from the TRMM (795 mm/year) precipitation product. The coupled WRF-Hydro-accumulated discharge (323 mm/year) is close to that observed (333 mm/year). However, the coupled WRF-Hydro underestimates the observed peak flows registering low but acceptable NSE (0.02) and RSR (0.99) at daily time step. The precipitation recycling and efficiency measures between WRF-only and coupled WRF-Hydro are very close and small. This suggests that most of precipitation in the region comes from moisture advection from the outside of the analysis domain, indicating a minor impact of potential land-precipitation feedback mechanisms in this case. The coupled WRF-Hydro nonetheless serves as a tool in quantifying the atmospheric-terrestrial water balance in this region.

  18. Fish Assemblage Patterns as a Tool to Aid Conservation in the Olifants River Catchment (East), South Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    South Africa has committed to address freshwater conservation at the catchment scale, using a combination of landscape-level and species-level features as surrogates of freshwater biodiversity. Here we examined fishes in the Olifants catchment, where multiple anthropogenic pressu...

  19. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006 - 2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historical episodic outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns (El Niño and La Niña) of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite ...

  20. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006 - 2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and ...

  1. Coastal East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: Long-Distance Trade, Empire, Migration, and Regional Unity, 1750-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Erik

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author looks closely at the recent history of the East African coast and the Swahili people who live there. In doing so he hopes to highlight the inadequacy of the area studies/continentalist approach to studying and teaching the Swahili and to propose a different way of considering their past. His contention is that one can…

  2. Fundamental Characteristics of AAA+ Protein Family Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many complex cellular events depend on multiprotein complexes known as molecular machines to efficiently couple the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to the generation of mechanical force. Members of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) are critical components of many molecular machines. AAA+ proteins are defined by conserved modules that precisely position the active site elements of two adjacent subunits to catalyze ATP hydrolysis. In many cases, AAA+ proteins form a ring structure that translocates a polymeric substrate through the central channel using specialized loops that project into the central channel. We discuss the major features of AAA+ protein structure and function with an emphasis on pivotal aspects elucidated with archaeal proteins. PMID:27703410

  3. Fundamental Characteristics of AAA+ Protein Family Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Miller, Justin M; Enemark, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many complex cellular events depend on multiprotein complexes known as molecular machines to efficiently couple the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to the generation of mechanical force. Members of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) are critical components of many molecular machines. AAA+ proteins are defined by conserved modules that precisely position the active site elements of two adjacent subunits to catalyze ATP hydrolysis. In many cases, AAA+ proteins form a ring structure that translocates a polymeric substrate through the central channel using specialized loops that project into the central channel. We discuss the major features of AAA+ protein structure and function with an emphasis on pivotal aspects elucidated with archaeal proteins.

  4. Advanced, Analytic, Automated (AAA) Measurement of Engagement During Learning.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Sidney; Dieterle, Ed; Duckworth, Angela

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in embodied theories of cognition and affect, which advocate a close coupling between thought and action. It uses machine-learned computational models to automatically infer mental states associated with engagement (e.g., interest, flow) from machine-readable behavioral and physiological signals (e.g., facial expressions, eye tracking, click-stream data) and from aspects of the environmental context. We present15 case studies that illustrate the potential of the AAA approach for measuring engagement in digital learning environments. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the AAA approach, concluding that it has significant promise to catalyze engagement research.

  5. Advanced, Analytic, Automated (AAA) Measurement of Engagement During Learning

    PubMed Central

    D’Mello, Sidney; Dieterle, Ed; Duckworth, Angela

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in embodied theories of cognition and affect, which advocate a close coupling between thought and action. It uses machine-learned computational models to automatically infer mental states associated with engagement (e.g., interest, flow) from machine-readable behavioral and physiological signals (e.g., facial expressions, eye tracking, click-stream data) and from aspects of the environmental context. We present15 case studies that illustrate the potential of the AAA approach for measuring engagement in digital learning environments. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the AAA approach, concluding that it has significant promise to catalyze engagement research. PMID:29038607

  6. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat vision and hearing loss in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Baltussen, Rob; Smith, Andrew

    2012-03-02

    To determine the relative costs, effects, and cost effectiveness of selected interventions to control cataract, trachoma, refractive error, hearing loss, meningitis and chronic otitis media. Cost effectiveness analysis of or combined strategies for controlling vision and hearing loss by means of a lifetime population model. Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world where vision and hearing loss are major burdens: sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. Biological and behavioural parameters from clinical and observational studies and population based surveys. Intervention effects and resource inputs based on published reports, expert opinion, and the WHO-CHOICE database. Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Treatment of chronic otitis media, extracapsular cataract surgery, trichiasis surgery, treatment for meningitis, and annual screening of schoolchildren for refractive error are among the most cost effective interventions to control hearing and vision impairment, with the cost per DALY averted <$Int285 in both regions. Screening of both schoolchildren (annually) and adults (every five years) for hearing loss costs around $Int1000 per DALY averted. These interventions can be considered highly cost effective. Mass treatment with azithromycin to control trachoma can be considered cost effective in the African but not the South East Asian sub-region. Vision and hearing impairment control interventions are generally cost effective. To decide whether substantial investments in these interventions is warranted, this finding should be considered in relation to the economic attractiveness of other, existing or new, interventions in health.

  7. A synthesis of Plio-Pleistocene leaf wax biomarker records of hydrological variation in East Africa and their relationship with hominin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.; Campisano, C. J.; Feibel, C. S.; Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J.; Potts, R.; Cohen, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is thought to play a critical role in human evolution. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from hominin fossil locales. We improve the understanding of this relationship by examining Plio-Pleistocene lake sediment cores from East Africa that were drilled by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, an international effort to study the environment in which our hominin ancestors evolved and dispersed. We have analyzed organic geochemical signals of climate from drill cores from Ethiopia and Kenya spanning the Pliocene to recent time (from north to south: paleolake Hadar, Lake Turkana, Lake Baringo, and paleolake Koora). Specifically, we analyzed the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrestrial leaf waxes, which records changes in regional atmospheric circulation and hydrology. We reconstructed quantitative records of rainfall amount at each of the study sites, which host sediment spanning different geologic times and regions. By compiling these records, we test hominin evolutionary hypotheses as well as crucial questions about climate trend and variability. We find that there is a gradual or step-wise enrichment in δDwax, signifying a trend from a wet to dry climate, from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene, perhaps implying an influence of global temperature, ice sheet extent, and/or atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations on East African climate. However, the shift is small relative to the amplitude of orbital-scale isotopic variations. The records indicate a strong influence of eccentricity-modulated orbital precession, and imply that local insolation effects are the likely cause of East African precipitation. Several of the intervals of high isotopic variability coincide with key hominin fossil or technological transitions, suggesting that climate variability plays a key role in hominin evolution.

  8. Burkitt lymphoma research in East Africa: highlights from the 9th African organization for research and training in cancer conference held in Durban, South Africa in 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9th African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop. PMID:25686906

  9. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A

    2017-05-24

    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural Elements Regulating AAA+ Protein Quality Control Machines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Wen; Lee, Sukyeong; Tsai, Francis T F

    2017-01-01

    Members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+) superfamily participate in essential and diverse cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life by harnessing the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive their biological functions. Although most AAA+ proteins share a ring-shaped architecture, AAA+ proteins have evolved distinct structural elements that are fine-tuned to their specific functions. A central question in the field is how ATP binding and hydrolysis are coupled to substrate translocation through the central channel of ring-forming AAA+ proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss structural elements present in AAA+ proteins involved in protein quality control, drawing similarities to their known role in substrate interaction by AAA+ proteins involved in DNA translocation. Elements to be discussed include the pore loop-1, the Inter-Subunit Signaling (ISS) motif, and the Pre-Sensor I insert (PS-I) motif. Lastly, we will summarize our current understanding on the inter-relationship of those structural elements and propose a model how ATP binding and hydrolysis might be coupled to polypeptide translocation in protein quality control machines.

  11. Onset of uplift and environmental change in East Africa: paleoaltimetry constraints from a 17 Ma beaked whale fossil from northern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichura, H.; Jacobs, L. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Lin, A. S.; Polcyn, M. J.; Manthi, F. K.; Winkler, D. A.; Clemens, M.

    2014-12-01

    Deciphering the timing and magnitude of vertical crustal motions is key to understanding the impact of tectonic uplift on changes in atmospheric circulation, rainfall, and environmental conditions. Uplift of the East African Plateau (EAP) of Kenya has been linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are still too scarce to unambiguously constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with late Cenozoic rifting. Here we assess the fossil remains of a beaked whale (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya, 700 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean. The whale fossil was found at an elevation of 650 m and helps constraining the uplift of the northeastern flanks of the EAP. The Kenyan ziphiid was discovered in fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the extensional Oligo-Miocene Lokichar basin (Mead, 1975) along with terrestrial mammals and freshwater mollusks below a basalt dated at 17.1 ± 1.0 Ma (Boschetto et al., 1992). The unifying characteristics of riverine occurrences of modern marine mammals include sufficient discharge in low-gradient rivers to maintain pathways deep enough to facilitate migration, and the absence of shallow bedrock, rapids and waterfalls. The most likely route, which may have had these characteristics is a fluvial corridor controlled by thermal subsidence of the Cretaceous Anza Rift, which once linked extensional processes in Central and East Africa with the continental margin. The fossil locality and analogies with present-day occurrences of marine mammals in terrestrial realms suggest that the ziphiid stranded slightly above sea level. In combination with 13.5. Ma phonolite flows that utilized eastward-directed drainages away from the EAP the fossil find thus provides the older of only two empirical paleoelevation points that constrain the onset of uplift of the EAP to the interval between approximately 17 and 13 Ma. Topographic uplift of the EAP induced paleoclimatic change from a low

  12. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    consists of late Proterozoic crystalline basement overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks in some places. The breakup of the Arabian Plate from...with structure directly below the crust. To investigate upper mantle structure under the Arabian Shield, measured and inverted relative travel times...Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of

  13. Command and Irregular Indigenous Combat Forces in the Middle East and Africa: A Historical Perspective on a Current Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-21

    these relationships to function. By comparing the command pathways of cases in Palestine Mandate and the Horn of Africa during the Second World War...suggest a way forward for contemporary operations. Keywords: Second World War, Israel, Ethiopia, Haganah, Palmach, Irgun (IZL), Special Operations...authority to one that stems from pathways of influence. Through the First World War, the British Empire had a tradition of work- ing with indigenous

  14. Review and three new species of the flat bug genus Neochelonoderus Hoberlandt, 1967 from East Africa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae).

    PubMed

    Heiss, Ernst; Grebennikov, Vasily

    2015-04-17

    The apterous East African Mezirinae flat bug genus Neochelonoderus Hoberlandt 1967 is revised. In addition to known species from Burundi (N. basilewskyi) and Democratic Republic of the Congo (N. straeleni), two new species from Tanzania (N. talaus n. sp. and N. areius n. sp.) and one from Zambia (N. hoberlandti n. sp.) are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Neochelonoderus is presented.

  15. An Analysis Of The Strategic Impact Of The Campaign In German East Africa During The First World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-04

    anything more than reconnaissance owing to their weak engines . 50 Consequently the British decided instead to blockade the entire coast of German East...outfitting two blockade runners and an airship pale in comparison. Since they were cut off from Germany for most of the campaign, the African soldiers...packages for the carriers. 73 The final German resupply attempt was via Zeppelin. Preparations began in June 1917 and by November the airship was

  16. To Live Like a Pig and Die Like a Dog: Environmental Implications for World War I in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    held decisive advantages including greater numbers of troops, more robust logistics, and unchallenged control of the sea lines of communications...The Center for Disease Control defines malaria as “a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of...malaria parasites that can infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum remains indigenous to east 32 Center for Disease Control, “Malaria Home > Frequently

  17. Integrated Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Data to Understand the Extent, Kinematics and Tectonic Evolution of the Precambrian Aswa Shear Zone in East Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a Precambrian lithospheric structure which forms the western margin of the East African Orogeny (EAO) that influenced the evolution of many tectonic events in Eastern Africa including the East African Rift System. It separates the cratonic entities of Saharan Metacraton in the northeast from the Congo craton and the Tanzanian craton and the Kibaran orogenic belt to the southwest. However little is known about its kinematics and the extent and tectonic origin are not fully understood. We developed a new technique based on the tilt method to extract kinematic information from high-resolution airborne magnetic data. We also used radiometric data over Uganda integrated with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in South Sudan to understand the extent, kinematics and define the tectonic origin of ASZ. (1) Our results suggest that the ASZ extends in a NW-SE for ~550 km in Uganda and South Sudan. (2) The airborne magnetic and radiometric data revealed a much wider (~50 km) deformation belt than the mapped 5-10 km of exposed surface expression of the ASZ. The deformation belt associated with the shear is defined by three NW-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zones bounding structural domains with magnetic fabrics showing splays of secondary shear zones and shear-related folds. These folds are tighter close to the discrete shear zones with their axial traces becoming sub-parallel to the shear zones. Similar fold patterns are observed from South Sudan in the SRTM DEM. We interpret these folds as due to ENE-WSW shortening associated with the sinistral strike-slip movement. (3) To the northeast of the shear zone, the magnetic patterns suggest a series of W-verging nappes indicative of strong E-W oriented shortening. Based on the above observations, we relate the evolution of the ASZ to Neoproterozoic E-W collision between East and West Gondwana. This collision produced E-W contraction resulting in W-verging thrusts

  18. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Temperature Reconstructions from Paleolakes of the West Turkana and North Awash Basins, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, I. S.; Thompson-Munson, M.; Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) aims to reconstruct past environments of the East African Rift Valley from locations in close proximity to some of the world's most important fossil hominin and artifact sites. In this study, we investigate sediments from the West Turkana and North Awash Basins, which were recently drilled as part of the HSPDP. The North Awash Basin contains abundant early hominin fossils and the lakebeds of the Hadar Formation (~3.6 to ~2.9 Ma) will provide a record of climate variability during the Pliocene, prior to the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at ~2.7 Ma. The lakebeds of the Turkana Basin are Early Pleistocene in age (~1.9 to ~1.45 Ma) and span the interval that includes some the earliest fossils of Homo rudolfensis and H. ergaster/erectus. Here we examine the organic geochemistry of West Turkana and North Awash Basin sediments and investigate the use of proxies based on isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) to reconstruct temperature, including TEX86 and the methylation and cyclization (MBT and CBT) ratios and relative abundances of branched GDGTs. We also examine variability in the abundances and ratios of plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) to provide insight into past vegetation changes on the East African landscape.

  19. Model-based impact and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane J; Sharma, Monisha; O'Shea, Meredith; Sweet, Steven; Diaz, Mireia; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    To date, no studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in countries in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. We synthesized population and epidemiologic data for 20 EMENA countries using a model-based approach to estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ [international dollars] per DALY averted) associated with HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. We utilized additional epidemiologic data from Algeria, Lebanon, and Turkey to evaluate select cervical cancer screening strategies either alone or in combination with vaccination. Results showed that pre-adolescent vaccination of five consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage has the potential to prevent over 180,000 cervical cancer cases. Cases averted varied by country, largely due to differences in cancer burden and population size; 69% of cases averted occurred in the three GAVI-eligible countries in EMENA. Despite the low cervical cancer incidence in EMENA, we found that HPV vaccination was cost-effective using a threshold of each country's gross domestic product per capita (a common metric for evaluating cost-effectiveness) in all but five countries at a cost per vaccinated girl of I$25 ($5 per dose). However, cost-effectiveness diminished with increasing vaccine cost; at a cost of I$200 per vaccinated girl, HPV vaccination was cost-effective in only five countries. When the cost per vaccinated girl exceeded I$50 in Lebanon and Turkey and I$150 in Algeria, screening alone was most attractive. We identified opportunities to improve upon current national screening guidelines, involving less frequent screening every 3-5 years. While pre-adolescent HPV vaccination promises to be a cost-effective strategy in most EMENA countries at low costs, decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health

  20. The Toarcian Bathonian succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar): Facies analysis and tectono-sedimentary history in the development of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Mauro; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-04-01

    The latest Early to Middle Jurassic succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar) records the complex transition from the continental rifting of Gondwana to the drifting of Madagascar-India from East Africa. The Madagascan Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic successions have been included in several paleogeographic and geodynamic models explaining the evolution of the Gondwana margins. Nevertheless, in some cases, as for the Toarcian-Bathonian deposits of the Antsiranana Basin, no significant stratigraphic revision has been carried out since the early 1970s. New field surveys allow reconsidering the stratigraphic and structural context and the palaeoenvironmental meaning of Toarcian-Bathonian successions occurring in different parts of the basin. These successions rest on the Triassic-Early Jurassic Isalo Sandstone which records pre-breakup rift events with a dominantly fluvial deposition. This situation is similar to other continental rift basins of Gondwana. After a regional Toarcian transgression the different portions of the Antsiranana Basin were characterized by significantly diversified and coeval depositional environments. The basin can be subdivided in a SW and NE part separated by a NW-SE trending structural high. In the SW part of the basin (Ampasindava sub-basin) the so-called "Jurassique paralique" [Rerat, J.C., 1964. Note sur les variations de faciès des sèries jurassiques du nord de Madagascar. Comptes Rendus Semaine gèologique, Tananarive, pp. 15-22] or " Facies Mixtes de la Presqu'ile de Ampasindava" [Besairie, H., Collignon, M., 1972. Géologie de Madagascar; I. Les terrains sédimentaires. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, 35, 1-463], a 1500 m thick prevalently terrigenous deposit, has been subdivided into four units. They document the long-lasting development of coastal-deltaic systems in a highly subsiding area. In the NE portion of the basin (Ankarana-Analamera sub-basin), a coeval mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession subdivided in five units

  1. Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Hilmi, Nahla; McFarland, Willi; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Semini, Iris; Riedner, Gabriele; Tawil, Oussama; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline), international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4–14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations) and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%–54%), the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%), the relative frequency of male sex work (20%–76%), and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. Conclusions This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among several

  2. Vegetation, climate and fire-dynamics in East Africa inferred from the Maundi crater pollen record from Mt Kilimanjaro during the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Lisa; Hemp, Andreas; Zech, Wolfgang; Behling, Hermann

    2012-04-01

    The pollen, charcoal and sedimentological record from the Maundi crater, located at 2780 m elevation on the south-eastern slope of Mt Kilimanjaro, is one of the longest terrestrial records in equatorial East Africa, giving an interesting insight into the vegetation and climate dynamics back to the early last Glacial period. Our sediment record has a reliable chronology until 42 ka BP. An extrapolation of the age-depth model, as well as matching with other palaeo-records from tropical East Africa, suggest a total age of about 90 ka BP at the bottom of the record. During the last Glacial the distribution as well as the composition of the vegetation belts classified as colline savanna, submontane woodland, montane forest, ericaceous belt, and alpine vegetation changed. The early last Glacial is characterized by high amounts of Poaceae and Asteraceae pollen suggesting a climatically dry but stable phase. Based on the absence of pollen grains in samples deposited around 70 ka BP, we assume the occurrence of distinct drought periods. During the pre-LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) a higher taxa diversity of the ericaceous and montane zone is recorded and suggests a spread of forest and shrub vegetation, thus indicating a more humid period. The taxa diversity increases steadily during the recorded time span. The decent of vegetation zones indicate dry and cold conditions during the LGM and seem to have been detrimental for many taxa, especially those of the forest vegetation; however, the early last Glacial seems to have been markedly drier than the LGM. The reappearance of most of the taxa (most importantly Alchemilla, Araliaceae, Dodonea, Hagenia, Ilex, Myrsine, Moraceae, Piperaceae) during the deglacial and Holocene period suggest a shift into humid conditions. An increase in ferns and the decrease in grasses during the Holocene also indicate increasing humidity. Fire played an important role in controlling the development and elevation of the ericaceous zone and the tree

  3. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania: Implications for a superplume source for East Africa Rift magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Paterno; Hilton, David; Halldórsson, Sæmundur

    2014-09-01

    The recently discovered high, plume-like 3He/4He ratios at Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP) in southern Tanzania, similar to those at the Main Ethiopian Rift in Ethiopia, strongly suggest that magmatism associated with continental rifting along the entire East African Rift System (EARS) has a deep mantle contribution (Hilton et al., 2011). New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for high 3He/4He lavas and tephras from RVP can be explained by binary mixing relationships involving Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean) lithospheric mantle, present beneath the southern EARS, and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions and best represented by recent Nyiragongo lavas from the Virunga Volcanic Province also in the Western Rift. Other lavas from the Western Rift and from the southern Kenya Rift can also be explained through mixing between the same endmember components. In contrast, lavas from the northern Kenya and Main Ethiopian rifts can be explained through variable mixing between the same mantle plume material and the Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, present beneath the northern EARS. Thus, we propose that the bulk of EARS magmatism is sourced from mixing among three endmember sources: Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean) lithospheric mantle, Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions. We propose further that the African Superplume, a large, seismically anomalous feature originating in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa, influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa with magmatism at RVP and Main Ethiopian Rift representing two different heads of a single mantle plume source. This is consistent with a single mantle plume origin of the coupled He-Ne isotopic signatures of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the EARS (Halldorsson et al., 2014).

  4. Assessing heterogeneity in oligomeric AAA+ machines.

    PubMed

    Sysoeva, Tatyana A

    2017-03-01

    ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+ ATPases) are molecular motors that use the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to remodel their target macromolecules. The majority of these ATPases form ring-shaped hexamers in which the active sites are located at the interfaces between neighboring subunits. Structural changes initiate in an active site and propagate to distant motor parts that interface and reshape the target macromolecules, thereby performing mechanical work. During the functioning cycle, the AAA+ motor transits through multiple distinct states. Ring architecture and placement of the catalytic sites at the intersubunit interfaces allow for a unique level of coordination among subunits of the motor. This in turn results in conformational differences among subunits and overall asymmetry of the motor ring as it functions. To date, a large amount of structural information has been gathered for different AAA+ motors, but even for the most characterized of them only a few structural states are known and the full mechanistic cycle cannot be yet reconstructed. Therefore, the first part of this work will provide a broad overview of what arrangements of AAA+ subunits have been structurally observed focusing on diversity of ATPase oligomeric ensembles and heterogeneity within the ensembles. The second part of this review will concentrate on methods that assess structural and functional heterogeneity among subunits of AAA+ motors, thus bringing us closer to understanding the mechanism of these fascinating molecular motors.

  5. AAA (2010) CAPD clinical practice guidelines: need for an update.

    PubMed

    DeBonis, David A

    2017-09-01

    Review and critique of the clinical value of the AAA CAPD guidance document in light of criteria for credible and useful guidance documents, as discussed by Field and Lohr. A qualitative review of the of the AAA CAPD guidelines using a framework by Field and Lohr to assess their relative value in supporting the assessment and management of CAPD referrals. Relevant literature available through electronic search tools and published texts were used along with the AAA CAPD guidance document and the chapter by Field and Lohr. The AAA document does not meet many of the key requirements discussed by Field and Lohr. It does not reflect the current literature, fails to help clinicians understand for whom auditory processing testing and intervention would be most useful, includes contradictory suggestions which reduce clarity and appears to avoid conclusions that might cast the CAPD construct in a negative light. It also does not include input from diverse affected groups. All of these reduce the document's credibility. The AAA CAPD guidance document will need to be updated and re-conceptualised in order to provide meaningful guidance for clinicians.

  6. Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

  7. Off-axis volcano-tectonic activity during continental rifting: Insights from the transversal Goba-Bonga lineament, Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Agostini, Samuele; Philippon, Melody; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2018-03-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa, is characterized by the presence of major, enigmatic structures which strike approximately orthogonal to the trend of the rift valley. These structures are marked by important deformation and magmatic activity in an off-axis position in the plateaus surrounding the rift. In this study, we present new structural data based on a remote and field analysis, complemented with analogue modelling experiments, and new geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks sampled in different portions of one of these transversal structures: the Goba-Bonga volcano-tectonic lineament (GBVL). This integrated analysis shows that the GBVL is associated with roughly E-W-trending prominent volcano-tectonic activity affecting the western plateau. Within the rift floor, the approximately E-W alignment of Awasa and Corbetti calderas likely represent expressions of the GBVL. Conversely, no tectonic or volcanic features of similar (E-W) orientation have been recognized on the eastern plateau. Analogue modelling suggests that the volcano-tectonic features of the GBVL have probably been controlled by the presence of a roughly E-W striking pre-existing discontinuity beneath the western plateau, which did not extend beneath the eastern plateau. Geochemical analysis supports this interpretation and indicates that, although magmas have the same sub-lithospheric mantle source, limited differences in magma evolution displayed by products found along the GBVL may be ascribed to the different tectonic framework to the west, to the east, and in the axial zone of the rift. These results support the importance of the heterogeneous nature of the lithosphere and the spatial variations of its structure in controlling the architecture of continental rifts and the distribution of the related volcano-tectonic activity.

  8. Lake Challa (Kenya/Tanzania) sediments, a varved climate archive of environmental variability in equatorial East Africa of the last 25.000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, C.; Haug, G.; Plessen, B.; Kristen, I.; Verschuren, D.; Participants, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, an increasing number of climate records from low-latitude regions underscore the importance of tropical atmospheric processes in the global climate system. Nevertheless, the regional synchrony of temperature and humidity variations, as well as teleconnecting mechanisms between high and low latitudes are still poorly understood. The EuroCLIMATE project CHALLACEA aims to provide a continuous high- resolution multi-proxy record of temperature and moisture-balance variability in equatorial East Africa from the Last Glacial Maximum (25 ka BP) to the present. Lake Challa is a crater lake located about 40 km east of Mt. Kilimanjaro at an altitude of 880 m a.s.l. It is a freshwater lake whose water column is stratified during most of the year. It is fed by subsurface inflow which derives mainly from percolation of precipitation falling in the montane forest zone higher up the mountain. Within the lake form lacustrine deposits which predominantly consist of autochthonous components (carbonate, biogenic silica, organic matter). The present study focuses on microfacies analyses and isotope measurements. Fine laminations are preserved over wide parts of a 22 m long sediment profile. Microfacies analyses reveal that the light/dark couplets represent true calcite varves. The darker layers contain organic matter and endogenic calcite. Sediment trap studies show that these layers form during the warm season (Nov to Mar) when water temperatures are high and the lake is biological productive. The light layers consist predominantly of diatom frustules. They accumulate in the sediment trap between June and October. By counting and measuring the thickness of the varves on thin sections, we establish a varve record that currently covers the last 1500 years. Stable isotope analyses on bulk carbonates will complement this record and give further insights into the hydrological variability of the region and enhance our knowledge of climate change in the highly sensitive climate

  9. JPRS Report East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-22

    Latin America to West Europe. This has been made easier by the opening of our borders, the weakness of our customs and police ser- vices, Poland’s...past two years, two large drug shipments from Latin America were seized. They may have been the first attempts to open a route. UN experts who toured...Friday in eight volumes: China, East Europe, Central Eurasia, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Latin America , and West

  10. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  11. Climate Change or Urbanization? Impacts on a Traditional Coffee Production System in East Africa over the Last 80 Years

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929–2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate. PMID:23341884

  12. Development and Validation of Remote Sensing-Based Surface Inundation Products for Vector-Borne Disease Risk in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Ceccato, P.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.

    2014-12-01

    The potential impact of climate variability and change on the spread of infectious disease is of increasingly critical concern to public health. Newly-available remote sensing datasets may be combined with predictive modeling to develop new capabilities to mitigate risks of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and rift valley fever. We have developed improved remote sensing-based products for monitoring water bodies and inundation dynamics that have potential utility for improving risk forecasts of vector-borne disease epidemics. These products include daily and seasonal surface inundation based on the global mappings of inundated area fraction derived at the 25-km scale from active and passive microwave instruments ERS, QuikSCAT, ASCAT, and SSM/I data - the Satellite Water Microwave Product Series (SWAMPS). Focusing on the East African region, we present validation of this product using multi-temporal classification of inundated areas in this region derived from high resolution PALSAR (100m) and Landsat (30m) observations. We assess historical occurrence of malaria in the east African country of Eritrea with respect to the time series SWAMPS datasets, and we aim to construct a framework for use of these new datasets to improve prediction of future malaria risk in this region. This work is supported through funding from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program, and the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program. This study is also supported and monitored by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under Grant - CREST Grant # NA11SEC4810004. The statements contained within the manuscript/research article are not the opinions of the funding agency or the U.S. government, but reflect the authors' opinions. This work was conducted in part under the framework of the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative. ALOS PALSAR data were provided by JAXA EORC.

  13. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

  14. m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patron, Maria; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Langer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected. Pleiotropic functions have been assigned to m-AAA proteases, which act as quality control and regulatory enzymes in mitochondria. Loss of m-AAA proteases affects mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and deficiencies in the axonal transport of mitochondria. Moreover m-AAA proteases regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. Impaired degradation of the MCU subunit EMRE in AFG3L2-deficient mitochondria results in the formation of deregulated MCU complexes, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake and increased vulnerability of neurons for calcium-induced cell death. A reduction of calcium influx into the cytosol of Purkinje cells rescues ataxia in an AFG3L2-deficient mouse model. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the m-AAA protease and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and its relevance for neurodegeneration and describe a novel mouse model lacking MCU specifically in Purkinje cells. Our results pledge for a novel view on m-AAA proteases that integrates their pleiotropic functions in mitochondria to explain the pathogenesis of associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:29451229

  15. Meiotic Clade AAA ATPases: Protein Polymer Disassembly Machines.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Nicole; Hill, Christopher P

    2016-05-08

    Meiotic clade AAA ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), which were initially grouped on the basis of phylogenetic classification of their AAA ATPase cassette, include four relatively well characterized family members, Vps4, spastin, katanin and fidgetin. These enzymes all function to disassemble specific polymeric protein structures, with Vps4 disassembling the ESCRT-III polymers that are central to the many membrane-remodeling activities of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway and spastin, katanin p60 and fidgetin affecting multiple aspects of cellular dynamics by severing microtubules. They share a common domain architecture that features an N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain followed by a single AAA ATPase cassette. Meiotic clade AAA ATPases function as hexamers that can cycle between the active assembly and inactive monomers/dimers in a regulated process, and they appear to disassemble their polymeric substrates by translocating subunits through the central pore of their hexameric ring. Recent studies with Vps4 have shown that nucleotide-induced asymmetry is a requirement for substrate binding to the pore loops and that recruitment to the protein lattice via MIT domains also relieves autoinhibition and primes the AAA ATPase cassettes for substrate binding. The most striking, unifying feature of meiotic clade AAA ATPases may be their MIT domain, which is a module that is found in a wide variety of proteins that localize to ESCRT-III polymers. Spastin also displays an adjacent microtubule binding sequence, and the presence of both ESCRT-III and microtubule binding elements may underlie the recent findings that the ESCRT-III disassembly function of Vps4 and the microtubule-severing function of spastin, as well as potentially katanin and fidgetin, are highly coordinated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Patron, Maria; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Langer, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected. Pleiotropic functions have been assigned to m-AAA proteases, which act as quality control and regulatory enzymes in mitochondria. Loss of m-AAA proteases affects mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and deficiencies in the axonal transport of mitochondria. Moreover m-AAA proteases regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. Impaired degradation of the MCU subunit EMRE in AFG3L2-deficient mitochondria results in the formation of deregulated MCU complexes, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake and increased vulnerability of neurons for calcium-induced cell death. A reduction of calcium influx into the cytosol of Purkinje cells rescues ataxia in an AFG3L2-deficient mouse model. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the m-AAA protease and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and its relevance for neurodegeneration and describe a novel mouse model lacking MCU specifically in Purkinje cells. Our results pledge for a novel view on m-AAA proteases that integrates their pleiotropic functions in mitochondria to explain the pathogenesis of associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  18. Restricted Genetic Variation in Populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands Points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the Earliest Known Common Source

    PubMed Central

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C.; Sta. Maria, Inna Mikaella P.; Garcia, James Rainier M.; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( = Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes. PMID:25203830

  19. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Prevalence and risk factors meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farrag, Nesrine S.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Farag, Mohamed K.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising globally, but there is evidence that young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are at particularly high risk. We systematically searched the literature to map the MENA region for prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and examine the underlying risk factors and adverse effects associated with obesity in this region. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND (“last five years” [PDat]). Studies demonstrated an increasing prevalence of obesity among many countries in the MENA region, especially in the Gulf area. Notably, in Kuwait, prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 25.6% and 34.8% among young males and 20.8% and 20.5% among females. A meta-analysis revealed that physical inactivity, increased screen time, and higher social status were risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major challenge facing countries of the MENA region. Further research is needed to fully investigate the role of nutrition and other specific risk factors and evaluate various interventions to manage this pervasive and growing health problem. PMID:29354689

  20. Assessing North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecast skill to assist in the early warning of hydrometeorological extremes over East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, Jason B.; Hoell. Andrew,; Funk, Chris; Robertson, Franklin R.; Kirtmann, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The skill of North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecasts in East Africa (EA), which encompasses one of the most food and water insecure areas of the world, is evaluated using deterministic, categorical, and probabilistic evaluation methods. The skill is estimated for all three primary growing seasons: March–May (MAM), July–September (JAS), and October–December (OND). It is found that the precipitation forecast skill in this region is generally limited and statistically significant over only a small part of the domain. In the case of MAM (JAS) [OND] season it exceeds the skill of climatological forecasts in parts of equatorial EA (Northern Ethiopia) [equatorial EA] for up to 2 (5) [5] months lead. Temperature forecast skill is generally much higher than precipitation forecast skill (in terms of deterministic and probabilistic skill scores) and statistically significant over a majority of the region. Over the region as a whole, temperature forecasts also exhibit greater reliability than the precipitation forecasts. The NMME ensemble forecasts are found to be more skillful and reliable than the forecast from any individual model. The results also demonstrate that for some seasons (e.g. JAS), the predictability of precipitation signals varies and is higher during certain climate events (e.g. ENSO). Finally, potential room for improvement in forecast skill is identified in some models by comparing homogeneous predictability in individual NMME models with their respective forecast skill.

  1. Evolution of models to support community and policy action with science: Balancing pastoral livelihoods and wildlife conservation in savannas of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S; Nkedianye, D; Said, M Y; Kaelo, D; Neselle, M; Makui, O; Onetu, L; Kiruswa, S; Kamuaro, N Ole; Kristjanson, P; Ogutu, J; BurnSilver, S B; Goldman, M J; Boone, R B; Galvin, K A; Dickson, N M; Clark, W C

    2016-04-26

    We developed a "continual engagement" model to better integrate knowledge from policy makers, communities, and researchers with the goal of promoting more effective action to balance poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation in 4 pastoral ecosystems of East Africa. The model involved the creation of a core boundary-spanning team, including community facilitators, a policy facilitator, and transdisciplinary researchers, responsible for linking with a wide range of actors from local to global scales. Collaborative researcher-facilitator community teams integrated local and scientific knowledge to help communities and policy makers improve herd quality and health, expand biodiversity payment schemes, develop land-use plans, and fully engage together in pastoral and wildlife policy development. This model focused on the creation of hybrid scientific-local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy maker needs. The facilitation team learned to be more effective by focusing on noncontroversial livelihood issues before addressing more difficult wildlife issues, using strategic and periodic engagement with most partners instead of continual engagement, and reducing costs by providing new scientific information only when deemed essential. We conclude by examining the role of facilitation in redressing asymmetries in power in researcher-community-policy maker teams, the role of individual values and character in establishing trust, and how to sustain knowledge-action links when project funding ends.

  2. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Prevalence and risk factors meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising globally, but there is evidence that young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are at particularly high risk. We systematically searched the literature to map the MENA region for prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and examine the underlying risk factors and adverse effects associated with obesity in this region. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies demonstrated an increasing prevalence of obesity among many countries in the MENA region, especially in the Gulf area. Notably, in Kuwait, prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 25.6% and 34.8% among young males and 20.8% and 20.5% among females. A meta-analysis revealed that physical inactivity, increased screen time, and higher social status were risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major challenge facing countries of the MENA region. Further research is needed to fully investigate the role of nutrition and other specific risk factors and evaluate various interventions to manage this pervasive and growing health problem.

  3. Modulation of Heavy Rainfall in the Middle East and North Africa by Madden-Julian Oscillation Using High Resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.; McCabe, M. F.; Bangalath, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the modulation of subtropical rainfall by the dominant tropical intraseasonal signal of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), has been explored through the discussion of the MJO-convection-induced Kelvin and Rossby wave related teleconnection patterns. Our study focuses on characterizing the modulation of heavy rainfall in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region by the MJO, using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) simulations (25-km; 1979-2012) and a combination of available atmospheric products from satellite, in-situ and reanalysis data. The observed Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) and the simulated SST from GFDL's global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models (ESM2M) are employed in HIRAM to investigate the sensitivity of the simulated heavy rainfall and MJO to SST. The future trend of the extreme rainfalls and their links to the MJO response to climate change are examined using HIRAM simulations of 2012-2050 with the RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios to advance the possibility of characterization and forecasting of future extreme rainfall events in the MENA region.

  4. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely-Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Ozdogan, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.

    2012-12-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  5. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rain belt over Middle East and North Africa: A high-resolution AGCM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rain belt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high-resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model, the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rain belt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust-induced responses in global- and regional-scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rain belt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rain belt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semiarid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the "Sahel drought," the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region's climate.

  6. Systematic review of breast cancer biology in developing countries (part 1): Africa, the middle East, eastern europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South america.

    PubMed

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  7. Widespread Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa Is Driven by Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mulamba, Charles; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Irving, Helen; Barnes, Kayla G.; Mukwaya, Louis G.; Birungi, Josephine; Wondji, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing the extent, geographical distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a prerequisite for resistance management. Here, we report a widespread distribution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector An. funestus across Uganda and western Kenya under the control of metabolic resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Female An. funestus collected throughout Uganda and western Kenya exhibited a Plasmodium infection rate between 4.2 to 10.4%. Widespread resistance against both type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin) pyrethroids and DDT was observed across Uganda and western Kenya. All populations remain highly susceptible to carbamate, organophosphate and dieldrin insecticides. Knockdown resistance plays no role in the pyrethroid and DDT resistance as no kdr mutation associated with resistance was detected despite the presence of a F1021C replacement. Additionally, no signature of selection was observed on the sodium channel gene. Synergist assays and qRT-PCR indicated that metabolic resistance plays a major role notably through elevated expression of cytochrome P450s. DDT resistance mechanisms differ from West Africa as the L119F-GSTe2 mutation only explains a small proportion of the genetic variance to DDT resistance. Conclusion The extensive distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in East African An. funestus populations represents a challenge to the control of this vector. However, the observed carbamate and organophosphate susceptibility offers alternative solutions for resistance management. PMID:25333491

  8. Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Middle East/North Africa regional consensus on prevention, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Al Jefri, A H; Abujazar, H; Al-Ahmari, A; Al Rawas, A; Al Zahrani, Z; Alhejazi, A; Bekadja, M A; Ibrahim, A; Lahoucine, M; Ousia, S; Bazarbachi, A

    2017-04-01

    Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) of the liver is a serious, early complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), severe and very severe forms of which are associated with a high mortality rate. A wide variety of patient, disease and treatment-related risk factors for VOD/SOS have been identified. Several bodies have published recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of VOD/SOS following HSCT. A group of regional experts have developed a consensus statement on the diagnosis, prevention and management of VOD/SOS in the Middle East and North Africa region to help in the management of HSCT patients in the region. Risk factors of particular relevance in the region include iron overload in thalassaemia patients, some hereditary metabolic disorders due to consanguinity and infection with hepatitis virus B or C. Recommendations include diagnosis of VOD/SOS based on established clinical criteria, prophylaxis with defibrotide and/or ursodeoxycholic acid in patients at increased risk of VOD/SOS, and treatment with defibrotide for patients with severe/very severe VOD/SOS (and, if clinically indicated, in those with moderate or rapidly progressing VOD/SOS, as per the new European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation classification).

  9. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Stanciole, Anderson E; Ortegón, Mónica; Chisholm, Dan; Lauer, Jeremy A

    2012-03-02

    To determine the population level costs, effects, and cost effectiveness of selected, individual based interventions to combat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in the context of low and middle income countries. Sectoral cost effectiveness analysis using a lifetime population model. Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Disease rates and profiles were taken from the WHO Global Burden of Disease study; estimates of intervention effects and resource needs were drawn from clinical trials, observational studies, and treatment guidelines. Unit costs were taken from a WHO price database. Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. In both regions low dose inhaled corticosteroids for mild persistent asthma was considered the most cost effective intervention, with average cost per DALY averted about $Int2500. The next best value strategies were influenza vaccine for COPD in Sear-D (incremental cost $Int4950 per DALY averted) and low dose inhaled corticosteroids plus long acting β agonists for moderate persistent asthma in Afr-E (incremental cost $Int9112 per DALY averted). COPD is irreversible and progressive, and current treatment options produce relatively little gains relative to the cost. The treatment options available for asthma, however, generally decrease chronic respiratory disease burden at a relatively low cost.

  10. Combining livestock trade patterns with phylogenetics to help understand the spread of foot and mouth disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, A; Knowles, N J; Paton, D J

    2011-04-01

    International trade in animals and their products is recognised as a primary determinant of the global epidemiology of transboundary diseases such as foot and mouth disease (FMD). As well as causing serious production losses, FMD is highly contagious, being transmitted through multiple routes and hosts, which makes it one of the most important diseases affecting trade in livestock. Its occurrence has dramatic consequences for the agricultural economy of a normally disease-free country, as well as for the livelihoods and income generation of developing countries where the disease continues to be endemic. In the dynamic of FMD virus (FMDV) dispersal across the globe, phylogenetic inference from molecular sequences of isolated viruses makes a significant contribution to investigating the evolutionary and spatial pathways underlying the source of FMD epidemics. Matching data on livestock movement with molecular epidemiology can enhance our fundamental understanding when reconstructing the spread of the virus between geographical regions, which is essential for the development of FMD control strategies worldwide. This paper reviews the global situation of FMD in the last ten years, combining phylogenetic insights with information on livestock production systems and international trade to analyse the epidemiological dynamics of FMD and the sources of FMDV introductions at a regional level in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

  11. Sexual Health Help-Seeking Behavior among Migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia living in High Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rade, Donna Angelina; Crawford, Gemma; Lobo, Roanna; Gray, Corie; Brown, Graham

    2018-06-22

    The number of migrants has increased globally. This phenomenon has contributed to increasing health problems amongst migrants in high-income countries, including vulnerability for HIV acquisition and other sexual health issues. Adaptation processes in destination countries can present difficulties for migrants to seek help from and gain access to health services. This study examined migrants’ from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South East Asia (SEA) sexual health help-seeking behavior in high-income countries with universal health coverage. The systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and was registered with PROSPERO. Several databases were searched from 2000 to 2017. Of 2824 studies, 15 met the inclusion criteria. These consisted of 12 qualitative and three quantitative studies conducted in Australia, Spain, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Scotland, Ireland, and Sweden. Migrants experienced a range of difficulties accessing health services, specifically those related to sexual health, in high-income countries. Few studies described sources of sexual health help-seeking or facilitators to help-seeking. Barriers to access were numerous, including: stigma, direct and indirect costs, difficulty navigating health systems in destination countries and lack of cultural competency within health services. More culturally secure health services, increased health service literacy and policy support to mitigate costs, will improve health service access for migrants from SSA and SEA. Addressing the structural drivers for stigma and discrimination remains an ongoing and critical challenge.

  12. Natural killer cell-mediated innate sieve effect on HIV-1: the impact of KIR/HLA polymorphism on HIV-1 subtype-specific acquisition in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Rebecca N; Alter, Galit; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Saathoff, Elmar; Arroyo, Miguel A; Walsh, Anne M; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; McCutchan, Francine E; Kim, Jerome H; Kijak, Gustavo H

    2013-10-15

    Here we explore the association between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/HLA and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition with different viral subtypes circulating in East Africa. In the prospective Cohort Development (CODE) cohort (Mbeya, Tanzania), carriers of KIR3DS1 and its putative ligand (HLA-A or HLA-B Bw4-80Ile alleles) showed increased HIV-1 acquisition risk (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-10.63; P = .04) and a trend for enrichment for subtype A and A-containing recombinants (78% vs. 46%; OR = 4.05; 95% CI, .91-28.30; P = .09) at the expense of subtype C (11% vs. 43%; OR = 0.17; 95% CI, .01-.97; P = .08). In vitro, only natural killer cells from KIR3DS1(+)/HLA-Bw4-80Ile(+) healthy donors showed a 2-fold increased capacity to inhibit replication of subtype C vs subtype A viruses (P = .01). These findings suggest the presence of an innate sieve effect and may inform HIV-1 vaccine development.

  13. Experience and challenges for biologic use in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Africa and the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Al Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Sheikh, Afaf; Ammoury, Alfred; Ghosn, Samer; Gisondi, Paolo; Hamadah, Issam; Kibbi, Abdul-Ghani; Shirazy, Khalid

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of psoriasis in Africa and the Middle East (AfME) is high as in other regions and represents a significant problem for both dermatologists and patients. Psoriasis co-morbidities such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are also particularly common in these regions and may be under-recognized and under-treated. Despite this, regional guidelines to aid physicians on the appropriate use of biologic agents in their clinical practice are limited. A group of expert dermatologists from across the AfME region were surveyed to help establish best practice across the region, alongside supporting data from the literature. Although biologics have significantly improved patient outcomes since their introduction, the results of this survey identified several unmet needs, including the lack of consensus regarding their use in clinical practice. Discrepancy also exists among AfME physicians concerning the clinical relevance of immunogenicity to biologics, despite increasing data across inflammatory diseases. Significant treatment and management of challenges for psoriasis patients remain, and a move towards individualized, tailored care may help to address these issues. The development of specific local guidelines for the treatment of both psoriasis and PsA could also be a step towards understanding the distinct patient profiles in these regions.

  14. Potential for human immunodeficiency virus parenteral transmission in the Middle East and North Africa: An analysis using hepatitis C virus as a proxy biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Mohamoud, Yousra A; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission. PMID:25278675

  15. Readily functionalized AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded motifs.

    PubMed

    Tong, Feng; Linares-Mendez, Iamnica J; Han, Yi-Fei; Wisner, James A; Wang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-25

    Herein we present a new, readily functionalized AAA-DDD hydrogen bond array. A novel AAA monomeric unit (3a-b) was obtained from a two-step synthetic procedure starting with 2-aminonicotinaldehyde via microwave radiation (overall yield of 52-66%). 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the complexation event with a calculated association constant of 1.57 × 107 M-1. Likewise, the usefulness of this triple hydrogen bond motif in supramolecular polymerization was demonstrated through viscosity measurements in a crosslinked supramolecular alternating copolymer.

  16. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics. PMID:28748186

  17. The Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) Program and NASA Astrophysics Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Dana Edward; Clark, Coral; Harman, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a three-part professional development (PD) experience for high school physics, astronomy, and earth science teachers. AAA PD consists of: (1) blended learning via webinars, asynchronous content delivery, and in-person workshops, (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong’s B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, including interactions with NASA astrophysics & planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) during science flights on SOFIA, and (3) continuing post-flight opportunities for teacher & student connections with SMEs.

  18. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Birk, Marlene S; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis . We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  19. Minimally Invasive 2D Navigation-Assisted Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Fractures in East Africa: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Innocent; Wanin, Othman; Assey, Anthony; Shabani, Hamisi; Ngerageza, Japhet G; Berlin, Connor D

    2016-01-01

    Spinal surgery under Eastern-African circumstances is technically demanding and associated with significant complications, such as blood loss, infection, and wound breakdown. We report a spinal trauma case that was performed using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and navigation, and hypothesize that these newer techniques may enable surgeons to perform effective spinal surgery with minimal complications and good outcomes.  During the 2014 First Hands-on Neurotrauma Course held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, we successfully performed three minimally invasive and two-dimensional (2D) navigated spinal surgeries to decompress and stabilize patients with complete and incomplete spinal injuries. In this report, we present a case of a paraplegic patient with a T12 burst fracture who tolerated MIS surgery with no intraoperative complications, and is doing well with no postoperative complications one year after surgery. Minimally invasive spinal surgery and 2D navigation may offer advantages in resource-poor countries. As part of the Weill Cornell Tanzania Neurosurgery project and in conjunction with the Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery (as well as other organizations), further experiences with 2D navigation and MIS surgery will be recorded in 2015. A neurotrauma registry has already been implemented to better understand the current management of neurotrauma in Eastern Africa. PMID:27026832

  20. Genetic and antigenic characterisation of serotype A FMD viruses from East Africa to select new vaccine strains

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Fufa D.; Parida, Satya; Tekleghiorghis, Tesfaalem; Dekker, Aldo; Sangula, Abraham; Reeve, Richard; Haydon, Daniel T.; Paton, David J.; Mahapatra, Mana

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine strain selection for emerging foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks in enzootic countries can be addressed through antigenic and genetic characterisation of recently circulating viruses. A total of 56 serotype A FMDVs isolated between 1998 and 2012, from Central, East and North African countries were characterised antigenically by virus neutralisation test using antisera to three existing and four candidate vaccine strains and, genetically by characterising the full capsid sequence data. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data revealed the viruses to be of either African or Asian topotypes with subdivision of the African topotype viruses into four genotypes (Genotypes I, II, IV and VII). The existing vaccine strains were found to be least cross-reactive (good matches observed for only 5.4–46.4% of the sampled viruses). Three bovine antisera, raised against A-EA-2007, A-EA-1981 and A-EA-1984 viruses, exhibited broad cross-neutralisation, towards more than 85% of the circulating viruses. Of the three vaccines, A-EA-2007 was the best showing more than 90% in-vitro cross-protection, as well as being the most recent amongst the vaccine strains used in this study. It therefore appears antigenically suitable as a vaccine strain to be used in the region in FMD control programmes. PMID:25171846

  1. Molecularly Defined Nanostructures Based on a Novel AAA-DDD Triple Hydrogen-Bonding Motif.

    PubMed

    Papmeyer, Marcus; Vuilleumier, Clément A; Pavan, Giovanni M; Zhurov, Konstantin O; Severin, Kay

    2016-01-26

    A facile and flexible method for the synthesis of a new AAA-DDD triple hydrogen-bonding motif is described. Polytopic supramolecular building blocks with precisely oriented AAA and DDD groups are thus accessible in few steps. These building blocks were used for the assembly of large macrocycles featuring four AAA-DDD interactions and a macrobicyclic complex with a total of six AAA-DDD interactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anal intercourse among female sex workers in East Africa is associated with other high-risk behaviours for HIV.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen, Nienke J; Ingabire, Chantal; Luchters, Stanley; Bosire, Wilkister; Braunstein, Sarah; Chersich, Matthew; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological and HIV prevention studies in sub-Saharan Africa have almost exclusively focussed on vaginal transmission of HIV, the primary mode of transmission in the region. Little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual anal intercourse (AI), its correlates and its role in the spread of HIV. Prevention messaging seldom, if ever, includes AI. Sexual and other risk behaviours (including frequency of AI) were assessed in two cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers (FSW) in Kigali, Rwanda (n=800) and Mombasa, Kenya (n=820). In addition, a subset of FSW surveyed in Kigali attended seven focus group discussions and four in-depth interviews. AI was reported by 5.5% and 4.3% of FSW in the cross-sectional surveys, in Kigali and Mombasa, respectively. FSW practising AI reported multiple risk factors for HIV transmission: inconsistent condom use (odds ratio (OR) Kigali 5.9 (95% CI 1.4-24.7); OR Mombasa 2.1 (1.1-4.2)); more than five sexual partners in the past week (OR Kigali 4.3 (1.5-12.4); OR Mombasa 2.2 (1.1-4.3)); alcohol use before sex (OR Kigali 2.8 (1.4-5.8)); more than 5 years of female sex work (OR Mombasa 2.4 (1.2-4.9)); and history of genital symptoms in the past year (OR Mombasa 3.6 (1.7-7.9)). AI was, however, not associated with HIV prevalence (OR Kigali 0.9 (0.5-1.9); OR Mombasa 0.5 (0.2-1.2)). Negative connotations and stigma associated with AI were expressed during qualitative interviews. AI was associated with several indicators of sexual risk behaviour. Prevalence of AI was probably underreported due to social desirability bias. Stigma associated with AI poses methodological challenges in obtaining valid data.

  3. Effects of fertilizer on inorganic soil N in East Africa maize systems: vertical distributions and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tully, Katherine L; Hickman, Jonathan; McKenna, Madeline; Neill, Christopher; Palm, Cheryl A

    2016-09-01

    Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0-200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected (0-400 cm) annually (for three years in Yala and two years in Tumbi) to examine changes in inorganic N pools. Topsoils (0-15 cm) were collected every 3-6 weeks to determine how precipitation and fertilizer management influenced plant-available soil N. Fertilizer management altered soil inorganic N, and there were large differences between sites that were consistent with differences in soil texture. Initial soil N pools were larger in Yala than Tumbi (240 vs. 79 kg/ha). Inorganic N pools did not change in Yala (277 kg/ha), but increased fourfold after cultivation and fertilization in Tumbi (371 kg/ha). Intra-annual variability in NO - 3 -N concentrations (3-33 μg/g) in Tumbi topsoils strongly suggested that the sandier soils were prone to high leaching losses. Information on soil inorganic N pools and movement through soil profiles can h vulnerability of SSA croplands to N losses and determine best fertilizer management practices as N application rates increase. A better understanding of the vertical and temporal patterns of soil N pools improves our ability to predict the potential environmental effects of a dramatic increase in fertilizer application rates that will accompany the intensification of African croplands. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Cost and efficiency of a hybrid mobile multi-disease testing approach with high HIV testing coverage in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei; Chamie, Gabriel; Mwai, Daniel; Clark, Tamara D.; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Petersen, Maya; Kabami, Jane; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Kadede, Kevin; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Sang, Norton; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V.; Kahn, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013-14, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: 1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and 2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multi-disease services, and community mobilization. Methods We applied micro-costing methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH Trial communities. Main intervention components of the hybrid approach are census, multi-disease community health campaigns (CHC), and home-based testing (HBT) for CHC non-attendees. POC CD4 tests were provided for all HIV-infected participants. Data were extracted from expenditure records, activity registers, staff interviews, and time and motion logs. Results The mean cost per adult tested for HIV was $20.5 (range: $17.1 - $32.1) [2014 US$], including a POC CD4 test at $16 per HIV+ person identified. Cost per adult tested for HIV was $13.8 at CHC vs. $31.7 via HBT. The cost per HIV+ adult identified was $231 ($87 - $1,245), with variability due mainly to HIV prevalence among persons tested (i.e., HIV positivity rate). The marginal costs of multi-disease testing at CHCs were $1.16/person for hypertension and diabetes, and $0.90 for malaria. Community mobilization constituted 15.3% of total costs. Conclusions The hybrid testing approach achieved very high HIV testing coverage, with POC CD4, at costs similar to previously reported mobile, home-based, or venue-based HIV testing approaches in sub-Saharan Africa. By leveraging HIV infrastructure, multi-disease services were offered at low marginal costs. PMID:27741031

  5. Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Lee F; Elbireer, Ali; Jackson, J Brooks; Amukele, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda. Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI). AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015. Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46). One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

  6. Nursing and midwifery regulation and HIV scale-up: establishing a baseline in east, central and southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Carey F; Voss, Joachim; Verani, Andre R; Vidot, Peggy; Salmon, Marla E; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Shifting HIV treatment tasks from physicians to nurses and midwives is essential to scaling-up HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa. Updating nursing and midwifery regulations to include task shifting and pre-service education reform can help facilitate reaching new HIV targets. Donor-supported initiatives to update nursing and midwifery regulations are increasing. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of current practice and education regulations and a lack of information to target and implement regulation strengthening efforts. We conducted a survey of national nursing and midwifery councils to describe current nursing and midwifery regulations in 13 African countries. Methods A 30-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 13 national nursing and midwifery regulatory body leaders in attendance at the PEPFAR-supported African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative meeting in Nairobi, Kenya on 28 February, 2011. The survey contained questions on task shifting and regulations such as registration, licensure, scope of practice, pre-service education accreditation, continuing professional development and use of international guidelines. Survey data were analyzed to present country-level, comparative and regional findings. Results Task shifting to nurses and midwives was reported in 11 of the 13 countries. Eight countries updated their scope of practice within the last five years; only one reported their regulations to reflect task shifting. Countries vary with regard to licensure, pre-service accreditation and continuing professional development regulations in place. There was no consistency in terms of what standards were used to design national practice and education regulations. Discussion Many opportunities exist to assist countries to modernise regulations to incorporate important advancements from task shifting and pre-service reform. Appropriate, revised regulations can help sustain successful health workforce strategies and

  7. Polymorphism of antimalaria drug metabolizing, nuclear receptor, and drug transport genes among malaria patients in Zanzibar, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo; Veiga, Maria Isabel; Cavaco, Isa; Martins, J Paulo; Andersson, Björn; Mushin, Shaliya; Ali, Abullah S; Bhattarai, Achuyt; Ribeiro, Vera; Björkman, Anders; Gil, José Pedro

    2008-02-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy is a main strategy for malaria control in Africa. Zanzibar introduced this new treatment policy in 2003. The authors have studied the prevalence of a number of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with the elimination of the artemisinin-based combination therapy compounds in use in Zanzibar to investigate the frequencies of subgroups potentially at higher drug exposure and therefore possible higher risk of toxicity. One hundred three unrelated children with uncomplicated malaria from the Unguja and Pemba islands of Zanzibar were enrolled. With use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR-based allele discrimination methods, the CYP2B6 (G15631T), CYP3A4 (A-392G), CYP3A5 (A6986G, G14690A, 27131-132 insT, C3699T) SNPs and MDR1 SNPs C3435T, G2677T/A, and T-129C were analyzed. PCR product sequencing was applied to regulatory regions of MDR1, the CYP3A4 proximal promoter, and to exons 2 and 5 of PXR, a gene coding for a nuclear factor activated by artemisinin antimalarials and associated with the transcription induction of most of the studied genes. Homozygous subjects for alleles coding for low activity proteins were found at the following frequencies: 1) MDR1: 2.9%; 2) CYP2B6: 9.7%; 3) CYP3A5: 14.1%; and 4) CYP3A4: 49.5%. No functionally relevant allele was found in the analyzed regions of PXR. A new MDR1 SNP was found (T-158C), located in a putative antigen recognition element. Ten (10.1%) subjects were predicted to be low metabolizers simultaneously for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. This fraction of the population is suggested to be under higher exposure to certain antimalarials, including lumefantrine and quinine.

  8. Can Static Habitat Protection Encompass Critical Areas for Highly Mobile Marine Top Predators? Insights from Coastal East Africa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Omar, Mohamed; Katello, Jillo; Kinyua, Mark; Oro, Daniel; Louzao, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Along the East African coast, marine top predators are facing an increasing number of anthropogenic threats which requires the implementation of effective and urgent conservation measures to protect essential habitats. Understanding the role that habitat features play on the marine top predator' distribution and abundance is a crucial step to evaluate the suitability of an existing Marine Protected Area (MPA), originally designated for the protection of coral reefs. We developed species distribution models (SDM) on the IUCN data deficient Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We followed a comprehensive ecological modelling approach to study the environmental factors influencing the occurrence and abundance of dolphins while developing SDMs. Through the combination of ensemble prediction maps, we defined recurrent, occasional and unfavourable habitats for the species. Our results showed the influence of dynamic and static predictors on the dolphins' spatial ecology: dolphins may select shallow areas (5-30 m), close to the reefs (< 500 m) and oceanic fronts (< 10 km) and adjacent to the 100 m isobath (< 5 km). We also predicted a significantly higher occurrence and abundance of dolphins within the MPA. Recurrent and occasional habitats were identified on large percentages on the existing MPA (47% and 57% using presence-absence and abundance models respectively). However, the MPA does not adequately encompass all occasional and recurrent areas and within this context, we propose to extend the MPA to incorporate all of them which are likely key habitats for the highly mobile species. The results from this study provide two key conservation and management tools: (i) an integrative habitat modelling approach to predict key marine habitats, and (ii) the first study evaluating the effectiveness of an existing MPA for marine mammals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  9. Volcanic Centers in the East Africa Rift: Volcanic Processes with Seismic Stresses to Identify Potential Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patlan, E.; Wamalwa, A. M.; Kaip, G.; Velasco, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Geothermal Development Company (GDC) in Kenya actively seeks to produce geothermal energy, which lies within the East African Rift System (EARS). The EARS, an active continental rift zone, appears to be a developing tectonic plate boundary and thus, has a number of active as well as dormant volcanoes throughout its extent. These volcanic centers can be used as potential sources for geothermal energy. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the GDC deployed seismic sensors to monitor several volcanic centers: Menengai, Silali, and Paka, and Korosi. We identify microseismic, local events, and tilt like events using automatic detection algorithms and manual review to identify potential local earthquakes within our seismic network. We then perform the double-difference location method of local magnitude less than two to image the boundary of the magma chamber and the conduit feeding the volcanoes. In the process of locating local seismicity, we also identify long-period, explosion, and tremor signals that we interpret as magma passing through conduits of the magma chamber and/or fluid being transported as a function of magma movement or hydrothermal activity. We used waveform inversion and S-wave shear wave splitting to approximate the orientation of the local stresses from the vent or fissure-like conduit of the volcano. The microseismic events and long period events will help us interpret the activity of the volcanoes. Our goal is to investigate basement structures beneath the volcanoes and identify the extent of magmatic modifications of the crust. Overall, these seismic techniques will help us understand magma movement and volcanic processes in the region.

  10. Using the Landsat Archive to Estimate and Map Changes in Agriculture, Forests, and other Land Cover Types in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, S. P.; Oduor, P.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Ouko, E.; Gorelick, N.; Wilson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Every country's land is distributed among different cover types, such as: agriculture; forests; rangeland; urban areas; and barren lands. Changes in the distribution of these classes can inform us about many things, including: population pressure; effectiveness of preservation efforts; desertification; and stability of the food supply. Good assessment of these changes can also support wise planning, use, and preservation of natural resources. We are using the Landsat archive in two ways to provide needed information about land cover change since the year 2000 in seven East African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia). First, we are working with local experts to interpret historical land cover change from historical imagery at a probabilistic sample of 2000 locations in each country. This will provide a statistical estimate of land cover change since 2000. Second, we will use the same data to calibrate and validate annual land cover maps for each country. Because spatial context can be critical to development planning through the identification of hot spots, these maps will be a useful complement to the statistical, country-level estimates of change. The Landsat platform is an ideal tool for mapping land cover change because it combines a mix of appropriate spatial and spectral resolution with unparalleled length of service (Landsat 1 launched in 1972). Pilot tests have shown that time series analysis accessing the entire Landsat archive (i.e., many images per year) improves classification accuracy and stability. It is anticipated that this project will meet the civil needs of both governmental and non-governmental users across a range of disciplines.

  11. Lithospheric drip magmatism and magma-assisted rifting: a case study in the Western Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcavage, E.; Furman, T.; Nelson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is earth's largest continental divergent boundary and an unparalleled natural laboratory for understanding magmatism related to successful continental rifting. Classic views of continental rifting suggest that faulting and extension are facilitated by ascending magmas that weaken the lithosphere thermally and structurally within basin-bounding accommodation zones. In the EARS Western Rift (WR), many volcanic fields are not aligned along rift-bounding faults, and magma compositions lack evidence for asthenospheric inputs expected along lithosphere-penetrating fault systems. We note that compositional input from the Cenozoic Afar mantle plume is not recognized convincingly in WR mafic alkaline lavas1. Rather, magma compositions demonstrate significant input from anciently metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Destabilization and foundering of metasomatized SCLM has an increasingly recognized role in continental magmatism worldwide, producing volatile-rich, alkaline volcanics when drips of foundered SCLM devolatilize and melt on descent. This magmatism can lead to faulting: the lithospheric thinning that results from this process may play a role in physical aspects of rifting, contrasting with faulting facilitated by asthenospheric melts. Geochemical and geophysical evidence indicates that drip magmatism has occurred in several EARS provinces, including Turkana, Chyulu Hills, and in Afar2 where it is geographically coincident with successful rifting. We present bulk geochemical data that suggest drip melting of metasomatized SCLM is occurring in several WR volcanic fields. We focus on Bufumbira (Uganda), where mafic lavas are derived from garnet+phlogopite+amphibole+zircon-bearing pyroxenite, indicating a deep metasomatized SCLM source. Isotopic and trace element data suggest that extent of melting increased with depth of melting, a signature of lithospheric drip. We propose that drip magmatism is an important

  12. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  13. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2 Accumulated... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss...

  18. AAAS: Automated Affirmative Action System. General Description, Phase 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC. TACTICS Management Information Systems Directorate.

    This document describes phase 1 of the Automated Affirmative Action System (AAAS) of the Tuskegee Institute, which was designed to organize an inventory of any patterns of job classification and assignment identifiable by sex or minority group; any job classification or organizational unit where women and minorities are not employed or are…

  19. The temporal and spatial distribution of upper crustal faulting and magmatism in the south Lake Turkana rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J.; Scholz, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    During continental breakup extension is accommodated in the upper crust largely through dike intrusion and normal faulting. The Eastern branch of the East African Rift arguably represents the premier example of active continental breakup in the presence magma. Constraining how faulting is distributed in both time and space in these regions is challenging, yet can elucidate how extensional strain localizes within basins as rifting progresses to sea-floor spreading. Studies of active rifts, such as the Turkana Rift, reveal important links between faulting and active magmatic processes. We utilized over 1100 km of high-resolution Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) 2D seismic reflection data, integrated with a suite of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores (3 in total), to constrain a 17,000 year history of fault activity in south Lake Turkana. Here, a set of N-S-striking intra-rift faults exhibit time-averaged slip-rates as high as 1.6 mm/yr, with the highest slip-rates occurring along faults within 3 km of the rift axis. Results show that strain has localized into a zone of intra-rift faults along the rift axis, forming an approximately 20 km-wide graben in central parts of the basin. Subsurface structural mapping and fault throw profile analyses reveal increasing basin subsidence and fault-related strain as this faulted graben approaches a volcanic island in the center of the basin (South Island). The long-axis of this island trends north-south, and it contains a number of elongate cones that support recent emplacement of N-S-striking dike intrusions, which parallel recently active intra-rift faults. Overall, these observations suggest strain localization into intra-rift faults in the rift center is likely a product of both volcanic loading and the mechanical and thermal effects of diking along the rift axis. These results support the establishment of magmatic segmentation in southern Lake Turkana, and highlight the importance of magmatism for focusing upper

  20. Geometry and Kinematics of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Thrust Belt (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchi, Massimiliano R.; Cruciani, Francesco; Porreca, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Even if most thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt are generated at convergent plate boundaries, in the last decades advances in seismic exploration and acquisition of large datasets have shown that they are also notably widespread along continental passive margins, driven by gravity processes in deep-water areas. In this study a composite set of modern and vintage reprocessed seismic reflection profiles is used to investigate the internal structure and kinematic evolution of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Trust Belt (DW-FTB). The Lamu Basin is an example of giant-scale, gravity driven compressional belt developed in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary along a still poorly explored sector of the East-African continental margin, at the Kenya-Somalia border. The compressional domain extends longitudinally for more than 450 km, is up to 180 km wide and shows remarkable structural complexity both along strike and along dip. The external part is dominated by ocean-verging imbricate thrusts, above a gently landward-dipping basal detachment. The internal part is characterised by almost symmetrical detachment folds and double verging structures, sustaining bowl-shaped syn-tectonic basins. Here the basal detachment surface is almost flat. The mean fold wavelength displays a progressive landward increase, from 2.5 km, at the toe of the belt, to about 10 km. This structural variability is thought to be related to the lateral variation of the section under shortening and particularly to the different thickness of the Early Cretaceous shaly unit involved in the deformations, increasing landward from about 400 m to more than 1 km. Through the sequential restoration of regional cross-sections, we evaluated that the northern portion of the thrust belt experienced a shortening of almost 50 km (corresponding to 20%), with a shortening rate (during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene main event) of about 3.5 mm/yr. Under many respects, the dimensions and internal structure of this thrust belt

  1. Hydrologic and Agent-based Modelling of Hydro-refugia in East Africa, Insights into the Importance of Water Resources in Hominin Evolution and Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, G. M.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T. P.; Reynolds, S. R.; Bennett, M. R.; Newton, A. C.; McCormack, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hominin evolution and climate variability have often been linked because of the apparent coincidence of climate fluctuations and speciation or extinctions, although the cause and effect of climate on natural selection is not clear. Climate in the EARS (East African Rift System) where most hominin first occurrences are located experienced an overall drying over the last 7 myr. Superimposed on this trend, Milankovitch cycles generated wet-dry precession cycles ( 23 kyr) that changed both water and food resource availability. During dry periods, lakes became more alkaline and rivers ephemeral but, groundwater, buffered from surface climate effects, remained a potential resource during the driest of times. The possibility of widespread groundwater sources hydro-refugia, such as springs, wetlands and groundwater-fed perennial streams has received little attention with respect to the paleoenvironmental context of hominin evolution or dispersal. We demonstrate that hydrogeological modelling of the modern landscape in East Africa coupled with ABM (agent-based modelling) of hominin movement yields new insight into potential correlates of hominin survival and dispersal. Digitized hydrological mapping of present day rivers, lakes and springs along the EARS (2000 km) from northern Tanzania to Ethiopia provided the modelling framework. Present day conditions are considered analogous to past dry periods; wet period conditions are an expanded hydrologic network including all surface water bodies. Our focus was on perennial springs discharging at 1,000 m3/y (volume to sustain a small wetland). 450 such springs occur and were found to be significantly controlled by geology, not just climate. The ABM was designed to determine if it was possible for humans to walk between hydro-refugia in 3 days. Four climate scenarios were run on ABM: wet, wet-to-dry, dry and dry-to-wet. During dry periods our results suggest that groundwater availability would have been critical to supporting

  2. Along-dip variations of structural style in the Somali Basin deep-water fold and thrust belt (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Continental passive margins are place of extended slope-failure phenomena, which can lead to the formation of gravity-driven deep-water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), in regions where no far-field compressional stress is active. These giant geological features, which are confined to the sedimentary section, consist of extensional-compressional linked systems detached over a common décollement, generally salt or shales. The continental passive margin of northern Kenya and southern Somalia is an excellent and relatively unexplored site for recognizing and understanding the DW-FTBs originated over a regional shale décollement. In this study we have interpreted a 2D seismic data-set of the 1980s, hosted by Marine Geoscience Data System at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (http://www.marine-geo.org), and recently reprocessed by ENI, in order to investigate the structural style of a DW-FTB developed offshore of northern Kenya and southern Somalia (Somali Basin). This region records the oldest sedimentary section of the Indian Ocean since the breakup of Gondwana began in the Middle-Lower Jurassic separating Madagascar from Africa. From the Upper Cretaceous to at least the Lower Miocene, the margin has been characterized by gravitational collapse leading to the formation of a DW-FTB extending more than 400 km along-strike. The northern portion of the DW-FTB is about 150 km wide, whilst in the southern portion is few tens of km wide. We analysed the northern portion along a regional seismic section. Our study represents the first detailed structural interpretation of this DW-FTB since its discovery in the 1980s. The good quality of the available reprocessed seismic data has allowed us to identify remarkable along-dip variations in the structural style. The basal detachment constantly deepens landward, in agreement with a prevailing gravity-spreading deformation process (as in the case of the Niger Delta). On the seismic data are not visible, as

  3. Detection and genetic characterization of porcine group A rotaviruses in asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farms in East Africa: predominance of P[8] genotype resembling human strains.

    PubMed

    Amimo, J O; Junga, J O; Ogara, W O; Vlasova, A N; Njahira, M N; Maina, S; Okoth, E A; Bishop, R P; Saif, L J; Djikeng, A

    2015-02-25

    Viral enteritis is a serious problem accounting for deaths in neonatal animals and humans worldwide. The absence of surveillance programs and diagnostic laboratory facilities have resulted in a lack of data on rotavirus associated diarrheas in pigs in East Africa. Here we describe the incidence of group A rotavirus (RVA) infections in asymptomatic young pigs in East Africa. Of the 446 samples examined, 26.2% (117/446) were positive for RVA. More nursing piglets (78.7%) shed RVA than weaned (32.9%) and grower (5.8%) pigs. RVA incidence was higher in pigs that were either housed_free-range (77.8%) or tethered_free-range (29.0%) than those that were free-range or housed or housed-tethered pigs. The farms with larger herd size (>10 pigs) had higher RVA prevalence (56.5%) than farms with smaller herd size (24.1-29.7%). This study revealed that age, management system and pig density significantly (p<0.01) influenced the incidence of RVA infections, with housed_free-range management system and larger herd size showing higher risks for RVA infection. Partial (811-1604nt region) sequence of the VP4 gene of selected positive samples revealed that different genotypes (P[6], P[8] and P[13]) are circulating in the study area with P[8] being predominant. The P[6] strain shared nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence identity of 84.4-91.3% and 95.1-96.9%, respectively, with known porcine and human P[6] strains. The P[8] strains shared high nt and aa sequence identity with known human P[8] strains ranging from 95.6-100% to 92-100%, respectively. The P[13] strains shared nt and aa sequence identity of 83.6-91.7% and 89.3-96.4%, respectively, only with known porcine P[13] strains. No P[8] strains yielded RNA of sufficient quality/quantity for full genome sequencing. However analysis of the full genome constellation of the P[6], two P[13] and one untypeable strains revealed that the P[6] strain (Ke-003-5) genome constellation was G26-P[6]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1, P[13

  4. Incipient rifting accompanied by the release of subcontinental lithospheric mantle volatiles in the Magadi and Natron basin, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Fischer, Tobias P.; Muirhead, James D.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Kianji, Gladys; Takahata, Naoto; Sano, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    Geochemical investigations of volatiles in hydrothermal systems are used to understand heat sources and subsurface processes occurring at volcanic-tectonic settings. This study reports new results of gas chemistry and isotopes (O, H, N, C, and He) of thermal spring samples (T = 36.8-83.5 °C; pH = 8.5-10.3) from the Magadi and Natron basin (MNB) in the East African Rift (EAR). Althou