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Sample records for aaa fragrance ingredients

  1. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-04-15

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  2. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-15

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects.

  3. The search for new fragrance ingredients for functional perfumery.

    PubMed

    Narula, Anubhav P S

    2004-12-01

    Functional perfumery is an integral part of the fragrance business. It demands that the ingredients chosen for compounding withstand the aggressive nature of some of the bases used for soaps, detergents, softeners, bleach, and personal-care products. The synthetic efforts in this area reported in this short personal account, presented in a talk at the RSC/SCI conference Flavours & Fragrances 2004 (Manchester), have resulted in the discovery of the two new proprietary molecules Fleuranil (5/6) and Khusinil (7), which fulfill the criteria of functional perfumery. The structure-odor relationships of several analogs of Fleuranil and Khusinil prepared in the course of these investigations are also presented. PMID:17191835

  4. Strategy to decrease the risk of adverse effects of fragrance ingredients in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Jansson, T; Lodén, M

    2001-09-01

    In spite of extensive self-regulation of the fragrance industry, fragrance ingredients are still major causes of allergic contact dermatitis. There are indications that the problem is increasing in some countries, and that many nonregulated compounds are involved in the development of allergies. The use of essential oils in fragrance compounds might add both allergenic and carcinogenic compounds to a product and the exact composition of such ingredients is difficult to control. Herein, we propose a simple strategy to decrease the risk of adverse effects of fragrance ingredients in cosmetic products. This strategy consists of four major steps: (1) limit the concentration of fragrance compound in the products, (2) follow legislation and guidelines, (3) limit the concentration of a number of well-known sensitizing fragrance chemicals, and (4) limit the concentration of essential oils and materials with unknown composition. The strategy is discussed as an alternative to animal testing and in relation to other more resource-demanding approaches to the same problem. PMID:11526523

  5. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. PMID:25510979

  6. Fragrance material review on 2-phenoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenoxyethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenoxyethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenoxyethanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, and reproductive toxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036980

  7. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036972

  8. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033097

  9. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036973

  10. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. assessment of aryl alkyl alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients. PMID:22036982

  11. Criteria for development of a database for safety evaluation of fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ford, R A; Domeyer, B; Easterday, O; Maier, K; Middleton, J

    2000-04-01

    Over 2000 different ingredients are used in the manufacture of fragrances. The majority of these ingredients have been used for many decades. Despite this long history of use, all of these ingredients need continued monitoring to ensure that each ingredient meets acceptable safety standards. As with other large databases of existing chemicals, fulfilling this need requires an organized approach to identify the most important potential hazards. One such approach, specifically considering the dermal route of exposure as the most relevant one for fragrance ingredients, has been developed. This approach provides a rational selection of materials for review and gives guidance for determining the test data that would normally be considered necessary for the elevation of safety under intended conditions of use. As a first step, the process takes into account the following criteria: quantity of use, consumer exposure, and chemical structure. These are then used for the orderly selection of materials for review with higher quantity, higher exposure, and the presence of defined structural alerts all contributing to a higher priority for review. These structural alerts along with certain exposure and volume limits are then used to develop guidelines for determining the quality and quantity of data considered necessary to support an adequate safety evaluation of the chosen materials, taking into account existing data on the substance itself as well as on closely related analogs. This approach can be considered an alternative to testing; therefore, it is designed to be conservative but not so much so as to require excessive effort when not justified. PMID:10854123

  12. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products. PMID:26003515

  13. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036978

  14. Fragrance material review on α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin sensitization, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036977

  15. Fragrance material review on α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α,4-Trimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036983

  16. Fragrance material review on α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α-Dimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α-dimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033093

  17. Fragrance material review on 2-phenyl-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenyl-2-propanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenyl-2-propanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenyl-2-propanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033099

  18. Fragrance material review on 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033089

  19. Fragrance material review on β-methylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β-methylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β-Methylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β-methylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033095

  20. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033086

  1. Fragrance material review on 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036965

  2. Fragrance material review on β-methoxy-benzeneethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β-methoxy-benzeneethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β-methoxy-benzeneethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β-methoxy-benzeneethanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033100

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-5-phenylpentanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-5-phenylpentanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Methyl-5-phenylpentanol is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-5-phenylpentanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire aryl alkyl alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033092

  4. Fragrance material review on p-tolyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-tolyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Tolyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-tolyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033096

  5. Fragrance material review on 3-methyl-5-phenylpentanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-methyl-5-phenylpentanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Methyl-5-phenylpentanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-methyl-5-phenylpentanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitisation, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033091

  6. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenylpentanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenylpentanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Methyl-4-phenylpentanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAAs fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenylpentanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036976

  7. Fragrance material review on 2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033087

  8. Fragrance material review on α-propylphenethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-propylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Propylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-propylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033098

  9. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033088

  10. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA. PMID:26071898

  11. Allergenicity evaluation of fragrance mix and its ingredients by using ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU endpoints.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Kaymak, Yesim; Karakaya, Asuman

    2014-03-01

    The present studies were performed to compare the differences between sensitization potency of fragrance mix and its ingredients (oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal), by using ex vivo LLNA-BrdU ELISA. The SI and EC3 values were calculated and potency classification was found for the mixture and for each ingredients. TH1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) releases from lymph node cell culture were also investigated as contact sensitization endpoints. The EC3 values were calculated and the potency of contact sensitization were classified for fragrance mix, oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal respectively: 4.4% (moderate), 3.4% (moderate), 0.88% (strong), 16.6% (weak), 1.91% (moderate), 9.77% (moderate), 13.1% (weak), 17.93% (weak), 7.74% (moderate). According to our results it should be concluded that exposure to fragrance mix does not constitute an evidently increased hazard compared to exposure to each of the eight fragrance ingredients separately. Cytokine analyses results indicate that both TH1 and TH2 cytokines are involved in the regulation of murine contact allergy and can be considered as useful endpoints. PMID:24389455

  12. Fragrance material review on β,β,3-trimethyl-benzenepropanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of β,β,3-trimethyl-benzenepropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. β,β,3-Trimethyl-benzenepropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for β,β,3-trimethyl-benzenepropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036967

  13. Vapor fragrancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Q. Tran; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1987-05-01

    This invention relates to a vapor fragrancer for continuously, uniformly, and economically odorizing or deodorizing an environment. Homes, offices, automobiles, and space stations require either odorizing or deodorizing of the atmosphere to create pleasant conditions for work or leisure. A vapor fragrancer is provided to accomplish these goals. A supplier continuously supplies a predetermined amount of desired liquid fragrance from a container to a retaining material, which is positioned in the circulation path of the atmosphere. The supplier is either a low powered pump or a gravity dispenser. The atmosphere flowing in a circulation path passes over the retaining material containing the liquid fragrance and lifts a fragrant vapor from the retaining material. The atmosphere is thereby continuously and uniformly fragranced.

  14. Fragrance material review on anisyl formate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl formate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl formate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl formate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414650

  15. Fragrance material review on isodecyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of isodecyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Isodecyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659639

  16. Fragrance material review on acetyl cedrene.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl cedrene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl cedrene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. The generic formula for this group can be represented as (R1)(R2)CO. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl cedrene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. PMID:23907023

  17. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  18. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414644

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  20. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659633

  1. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659644

  2. Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

  3. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  4. AAAS: Politics. . . and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed during the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting held in Washington, D.C. Topics included: the equal rights amendment, laetrile, nuclear radiation hazards, sociobiology, and various science topics. (SL)

  5. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  6. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  7. Assessment of the risk of respiratory sensitization from fragrance allergens released by air fresheners.

    PubMed

    ter Burg, Wouter; Bouma, Krista; Schakel, Durk J; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; van Engelen, Jacqueline; van Loveren, Henk; Ezendam, Janine

    2014-04-01

    Consumers using air fresheners are exposed to the emitted ingredients, including fragrances, via the respiratory tract. Several fragrances are known skin sensitizers, but it is unknown whether inhalation exposure to these chemicals can induce respiratory sensitization. Effects on the immune system were assessed by testing a selection of five fragrance allergens in the respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA). The probability and extent of exposure were assessed by measuring concentrations of the 24 known fragrance allergens in 109 air fresheners. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners were D-limonene and linalool. In the respiratory LLNA, these fragrances were negative. Of the other tested chemicals, only isoeugenol induced a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation. Consumer exposure was assessed in more detail for D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol by using exposure modeling tools. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners, D-limonene, and linalool gave rise to a higher consumer exposure compared with isoeugenol. To evaluate whether the consumer exposure to these fragrances is low or high, these levels were compared with measured air concentrations of diisocyanates, known human respiratory sensitizers. This comparison showed that consumer exposure from air fresheners to D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol is considerably lower than occupational exposure to diisocyanates. By combing this knowledge on sensitizing potency with the much lower exposure compared to diisocyanates it seems highly unlikely that isoeugenol can induce respiratory sensitization in consumers using air fresheners. PMID:24640966

  8. Nominations sought for AAAS award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science seeks nominations for its Award for International Scientific Cooperation, which recognizes an individual or small group for outstanding contributions to furthering international cooperation in science or engineering.AAAS presents this award in collaboration with its affiliated organizations in the AAAS Consortium of Affiliates for International Programs. A prize of $2,500, a certificate of citation, and travel expenses to the AAAS annual meeting to receive the award are included.

  9. Fragrances in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheets Room fresheners Carpet fresheners Statements on labels, marketing claims, consumer expectations, and even some ingredients may ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Frequency of false-negative reactions to the fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van der Kley, A M; Bruynzeel, D P; Meinardi, M M; Smeenk, G; van Joost, T; Pavel, S

    1993-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of false-negative reactions to the fragrance mix, the 8 constituents of the mix in concentrations of 5% (2% for cinnamic aldehyde) were added to the European standard series for routine testing. Patients with positive reactions to individual ingredients in the absence of a reaction to the mix were retested with serial dilutions. In a 4-month period, 677 patients were tested. 61 (9%) reacted to the mix and to 1 or more of the ingredients. 4 patients (0.6% of all patients tested and 6.2% of the patients allergic to fragrances) had false-negative reactions to the mix. They were allergic to cinnamic alcohol, geraniol, isoeugenol and oak moss (1 reaction each), in the absence of a reaction to the fragrance mix. It is concluded that the currently used concentration of the mix (8 x 1%) not infrequently results in false-negative reactions, and that further research should be done to overcome this problem. PMID:8462288

  11. The design principles of axilla deodorant fragrances.

    PubMed

    McGee, T; Rankin, K M; Baydar, A

    1998-11-30

    There are a number of ways that deodorant products control malodor: a) by suppressing sweat, b) by inhibiting bacterial activity, and c) by covering malodor. The paper focuses on the Givaudan Roure methodology used to develop fragrances that effectively cover malodor. Several steps are involved in the development of a successful deodorant fragrance. First, we test for substantivity of the deodorant fragrance material in the axilla, using odor value technology. Second, using an in vitro test with reconstituted axilla odor, we determine the effectiveness of the substantive fragrance material with carefully screened panelists. Third, using a multichannel olfactive blender, the perfumer creates a fragrance heart with effective deodorant fragrance materials that cover malodor in the vapor phase. Finally, the hedonically pleasing heart is used to create the final fragrance, which is then optimized using our in vitro test method. PMID:9929699

  12. The AAA+ superfamily of functionally diverse proteins

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Thibault, Guillaume; Houry, Walid A

    2008-01-01

    The AAA+ superfamily is a large and functionally diverse superfamily of NTPases that are characterized by a conserved nucleotide-binding and catalytic module, the AAA+ module. Members are involved in an astonishing range of different cellular processes, attaining this functional diversity through additions of structural motifs and modifications to the core AAA+ module. PMID:18466635

  13. Present and future of cyclopropanations in fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Fridtjof

    2014-11-01

    The elaboration of new cyclopropanation methods is expected to make selectively new Δ-compounds available, either as precursors or as new ingredients with superior olfactory impacts. The improvement of cyclopropanation processes through understanding of reaction mechanisms reduces costs and environmental impact. Givaudan is the leading 'Flavor & Frangrance' company which successfully brings Δ-molecules to the market. Javanol(®) , for example, with its unique performance exemplifies the product of an efficient industrial cyclopropanation of a dienol precursor. Serenolide(®) , Toscanol(®) , and Pashminol(®) are other high-impact Δ-fragrance ingredients manufactured at Givaudan. This review describes our journey from advanced SimmonsSmith methodology using Zn carbenoids, to Al- and Mg-mediated cyclopropanation techniques in the context of related alternative cyclopropanation methods for the transfer of the CH2 group onto CC bonds. The resulting cyclopropane products are themselves interesting substrates for further transformation to other flavor and fragrance compounds. Throughout this Review, the notation Δ refers to the presence of a cyclopropane ring, i.e., a 'Δ-compound' is defined as a compound that contains a cyclopropyl substituent or a 'fused cyclopropa' component, or a 'spiro-cyclopropane' moiety. PMID:25408320

  14. Fragrances as new contaminants in the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Marco; Cremonese, Simone; Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Fragrance Materials (FMs) are omnipresent components of household and Personal Care Products (PCPs). In spite of their widespread use, little is known about their environmental occurrence. We selected 17 among the longest-lasting and most stable fragrance ingredients that are commercially available, namely: Amberketal, Ambrofix, Amyl Salicylate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bourgeonal, Dupical, Hexyl Salicylate, Isobutavan, Lemonile, Mefranal, Myraldene, Okoumal, Oranger Crystals, Pelargene, Peonile, Tridecene-2-Nitrile, Ultravanil. A new analytical method was developed to quantify FMs in water samples and it was applied to perform the first study about the distribution of these compounds in the surface waters of the city of Venice and its lagoon. Total FMs concentrations range from about 30ngL(-1) to more than 10μgL(-1) in polluted canals during the low tide. Sewage discharges were supposed to be the main sources of the selected FMs in the environment. Salicylates, oestrogenic and allergenic compounds, were in general the most abundant and widespread components. This study reports for the first time the detection of most of the selected FMs in surface waters and represent the first step to understand their environmental fate. PMID:27267717

  15. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product. PMID:26682289

  16. Fragrances as Cues for Remembering Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eich, James Eric

    1978-01-01

    Results of this experiment suggest that specific encoding of a word is not a necessary condition for cue effectiveness. Results imply that the effect of a nominal fragrance cue arises through the mediation of a functional, implicitly generated semantic cue. (Author/SW)

  17. Fragrance contact dermatitis - a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part III).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Walter; Nakayama, Hideo; Fischer, Torkil; Elsner, Peter; Frosch, Peter; Burrows, Desmond; Jordan, William; Shaw, Stephanie; Wilkinson, John; Marks, James; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, Marc; Nethercott, James

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 218 fragrance sensitive subjects were evaluated in eight centres worldwide with a fragrance mixture (FM) and 17 less well-studied fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 76% of the subjects. The (FM) detected all reactions to nerol and hydroxycitronellol and 93% of the reactions to clove bud oil. Ten fragrance materials were not detected by the FM and deserve further study: benzenepropanol, beta, beta, 3-trimethyl, hexyl-salicylate, dl-citronellol, synthetic ylang ylang oil, benzyl mixture, cyclohexyl-acetate, eugenyl methyl ether, isoeugenyl methyl ether, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, and 3, 7-dimethyl-7-methoxyoctan-2-ol. PMID:12000321

  18. Genetic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Jean, P.L.; Hart, B.K.; Zhang, X.C.

    1994-09-01

    The association between AAA and gender, smoking (SM), hypertension (HTN) and inguinal herniation (IH) was examined in 141 AAA probands and 139 of their 1st degree relatives with aortic exam (36 affected, 103 unaffected). There was no significant difference between age at diagnosis of affecteds and age at exam of unaffecteds. Of 181 males, 142 had AAA; of 99 females, 35 had AAA. Using log-linear modeling AAA was significantly associated at the 5% level with gender, SM and HTN but not IH. The association of AAA with SM and HTN held when males and females were analyzed separately. HTN was -1.5 times more common in both affected males and females, while SM was 1.5 and 2 times more common in affected males and females, respectively. Tests of association and linkage analyses were performed with relevant candidate genes: 3 COL3A1 polymorphisms (C/T, ALA/THR, AvaII), 2 ELN polymorphisms (SER/GLY, (CA)n), FBN1(TAAA)n, 2 APOB polymorphisms (Xbal,Ins/Del), CLB4B (CA)n, PI and markers D1S243 (CA)n, HPR (CA)n and MFD23(CA)n. The loci were genotyped in > 100 AAA probands and > 95 normal controls. No statistically significant evidence of association at the 5% level was obtained for any of the loci using chi-square test of association. 28 families with 2 or more affecteds were analyzed using the affected pedigree member method (APM) and lod-score analyses. There was no evidence for linkage with any loci using APM. Lod-score analysis under an autosomal recessive model resulted in excluding linkage (lod score < -2) of all loci to AAA at {theta}=0.0. Under an autosomal dominant model, linkage was excluded at {theta}=0.0 to ELN, APOB, CLG4B, D1S243, HPR and MFD23. The various genes previously proposed in AAA pathogenesis are neither associated nor casually related in our study population.

  19. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. PMID:26684797

  20. LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenait, Manel

    Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

  1. Intraspecific Geographic Variation of Fragrances Acquired by Orchid Bees in Native and Introduced Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886

  2. Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-08-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee. PMID:20623328

  3. Sequence analysis of the AAA protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The AAA protein family, a recently recognized group of Walker-type ATPases, has been subjected to an extensive sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the existence of a region of sequence similarity, the so-called AAA cassette. The borders of this cassette were localized and within it, three boxes of a high degree of conservation were identified. Two of these boxes could be assigned to substantial parts of the ATP binding site (namely, to Walker motifs A and B); the third may be a portion of the catalytic center. Phylogenetic trees were calculated to obtain insights into the evolutionary history of the family. Subfamilies with varying degrees of intra-relatedness could be discriminated; these relationships are also supported by analysis of sequences outside the canonical AAA boxes: within the cassette are regions that are strongly conserved within each subfamily, whereas little or even no similarity between different subfamilies can be observed. These regions are well suited to define fingerprints for subfamilies. A secondary structure prediction utilizing all available sequence information was performed and the result was fitted to the general 3D structure of a Walker A/GTPase. The agreement was unexpectedly high and strongly supports the conclusion that the AAA family belongs to the Walker superfamily of A/GTPases. PMID:9336829

  4. European Directive fragrances in natural products.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Scheman, Nicole; Rakowski, Ella-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Information on the presence of European Directive fragrance (EUF) allergens in plants and foods is important for numerous reasons. If an individual is allergic to an EUF and is avoiding fragrance, it is possible that they may still be exposed to the allergen in a natural product. In addition, because many of these allergens are also found in foods, it is possible that ingestion of a food containing the allergen may induce systemic contact allergy. Finally, individuals with lip dermatitis may react to contact with foods that contain the allergen. In this article, we have used the data available to identify which plants and foods contain EUF. When available, concentrations of EUF in natural products are provided. The goal of this article is to narrow down the list of botanicals to avoid for specific EUF allergies. PMID:24603515

  5. Modeling ready biodegradability of fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Ceriani, Lidia; Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Boethling, Robert; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, quantitative structure activity relationships were developed for predicting ready biodegradability of approximately 200 heterogeneous fragrance materials. Two classification methods, classification and regression tree (CART) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN), were applied to perform the modeling. The models were validated with multiple external prediction sets, and the structural applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach. The best models had good sensitivity (internal ≥80%; external ≥68%), specificity (internal ≥80%; external 73%), and overall accuracy (≥75%). Results from the comparison with BIOWIN global models, based on group contribution method, show that specific models developed in the present study perform better in prediction than BIOWIN6, in particular for the correct classification of not readily biodegradable fragrance materials. PMID:25663647

  6. Microencapsulated fragrances in melamine formaldehyde resins.

    PubMed

    Bône, Stéphane; Vautrin, Claire; Barbesant, Virginie; Truchon, Stéphane; Harrison, Ian; Geffroy, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The process for making melamine formaldehyde microcapsules containing fragrant oil is well-known. Recently, this technology has been used to enhance the olfactory performance on fabrics. However keeping the fragrance in the capsule during storage, improving the olfactory benefit and releasing a low amount of formaldehyde is highly challenging. To answer these challenges, Givaudan has developed its own melamine formaldehyde microcapsule, called Mechacaps, which is described in this article. PMID:21528653

  7. Harmony between Colors and Fragrances: Effect on Dimensions of Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kumiko; Saito, Miho

    The objective of this study is to extract dimensions in impressions of colors and fragrances, and to examine their harmonious relationship. Experiment A: One hundred subjects were requested to describe their impressions of eight fragrances, and to select harmonious/disharmonious colors from color charts. Experiment B: One hundred subjects described their impression of 18 colors and each color's degree of harmonization with each of the eight fragrances. In addition, we combined the results of Experiment A and Experiment B, and conducted several analyses. The factor analysis revealed the MILD factor and CLEAR factor for the dimensions of each fragrance, color, and combination of color and fragrance. The multiple regression analysis revealed the following tendency: the smaller the distance between colors and fragrances on the dimensions, the greater is the rise in harmony; conversely, the greater the distance, the greater is the disharmony.

  8. Accenting Fashion: Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrances. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, K. Denise; Ritz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information on the manufacture of cosmetics, toiletries, and fragrances. Includes a design brief, giving context, challenge, objectives, material and equipment needs, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  9. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  10. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals. PMID:20646673

  11. The Chemistry of Fragrances: A Group Exercise for Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duprey, Roger; Sell, Charles S.; Lowe, Nigel D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents Fragrance Structured Learning Packages (SLPs), group activities designed to help students recognize the value of applying chemistry in a real-world setting. Developed by the Department of Chemistry at the University of York. (Author/KHR)

  12. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2 Section 1.1368-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2 Accumulated adjustments account (AAA)....

  13. Experimental validation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm.

    PubMed

    Breitman, Karen; Rathee, Satyapal; Newcomb, Chris; Murray, Brad; Robinson, Donald; Field, Colin; Warkentin, Heather; Connors, Sherry; Mackenzie, Marc; Dunscombe, Peter; Fallone, Gino

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the performance of a newly released photon-beam dose calculation algorithm that is incorporated into an established treatment planning system (TPS). We compared the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) factory-commissioned with "golden beam data" for Varian linear accelerators with measurements performed at two institutions using 6-MV and 15-MV beams. The TG-53 evaluation regions and criteria were used to evaluate profiles measured in a water phantom for a wide variety of clinically relevant beam geometries. The total scatter factor (TSF) for each of these geometries was also measured and compared against the results from the AAA. At one institute, TLD measurements were performed at several points in the neck and thoracic regions of a Rando phantom; at the other institution, ion chamber measurements were performed in a CIRS inhomogeneous phantom. The phantoms were both imaged using computed tomography (CT), and the dose was calculated using the AAA at corresponding detector locations. Evaluation of measured relative dose profiles revealed that 97%, 99%, 97%, and 100% of points at one institute and 96%, 88%, 89%, and 100% of points at the other institution passed TG-53 evaluation criteria in the outer beam, penumbra, inner beam, and buildup regions respectively. Poorer results in the inner beam regions at one institute are attributed to the mismatch of the measured profiles at shallow depths with the "golden beam data." For validation of monitor unit (MU) calculations, the mean difference between measured and calculated TSFs was less than 0.5%; test cases involving physical wedges had, in general, differences of more than 1%. The mean difference between point measurements performed in inhomogeneous phantoms and Eclipse was 2.1% (5.3% maximum) and all differences were within TG-53 guidelines of 7%. By intent, the methods and evaluation techniques were similar to those in a previous investigation involving another convolution

  14. Multicomponent analytical methodology to control phthalates, synthetic musks, fragrance allergens and preservatives in perfumes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Llompart, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2011-07-15

    A simple, fast, robust and reliable multicomponent analytical method applicable in control laboratories with a high throughput level has been developed to analyze commercial brands of perfumes. Contents of 52 cosmetic ingredients belonging to different chemical families can be determined in a single run. Instrumental linearity, precision of the method and recovery studies in real samples showed excellent results, so that quantification by external calibration can be effectively applied. Relevant limits of detection and quantification were obtained for all the targets considered, far below the legal requirements and amply adequate for its accurate analytical control. A survey of 70 commercial perfumes and colognes has been performed, in order to verify whether these products complied with the recent changes in European legislation: regarding the maxima allowed concentrations of the ingredients and/or ingredient labelling. All samples contained some of the target ingredients. Several samples do not comply with the regulations concerning the presence of phthalates. Musks data confirmed the trend about the replacement of nitromusks by polycyclic musks; as well as the noticeable introduction of macrocyclic musks in the perfumes composition. The prohibited musk moskene has been detected in one sample in an appreciable concentration. The average number of fragrance allergens is twelve per sample; their presence must be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds the 0.001%, but values higher than 1% have been found in some samples. Preservatives data show that parabens, although ubiquitous in other cosmetic products, are not widely used in perfumery. In contrast, the presence of BHT is indeed widespread. The degree of compliance with the European Regulation on the labelling has been evaluated in a subset of samples, and only about the 38% of the perfumes were properly labelled for the allergens tested. PMID:21645712

  15. Impact of room fragrance products on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, Erik; Schulz, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Everyday life can no longer be imagined without fragrances and scented products. For the consumer, countless products exists which are solely or partly intended to give off a certain scent in sufficient concentrations to odorize a complete room. Sprays, diffusers and evaporators, scented candles and automatic devices for the distribution of fragrance liquids are typical examples of such products. If the consumer uses such products, his consent to the release of certain chemicals in his home can be implied, however, he may not know what kind of fragrance substances and solvents will be present in which concentrations. In this study, we determined the volatile emissions of a number of fragrance products in detail. Measurements were carried out under controlled conditions in test chambers. The products were tested in a passive (unused) and an active state, wherever applicable. Following a defined test protocol, the release of volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles and NOx was monitored for each product. The potential for forming secondary organic aerosols under the influence of ozone was studied, and for a selection of products the long-term emission behavior was assessed. A remarkable variety of fragrance substances was found and more than 100 relevant compounds were identified and quantified. While it is the intended function of such products to release fragrance substances, also considerable amounts of non-odorous solvents and by-products were found to be released from several air fresheners. Emissions rates exceeding 2 mg/(unit*h) were measured for the five most common solvents.

  16. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  17. Protein quality control in organelles - AAA/FtsH story.

    PubMed

    Janska, Hanna; Kwasniak, Malgorzata; Szczepanowska, Joanna

    2013-02-01

    This review focuses on organellar AAA/FtsH proteases, whose proteolytic and chaperone-like activity is a crucial component of the protein quality control systems of mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes. We compare the AAA/FtsH proteases from yeast, mammals and plants. The nature of the complexes formed by AAA/FtsH proteases and the current view on their involvement in degradation of non-native organellar proteins or assembly of membrane complexes are discussed. Additional functions of AAA proteases not directly connected with protein quality control found in yeast and mammals but not yet in plants are also described shortly. Following an overview of the molecular functions of the AAA/FtsH proteases we discuss physiological consequences of their inactivation in yeast, mammals and plants. The molecular basis of phenotypes associated with inactivation of the AAA/FtsH proteases is not fully understood yet, with the notable exception of those observed in m-AAA protease-deficient yeast cells, which are caused by impaired maturation of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. Finally, examples of cytosolic events affecting protein quality control in mitochondria and chloroplasts are given. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:22498346

  18. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Linalyl isovalerate, CAS Registry Number 1118-27-0.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Reproductive toxicity was based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) of 0.03 mg/kg/day for a Cramer Class I material. The estimated systemic exposure is determined to be equal to this value while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A systemic exposure at or below the TTC value is acceptable. PMID:26334794

  19. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Isoborneol, CAS Registry Number 124-76-5.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential as well as environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NOAEL of 15 mg/kg/day based on a gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a read across analog resulting in a MOE of 1000 considering 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable. PMID:26291250

  20. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Fenchyl alcohol, CAS registry number 1632-73-1.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Shen, J; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 15 mg/kg/day. A gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 10,714 while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable. PMID:26342767

  1. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl isobutyrate, CAS registry number 78-35-3.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Reproductive toxicity was based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) of 0.03 mg/kg/day for a Cramer Class I material. The estimated systemic exposure is determined to be below this value while assuming 80% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A systemic exposure below the TTC value is acceptable. PMID:26423640

  2. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, α-butylcinnamaldehyde, CAS Registry Number 7492-44-6.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 29.9 mg/kg/day. A dietary 14-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 3784810 while considering 9.54% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of > 100 is deemed acceptable. PMID:26364876

  3. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isoamyl salicylate, CAS registry number 87-20-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined using to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NOAEL of 47 mg/kg/day. A dietary 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 2350 while considering 10.3% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable. PMID:26419451

  4. Pro-fragrant ionic liquids with stable hemiacetal motifs: water-triggered release of fragrances.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nockemann, Peter; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2015-03-14

    Stable liquid and solid salts in the form of elusive hemiacetals, appended with fragrant alcohols, have been synthesised as pro-fragrances, and the controlled release of these fragrances, triggered by water, is demonstrated. PMID:25679944

  5. Autocatalytic processing of m-AAA protease subunits in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koppen, Mirko; Bonn, Florian; Ehses, Sarah; Langer, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    m-AAA proteases are ATP-dependent proteolytic machines in the inner membrane of mitochondria which are crucial for the maintenance of mitochondrial activities. Conserved nuclear-encoded subunits, termed paraplegin, Afg3l1, and Afg3l2, form various isoenzymes differing in their subunit composition in mammalian mitochondria. Mutations in different m-AAA protease subunits are associated with distinct neuronal disorders in human. However, the biogenesis of m-AAA protease complexes or of individual subunits is only poorly understood. Here, we have examined the processing of nuclear-encoded m-AAA protease subunits upon import into mitochondria and demonstrate autocatalytic processing of Afg3l1 and Afg3l2. The mitochondrial processing peptidase MPP generates an intermediate form of Afg3l2 that is matured autocatalytically. Afg3l1 or Afg3l2 are also required for maturation of newly imported paraplegin subunits after their cleavage by MPP. Our results establish that mammalian m-AAA proteases can act as processing enzymes in vivo and reveal overlapping activities of Afg3l1 and Afg3l2. These findings might be of relevance for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders associated with mutations in different m-AAA protease subunits. PMID:19656850

  6. New developments in the treatment of ruptured AAA.

    PubMed

    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Saleptsis, Vasileios; Rohlffs, Fiona; Wipper, Sabine; Debus, Eike S; Kölbel, Tilo

    2016-04-01

    Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (rAAA) represent the most common abdominal aortic emergency with an incidence of 6.3 per 100,000 inhabitants whereas the incidence of rAAA in the population over 65 years was 35.5/100.000 inhabitants. Early suspicion and diagnosis of rAAA is essential for good outcomes and over the past decades a great variety of perioperative management concepts, techniques and materials have been implemented to further improve the outcomes of this acute and life-threatening disease. Corner-stones for the improvement of outcomes include the introduction of management protocols for rAAA, the principle of hypotensive hemostasis and the introduction of endovascular techniques as well as the improved anesthesia and postoperative intensive care therapy with early identification and management of devastating complications such as the abdominal compartment syndrome. While the role of endovascular aortic repair in rAAA is not yet answered, it appears to be very promising especially in the presence of new techniques that could resolve a number of the problems restricting success of EVAR in rAAAs. PMID:26784556

  7. Inhibitors of the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Eli; Maksim, Nick; de la Cruz, Fabian; La Clair, James J.

    2015-01-01

    It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and physiology. PMID

  8. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: clinical management of fragrance mix #1 #2 patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Coman, Garrett; Maibach, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Today's fragrances are present in more than just perfumes, having become ubiquitous in skin care products such as creams, shampoos, sun tan lotion and deodorants. While aromatics can arouse the senses, aromatic compounds applied to skin can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This article describes diagnosis, limitations of patch testing for fragrance mix 1 and fragrance mix 2, the relevance of fragrance concentration in products, use testing of common consumer products and our current recommendations in regards to the management of fragrance contact allergy. PMID:24964169

  9. Expanding the fragrance chemical space for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of fragrance molecules in the public databases SuperScent and Flavornet were analyzed to define a “fragrance-like” (FL) property range (Heavy Atom Count ≤ 21, only C, H, O, S, (O + S) ≤ 3, Hydrogen Bond Donor ≤ 1) and the corresponding chemical space including FL molecules from PubChem (NIH repository of molecules), ChEMBL (bioactive molecules), ZINC (drug-like molecules), and GDB-13 (all possible organic molecules up to 13 atoms of C, N, O, S, Cl). The FL subsets of these databases were classified by MQN (Molecular Quantum Numbers, a set of 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure) and formatted for fast MQN-similarity searching and interactive exploration of color-coded principal component maps in form of the FL-mapplet and FL-browser applications freely available at http://www.gdb.unibe.ch. MQN-similarity is shown to efficiently recover 15 different fragrance molecule families from the different FL subsets, demonstrating the relevance of the MQN-based tool to explore the fragrance chemical space. PMID:24876890

  10. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  11. Expanding the fragrance chemical space for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ruddigkeit, Lars; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    The properties of fragrance molecules in the public databases SuperScent and Flavornet were analyzed to define a "fragrance-like" (FL) property range (Heavy Atom Count ≤ 21, only C, H, O, S, (O + S) ≤ 3, Hydrogen Bond Donor ≤ 1) and the corresponding chemical space including FL molecules from PubChem (NIH repository of molecules), ChEMBL (bioactive molecules), ZINC (drug-like molecules), and GDB-13 (all possible organic molecules up to 13 atoms of C, N, O, S, Cl). The FL subsets of these databases were classified by MQN (Molecular Quantum Numbers, a set of 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure) and formatted for fast MQN-similarity searching and interactive exploration of color-coded principal component maps in form of the FL-mapplet and FL-browser applications freely available at http://www.gdb.unibe.ch. MQN-similarity is shown to efficiently recover 15 different fragrance molecule families from the different FL subsets, demonstrating the relevance of the MQN-based tool to explore the fragrance chemical space. PMID:24876890

  12. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  13. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function. PMID:26453804

  14. Meiotic Clade AAA ATPases: Protein Polymer Disassembly Machines.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Nicole; Hill, Christopher P

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic clade AAA ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), which were initially grouped on the basis of phylogenetic classification of their AAA ATPase cassette, include four relatively well characterized family members, Vps4, spastin, katanin and fidgetin. These enzymes all function to disassemble specific polymeric protein structures, with Vps4 disassembling the ESCRT-III polymers that are central to the many membrane-remodeling activities of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway and spastin, katanin p60 and fidgetin affecting multiple aspects of cellular dynamics by severing microtubules. They share a common domain architecture that features an N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain followed by a single AAA ATPase cassette. Meiotic clade AAA ATPases function as hexamers that can cycle between the active assembly and inactive monomers/dimers in a regulated process, and they appear to disassemble their polymeric substrates by translocating subunits through the central pore of their hexameric ring. Recent studies with Vps4 have shown that nucleotide-induced asymmetry is a requirement for substrate binding to the pore loops and that recruitment to the protein lattice via MIT domains also relieves autoinhibition and primes the AAA ATPase cassettes for substrate binding. The most striking, unifying feature of meiotic clade AAA ATPases may be their MIT domain, which is a module that is found in a wide variety of proteins that localize to ESCRT-III polymers. Spastin also displays an adjacent microtubule binding sequence, and the presence of both ESCRT-III and microtubule binding elements may underlie the recent findings that the ESCRT-III disassembly function of Vps4 and the microtubule-severing function of spastin, as well as potentially katanin and fidgetin, are highly coordinated. PMID:26555750

  15. The systematic utility of floral and vegetative fragrance in two genera of nyctaginaceae.

    PubMed

    Levin, Rachel A; McDade, Lucinda A; Raguso, Robert A

    2003-06-01

    We examined relationships between fragrance and phylogeny using a number of approaches to coding fragrance data and comparing the hierarchical information in fragrance data with the phylogenetic signal in a DNA sequence data set. We first used distance analyses to determine which coding method(s) best distinguishes species while grouping conspecifics. Results suggest that interspecific differences in fragrance composition were maximized by coding as presence/absence of fragrance compounds and biosynthetic pathways rather than when quantitative information was also included. Useful systematic information came from both compounds and pathways and from fragrance emitted by both floral and vegetative tissues. The coding methods that emerged from the distance analyses as best distinguishing species were then adapted for use in phylogenetic analysis. Although hierarchical signal among fragrance data sets was congruent, this signal was highly incongruent with the phylogenetic signal in the DNA sequence data. Notably, topologies inferred from fragrance data sets were congruent with the DNA topology only in the most distal portions (e.g., sister group pairs or closely related species that had similar fragrance profiles were often recovered by analyses of fragrance). Examination of consistency and retention indices for individual fragrance compounds and pathways as optimized onto one of the most-parsimonious trees inferred from DNA data revealed that although most compounds were homoplastic, some compounds were perfectly congruent with the DNA phylogeny. In particular, compounds and pathways found in a few taxa were less homoplastic than those found in many taxa. Pathways that synthesize few volatiles also seem to have lower homoplasy than those that produce many. Although fragrance data as a whole may not be useful in phylogeny reconstruction, these data can provide additional support for clades reconstructed with other types of characters. Factors other than phylogeny

  16. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations. PMID:18038494

  17. Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Piotr; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Galińska, Elżbieta M.; Cholewa, Grażyna; Piątek, Jacek; Koźlik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components. PMID:24353491

  18. Protein unfolding and degradation by the AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eyal; Vishkautzan, Marina; Sauer, Robert T

    2012-02-01

    AAA+ proteases employ a hexameric ring that harnesses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold native substrates and translocate the unfolded polypeptide into an interior compartment for degradation. What determines the ability of different AAA+ enzymes to unfold and thus degrade different native protein substrates is currently uncertain. Here, we explore the ability of the E. coli Lon protease to unfold and degrade model protein substrates beginning at N-terminal, C-terminal, or internal degrons. Lon has historically been viewed as a weak unfoldase, but we demonstrate robust and processive unfolding/degradation of some substrates with very stable protein domains, including mDHFR and titin(I27) . For some native substrates, Lon is a more active unfoldase than related AAA+ proteases, including ClpXP and ClpAP. For other substrates, this relationship is reversed. Thus, unfolding activity does not appear to be an intrinsic enzymatic property. Instead, it depends on the specific protease and substrate, suggesting that evolution has diversified rather than optimized the protein unfolding activities of different AAA+ proteases. PMID:22162032

  19. Ex-congressman Rush Holt to lead AAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The particle physicist Rush Holt, who served in the US Congress for 15 years, has been named as the next chief executive of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) - the non-profit US society that promotes public engagement with science and technology.

  20. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  1. Effects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Graham, C A; Janssen, E; Sanders, S A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of fragrance on sexual response in women were investigated using subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal and of mood. Responses were obtained from female participants in three different fragrance conditions (female fragrance, male fragrance, and a "blank" or neutral substance), as they viewed erotic and sexually neutral films, and fantasized about sexual situations. Each woman was tested twice: during the midfollicular and periovulatory phases of her menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycle phase effects were apparent; self-report data indicated greater sexual arousal and more positive mood during the periovulatory than during the follicular phase. Results demonstrated a positive effect of the male fragrance on genital arousal during erotic fantasy, but this finding was apparent only during the follicular phase testing session. This effect did not appear to be mediated by any effects of fragrance on mood. PMID:10705769

  2. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies. PMID:25043487

  3. Functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

  4. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fragrance allergens in baby bathwater.

    PubMed

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2009-07-01

    A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of fragrance allergens in water samples. This is the first study devoted to this family of cosmetic ingredients performed by SPME. The influence of parameters such as fibre coating, extraction and desorption temperatures, salting-out effect and sampling mode on the extraction efficiency has been studied by means of a mixed-level factorial design, which allowed the study of the main effects as well as two-factor interactions. Excluding desorption temperature, the other parameters were, in general, very important for the achievement of high response. The final procedure was based on headspace sampling at 100 degrees C, using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fibres. The method showed good linearity and precision for all compounds, with detection limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the evaluation of the recoveries in different real water samples, including baby bathwater and swimming pool water. The absence of matrix effects allowed the use of external standard calibration to quantify the target compounds in the samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of allergens in several real samples. All the target compounds were found in the samples, and, in some cases, at quite high concentrations. The presence and the levels of these chemicals in baby bathwater should be a matter of concern. PMID:19458938

  5. Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Brian O.; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms found in screening programs are small, and as no effective treatment exits, many will expand until surgery is indicated. Therefore, it remains intriguing to develop a safe and low cost treatment of these small aneurysms, that is able to prevent or delay their expansion. In this study, we investigated whether intraluminal delivered pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can impair the early AAA development in a porcine model. Methods The infrarenal aorta was exposed in thirty pigs. Twenty underwent an elastase based AAA inducing procedure and ten of these received an additional intraluminal PGG infusion. The final 10 were sham operated and served as controls. Results All pigs who only had an elastase infusion developed macroscopically expanding AAAs. In pigs treated with an additional PGG infusion the growth rate of the AP-diameter rapidly returned to physiological values as seen in the control group. In the elastase group, histology revealed more or less complete resolution of the elastic lamellae in the media while they were more abundant, coherent and structurally organized in the PGG group. The control group displayed normal physiological growth and histology. Conclusion In our model, intraluminal delivered PGG is able to penetrate the aortic wall from the inside and impair the early AAA development by stabilizing the elastic lamellae and preserving their integrity. The principle holds a high clinical potential if it can be translated to human conditions, since it, if so, potentially could represent a new drug for stabilizing small abdominal aneurysms. PMID:27144001

  6. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture. PMID:21029705

  7. A structural analysis of the AAA+ domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein.

    PubMed

    Gleave, Emma S; Schmidt, Helgo; Carter, Andrew P

    2014-06-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that act as microtubule based molecular motors. The dynein heavy chain contains a motor domain which is a member of the AAA+ protein family (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities). Proteins of the AAA+ family show a diverse range of functionalities, but share a related core AAA+ domain, which often assembles into hexameric rings. Dynein is unusual because it has all six AAA+ domains linked together, in one long polypeptide. The dynein motor domain generates movement by coupling ATP driven conformational changes in the AAA+ ring to the swing of a motile element called the linker. Dynein binds to its microtubule track via a long antiparallel coiled-coil stalk that emanates from the AAA+ ring. Recently the first high resolution structures of the dynein motor domain were published. Here we provide a detailed structural analysis of the six AAA+ domains using our Saccharomycescerevisiae crystal structure. We describe how structural similarities in the dynein AAA+ domains suggest they share a common evolutionary origin. We analyse how the different AAA+ domains have diverged from each other. We discuss how this is related to the function of dynein as a motor protein and how the AAA+ domains of dynein compare to those of other AAA+ proteins. PMID:24680784

  8. Mitochondrial AAA proteases--towards a molecular understanding of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Florian; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial AAA proteases play an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. They regulate and promote biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins by acting as processing enzymes and ensuring the selective turnover of misfolded proteins. Impairment of AAA proteases causes pleiotropic defects in various organisms including neurodegeneration in humans. AAA proteases comprise ring-like hexameric complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are functionally conserved from yeast to man, but variations are evident in the subunit composition of orthologous enzymes. Recent structural and biochemical studies revealed how AAA proteases degrade their substrates in an ATP dependent manner. Intersubunit coordination of the ATP hydrolysis leads to an ordered ATP hydrolysis within the AAA ring, which ensures efficient substrate dislocation from the membrane and translocation to the proteolytic chamber. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the versatile functions of mitochondrial AAA proteases and their relevance to those of the other AAA+ machines. PMID:22001671

  9. Polypeptide translocation by the AAA+ ClpXP protease machine

    PubMed Central

    Barkow, Sarah R.; Levchenko, Igor; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    In the AAA+ ClpXP protease, ClpX uses repeated cycles of ATP hydrolysis to pull native proteins apart and to translocate the denatured polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we probe polypeptide features important for translocation. ClpXP degrades diverse synthetic peptide substrates despite major differences in side-chain chirality, size, and polarity. Moreover, translocation occurs without a peptide –NH and with 10 methylenes between successive peptide bonds. Pulling on homopolymeric tracts of glycine, proline, and lysine also allows efficient ClpXP degradation of a stably folded protein. Thus, minimal chemical features of a polypeptide chain are sufficient for translocation and protein unfolding by the ClpX machine. These results suggest that the translocation pore of ClpX is highly elastic, allowing interactions with a wide-range of chemical groups, a feature likely to be shared by many AAA+ unfoldases. PMID:19549599

  10. Advertising to the enemy: enhanced floral fragrance increases beetle attraction and reduces plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2012-02-01

    Many organisms face challenges in avoiding predation while searching for mates. For plants, emitting floral fragrances to advertise reproductive structures could increase the attraction of detrimental insects along with pollinators. Very few studies have experimentally evaluated the costs and benefits of fragrance emission with explicit consideration of how plant fitness is affected by both pollinators and florivores. To determine the reproductive consequences of increasing the apparency of reproductive parts, we manipulated fragrance, pollination, and florivores in the wild Texas gourd, Cucurbita pepo var. texana. With enhanced fragrance we found an increase in the attraction of florivores, rather than pollinators, and a decrease in seed production. This study is the first to demonstrate that enhanced floral fragrance can increase the attraction of detrimental florivores and decrease plant reproduction, suggesting that florivory as well as pollination has shaped the evolution of floral scent. PMID:22624324

  11. A single base substitution in BADH/AMADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and development of SNAP markers for the fragrance.

    PubMed

    Yundaeng, Chutintorn; Somta, Prakit; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chankaew, Sompong; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-09-01

    Sequence analysis revealed that an SNP (A1855G) in CsBADH of cucumber accession PK2011T202 causes amino acid change in a highly conserved motif, Y163C. Gene mapping showed association between the SNP and the fragrance. Pandan-like fragrance is a value-added trait in several food crops such as rice, vegetable soybean and sorghum. The fragrance is caused by the volatile chemical 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Mutation(s) in betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2; also known as aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2) gene causes defective BADH2 and results in biosynthesis of 2AP. Recently, cucumber cultivars possessing pandan-like fragrance were discovered in Thailand. In this study, we report an association between CsBADH and the fragrance in cucumber accession "PK2011T202". Gene expression analysis of CsBADH in leaves of PK2011T202 and "301176" (non-fragrant) at various growth stages revealed that CsBADH was expressed in both accessions. Sequence comparison of CsBADH showed that PK2011T202 possesses a single base substitution (A1855G) in exon 5 which causes an amino acid change in a highly conserved motif of BADH, Y163C. Single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism markers were developed to detect the SNP polymorphism between the wild-type and fragrance alleles. Since CsBADH is located on chromosome 1, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted for this chromosome using an F2 and a backcross populations developed from the cross between PK2011T202 and 301176. QTL analysis in both populations showed that the major QTL for fragrance, qFgr, was co-localized with the CsBADH. We concluded that the defect function of CsBADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber PK2011T202. PMID:26081947

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction of plant flavors and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO₂, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena. PMID:23783457

  13. Read-across estimates of aquatic toxicity for selected fragrances.

    PubMed

    Rorije, Emiel; Aldenberg, Tom; Peijnenburg, Willie

    2013-03-01

    Read-across as a non-animal testing alternative for the generation of risk assessment data can be useful in those cases where quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are not available, or are less well developed. This paper provides read-across case studies for the estimation of the aquatic toxicity of five different fragrance substances, and proposes a pragmatic approach for expressing uncertainty in read-across estimates. The aquatic toxicity estimates and their uncertainties are subsequently used to estimate fresh water compartment Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs), with their two-sided 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs). These PNECs can be used directly in risk assessment. The results of the musk fragrance read-across cases (musk xylene, musk ketone and galaxolide) are compared to experimentally derived PNEC values. The read-across estimates made by using similarity in a hypothesised mechanism of action for (acute) toxicity of musk xylene gave a PNEC of 2μg/L (90% CI 0.0004-13.5μg/L) with the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach. This estimated value is 1.8 times above the experimentally-based fresh water PNEC of 1.1μg/L. For musk ketone and galaxolide, the PNEC values based on the SSD approach and employing a toxicity mechanism-based read-across were 2.0 times greater, and 4.9 times below the experimentally derived PNEC values, respectively. PMID:23614546

  14. Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors relative to calcification in AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xun . E-mail: mpscrs@bath.ac.uk; Winrow, Vivienne R.; Horrocks, Michael; Stevens, Cliff R.

    2007-06-22

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. Human AAA tissue displays cells undergoing all stages of apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumour cells but not in normal cells. It has death receptors and decoy receptors. An inhibitor of TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), is involved in osteogenesis and vascular calcification. We investigated TRAIL and its receptors in AAA compared within normal aorta (NA). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of calcification in AAA walls were determined using Von Kossa staining and pre-operation computer tomography (CT) scans. There was a significant difference in calcification level at different locations in the AAA wall (p < 0.05). Apoptosis was confirmed in AAA by TUNEL assay. A significant difference in TRAIL and its receptor expression was observed between normal aortae and AAA (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed between tissues displaying different extents of calcification for TRAIL mRNA (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR examination and OPG protein (p < 0.01) by protein blotting examination. We propose that this pattern of expression of TRAIL and its receptors may contribute to AAA formation and calcification in the AAA wall.

  15. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Robson B; Santos, Mauricio C; Poppi, Ronei J

    2016-03-15

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies. PMID:26771246

  16. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, Robson B.; Santos, Mauricio C.; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2016-03-01

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies.

  17. Emerging mechanistic insights into AAA complexes regulating proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system(UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells.It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates.The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases,shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship.Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  18. Emerging Mechanistic Insights into AAA Complexes Regulating Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M.; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates. The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases, shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship. Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  19. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  20. Characterization of the Modular Design of the Autolysin/Adhesin Aaa from Staphylococcus Aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hirschhausen, Nina; Schlesier, Tim; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious and life-threatening infections, such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Its adherence to various host structures is crucial for the establishment of diseases. Adherence may be mediated by a variety of adhesins, among them the autolysin/adhesins Atl and Aaa. Aaa is composed of three N-terminal repeated sequences homologous to a lysin motif (LysM) that can confer cell wall attachment and a C-terminally located cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain having bacteriolytic activity in many proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show by surface plasmon resonance that the LysM domain binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin respresenting a novel adhesive function for this domain. Moreover, we demonstrated that the CHAP domain not only mediates the bacteriolytic activity, but also adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin, thus demonstrating for the first time an adhesive function for this domain. Adherence of an S. aureus aaa mutant and the complemented aaa mutant is slightly decreased and increased, respectively, to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen and fibronectin, which might at least in part result from an increased expression of atl in the aaa mutant. Furthermore, an S. aureus atl mutant that showed enhanced adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and endothelial cells also demonstrated increased aaa expression and production of Aaa. Thus, the redundant functions of Aaa and Atl might at least in part be interchangeable. Lastly, RT-PCR and zymographic analysis revealed that aaa is negatively regulated by the global virulence gene regulators agr and SarA. Conclusions/Significance We identified novel functions for two widely distributed protein domains, LysM and CHAP, i.e. the adherence to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin. The adhesive properties of Aaa might promote S. aureus

  1. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, CAS Registry Number 115-18-4.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Shen, J; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential as well as environmental safety. Repeated dose, developmental, and reproductive toxicities were determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 50 mg/kg/day, based on OECD gavage toxicity studies in rats, that resulted in a MOE of 4545455 after considering 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable. PMID:26206495

  2. AAA proteases in mitochondria: diverse functions of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    FtsH/AAA proteases comprise a distinct family of membrane-bound, ATP-dependent proteases present in eubacteria and eukaryotic cells, where they are confined to mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here, we will summarize versatile functions of AAA proteases within mitochondria, which ensure mitochondrial integrity and cell survival, acting both as quality control and processing enzymes. PMID:19781639

  3. Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…

  4. Perfume Fragrance Discrimination Using Resistance And Capacitance Responses Of Polymer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, John Paul Hempel; Vandendriessche, Thomas; Fonseca, Fernando J.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart M.; de Andrade, Adnei Melges

    2009-05-01

    This work shows a comparison between electrical resistance and capacitance responses of ethanol and five different fragrances using an electronic nose based on conducting polymers. Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements were performed to evaluate the main differences between the analytes. It is shown that although the fragrances are quite similar in their compositions the sensors are able to discriminate them through PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANNs (Artificial Neural Network) analysis.

  5. Coconut fragrance and cardiovascular response to laboratory stress: results of pilot testing.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, Elizabeth Sibolboro; Arumugam, Uma; Chen, Sylvia Yue; Stein, Traci R; Oz, Mehmet; Buckle, Jane

    2010-01-01

    There is preliminary evidence that pleasant fragrances may alter response to stressors in different settings. This pilot study examined the effect of coconut fragrance on cardiovascular response to standard laboratory stressors. While inhaling coconut fragrance (n = 17) or air (n = 15), subjects performed a Stroop color-word task and a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), heart period variability (HPV) and blood pressure were measured during the 5-minute baseline, the task, and the recovery periods. The results indicated that subjects breathing coconut fragrance had higher HR and lower HPV than those who performed tasks while breathing air. HR response to mental arithmetic seemed to be blunted in the subjects breathing coconut; however, the lack of a difference in HPV seems to indicate that the blunting may be due to decreased sympathetic response, not decreased parasympathetic withdrawal under stress. Blood pressure recovery was slightly enhanced in subjects under coconut fragrance. Thus, the results of this pilot test suggest that coconut fragrance may alter cardiovascular activity both at rest and in response to stressors. Future experimentation should attempt to replicate and extend these findings in larger samples in clinical settings. PMID:21037456

  6. Novel biocompatible nanocapsules for slow release of fragrances on the human skin.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Callewaert, Chris; Vanbeveren, Nelleke; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-25

    There is a growing demand for fragranced products, but due to the poor aqueous solubility and instability of fragrance molecules, their use is limited. Nowadays, fragrance encapsulation in biocompatible nanocontainer material is emerging as a novel strategy to overcome the evaporation of volatile molecules and to prolong the sensory characteristics of fragrance molecules and the longevity of perfumes. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative sustained release system of perfume, by entrapping fragrance molecules in a polymeric nanocarrier; the impact of this strategy on the human axillary microbiome was further assessed. Stabilised poly-l-lactic acid nanocapsules (PLA-NCs) with a diameter of approximately 115 nm were prepared through nanoprecipitation. Size and morphology of the capsules were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Two model hydrophobic compounds, chlorobenzene and fluorescein, representing two different types of functionalised molecules, were encapsulated in PLA-NCs with an efficiency rate of 50%. Different release behaviours were seen, dependent on hydrophobicity. For hydrophobic compounds, a steady release was observed over 48hours. The polymeric nanocarriers did not impact the human axillary microbiome. Because of the slow and sustained release of fragrances, encapsulation of molecules in biocompatible NCs can represent a revolutionary contribution to the future of toiletries, body deodorant products, and in washing and cleaning sectors. PMID:25224920

  7. Leaf herbivory increases floral fragrance in male but not female Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana (Cucurbitaceae) flowers.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Kesler, Karen; Adler, Lynn S

    2009-05-01

    Mutualisms are key interactions that affect population dynamics and structure communities, but the extent to which mutualists can attract potential partners may depend on community context. Many studies have shown that leaf herbivory reduces pollinator visitation and have focused on reduced floral visual display and rewards as potential mechanisms. However, olfactory display plays a critical role in mediating interactions between plants, herbivores, and pollinators. We simulated leaf damage in Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana and measured fragrance emission and other floral characters of both male and female flowers. Contrary to our expectations, damage increased fragrance production, but only in male flowers. Female flowers, which were bigger and produced more fragrance than males, were unaffected by leaf damage. The greatest increase in floral fragrance compounds was in the terpenoids, which we hypothesize could be byproducts of defensively induced cucurbitacins, or they may function defensively themselves. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate changes in floral fragrance due to leaf damage. Such changes in floral fragrance following herbivory may be a critical and overlooked mechanism mediating interactions between plants, herbivores, and pollinators. PMID:21628242

  8. Effects of various fragrant ingredients on desmopressin-induced fluid retention in mice.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Shibata, Yujiro

    2010-07-01

    Although fragrances are often used in aromatherapy for the treatment of edema, few studies on their diuretic and/or antiedematous activities have been performed. In this study, the effects of four types of fragrant ingredients (d-limonene, piperitone, alpha-pinene, and cinnamaldehyde) were examined in a mouse model of fluid retention. The mice were loaded with water after treatment with desmopressin (an antidiuretic hormone). In addition, zingerone, a pungent component of ginger which is considered to be effective in the treatment of edema, was examined. Moreover, their effects were compared with those of furosemide, a representative diuretic. Among the five types of fragrant ingredients examined, all except for cinnamaldehyde increased the urine volume in the fluid retention mouse model when administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In particular, d-limonene and zingerone significantly increased the urine volume. Thus the effects of these two ingredients were further examined at lower doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. d-Limonene significantly increased the urine volume in a dose-dependent manner. Zingerone resulted in a significant increase in the urine volume only at a dose of 30 mg/kg. In normal mice, d-limonene did not affect the urine volume at the same doses. In contrast, zingerone significantly increased the urine volume in normal mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Furosemide significantly increased the urine volume in both the fluid-retentive and normal mice. These results indicate that both d-limonene and zingerone exhibit diuretic actions; however, the former fragrance only exerted an action in the fluid-retentive state. This different action suggests that d-limonene might be promising for the treatment of edema. PMID:20606379

  9. Loss of Drosophila i-AAA protease, dYME1L, causes abnormal mitochondria and apoptotic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Qi, Y; Liu, H; Daniels, M P; Zhang, G; Xu, H

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) proteases i-AAA (intermembrane space-AAA) and m-AAA (matrix-AAA) are closely related and have major roles in inner membrane protein homeostasis. Mutations of m-AAA proteases are associated with neuromuscular disorders in humans. However, the role of i-AAA in metazoans is poorly understood. We generated a deletion affecting Drosophila i-AAA, dYME1L (dYME1L(del)). Mutant flies exhibited premature aging, progressive locomotor deficiency and neurodegeneration that resemble some key features of m-AAA diseases. dYME1L(del) flies displayed elevated mitochondrial unfolded protein stress and irregular cristae. Aged dYME1L(del) flies had reduced complex I (NADH/ubiquinone oxidoreductase) activity, increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), severely disorganized mitochondrial membranes and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibiting apoptosis by targeting dOmi (Drosophila Htra2/Omi) or DIAP1, or reducing ROS accumulation suppressed retinal degeneration. Our results suggest that i-AAA is essential for removing unfolded proteins and maintaining mitochondrial membrane architecture. Loss of i-AAA leads to the accumulation of oxidative damage and progressive deterioration of membrane integrity, which might contribute to apoptosis upon the release of proapoptotic molecules such as dOmi. Containing ROS level could be a potential strategy to manage mitochondrial AAA protease deficiency. PMID:26160069

  10. Functional Expression of an Orchid Fragrance Gene in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Adelene Ai Lian; Abdullah, Janna O.; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Shafee, Norazizah; Rahim, Raha A.

    2012-01-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP), an orchid hybrid of Vanda tesselata and Vanda Tan Chay Yan is a highly scented tropical orchid which blooms all year round. Previous studies revealed that VMP produces a variety of isoprenoid volatiles during daylight. Isoprenoids are well known to contribute significantly to the scent of most fragrant plants. They are a large group of secondary metabolites which may possess valuable characteristics such as flavor, fragrance and toxicity and are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway or/and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, a sesquiterpene synthase gene denoted VMPSTS, previously isolated from a floral cDNA library of VMP was cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis to characterize the functionality of the protein. L. lactis, a food grade bacterium which utilizes the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production was found to be a suitable host for the characterization of plant terpene synthases. Through recombinant expression of VMPSTS, it was revealed that VMPSTS produced multiple sesquiterpenes and germacrene D dominates its profile. PMID:22408409

  11. Functional expression of an orchid fragrance gene in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Song, Adelene Ai Lian; Abdullah, Janna O; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Shafee, Norazizah; Rahim, Raha A

    2012-01-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP), an orchid hybrid of Vanda tesselata and Vanda Tan Chay Yan is a highly scented tropical orchid which blooms all year round. Previous studies revealed that VMP produces a variety of isoprenoid volatiles during daylight. Isoprenoids are well known to contribute significantly to the scent of most fragrant plants. They are a large group of secondary metabolites which may possess valuable characteristics such as flavor, fragrance and toxicity and are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway or/and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, a sesquiterpene synthase gene denoted VMPSTS, previously isolated from a floral cDNA library of VMP was cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis to characterize the functionality of the protein. L. lactis, a food grade bacterium which utilizes the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production was found to be a suitable host for the characterization of plant terpene synthases. Through recombinant expression of VMPSTS, it was revealed that VMPSTS produced multiple sesquiterpenes and germacrene D dominates its profile. PMID:22408409

  12. Dental patient anxiety: Possible deal with Lavender fragrance

    PubMed Central

    Zabirunnisa, Md.; Gadagi, Jayaprakash S.; Gadde, Praveen; Myla, Nagamalleshwari; Koneru, Jyothirmai; Thatimatla, Chandrasekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The pure essence of plants (essential oils) provides both psychological and physiological benefits when used accurately and safely. Conventionally, Lavender oil is known for relaxing, carminative, and sedative effects. Hence, an attempt was made to know the effect of Lavender essential oil on dental patient anxiety. Methods: The present study included two comparison groups (Lavender and control group), each comprising five dental clinics. In Lavender group, the ambient odor of Lavender essential oil was maintained with the help of a candle warmer in the reception area and in the control group, candle warmer with normal water was used. A total of 597 patients, aged above 18 years were included. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, and a modified dental anxiety scale was given to the patients in waiting room, and data regarding anxiety levels was recorded. Findings: Student's t-test (unpaired) showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores of Lavender group compared with the control group. Analysis of variances test showed reduction in anxiety scores as age increased in Lavender group. Conclusion: Fragrance of Lavender oil at reception area may effectively reduce the patient's state or current anxiety. This practice on routine usage can improve the quality of dental treatments. PMID:25328900

  13. Modelling of residually stressed materials with application to AAA.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, T; Dorfmann, L; Ogden, R W

    2016-08-01

    Residual stresses are generated in living tissues by processes of growth and adaptation and they significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of the tissues. Thus, to effectively model the elastic response of the tissues relative to a residually stressed configuration the residual stresses need to be incorporated into the constitutive equations. The purposes of this paper are (a) to summarise a general elastic constitutive formulation that includes residual stress, (b) to specify the tensors needed for the three-dimensional implementation of the theory in a nonlinear finite element code, and (c) to use the theory and its implementation to evaluate the wall stress distribution in an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using patient specific geometry and material model parameters. The considered material is anisotropic with two preferred directions indicating the orientation of the collagen fibres in the aortic tissue. The method described in this paper is general and can be used, by specifying appropriate energy functions, to investigate other residually stressed biological systems. PMID:26874252

  14. AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways

    MedlinePlus

    ... Highways Crashes involving objects that have fallen from vehicles up 40 percent since 2001 To use the ... the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Crashes involving vehicle-related debris are up 40 percent since the ...

  15. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients. PMID:19562883

  16. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12405783

  17. Determining the influence of calcification on the failure properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Mulvihill, John J; Barrett, Hilary E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    Varying degrees of calcification are present in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, their impact on AAA failure properties and AAA rupture risk is unclear. The aim of this work is evaluate and compare the failure properties of partially calcified and predominantly fibrous AAA tissue and investigate the potential reasons for failure. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed on AAA samples harvested from 31 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Individual tensile samples were divided into two groups: fibrous (n=31) and partially calcified (n=38). The presence of calcification was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 69 mechanical tests were performed and the failure stretch (λf), failure stress (σf) and failure tension (Tf) were recorded for each test. Following mechanical testing, the failure sites of a subset of both tissue types were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the potential reasons for failure. It has been shown that the failure properties of partially calcified tissue are significantly reduced compared to fibrous tissue and SEM and EDS results suggest that the junction between a calcification deposit and the fibrous matrix is highly susceptible to failure. This study implicates the presence of calcification as a key player in AAA rupture risk and provides further motivation for the development of non-invasive methods of measuring calcification. PMID:25482218

  18. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  19. Determinants of exposure to fragranced product chemical mixtures in a sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fox, Mary A

    2015-02-01

    Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for "twin pair" and "sharing address with twin", and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and "ever being bothered by fragrances". Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was "more vs. less", followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93). This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96), rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25) and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27). Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95) but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. "Ever being bothered by fragrance" had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30) but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93). Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28) but there were apparent differences in use of shampoo (0.01, 95% CI: 0.00, 0

  20. Engineering Silicone Rubbers for In vitro Studies: Creating AAA Models and ILT Analogues with Physiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, T.J.; Doyle, B.J.; Callanan, A.; Walsh, M.T.; McGloughlin, T.M

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro studies of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have been widely reported. Frequently mock artery models with intraluminal thrombus (ILT) analogues are used to mimic the AAA in vivo. While the models used may be physiological, their properties are frequently either not reported or investigated. Method of Approach This study is concerned with the testing and characterisation of previously used vessel analogue materials and the development of new materials for the manufacture of AAA models. These materials were used in conjunction with a previously validated injection moulding technique to manufacture AAA models of ideal geometry. To determine the model properties (stiffness (β) and compliance) the diameter change of each AAA model was investigated under incrementally increasing internal pressures and compared to published in vivo studies to determine if the models behaved physiologically. A FEA study was implemented to determine if the pressure – diameter change behaviour of the models could be predicted numerically. ILT analogues were also manufactured and characterised. Ideal models were manufactured with ILT analogue internal to the aneurysm region and the effect of the ILT analogue on the model compliance and stiffness was investigated. Results The wall materials had similar properties to aortic tissue at physiological pressures (Einit 2.22MPa and 1.57MPa (aortic tissue: 1.8MPa)). ILT analogues had similar Young’s modulus to the medial layer of ILT (0.24 and 0.33MPa (ILT: 0.28MPa)). All models had aneurysm sac compliance in the physiological range (2.62 – 8.01×10-4/mmHg (AAA in vivo: 1.8 – 9.4×10-4/mmHg)). The necks of our AAA models had similar stiffness to healthy aortas (20.44 – 29.83 (healthy aortas in vivo: 17.5±5.5)). Good agreement was seen between the diameter changes due to pressurisation in the experimental and FEA wall models with a maximum error of 7.3% at 120mmHg. It was also determined that the inclusion of ILT analogue

  1. Verification of IMRT dose calculations using AAA and PBC algorithms in dose buildup regions.

    PubMed

    Oinam, Arun S; Singh, Lakhwant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to test the accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithms of Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculations in the low- and high-dose buildup regions. AAA and PBC algorithms were used to create two intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of the same optimal fluence generated from a clinically simulated oropharynx case in an in-house fabricated head and neck phantom. The TPS computed buildup doses were compared with the corresponding measured doses in the phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD 100). Analysis of dose distribution calculated using PBC and AAA shows an increase in gamma value in the dose buildup region indicating large dose deviation. For the surface areas of 1, 50 and 100 cm2, PBC overestimates doses as compared to AAA calculated value in the range of 1.34%-3.62% at 0.6 cm depth, 1.74%-2.96% at 0.4 cm depth, and 1.96%-4.06% at 0.2 cm depth, respectively. In high-dose buildup region, AAA calculated doses were lower by an average of -7.56% (SD = 4.73%), while PBC was overestimated by 3.75% (SD = 5.70%) as compared to TLD measured doses at 0.2 cm depth. However, at 0.4 and 0.6 cm depth, PBC overestimated TLD measured doses by 5.84% (SD = 4.38%) and 2.40% (SD = 4.63%), respectively, while AAA underestimated the TLD measured doses by -0.82% (SD = 4.24%) and -1.10% (SD = 4.14%) at the same respective depth. In low-dose buildup region, both AAA and PBC overestimated the TLD measured doses at all depths except -2.05% (SD = 10.21%) by AAA at 0.2 cm depth. The differences between AAA and PBC at all depths were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in high-dose buildup region, whereas it is not statistically significant in low-dose buildup region. In conclusion, AAA calculated the dose more accurately than PBC in clinically important high-dose buildup region at 0.4 cm and 0.6 cm depths. The use of an orfit cast increases the dose buildup

  2. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  3. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... additives? Q. How are ingredients listed on a product label? A . Food manufacturers are required to list all ... in the food on the label. On a product label, the ingredients are listed in order of predominance, ...

  4. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  5. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  6. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  7. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  8. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  10. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  11. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates its attachment to microtubules via nucleotide state-switched mechanosensing at multiple AAA domains.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Matthew P; Berger, Florian; Rao, Lu; Brenner, Sibylle; Cho, Carol; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-05-19

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a homodimeric microtubule (MT) motor protein responsible for most MT minus-end-directed motility. Dynein contains four AAA+ ATPases (AAA: ATPase associated with various cellular activities) per motor domain (AAA1-4). The main site of ATP hydrolysis, AAA1, is the only site considered by most dynein motility models. However, it remains unclear how ATPase activity and MT binding are coordinated within and between dynein's motor domains. Using optical tweezers, we characterize the MT-binding strength of recombinant dynein monomers as a function of mechanical tension and nucleotide state. Dynein responds anisotropically to tension, binding tighter to MTs when pulled toward the MT plus end. We provide evidence that this behavior results from an asymmetrical bond that acts as a slip bond under forward tension and a slip-ideal bond under backward tension. ATP weakens MT binding and reduces bond strength anisotropy, and unexpectedly, so does ADP. Using nucleotide binding and hydrolysis mutants, we show that, although ATP exerts its effects via binding AAA1, ADP effects are mediated by AAA3. Finally, we demonstrate "gating" of AAA1 function by AAA3. When tension is absent or applied via dynein's C terminus, ATP binding to AAA1 induces MT release only if AAA3 is in the posthydrolysis state. However, when tension is applied to the linker, ATP binding to AAA3 is sufficient to "open" the gate. These results elucidate the mechanisms of dynein-MT interactions, identify regulatory roles for AAA3, and help define the interplay between mechanical tension and nucleotide state in regulating dynein motility. PMID:25941405

  12. Allergy to ingredients of vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hannuksela, M; Kousa, M; Pirilä, V

    1976-04-01

    Common ingredients of vehicles such as perfumes, antibacterial agents, emulsifiers and other surface active agents, propylene glycol, lanolin and wool alcohols were tested in eczema patients over a three-year period. Perfume allergy was detected in 3.6% of the cases, sensitivity to thiomersal in 2%, to sorbic acid in 0.8%, to parabens in only 0.3%, and to wool alcohols in 1.2%. Reactions to emulsifiers were seen over 1% of those tested. PMID:1037096

  13. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    PubMed

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  14. Thioether profragrances: parameters influencing the performance of precursor-based fragrance delivery in functional perfumery.

    PubMed

    Maddalena, Umberto; Trachsel, Alain; Fankhauser, Peter; Berthier, Damien L; Benczédi, Daniel; Wang, Wei; Xi, Xiujuan; Shen, Youqing; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A series of thioether profragrances was prepared by reaction of different sulfanylalkanoates with δ-damascone and tested for their release efficiencies in a fabric-softener and an all-purpose cleaner application. Dynamic headspace analysis on dry cotton and on a ceramic plate revealed that the performance of the different precursors depended on the structure, but also on the particular conditions encountered in different applications. Moreover, profragrances derived from other α,β-unsaturated fragrance aldehydes and ketones were synthesized analogously and evaluated using the same test protocol. Thioethers were found to be suitable precursors to release the corresponding fragrances, but neither the quantity of profragrance deposited from an aqueous environment onto the target surface, nor the amount of fragrance released after deposition could be linearly correlated to the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the compounds. Different sets of compounds were found to be the best performers for different types of applications. Only one of the compounds evaluated in the present work, namely the thiolactic acid derivative of δ-damascone, efficiently released the corresponding fragrance in both of the tested applications. Profragrance development for functional perfumery thus remains a partially empirical endeavour. More knowledge (and control) of the various application conditions are required for an efficient profragrance design. PMID:25408319

  15. The origin and evolution of fragrance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Michael J.; Calingacion, Mariafe N.; Fitzgerald, Melissa A.; McCouch, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Fragrance in the grain is one of the most highly valued grain quality traits in rice, yet the origin and evolution of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (BADH2) underlying this trait remains unclear. In this study, we identify eight putatively nonfunctional alleles of the BADH2 gene and show that these alleles have distinct geographic and genetic origins. Despite multiple origins of the fragrance trait, a single allele, badh2.1, is the predominant allele in virtually all fragrant rice varieties today, including the widely recognized Basmati and Jasmine types. Haplotype analysis allowed us to establish a single origin of the badh2.1 allele within the Japonica varietal group and demonstrate the introgression of this allele from Japonica to Indica. Basmati-like accessions were nearly identical to the ancestral Japonica haplotype across a 5.3-Mb region flanking BADH2 regardless of their fragrance phenotype, demonstrating a close evolutionary relationship between Basmati varieties and the Japonica gene pool. These results clarify the relationships among fragrant rice varieties and challenge the traditional assumption that the fragrance trait arose in the Indica varietal group. PMID:19706531

  16. Adding Scents to Symbols: Using Food Fragrances with Deafblind Young People Making Choices at Mealtimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Heather; Gough, Anne; Boothroyd, Eileen; Williams, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is written by Heather Murdoch, research consultant for the Seashell Trust, Anne Gough, deputy headteacher at Royal School Manchester/Seashell Trust, Eileen Boothroyd, consultant for the Seashell Trust, and Kate Williams, a creative perfumer for Seven (PZ Cussons). It describes the use of food fragrances with deafblind students who are…

  17. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  18. Hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates, fragrances and flavoring agents in foods, by microsomes of rat and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Tamura, Yuki; Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-12-01

    Salicylates are used as fragrance and flavor ingredients for foods, as UV absorbers and as medicines. Here, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, and by human liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Both salicylates were readily hydrolyzed by tissue microsomes, predominantly in small intestine, followed by liver, although phenyl salicylate was much more rapidly hydrolyzed than benzyl salicylate. The liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activities were completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activity was co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by anion exchange column chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts of liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Expression of rat liver and small-intestinal isoforms of carboxylesterase, Ces1e and Ces2c (AB010632), in COS cells resulted in significant phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activities with the same specific activities as those of liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited higher hydrolyzing activity than liver microsomes towards these salicylates. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes expressed in COS cells both readily hydrolyzed phenyl salicylate, but the activity of CES2 was higher than that of CES1. These results indicate that significant amounts of salicylic acid might be formed by microsomal hydrolysis of phenyl and benzyl salicylates in vivo. The possible pharmacological and toxicological effects of salicylic acid released from salicylates present in commercial products should be considered. PMID:26321725

  19. Distributions of polycyclic musk fragrance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and sludges in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Casteel, Kenneth; Dai, Hongjian; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; Kiel, Brian; Federle, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    The polycyclic musks, AHTN and HHCB are fragrance ingredients widely used in consumer products. A monitoring campaign was conducted and collected grab effluent and sludge samples at 40 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) across the United States to understand their occurrence and statistical distribution in these matrices. AHTN concentration in effluent ranged from <0.05 μg/L (LOQ) to 0.44 μg/L with a mean and standard deviation of 0.18 ± 0.11 μg/L. HHCB concentrations in effluent ranged from 0.45 to 4.79 μg/L with a mean of 1.86 ± 1.01 μg/L. AHTN concentrations in sludge ranged from 0.65 to 15.0mg/kg dw (dry weight) with a mean and standard deviation being 3.69 ± 2.57 mg/kg dw, while HHCB sludge concentrations were between 4.1 and 91 mg/kg with a mean of 34.0 ± 23.1mg/kg dw. Measured concentrations of AHTN and HHCB were significantly correlated with each other in both effluent and sludge. The concentrations of HHCB in both effluent and sludge were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for AHTN, consistent with 2011 usage levels. The highest measured effluent concentrations for both AHTN and HHCB were below their respective freshwater PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations), indicating a negligible risk to biological communities below WWTPs, even in the absence of upstream dilution. Moreover, the large number of effluents and sludges sampled provides a statistical distribution of loadings that can be used to develop more extensive probabilistic exposure assessments for WWTP mixing zones and sludge amended soils. PMID:24792690

  20. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  1. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  2. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  3. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  4. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  5. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  6. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  7. Role of mitochondrial processing peptidase and AAA proteases in processing of the yeast acetohydroxyacid synthase precursor.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Suvarna; Kölling, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    We studied presequence processing of the mitochondrial-matrix targeted acetohydroxyacid synthase (Ilv2). C-terminal 3HA-tagging altered the cleavage pattern from a single step to sequential two-step cleavage, giving rise to two Ilv2-3HA forms (A and B). Both cleavage events were dependent on the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP). We present evidence for the involvement of three AAA ATPases, m- and i-AAA proteases, and Mcx1, in Ilv2-3HA processing. Both, precursor to A-form and A-form to B-form cleavage were strongly affected in a ∆yme1 mutant. These defects could be suppressed by overexpression of MPP, suggesting that MPP activity is limiting in the ∆yme1 mutant. Our data suggest that for some substrates AAA ATPases could play an active role in the translocation of matrix-targeted proteins. PMID:27398316

  8. Advances in assessing ingredient safety.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; York, Raymond G

    2016-08-01

    The safety of food ingredients will be assessed in the 21st century by mixture of traditional methods, such as the "safe" dose concept, which is thought to be an accurate but imprecise estimation of dose below the population threshold for adverse effect, and contemporary methods, such as the Benchmark Dose (BMD), Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF), physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, and biologically-informed dose response modeling. New research on the horizon related to toxicology 21 may also improve these risk assessment methods, or suggest new ones. These traditional, contemporary and new methods and research will be briefly described. PMID:27427210

  9. Genomics-Based Discovery of Plant Genes for Synthetic Biology of Terpenoid Fragrances: A Case Study in Sandalwood oil Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Celedon, J M; Bohlmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid fragrances are powerful mediators of ecological interactions in nature and have a long history of traditional and modern industrial applications. Plants produce a great diversity of fragrant terpenoid metabolites, which make them a superb source of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. Advances in fragrance gene discovery have enabled new approaches in synthetic biology of high-value speciality molecules toward applications in the fragrance and flavor, food and beverage, cosmetics, and other industries. Rapid developments in transcriptome and genome sequencing of nonmodel plant species have accelerated the discovery of fragrance biosynthetic pathways. In parallel, advances in metabolic engineering of microbial and plant systems have established platforms for synthetic biology applications of some of the thousands of plant genes that underlie fragrance diversity. While many fragrance molecules (eg, simple monoterpenes) are abundant in readily renewable plant materials, some highly valuable fragrant terpenoids (eg, santalols, ambroxides) are rare in nature and interesting targets for synthetic biology. As a representative example for genomics/transcriptomics enabled gene and enzyme discovery, we describe a strategy used successfully for elucidation of a complete fragrance biosynthetic pathway in sandalwood (Santalum album) and its reconstruction in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We address questions related to the discovery of specific genes within large gene families and recovery of rare gene transcripts that are selectively expressed in recalcitrant tissues. To substantiate the validity of the approaches, we describe the combination of methods used in the gene and enzyme discovery of a cytochrome P450 in the fragrant heartwood of tropical sandalwood, responsible for the fragrance defining, final step in the biosynthesis of (Z)-santalols. PMID:27480682

  10. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Carotenoid-Derived Flavours and Fragrances.

    PubMed

    Serra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are important isoprenoid compounds whose oxidative degradation produces a plethora of smaller derivatives, called apocarotenoids, which possess a range of different chemical structures and biological activities. Among these natural products, compounds having less than 15 carbon atoms in their frameworks are often relevant flavours or fragrances and their manufacturing represents an important economic resource for chemical companies. The strict correlation between stereochemical structure and odour has made the stereospecific synthesis of the latter biological active compounds increasingly important. In this review, the recent advances on the synthesis of the most relevant carotenoid-derived flavours and fragrances are discussed. In particular, the new synthetic methods that have given new and innovative perspectives from a scientific standpoint and the preparative approaches that might possess industrial importance are described thoroughly. PMID:26184154

  11. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  12. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities. PMID:19168002

  13. Fragrance release from the surface of branched poly (amide)s.

    PubMed

    Aulenta, Francesca; Drew, Michael G B; Foster, Alison; Hayes, Wayne; Rannard, Steven; Thornthwaite, David W; Youngs, Tristan G A

    2005-01-01

    Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased. PMID:18007278

  14. Subcellular Localization of Secondary Lipid Metabolites Including Fragrance Volatiles in Carnation Petals.

    PubMed Central

    Hudak, K. A.; Thompson, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles. PMID:12223738

  15. Asymmetric processing of a substrate protein in sequential allosteric cycles of AAA+ nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravats, Andrea N.; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Bucher, Ryan J.; Stan, George

    2013-09-01

    Essential protein quality control includes mechanisms of substrate protein (SP) unfolding and translocation performed by powerful ring-shaped AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) nanomachines. These SP remodeling actions are effected by mechanical forces imparted by AAA+ loops that protrude into the central channel. Sequential intra-ring allosteric motions, which underlie repetitive SP-loop interactions, have been proposed to comprise clockwise (CW), counterclockwise (CCW), or random (R) conformational transitions of individual AAA+ subunits. To probe the effect of these allosteric mechanisms on unfoldase and translocase functions, we perform Langevin dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of an all-alpha SP processed by the single-ring ClpY ATPase or by the double-ring p97 ATPase. We find that, in all three allosteric mechanisms, the SP undergoes conformational transitions along a common set of pathways, which reveals that the active work provided by the ClpY machine involves single loop-SP interactions. Nevertheless, the rates and yields of SP unfolding and translocation are controlled by mechanism-dependent loop-SP binding events, as illustrated by faster timescales of SP processing in CW allostery compared with CCW and R allostery. The distinct efficacy of allosteric mechanisms is due to the asymmetric collaboration of adjacent subunits, which involves CW-biased structural motions of AAA+ loops and results in CW-compatible torque applied onto the SP. Additional simulations of mutant ClpY rings, which render a subset of subunits catalytically-defective or reduce their SP binding affinity, reveal that subunit-based conformational transitions play the major role in SP remodeling. Based on these results we predict that the minimally functional AAA+ ring includes three active subunits, only two of which are adjacent.

  16. A comparative study of leukaemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-1alpha intracellular content in a human keratinocyte cell line after exposure to cosmetic fragrances and sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Alessandro; Sanguineti, Roberta; Catalano, Mariafrancesca; Penco, Susanna; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Scanarotti, Chiara; Bassi, Anna Maria

    2010-02-01

    According to European laws animal testing in cosmetic industry will be prohibited in a few years and it will be replaced by alternative methods based on cell and tissue culture. Many ingredients of cosmetic formulations are potentially causes of skin inflammation and sensibilization. Since cytotoxicity is known, among other factors, to trigger irritation, in an alternative model for evaluation of skin irritation, it can be considered also the precocious release of inflammatory mediators, i.e. cytokines, originating mainly from keratinocytes. In this in vitro study we have analysed some parameters directly or indirectly related to irritation/inflammation, in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes during short-time exposure to some potential irritants cosmetic fragrances, included in the European Laws 2003/15/EEC. IIC50 was extrapolated by MTT and NRU viability indexes after exposure of cell ultures to Geraniol Limonene and Benzylic Alcohol for 1, 3 and 6h. NCTC cells were then exposed to sub-toxic doses of selected compounds and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions were analysed as early proinflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge our findings demonstrated for the first time that NCTC cells synthesize and modulate LIF after exposure to selected irritating stimuli. Moreover, our results give evidence on LIF role as in vitro precocious endpoint for the assessment of the risk in cosmetic field, because its response under irritation stimuli is very quick and comparable to IL-1alpha. PMID:19878710

  17. Occurrences and potential risks of 16 fragrances in five German sewage treatment plants and their receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula; von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Bschorer, Anne; Krezmer, Sonja; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Fragrances are used in a wide array of everyday products and enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. While several musk compounds have been studied in detail, little is known about the occurrence and fate of other fragrances. We selected 16 fragrance compounds and scrutinized their presence in Bavarian sewage treatment plants (STP) influents and effluents and discussed their ecological risks for the receiving surface waters. Moreover, we followed their concentrations along the path in one STP by corresponding time-related water sampling and derived the respective elimination rates in the purification process. Six fragrance substances (OTNE, HHCB, lilial, acetyl cedrene, menthol, and, in some grab samples, also methyl-dihydrojasmonate) could be detected in the effluents of the investigated sewage treatment plants. The other fragrances under scrutiny were only found in the inflow and were eliminated in the purification process. Only OTNE and HHCB were found in the receiving surface waters of the STP in congruent concentrations, which exceeded the preliminary derived environmental thresholds by a factor of 1.15 and 1.12, respectively, indicating potential risks. OTNE was also detected in similar concentration ranges as HHCB in muscles and livers of fish from surface waters and from ponds that are supplied with purified wastewater. The findings show that some fragrance compounds undergo high elimination rates, whereas others-not only musks-are present in receiving surface water and biota and may present a risk to local aquatic biota. Hence, our results suggest that the fate and potential effects of fragrance compounds in the aquatic environment deserve more attention. PMID:22945655

  18. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.117 Inactive ingredients. A...

  19. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.117 Inactive ingredients. A...

  20. Processed Meat Ingredients: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingredients were first utilized to preserve meat and improve its palatability which date back to when our ancestors used salt and fire to preserve meat. Since that time man has incorporated a wide variety of ingredients to develop unique meat products and find ways to extend the shelf life of these ...

  1. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES (Eff. until 7-10-14) Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.20 Ingredient control. (a) Except as provided in §...

  2. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.20 Ingredient control. (a) Except as provided in § 106.20(b), no...

  3. Structural Basis of ATP Hydrolysis and Intersubunit Signaling in the AAA+ ATPase p97.

    PubMed

    Hänzelmann, Petra; Schindelin, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    p97 belongs to the superfamily of AAA+ ATPases and is characterized by a tandem AAA module, an N-terminal domain involved in substrate and cofactor interactions, and a functionally important unstructured C-terminal tail. The ATPase activity is controlled by an intradomain communication within the same protomer and an interdomain communication between neighboring protomers. Here, we present for the first time crystal structures in which the physiologically relevant p97 hexamer constitutes the content of the asymmetric unit, namely in the apo state without nucleotide in either the D1 or D2 module and in the pre-activated state with ATPγS bound to both modules. The structures provide new mechanistic insights into the interdomain communication mediated by conformational changes of the C terminus as well as an intersubunit signaling network, which couples the nucleotide state to the conformation of the central putative substrate binding pore. PMID:26712278

  4. A Statistical Comparison of the AAA Asteroids with the other Asteroid Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostolansky, E.

    1999-04-01

    In this paper a statistical comparison of the AAA (Apollo-Amor-Aten) asteroids with the other asteroid populations is presented and discussed. For the analysis the database of the osculating orbital elements (Epoch = 2451200.5) of the 47098 asteroids (February 1999) provided at the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S.A was used. Two kinds of distributions are presented: (1) The frequency distributions of the orbital elements e, i, omega, OMEGA and absolute magnitude H; (2) The distributions like a vs. e, H vs. i and H vs. r MIN, where r MIN is the minimum distance between the orbits of the Earth and an asteroid. The analysis was aimed to study some special features of the AAA asteroid population like its spatial distribution and size of tile asteroids in it and to compare them with the other groups of asteroids.

  5. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  6. Neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish by a large AAA+ ATPase/ubiquitin ligase, mysterin/RNF213

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Yuri; Morito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Satoru; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Kawakami, Koichi; Takashima, Seiji; Hirata, Hiromi; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Mysterin (also known as RNF213) is a huge intracellular protein with two AAA+ ATPase modules and a RING finger ubiquitin ligase domain. Mysterin was originally isolated as a significant risk factor for the cryptogenic cerebrovascular disorder moyamoya disease, and was found to be involved in physiological angiogenesis in zebrafish. However, the function and the physiological significance of mysterin in other than blood vessels remain largely unknown, although mysterin is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. In this study, we performed antisense-mediated suppression of a mysterin orthologue in zebrafish larvae and revealed that mysterin-deficient larvae showed significant reduction in fast myofibrils and immature projection of primary motoneurons, leading to severe motor deficits. Fast muscle-specific restoration of mysterin expression cancelled these phenotypes, and interestingly both AAA+ ATPase and ubiquitin ligase activities of mysterin were indispensable for proper fast muscle formation, demonstrating an essential role of mysterin and its enzymatic activities in the neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish. PMID:26530008

  7. Indications for and outcome of open AAA repair in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Wieker, Carola M; Spazier, Max; Böckler, Dittmar

    2016-04-01

    The benefits, safety and efficacy of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is well documented and intensively reported in multiple randomized trials and meta-analysis. Therefore, EVAR became the first choice of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) treatment in almost 70-100% of patients. Consecutively, open repair (OR) is performed less frequently in morphologically preselected patients. Anatomical condition remains the most important factor for indication for OR. Especially unfavorable intrarenal landing zone based on difficult neck anatomy like very short neck or excessive neck angulation is still the most predictive factor. Furthermore, patients presenting additional iliac aneurysms, aortoiliac occlusive disease or variations of renal arteries are recommended for OR. Randomized trials like EVAR 1, DREAM and OVER from the year 2004/2005 and 2009 showed lower 30-day mortality rates in EVAR compared to OR. However, the late mortality rates after two years became equal in both treatment options. Furthermore, reinterventions after EVAR occur more frequently than after OR. Analysis from our own data showed a higher 30-day mortality in the patients who underwent OR in the endovascular era (15% vs. 2.5%), however the number of emergency open AAA repair because of ruptured aneurysms was much higher in the endovascular era (32.5% vs. 5%). In conclusion, treatment of AAA has changed in the past decade. Nevertheless OR of AAA still remains as a safe and durable method in experienced surgeons, even in the endovascular era. High volume centres are needed to offer the best patients' treatment providing the best postoperative outcome. Therefore OR must remain a part of fellowship training in the future. To decide the best treatment option many facts like patients' fitness and preference or finally the anatomic suitability for endovascular repair have to be considered. PMID:26822580

  8. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fox, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93). This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96), rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25) and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27). Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95) but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30) but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93). Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28) but there were apparent differences in use of shampoo (0

  9. Mechanochemical basis of protein degradation by a double-ring AAA+ machine.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Adrian O; Nager, Andrew R; Iosefson, Ohad; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2014-10-01

    Molecular machines containing double or single AAA+ rings power energy-dependent protein degradation and other critical cellular processes, including disaggregation and remodeling of macromolecular complexes. How the mechanical activities of double-ring and single-ring AAA+ enzymes differ is unknown. Using single-molecule optical trapping, we determine how the double-ring ClpA enzyme from Escherichia coli, in complex with the ClpP peptidase, mechanically degrades proteins. We demonstrate that ClpA unfolds some protein substrates substantially faster than does the single-ring ClpX enzyme, which also degrades substrates in collaboration with ClpP. We find that ClpA is a slower polypeptide translocase and that it moves in physical steps that are smaller and more regular than steps taken by ClpX. These direct measurements of protein unfolding and translocation define the core mechanochemical behavior of a double-ring AAA+ machine and provide insight into the degradation of proteins that unfold via metastable intermediates. PMID:25195048

  10. Assaying the kinetics of protein denaturation catalyzed by AAA+ unfolding machines and proteases.

    PubMed

    Baytshtok, Vladimir; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2015-04-28

    ATP-dependent molecular machines of the AAA+ superfamily unfold or remodel proteins in all cells. For example, AAA+ ClpX and ClpA hexamers collaborate with the self-compartmentalized ClpP peptidase to unfold and degrade specific proteins in bacteria and some eukaryotic organelles. Although degradation assays are straightforward, robust methods to assay the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed protein unfolding in the absence of proteolysis have been lacking. Here, we describe a FRET-based assay in which enzymatic unfolding converts a mixture of donor-labeled and acceptor-labeled homodimers into heterodimers. In this assay, ClpX is a more efficient protein-unfolding machine than ClpA both kinetically and in terms of ATP consumed. However, ClpP enhances the mechanical activities of ClpA substantially, and ClpAP degrades the dimeric substrate faster than ClpXP. When ClpXP or ClpAP engage the dimeric subunit, one subunit is actively unfolded and degraded, whereas the other subunit is passively unfolded by loss of its partner and released. This assay should be broadly applicable for studying the mechanisms of AAA+ proteases and remodeling chaperones. PMID:25870262

  11. Characterization of ATPase activity of the AAA ARC from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Mabel; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Santos, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be probiotics that exist in the large intestine and are helpful to maintain human health. Oral administration of bifidobacteria may be effective in improving the intestinal flora and environment, stimulating the immune response and possibly preventing cancer. However, for consistent and positive results, further well-controlled studies are urgently needed to describe the basic mechanisms of this microorganism. Analysis of the proteasome-lacking Bifidobacterium longum genome reveals that it possesses a gene, IPR003593 AAA ATPase core, which codes a 56 kDa protein containing one AAA ATPase domain. Phylogenetic classification made by CLANS, positioned this sequence into the ARC divergent branch of the AAA ATPase family of proteins. N-terminal analysis of the sequence indicates this protein is closely related to other ATPases such as the Rhodococcus erythropolis ARC, Archaeoglobus fulgidus PAN, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mpa and the human proteasomal Rpt1 subunit. This gene was cloned, the full-length recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a high-molecular size complex and named Bl-ARC. Enzymatic characterization showed that Bl-ARC ATPase is active, Mg(+2)-dependent and sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Gene organization positions bl-arc in a region flanked by a cluster of genes that includes pup, dop and pafA genes. These findings point to a possible function as a chaperone in the degradation pathway via pupylation. PMID:26015994

  12. Structural Insights into the Allosteric Operation of the Lon AAA+ Protease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Chu; Su, Shih-Chieh; Su, Ming-Yuan; Liang, Pi-Hui; Feng, Chia-Cheng; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Chung-I

    2016-05-01

    The Lon AAA+ protease (LonA) is an evolutionarily conserved protease that couples the ATPase cycle into motion to drive substrate translocation and degradation. A hallmark feature shared by AAA+ proteases is the stimulation of ATPase activity by substrates. Here we report the structure of LonA bound to three ADPs, revealing the first AAA+ protease assembly where the six protomers are arranged alternately in nucleotide-free and bound states. Nucleotide binding induces large coordinated movements of conserved pore loops from two pairs of three non-adjacent protomers and shuttling of the proteolytic groove between the ATPase site and a previously unknown Arg paddle. Structural and biochemical evidence supports the roles of the substrate-bound proteolytic groove in allosteric stimulation of ATPase activity and the conserved Arg paddle in driving substrate degradation. Altogether, this work provides a molecular framework for understanding how ATP-dependent chemomechanical movements drive allosteric processes for substrate degradation in a major protein-destruction machine. PMID:27041592

  13. Subunit dynamics and nucleotide-dependent asymmetry of an AAA(+) transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Joly, Nicolas; Lawton, Edward; Robinson, Carol V; Buck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial enhancer binding proteins (bEBPs) are transcription activators that belong to the AAA(+) protein family. They form higher-order self-assemblies to regulate transcription initiation at stress response and pathogenic promoters. The precise mechanism by which these ATPases utilize ATP binding and hydrolysis energy to remodel their substrates remains unclear. Here we employed mass spectrometry of intact complexes to investigate subunit dynamics and nucleotide occupancy of the AAA(+) domain of one well-studied bEBP in complex with its substrate, the σ(54) subunit of RNA polymerase. Our results demonstrate that the free AAA(+) domain undergoes significant changes in oligomeric states and nucleotide occupancy upon σ(54) binding. Such changes likely correlate with one transition state of ATP and are associated with an open spiral ring formation that is vital for asymmetric subunit function and interface communication. We confirmed that the asymmetric subunit functionality persists for open promoter complex formation using single-chain forms of bEBP lacking the full complement of intact ATP hydrolysis sites. Outcomes reconcile low- and high-resolution structures and yield a partial sequential ATP hydrolysis model for bEBPs. PMID:24055699

  14. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Berube, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N. . E-mail: wnf@jax.org

    2005-03-10

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice.

  15. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaimal, Smitha; Sujatha, K S; George, Sisilamma

    2010-02-01

    Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) was evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effect of extract at two doses, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg/kg body weight was analysed and compared with a standard drug, glibenclamide. Rats administered with alloxan showed significantly increased levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity. Lipid peroxides increased significantly while reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased considerably in liver and pancreas. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) significantly decreased the levels of serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol and ALT activity. Significant decrease was also observed in the level of lipid peroxides while GSH content increased substantially in liver and pancreas. The effect was dose independent and rats treated with 500 mg/kg body weight showed comparable levels of serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, ALT activity and liver lipid peroxides to that of normal control and glibenclamide treated groups. Although, there was no significant difference, treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract showed a higher content of GSH and lower level of lipid peroxides in pancreas compared with glibenclamide. Histopathological examination of pancreas and liver revealed regeneration of islet cells and hepatocytes respectively, which correlate with the biochemical findings. The present study shows that ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) has antioxidant and hypolipidaemic properties and may be used for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:20455326

  16. Molecular snapshots of the Pex1/6 AAA+ complex in action

    PubMed Central

    Ciniawsky, Susanne; Grimm, Immanuel; Saffian, Delia; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Wendler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The peroxisomal proteins Pex1 and Pex6 form a heterohexameric type II AAA+ ATPase complex, which fuels essential protein transport across peroxisomal membranes. Mutations in either ATPase in humans can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death. We present an extensive structural and biochemical analysis of the yeast Pex1/6 complex. The heterohexamer forms a trimer of Pex1/6 dimers with a triangular geometry that is atypical for AAA+ complexes. While the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domains (D2) of Pex6 constitute the main ATPase activity of the complex, both D2 harbour essential substrate-binding motifs. ATP hydrolysis results in a pumping motion of the complex, suggesting that Pex1/6 function involves substrate translocation through its central channel. Mutation of the Walker B motif in one D2 domain leads to ATP hydrolysis in the neighbouring domain, giving structural insights into inter-domain communication of these unique heterohexameric AAA+ assemblies. PMID:26066397

  17. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  18. Assessment of the effect of UV and chlorination in the transformation of fragrances in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Godayol, Anna; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Sanchez, Juan M; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2015-04-01

    The removal and transformation of 15 common fragrance allergens and two polycyclic musks in water samples were studied using UV irradiation and chlorination treatments. The monitoring of the reaction was carried out by a HS-SPME method coupled to GC-MS analysis. Different behaviours were observed depending on the compound and the treatment applied. Elimination experiments showed that all target compounds were affected by at least one of the two treatments. A total of 15 UV transformation products were detected and chemical structures were proposed for five of them. In the chlorination experiments, only galaxolide and benzyl cinnamate transformation products were observed. PMID:25655442

  19. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  20. PTSD: A Search for "Active Ingredients."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Family counselors working with individuals suffering the effects of trauma are encouraged to consider the "active ingredients" found by Charles Figley and Joyce Carbonell at Florida State University and reported in the two articles reviewed. (Author/MKA)

  1. Structural Insights into the Unusually Strong ATPase Activity of the AAA Domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans Fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function. PMID:23979136

  2. Light induced controlled release of fragrances by Norrish type II photofragmentation of alkyl phenyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Levrand, Barbara; Herrmann, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    The use of alkyl phenyl ketones as delivery systems for the controlled release of fragrances was investigated by photoirradiation of undegassed solutions with a xenon lamp as well as natural sunlight. A large variety of precursor compounds was prepared efficiently in a few reaction steps from commercially available starting materials. The Norrish type II photofragmentation was found to be the predominant reaction pathway to yield the desired perfumery alkenes and acetophenones in polar and apolar solution. Systematic GC-MS analysis of the irradiated solutions allowed identification of a series of side products that are due to the presence of oxygen. A detailed analysis of the product distribution after irradiation was carried out for a series of 4-alkoxy-1-phenylbutanone derivatives. Besides the expected acetophenones, vinyl ethers and phenylcyclobutanols, the formation of alkyl formates, alcohols and 4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoates was observed. The product distribution as influenced by solvent polarity, precursor concentration and substituent effects was investigated. The utility of alkyl phenyl ketones as precursors for the light induced controlled release of fragrances under natural daylight conditions was also demonstrated. PMID:12659532

  3. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany: an option to remove pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances.

    PubMed

    Ternes, Thomas A; Bonerz, Matthias; Herrmann, Nadine; Teiser, Bernhard; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal wastewater was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Braunschweig is used for irrigation, while during summer digested sludge is mixed with the effluent. In the present case study six wells and four lysimeters located in one of the irrigated agricultural fields were monitored with regard to the occurrence of 52 pharmaceuticals and two personal care products (PPCPs; e.g. betablockers, antibiotics, antiphlogistics, carbamazepine, musk fragrances, iodinated contrast media (ICM) and estrogens). No differences in PPCP pollution of the groundwater were found due to irrigation of STP effluents with and without addition of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields. In the groundwater and lysimeter samples primarily the ICM diatrizoate and iopamidol, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole were detected up to several mugl(-1), while the acidic pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, estrogens and betablockers were likely sorbed or transformed while passing the top soil layer. Potential estrogenic effects are likely to disappear after irrigation, since the most potent steroid estrogens were not measurable. PMID:16872661

  4. A simple floral fragrance and unusual osmophore structure in Cyclopogon elatus (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Wiemer, A P; Moré, M; Benitez-Vieyra, S; Cocucci, A A; Raguso, R A; Sérsic, A N

    2009-07-01

    We studied gland morphology, anatomy and the chemical composition of the floral fragrance in the sweat bee-pollinated orchid Cyclopogon elatus. This is apparently the first such analysis for any Cyclopogon species, and one of very few studies in which both odour and osmophore are characterised in a nectar-rewarding orchid. Structures responsible for floral scent production were localised with neutral red staining and histochemical assays for lipids and starch. Their morphology and anatomy were studied with scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy thin sections, respectively. Fragrance samples were collected using SPME fibres and analysed with GC-MS. Anatomical evidence suggests that two parallel oval-shaped patches of unicellular trichomes on the abaxial surface of the labellum are osmophores. These are rich in stored lipids, while the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles contains starch. Only freshly opened flowers produced odours, while buds and withered flowers lacked scent. The chemical composition of the odour was dominated (>99.8%) by a single compound, trans-4,8-dimethyl-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT). Gland anatomy and position on the outside of the perianth are unusual for scent glands in general. The presence of DMNT, a nearly ubiquitous compound in herbivore-induced vegetative emissions and one of the major floral volatiles of Yucca, is not surprising in view of hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of flower scents, suggesting that wound volatiles are utilised as kairomonal attractants by florivores whose activities result in pollination. PMID:19538389

  5. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  11. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  12. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  13. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  14. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  15. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  16. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  17. 21 CFR 331.10 - Antacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antacid active ingredients. 331.10 Section 331.10... FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.10 Antacid active ingredients. (a) The active antacid ingredients of the product consist of one or more...

  18. 21 CFR 331.10 - Antacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antacid active ingredients. 331.10 Section 331.10... FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.10 Antacid active ingredients. (a) The active antacid ingredients of the product consist of one or more...

  19. 21 CFR 331.10 - Antacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antacid active ingredients. 331.10 Section 331.10... FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.10 Antacid active ingredients. (a) The active antacid ingredients of the product consist of one or more...

  20. 21 CFR 331.10 - Antacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antacid active ingredients. 331.10 Section 331.10... FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.10 Antacid active ingredients. (a) The active antacid ingredients of the product consist of one or more...

  1. 21 CFR 331.10 - Antacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antacid active ingredients. 331.10 Section 331.10... FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.10 Antacid active ingredients. (a) The active antacid ingredients of the product consist of one or more...

  2. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  3. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  4. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  5. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  6. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  7. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  8. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  9. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  10. Analysis of an SFP marker in the Rice fgr/BAD2 gene and fragrance in US rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde...

  11. Analysis of an SFP marker in the rice fgr/BAD2 gene and fragrance in US rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et. al (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase...

  12. Morphological State as a Predictor for Reintervention and Mortality After EVAR for AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrlander, Tomas; Dencker, Magnus; Acosta, Stefan

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess aorto-iliac morphological characteristics in relation to reintervention and all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard EVAR for infrarenal AAA. Methods: Patients treated with EVAR (Zenith{sup Registered-Sign} Stentgrafts, Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database where comorbidities and preoperative aneurysm morphology were entered. Reinterventions and mortality were checked until December 1, 2010. Median follow-up time was 68 months. Results: A total of 304 patients were included, of which 86% were men. Median age was 74 years. The reintervention rate was 23.4% (71/304). A greater diameter of the common iliac artery (p = 0.037; hazard ratio (HR) 1.037 [1.002-1.073]) was an independent factor for an increased number of reinterventions. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.0% (9/304). Aneurysm-related deaths due to AAA occurred in 4.9% (15/304). Five patients died due to a concomitant ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. The mortality until end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61.6%. The severity of angulation of the iliac arteries (p = 0.014; HR 1.018 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.033]) and anemia (p = 0.044; HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.029-7.556]) remained as independent factors associated with all-cause long-term mortality. The crude reintervention-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 84.5%, 64.8%, and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The initial aorto-iliac morphological state in patients scheduled for standard EVAR for AAA seems to be strongly related to the need for reinterventions and long-term mortality.

  13. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  14. Rescue EVAR for ruptured AAA: Clinical success does not mean technical success.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Sirignano, Pasqualino; de Donato, Gianmarco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; Setacci, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    We report a clinical evolution of a 85-years old male admitted to our Emergency Department for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). One month later a huge type I proximal endoleak was detected and corrected by proximal aortic extension. We decided to fix the stent-graft to the aortic wall using EndoAnchors. However, an asymptomatic type III endoleak due to controlateral limb disconnection was detected at the followed schedulated CT angio and corrected by a relining of the endograft. The patient is now in good clinical condition with no evidence of endoleaks at 1-year follow-up. PMID:24347133

  15. SU-E-P-16: A Feasibility Study of Using Eclipse AAA for SRS Treatement

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, S; LoSasso, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To commission Varian Eclipse AAA for SRS treatment and compare the accuracy with Brainlab iPlan system for clinical cases measured with radiochromic film. Methods: A 6MV AAA clinical model for a Varian TrueBeam STx is used as baseline. The focal spot and field size of the baseline model(BASE) are (1.75,0.75) and 40×40cm{sup 2} respectively. Maximum field sizes, output factors(S{sub t}), FWHM focal spot and secondary source sizes are systematically adjusted to obtain an optimized model(OPT) by comparing the calculated PDD’s, profiles, and output factors with measurements taken with a stereotactic diode(SD) and, cc01 and cc04 ion chambers in Blue Phantom. In-phantom dose distributions of clinical SRS fields are calculated using the OPT and the clinical Brainlab iPlan pencil-beam. Within the 90% isodose-line(ROI), the average dose difference between the calculations and radiochromic film measurements are assessed. Results: The maximum field, focal spot and secondary source sizes for the OPT are 15×15cm{sup 2}, (0,0), and 32.3mm respectively. The OPT St input at 1.0 and 2.0cm fields are increased by 4.5% and 1.5% from BASE. The calculated output of the BASE and OPT underestimate by 16.1%–3.2% respectively at 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field and 3.1%−0.02% respectively at 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2} field. The depth doses at 10cm are within 3.5% and 0.4% of measurements for 0.5×0.5 and 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2}. The ROI dose of OPT and iPlan are within 1.6% and 0.6% of film measurements for 3.0cm clinical fields. For 1.0cm fields, the ROI dose of OPT underestimate 0.0–2.0% and iPlan overestimates 1.7–2.9% relative to measurements. Conclusion: The small field dose calculation of Eclipse AAA algorithm can be significantly improved by carefully adjusting the input parameters. The larger deviation of the OPT for 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field from measurements can be attributed to the lowest 1.0cm field size input limit of AAA. The OPT compares reasonably well with the iPlan pencil

  16. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  17. Ultrasonic Recovery and Modification of Food Ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkhu, Kamaljit; Manasseh, Richard; Mawson, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    There are two general classes of effects that sound, and ultrasound in particular, can have on a fluid. First, very significant modifications to the nature of food and food ingredients can be due to the phenomena of bubble acoustics and cavitation. The applied sound oscillates bubbles in the fluid, creating intense forces at microscopic scales thus driving chemical changes. Second, the sound itself can cause the fluid to flow vigorously, both on a large scale and on a microscopic scale; furthermore, the sound can cause particles in the fluid to move relative to the fluid. These streaming phenomena can redistribute materials within food and food ingredients at both microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  18. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient.

    PubMed

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-06-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  19. Inflammatory cell phenotypes in AAAs; their role and potential as targets for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Matthew A; Ruhlman, Melissa K.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. AAA is typically an asymptomatic disease and caused approximately 15,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Previous studies have examined both human and murine aortic tissue for the presence of various inflammatory cell types. Studies show that in both human and experimental AAAs, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages, occurs in the damaged aortic wall. These cells have the ability to undergo phenotypic modulation based on microenvironmental cues, potentially influencing disease progression. Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T cells and classically activated macrophages dominate the landscape of aortic infiltrates. The skew to pro-inflammatory phenotypes alters disease progression and plays a role in causing chronic inflammation. The local cytokine production and presence of inflammatory mediators, such as extracellular matrix breakdown products, influence the uneven balance of the inflammatory infiltrate phenotypes. Understanding and developing new strategies that target the pro-inflammatory phenotype could provide useful therapeutic targets for a disease with no current pharmacological intervention. PMID:26044582

  20. AAA ATPases regulate membrane association of yeast oxysterol binding proteins and sterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Penghua; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hongzhe; Chieu, Hai Kee; Munn, Alan L; Yang, Hongyuan

    2005-09-01

    The yeast genome encodes seven oxysterol binding protein homologs, Osh1p-Osh7p, which have been implicated in regulating intracellular lipid and vesicular transport. Here, we show that both Osh6p and Osh7p interact with Vps4p, a member of the AAA (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) family. The coiled-coil domain of Osh7p was found to interact with Vps4p in a yeast two-hybrid screen and the interaction between Osh7p and Vps4p appears to be regulated by ergosterol. Deletion of VPS4 induced a dramatic increase in the membrane-associated pools of Osh6p and Osh7p and also caused a decrease in sterol esterification, which was suppressed by overexpression of OSH7. Lastly, overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Osh7p (Osh7pCC) resulted in a multivesicular body sorting defect, suggesting a dominant negative role of Osh7pCC possibly through inhibiting Vps4p function. Our data suggest that a common mechanism may exist for AAA proteins to regulate the membrane association of yeast OSBP proteins and that these two protein families may function together to control subcellular lipid transport. PMID:16096648

  1. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Rosenberg, Scott C; Moeller, Arne; Speir, Jeffrey A; Su, Tiffany Y; Corbett, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active ‘closed’ conformer to an inactive ‘open’ conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07367.001 PMID:25918846

  2. Mechanism of the AAA+ ATPases pontin and reptin in the biogenesis of H/ACA RNPs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Pinilla, Rosario; Liger, Dominique; Leulliot, Nicolas; Meier, U. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The AAA+ ATPases pontin and reptin function in a staggering array of cellular processes including chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, and assembly of macromolecular complexes, such as RNA polymerase II and small nucleolar (sno) RNPs. However, the molecular mechanism for all of these AAA+ ATPase associated activities is unknown. Here we document that, during the biogenesis of H/ACA RNPs (including telomerase), the assembly factor SHQ1 holds the pseudouridine synthase NAP57/dyskerin in a viselike grip, and that pontin and reptin (as components of the R2TP complex) are required to pry NAP57 from SHQ1. Significantly, the NAP57 domain captured by SHQ1 harbors most mutations underlying X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) implicating the interface between the two proteins as a target of this bone marrow failure syndrome. Homing in on the essential first steps of H/ACA RNP biogenesis, our findings provide the first insight into the mechanism of action of pontin and reptin in the assembly of macromolecular complexes. PMID:22923768

  3. Going the distance: validation of Acuros and AAA at an extended SSD of 400 cm.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Narottam; Patel, Vivek N; Studenski, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation and treatment delivery is essential for total body irradia-tion (TBI). In an effort to verify the accuracy of TBI dose calculation at our institu-tion, we evaluated both the Varian Eclipse AAA and Acuros algorithms to predict dose distributions at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 400 cm. Measurements were compared to calculated values for a 6 MV beam in physical and virtual phantoms at 400 cm SSD using open beams for both 5 × 5 and 40 × 40cm2 field sizes. Inline and crossline profiles were acquired at equivalent depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm. Depth-dose curves were acquired using EBT2 film and an ion chamber for both field sizes. Finally, a RANDO phantom was used to simulate an actual TBI treatment. At this extended SSD, care must be taken using the planning system as there is good relative agreement between measured and calculated profiles for both algorithms, but there are deviations in terms of the absolute dose. Acuros has better agreement than AAA in the penumbra region. PMID:27074473

  4. The impact of surface loading and dosing scheme on the skin uptake of fragrances.

    PubMed

    Berthaud, Fabienne; Smith, Benjamin; Boncheva, Mila

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the skin uptake of γ-undecalactone, decanol, and dodecyl acetate in an in vitro, un-occluded penetration assay in which they were applied to porcine skin at different finite loadings and application schemes. The pattern of fractional uptake differed between the chemicals and did not show the often assumed inverse correlation with surface loading. Furthermore, the mass uptake of identical cumulative amounts of the chemicals was not always additive. These results show that the uptake of fragrances in absence of occlusion and at finite loadings is chemical-specific and depends on the surface loading, the application scheme, and most probably, on the effects of the chemicals on the skin barrier efficiency. The observed lack of additivity might explain some of the differences in the responses observed in patch and repeated open application tests, and the boosting of the allergic state in sensitized individuals by sub-clinical exposures. PMID:24041533

  5. Fragrance of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) attracts both floral herbivores and pollinators.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina

    2006-05-01

    The evolution of floral scent as a plant reproductive signal is assumed to be driven by pollinator behavior, with little attention paid to other potential selective forces such as herbivores. I tested 10 out of the 13 compounds emitted by dioecious Cirsium arvense, Canada thistle, including 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, linalool, furanoid linalool oxides (E and Z), and dimethyl salicylate. Single compounds (and one isomer) set out in scent-baited water-bowl traps trapped over 10 species of pollinators and 16 species of floral herbivores. The two dominant components of the fragrance blend of C. arvense, benzaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde, trapped both pollinators and florivores. Other compounds attracted either pollinators or florivores. Florivores of C. arvense appear to use floral scent compounds as kairomones; by advertising to pollinators, C. arvense also attracts its own enemies. PMID:16739013

  6. Moyamoya disease-associated protein mysterin/RNF213 is a novel AAA+ ATPase, which dynamically changes its oligomeric state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kouki; Hoseki, Jun; Kitamura, Akira; Kotani, Yuri; Kiso, Kazumi; Kinjo, Masataka; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic human cerebrovascular disorder that is characterized by progressive stenosis and abnormal collateral vessels. We recently identified mysterin/RNF213 as its first susceptibility gene, which encodes a 591-kDa protein containing enzymatically active P-loop ATPase and ubiquitin ligase domains and is involved in proper vascular development in zebrafish. Here we demonstrate that mysterin further contains two tandem AAA+ ATPase modules and forms huge ring-shaped oligomeric complex. AAA+ ATPases are known to generally mediate various biophysical and mechanical processes with the characteristic ring-shaped structure. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biochemical evaluation suggested that mysterin dynamically changes its oligomeric forms through ATP/ADP binding and hydrolysis cycles. Thus, the moyamoya disease-associated gene product is a unique protein that functions as ubiquitin ligase and AAA+ ATPase, which possibly contributes to vascular development through mechanical processes in the cell.

  7. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  8. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  9. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko

    2005-05-15

    In this study, the occurrence of the polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydeonaphthalene) in marine mammals and sharks collected from Japanese coastal waters is reported. HHCB was present in the blubbers of all finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) analyzed (n = 8), at levels ranging from 13 to 149 ng/g on a wet weight basis. A fetus sample of finless porpoise contained a notable concentration of HHCB (26 ng/g wet wt), suggesting transplacental transfer of this compound. Among 12 tissues and organs of a finless porpoise analyzed, the highest HHCB concentration was found in blubber, followed by kidney. This indicates that HHCB accumulates in lipid-rich tissues in marine mammals, which is similar to the accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDTs. In general, the residue levels of AHTN and nitro musks were low or below the detection limits in finless porpoises, implying either less usage in Japan or high metabolic capacity of these compounds in this animal. HHCB was also found in the livers of five hammerhead sharks (Sphrna lewini) from Japanese coastal waters, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 48 ng/g wet wt. Occurrence of HHCB in higher trophic organisms strongly suggests that it is less degradable in the environment and accumulates in the top predators of marine food chains. This is the first report on the accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks. PMID:15952346

  10. Controlling Flows Of Two Ingredients For Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Huel H.

    1995-01-01

    Closed-loop servo control subsystem incorporated, as modification, into system controlling flows of two ingredients mixed and sprayed to form thermally insulating foams on large tanks. Provides steady flows at specified rates. Foams produced smoother and of higher quality. Continued use of system results in substantial reduction in cost stemming from close control of application of foam and consequent reduced use of material.

  11. Writing Workshop: Three Ingredients That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczepanski, Sue

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that there are three powerful ingredients that compose writing workshop block: time, ownership, and response. Notes that the child-centered nature of writing workshop is part of what makes it appeal to students. Considers how the fact that each child is accepted at his or her level allows for many differences in ability. (SG)

  12. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  13. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  14. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  15. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  16. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ingredients statement. 381.118 Section 381.118 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY...

  17. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ingredients statement. 381.118 Section 381.118 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY...

  18. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ingredients statement. 381.118 Section 381.118 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY...

  19. 7 CFR 65.185 - Ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ingredient. 65.185 Section 65.185 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  20. 7 CFR 65.185 - Ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ingredient. 65.185 Section 65.185 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  1. 7 CFR 65.185 - Ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ingredient. 65.185 Section 65.185 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  2. 7 CFR 65.185 - Ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ingredient. 65.185 Section 65.185 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  3. 7 CFR 65.185 - Ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ingredient. 65.185 Section 65.185 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  4. Origin and Functional Evolution of the Cdc48/p97/VCP AAA+ Protein Unfolding and Remodeling Machine.

    PubMed

    Barthelme, Dominik; Sauer, Robert T

    2016-05-01

    The AAA+ Cdc48 ATPase (alias p97 or VCP) is a key player in multiple ubiquitin-dependent cell signaling, degradation, and quality control pathways. Central to these broad biological functions is the ability of Cdc48 to interact with a large number of adaptor proteins and to remodel macromolecular proteins and their complexes. Different models have been proposed to explain how Cdc48 might couple ATP hydrolysis to forcible unfolding, dissociation, or remodeling of cellular clients. In this review, we provide an overview of possible mechanisms for substrate unfolding/remodeling by this conserved and essential AAA+ protein machine and their adaption and possible biological function throughout evolution. PMID:26608813

  5. Monte Carlo evaluation of the AAA treatment planning algorithm in a heterogeneous multilayer phantom and IMRT clinical treatments for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sterpin, E.; Tomsej, M.; Smedt, B. de; Reynaert, N.; Vynckier, S.

    2007-05-15

    The Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is a new pencil beam convolution/superposition algorithm proposed by Varian for photon dose calculations. The configuration of AAA depends on linear accelerator design and specifications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of AAA for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator for small fields and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments in inhomogeneous media. The accuracy of AAA was evaluated in two studies. First, AAA was compared both with Monte Carlo (MC) and the measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom simulating lung equivalent tissues and bone ribs. The algorithm was tested under lateral electronic disequilibrium conditions, using small fields (2x2 cm{sup 2}). Good agreement was generally achieved for depth dose and profiles, with deviations generally below 3% in lung inhomogeneities and below 5% at interfaces. However, the effects of attenuation and scattering close to the bone ribs were not fully taken into account by AAA, and small inhomogeneities may lead to planning errors. Second, AAA and MC were compared for IMRT plans in clinical conditions, i.e., dose calculations in a computed tomography scan of a patient. One ethmoid tumor, one orophaxynx and two lung tumors are presented in this paper. Small differences were found between the dose volume histograms. For instance, a 1.7% difference for the mean planning target volume dose was obtained for the ethmoid case. Since better agreement was achieved for the same plans but in homogeneous conditions, these differences must be attributed to the handling of inhomogeneities by AAA. Therefore, inherent assumptions of the algorithm, principally the assumption of independent depth and lateral directions in the scaling of the kernels, were slightly influencing AAA's validity in inhomogeneities. However, AAA showed a good accuracy overall and a great ability to handle small fields in inhomogeneous media compared to other pencil beam convolution

  6. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  7. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  8. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  9. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  10. In vitro skin penetration of fragrances: trapping the evaporated material can enhance the dermal absorption of volatile chemicals.

    PubMed

    Berthaud, Fabienne; Narancic, Sanja; Boncheva, Mila

    2011-10-01

    This study compared the evaporation and skin absorption profiles of four fragrance chemicals in in vitro skin penetration studies performed in conditions of airflows of low velocity with and without trapping of the evaporated volatiles. The presence of a trapping chamber above the skin surface slowed down the evaporation of the chemicals, possibly due to formation of a gaseous stagnant layer of greater thickness than the one existing at the skin surface in the real-life conditions of multidirectional and/or turbulent flows. In addition, the use of a trapping chamber considerably influenced the distribution of the fragrance chemicals in the skin layers and resulted in 2- to 8-fold increase of the doses available for systemic absorption. Such unrealistic overestimation of the percutaneous absorption can significantly impact the risk assessment of topically applied volatile chemicals and can lead to defining unrealistic margins of safety. PMID:21457774

  11. Fluorinated Musk Fragrances: The CF2 Group as a Conformational Bias Influencing the Odour of Civetone and (R)-Muscone.

    PubMed

    Callejo, Ricardo; Corr, Michael J; Yang, Mingyan; Wang, Mingan; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2016-06-01

    The difluoromethylene (CF2 ) group has a strong tendency to adopt corner over edge locations in aliphatic macrocycles. In this study, the CF2 group has been introduced into musk relevant macrocyclic ketones. Nine civetone and five muscone analogues have been prepared by synthesis for structure and odour comparisons. X-ray studies indeed show that the CF2 groups influence ring structure and they give some insight into the preferred ring conformations, triggering a musk odour as determined in a professional perfumery environment. The historical conformational model of Bersuker and co-workers for musk fragrance generally holds, and structures that become distorted from this consensus, by the particular placement of the CF2 groups, lose their musk fragrance and become less pleasant. PMID:27149882

  12. Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Robert, Christelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-05-15

    An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found that extraction pH was the most important parameter influencing yield and pectin chemical composition. Lower pH values negatively affected the galacturonic acid content of pectin, but increased the pectin yield. The values of degree of methylation decreased significantly with increasing temperature and time of extraction. The average molecular weight ranged widely from 87 to 248kDa and was mainly influenced by pH and extraction time. PMID:26059123

  13. The catalytic power of magnesium chelatase: a benchmark for the AAA(+) ATPases.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan B P; Brindley, Amanda A; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2016-06-01

    In the first committed reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, magnesium chelatase couples ATP hydrolysis to the thermodynamically unfavorable Mg(2+) insertion into protoporphyrin IX (ΔG°' of circa 25-33 kJ·mol(-1) ). We explored the thermodynamic constraints on magnesium chelatase and demonstrate the effect of nucleotide hydrolysis on both the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. The enzyme produces a significant rate enhancement (kcat /kuncat of 400 × 10(6) m) and a catalytic rate enhancement, kcat/KmDIXK0.5Mgkuncat, of 30 × 10(15) m(-1) , increasing to 300 × 10(15) m(-1) with the activator protein Gun4. This is the first demonstration of the thermodynamic benefit of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA(+) family. PMID:27176620

  14. Colloids in food: ingredients, structure, and stability.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews progress in the field of food colloids with particular emphasis on advances in novel functional ingredients and nanoscale structuring. Specific aspects of ingredient development described here are the stabilization of bubbles and foams by the protein hydrophobin, the emulsifying characteristics of Maillard-type protein-polysaccharide conjugates, the structural and functional properties of protein fibrils, and the Pickering stabilization of dispersed droplets by food-grade nanoparticles and microparticles. Building on advances in the nanoscience of biological materials, the application of structural design principles to the fabrication of edible colloids is leading to progress in the fabrication of functional dispersed systems-multilayer interfaces, multiple emulsions, and gel-like emulsions. The associated physicochemical insight is contributing to our mechanistic understanding of oral processing and textural perception of food systems and to the development of colloid-based strategies to control delivery of nutrients during food digestion within the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25422877

  15. Fucoxanthin: A Promising Medicinal and Nutritional Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Tang, Yibo; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Shuofeng; Qu, Jing; Wang, Xu; Kong, Ran; Han, Chunchao; Liu, Zhenquan

    2015-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, an allenic carotenoid, can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds. Recent studies have reported that fucoxanthin has many physiological functions and biological properties, such as antiobesity, antitumor, antidiabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective effects. Therefore, fucoxanthin can be used as both medicinal and nutritional ingredient to prevent and treat chronic diseases. Although fucoxanthin possesses many medicinal ingredient and nutritional qualities, studies indicated that its structure was unstable. In this paper, we consulted the current documents and reviewed structural properties and factors affecting the stability of fucoxanthin. We also reported the metabolism, safety, pharmacological activities, and the methods of improving the bioavailability of fucoxanthin. Based on these studies providing essential background knowledge, fucoxanthin can be developed into marine drugs and nutritional products. PMID:26106437

  16. [Toothpastes: ingredients, brands, categories and their utilization].

    PubMed

    Yavnai, N

    2010-04-01

    Toothpaste is one of the most widely used dental products, with the largest sales. Its use is one of the most popular oral hygiene behaviors in developed countries. In the last 30 years there has been a large variety of changes in toothpaste composition. One of the main changes is utilizing the toothpaste as a delivery system for therapeutic agents to the oral cavity. A large variety of toothpastes can be found on the market, for different purposes: caries prevention, gingivitis prevention, anti calculus formation, dentine hypersensitivity prevention and for teeth whitening. Toothpastes have a wide range of ingredients: abrasives, humectants, preservatives, thickening or binding agents, detergents, flavoring agents and therapeutic agents. This review provides details on the ingredients of dentifrices, the evidence about the different brands and categories, and questions about their utilization. PMID:21250403

  17. Student-Athlete Perceptions of a Summer Pre-Enrollment Experience at an NCAA Division I-AAA Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Michael Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine student-athlete perceptions of the role of summer pre-enrollment in their adjustment and transition to college. The study focused on student-athletes who received athletically-related financial aid at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AAA institution. The…

  18. Nucleotide-dependent interactions between a fork junction–RNA polymerase complex and an AAA+ transcriptional activator protein

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, W. V.; Schumacher, J.; Buck, M.

    2004-01-01

    Enhancer-dependent transcriptional activators that act upon the σ54 bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme belong to the extensive AAA+ superfamily of mechanochemical ATPases. Formation and collapse of the transition state for ATP hydrolysis engenders direct interactions between AAA+ activators and the σ54 factor, required for RNA polymerase isomerization. A DNA fork junction structure present within closed complexes serves as a nucleation point for the DNA melting seen in open promoter complexes and restricts spontaneous activator-independent RNA polymerase isomerization. We now provide physical evidence showing that the ADP·AlFx bound form of the AAA+ domain of the transcriptional activator protein PspF changes interactions between σ54-RNA polymerase and a DNA fork junction structure present in the closed promoter complex. The results suggest that one functional state of the nucleotide-bound activator serves to alter DNA binding by σ54 and σ54-RNA polymerase and appears to drive events that precede DNA opening. Clear evidence for a DNA-interacting activity in the AAA+ domain of PspF was obtained, suggesting that PspF may make a direct contact to the DNA component of a basal promoter complex to promote changes in σ54-RNA polymerase–DNA interactions that favour open complex formation. We also provide evidence for two distinct closed promoter complexes with differing stabilities. PMID:15333692

  19. Food Ingredients as Anti-Obesity Agents.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Matsushita, Mami

    2015-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis after cold exposure, and is involved in the regulation of energy expenditure and body fatness. BAT can be activated and recruited by not only cold exposure but also by various food ingredients including capsaicin in chili pepper and catechins in green tea, which would be easily and safely applicable to our daily life for preventing obesity. PMID:26421678

  20. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Her, Joonyoung; Chung, In Kwon

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 associates with catalytically active telomerase via an interaction with hTERT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding and telomerase assembly. -- Abstract: Continued cell proliferation requires telomerase to maintain functional telomeres that are essential for chromosome integrity. Although the core enzyme includes a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA component (TERC), a number of auxiliary proteins have been identified to regulate telomerase assembly, localization, and enzymatic activity. Here we describe the characterization of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. NVL2 interacts and co-localizes with hTERT in the nucleolus. NLV2 is also found in association with catalytically competent telomerase in cell lysates through an interaction with hTERT. Depletion of endogenous NVL2 by small interfering RNA led to a decrease in hTERT without affecting the steady-state levels of hTERT mRNA, thereby reducing telomerase activity, suggesting that NVL2 is an essential component of the telomerase holoenzyme. We also found that ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding as well as telomerase assembly. Our findings suggest that NVL2, in addition to its role in ribosome biosynthesis, is essential for telomerase biogenesis and provides an alternative approach for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer.

  1. Endosomal transport function in yeast requires a novel AAA-type ATPase, Vps4p.

    PubMed Central

    Babst, M; Sato, T K; Banta, L M; Emr, S D

    1997-01-01

    In a late-Golgi compartment of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuolar proteins such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are actively sorted away from the secretory pathway and transported to the vacuole via a pre-vacuolar, endosome-like intermediate. The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutant vps4 accumulates vacuolar, endocytic and late-Golgi markers in an aberrant multilamellar pre-vacuolar compartment. The VPS4 gene has been cloned and found to encode a 48 kDa protein which belongs to the protein family of AAA-type ATPases. The Vps4 protein was purified and shown to exhibit an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase activity. A single amino acid change within the AAA motif of Vps4p yielded a protein that lacked ATPase activity and did not complement the protein sorting or morphological defects of the vps4 delta1 mutant. Indeed, when expressed at normal levels in wild-type cells, the mutant vps4 gene acted as a dominant-negative allele. The phenotypic characterization of a temperature-sensitive vps4 allele showed that the immediate consequence of loss of Vps4p function is a defect in vacuolar protein delivery. In this mutant, precursor CPY was not secreted but instead accumulated in an intracellular compartment, presumably the pre-vacuolar endosome. Electron microscopy revealed that upon temperature shift, exaggerated stacks of curved cisternal membranes (aberrant endosome) also accumulated in the vps4ts mutant. Based on these and other observations, we propose that Vps4p function is required for efficient transport out of the pre-vacuolar endosome. PMID:9155008

  2. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, R. O.; Karlsson, A.; Behrens, C. F.

    2010-08-01

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  3. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, R O; Karlsson, A; Behrens, C F

    2010-08-21

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  4. 27 CFR 17.165 - Receipt of raw ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of raw ingredients. 17.165 Section 17.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... PRODUCTS Records § 17.165 Receipt of raw ingredients. For raw ingredients destined to be used...

  5. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  6. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  7. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  8. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  10. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protectant active ingredients. 346.14 Section 346... Protectant active ingredients. (a) The following active ingredients may be used as the sole protectant active... solution so that the final product contains not less than 10 and not more than 45 percent glycerin...

  11. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  12. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.12 Astringent active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any one of...

  13. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  14. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.12 Astringent active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any one of...

  15. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.12 Astringent active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any one of...

  16. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  17. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.12 Astringent active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any one of...

  18. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.12 Astringent active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any one of...

  19. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  20. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  1. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  2. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  3. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  4. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  5. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  6. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  7. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  8. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  9. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that the product is labeled according to § 341.85... combination of acetaminophen with other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid... other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that...

  10. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that the product is labeled according to § 341.85... combination of acetaminophen with other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid... other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that...

  11. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that the product is labeled according to § 341.85... combination of acetaminophen with other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid... other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that...

  12. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that the product is labeled according to § 341.85... combination of acetaminophen with other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid... other analgesic-antipyretic active ingredients, or any aspirin and antacid combination provided that...

  13. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  14. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  15. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  16. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  17. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  18. A comparative human health risk assessment of p-dichlorobenzene-based toilet rimblock products versus fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Dallas B; Bosch, Stephen; Gray, D Anthony; Howard, Philip H; Guiney, Patrick D

    2007-10-01

    A comparison of the human health risk to consumers using one of two types of toilet rimblock products, either a p-dichlorobenzene-based rimblock or two newer fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives, was conducted. Rimblock products are designed for global use by consumers worldwide and function by releasing volatile compounds into indoor air with subsequent exposure presumed to be mainly by inhalation of indoor air. Using the THERdbASE exposure model and experimentally determined emission data, indoor air concentrations and daily intake values were determined for both types of rimblock products. Modeled exposure concentrations from a representative p-dichlorobenzene rimblock product are an order of magnitude higher than those from the alternative rimblock products due to its nearly pure composition and high sublimation rate. Lifetime exposure to p-dichlorobenzene or the subset of fragrance components with available RfD values is not expected to lead to non-cancer-based adverse health effects based on the exposure concentrations estimated using the THERdbASE model. A similar comparison of cancer-based effects was not possible as insufficient data were available for the fragrance components. PMID:17934948

  19. Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  20. Respiratory Health - Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  1. Lavender Fragrance Essential Oil and the Quality of Sleep in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz Afshar, Mahnaz; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Bekhradi, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Mokhtari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor and delivery is a stressful stage for mothers. During these periods, sleep-related disorders have been reported. The problems of inadequate sleep include decrease in concentration, judgment, difficulty in performing daily activities, and an increase in irritability. Even the effects of moderate sleep loss on life and health quality can be similar to sleep deprivation. some research aggravated by aromatherapy on sleep quality in different periods of life so might be useful for the improve of sleep quality in postpartum women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in postpartum women. The sample was recruited from medical health centers of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with the control group. A total of 158 mothers in postpartum period (with certain inclusion criteria) were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of control and intervention. Lavender fragrance (made by Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Co.) was used by participants in the intervention group nightly before sleeping. The fragrance was dropped on cotton balls, which were placed on a cylindrical container at mothers’ disposal. Keeping the container at a projected distance of 20 cm, the participants inhaled 10 deep breaths and then the container was placed beside their pillow until morning. This procedure was done 4 times a week for 8 weeks. For the control group, the same intervention was done with the placebo. The instrument for collecting data was Pittsburgh sleep quality index, which was completed at the baseline, fourth, and eighth weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t test and repeated measures analysis of variance calculated by SPSS16. Results: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences between mothers in two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks follow up, a significant improvement appeared in

  2. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  3. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  4. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  5. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  6. Rose scent: genomics approach to discovering novel floral fragrance-related genes.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Inna; Shalit, Moshe; Menda, Naama; Piestun, Dan; Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Shalev, Gil; Bar, Einat; Davydov, Olga; Ovadis, Mariana; Emanuel, Michal; Wang, Jihong; Adam, Zach; Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Zamir, Dani; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss, David

    2002-10-01

    For centuries, rose has been the most important crop in the floriculture industry; its economic importance also lies in the use of its petals as a source of natural fragrances. Here, we used genomics approaches to identify novel scent-related genes, using rose flowers from tetraploid scented and nonscented cultivars. An annotated petal EST database of approximately 2100 unique genes from both cultivars was created, and DNA chips were prepared and used for expression analyses of selected clones. Detailed chemical analysis of volatile composition in the two cultivars, together with the identification of secondary metabolism-related genes whose expression coincides with scent production, led to the discovery of several novel flower scent-related candidate genes. The function of some of these genes, including a germacrene D synthase, was biochemically determined using an Escherichia coli expression system. This work demonstrates the advantages of using the high-throughput approaches of genomics to detail traits of interest expressed in a cultivar-specific manner in nonmodel plants. EST sequences were submitted to the GenBank database (accession numbers BQ 103855 to BQ 106728). PMID:12368489

  7. Utility and limitations of a peptide reactivity assay to predict fragrance allergens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Natsch, A; Gfeller, H; Rothaupt, M; Ellis, G

    2007-10-01

    A key step in the skin sensitization process is the formation of a covalent adduct between the skin sensitizer and endogenous proteins and/or peptides in the skin. A published peptide depletion assay was used to relate the in vitro reactivity of fragrance molecules to LLNA data. Using the classical assay, 22 of 28 tested moderate to strong sensitizers were positive. The prediction of weak sensitizers proved to be more difficult with only 50% of weak sensitizers giving a positive response, but for some compounds this could also be due to false-positive results from the LLNA. LC-MS analysis yielded the expected mass of the peptide adducts in several cases, whereas in other cases putative oxidation reactions led to adducts of unexpected molecular weight. Several moderately sensitizing aldehydes were correctly predicted by the depletion assay, but no adducts were found and the depletion appears to be due to an oxidation of the parent peptide catalyzed by the test compound. Finally, alternative test peptides derived from a physiological reactive protein with enhanced sensitivity for weak Michael acceptors were found, further increasing the sensitivity of the assay. PMID:17513083

  8. Enzymes for synthetic biology of ambroxide-related diterpenoid fragrance compounds.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Ambrox and related ambroxides are highly priced in the fragrance industry, and valued for their delicate odor and fixative properties. Historically, ambrox was obtained from ambergris, a waxy excretion produced by sperm whales, now an endangered species. Synthetic ambroxides have replaced ambergris in perfume manufacture. Plant labdane diterpenoids can serve as starting material for ambroxide synthesis. Among these, the diterpene alcohol sclareol is the major industrial precursor obtained from cultivated clary sage (Salvia sclarea). In plants, a large family of diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes controls key reactions in diterpenoid biosynthesis. Advanced metabolite profiling and high-throughput sequencing of fragrant and medicinal plants have accelerated discovery of novel diTPS functions, providing a resource for combinatorial synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches. This chapter highlights recent progress on the discovery, characterization, and engineering of plant diTPSs with potential uses in ambroxide production. It features biosynthesis of sclareol, cis-abienol, and diterpene resin acids, as sources of genes and enzymes for diterpenoid bioproducts. PMID:25846965

  9. Reverse genetics studies of attenuation of the ca A/AA/6/60 influenza virus: the role of the matrix gene.

    PubMed

    Sweet, T M; Maassab, H F; Herlocher, M L

    2004-11-01

    The matrix (M) gene of influenza virus has been implicated in the attenuation phenotype of the cold adapted (ca) A/AA/6/60 vaccine. Previous studies have evaluated the ca M from A/AA/6/60 in different wild type (wt) virus backgrounds with varying results. In experiments described here, the ca M gene was transfected into the background of its own wt A/AA/6/60 to eliminate the possibility of confounding gene constellation effects. Comparison of the sequence of the wt and the ca A/AA/6/60 revealed one substitution in the nucleotide sequence of M. The molecular techniques of reverse genetics were used to rescue the ca M gene into the virulent wt A/AA/6/60 virus. The selection system used to identify the desired transfectant virus was amantadine resistance, which was introduced into the M2 gene using mutagenesis. The ca A/AA/6/60, the wt A/AA/6/60, a virus which contained wt M and was wt in the remaining seven genes and amantadine resistant (wt/969), a virus which contained the ca M but wt in the other seven genes (ca/969) were all evaluated in mice determine the effect of the ca M. The ca/969 virus was not attenuated in the mouse model when compared to the wt/969 virus, indicating that the ca A/AA/6/60 M does not independently contribute to the attenuation phenotype attributed to the ca A/AA/6/60 vaccine virus. PMID:15511608

  10. Lysinoalanine: presence in foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, M; Kim, C Y; Schwende, F J

    1975-12-01

    Lysinoalanine, N6-(DL-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine, an unusual amino acid implicated as a renal toxic factor in rats, has been found in proteins of home-cooked and commercial foods and ingredients. Although it has been reported to occur in both edible and nonfood proteins only after alkali treatment, it has now been identified in food proteins that had not been subjected to alkali. Lysinoalanine is generated in a variety of proteins when heated under nonalkaline conditions. PMID:242077

  11. [Ingredients of membrane adhesion in reused dialyzer].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulin; Yang, Yujing; Zhu, Gendi; Fan, Xiaohong

    2007-10-01

    Selecting reused polysulfone membrane (PSM) dialyzers as research objects, we mainly analyzed quantitatively the adhesion ingredients which obstructed the passage through the membrane, and we investigated the differences of residual contaminants on the surface of PSM in the cases of various reuse times. The results illustrated that after the completion of dialysis, the dialyzer was first cleaned by reverse osmosis (RO) water to remove the protein adsorpted. Then we used 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution to soak it, and the glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride adsorpted were dissolved off. Meanwhile, the quantity of most of adsorption gradually increased with the increase of reuse times. PMID:18027707

  12. Relative importance of aneurysm diameter and body size for predicting AAA rupture in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Lu, Bing; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Conrad, Mark; Patel, Virendra I.; Fillinger, Mark; Matyal, Robina; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Women have been shown to have up to a four-fold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared to men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and to determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Using each patient’s height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, BMI, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size [e.g. aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm) / BSA (m2)]. Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs. elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately and different models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC). Results We identified 4045 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 53% EVAR). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men (Table 1). For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (AUC = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5cm: OR 1.0; 5.5–6.4cm: OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1

  13. CODAS Syndrome Is Associated with Mutations of LONP1, Encoding Mitochondrial AAA+ Lon Protease

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Jinks, Robert N.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Singh, Kamalendra; Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Thilagavathi, Jayapalraja; Lee, Jae; Sarafianos, Stefan; Benkert, Abigail; Koehler, Alanna; Zhu, Anni; Trovillion, Victoria; McGlincy, Madeleine; Morlet, Thierry; Deardorff, Matthew; Innes, A. Micheil; Prasad, Chitra; Chudley, Albert E.; Lee, Irene Nga Wing; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    2015-01-01

    CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA+ domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease. PMID:25574826

  14. Proteolytic processing of Atg32 by the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 regulates mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Jin, Meiyan; Liu, Xu; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Mitophagy, the autophagic removal of mitochondria, occurs through a highly selective mechanism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Atg32 confers selectivity for mitochondria sequestration as a cargo by the autophagic machinery through its interaction with Atg11, a scaffold protein for selective types of autophagy. The activity of mitophagy in vivo must be tightly regulated considering that mitochondria are essential organelles that produce most of the cellular energy, but also generate reactive oxygen species that can be harmful to cell physiology. We found that Atg32 was proteolytically processed at its C terminus upon mitophagy induction. Adding an epitope tag to the C terminus of Atg32 interfered with its processing and caused a mitophagy defect, suggesting the processing is required for efficient mitophagy. Furthermore, we determined that the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 mediated Atg32 processing and was required for mitophagy. Finally, we found that the interaction between Atg32 and Atg11 was significantly weakened in yme1∆ cells. We propose that the processing of Atg32 by Yme1 acts as an important regulatory mechanism of cellular mitophagy activity. PMID:24025448

  15. Structural Basis for the Magnesium-Dependent Activation and Hexamerization of the Lon AAA+ Protease.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chu; Tai, Hui-Chung; Chang, Mu-Yueh; Ho, Meng-Ru; Babu, C Satheesan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lim, Carmay; Chang, Chung-I

    2016-05-01

    The Lon AAA+ protease (LonA) plays important roles in protein homeostasis and regulation of diverse biological processes. LonA behaves as a homomeric hexamer in the presence of magnesium (Mg(2+)) and performs ATP-dependent proteolysis. However, it is also found that LonA can carry out Mg(2+)-dependent degradation of unfolded protein substrate in an ATP-independent manner. Here we show that in the presence of Mg(2+) LonA forms a non-secluded hexameric barrel with prominent openings, which explains why Mg(2+)-activated LonA can operate as a diffusion-based chambered protease to degrade unstructured protein and peptide substrates efficiently in the absence of ATP. A 1.85 Å crystal structure of Mg(2+)-activated protease domain reveals Mg(2+)-dependent remodeling of a substrate-binding loop and a potential metal-binding site near the Ser-Lys catalytic dyad, supported by biophysical binding assays and molecular dynamics simulations. Together, these findings reveal the specific roles of Mg(2+) in the molecular assembly and activation of LonA. PMID:27041593

  16. The AAA ATPase VPS4/SKD1 regulates endosomal cholesterol trafficking independently of ESCRT-III.

    PubMed

    Du, Ximing; Kazim, Abdulla S; Dawes, Ian W; Brown, Andrew J; Yang, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    The exit of low-density lipoprotein derived cholesterol (LDL-C) from late endosomes (LE)/lysosomes (Ly) is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a multipass integral membrane protein on the limiting membranes of LE/Ly, and by NPC2, a cholesterol-binding protein in the lumen of LE/Ly. NPC2 delivers cholesterol to the N-terminal domain of NPC1, which is believed to insert cholesterol into the limiting membrane for subsequent transport to other subcellular organelles. Few cytoplasmic factors have been identified to govern cholesterol efflux from LE/Ly, and much less is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we establish VPS4, an AAA ATPase that has a well-established role in disassembling the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III polymer, as an important regulator of endosomal cholesterol transport. Knocking down VPS4 in HeLa cells resulted in prominent accumulation of LDL-C in LE/Ly, and disrupted cholesterol homeostatic responses at the endoplasmic reticulum. The level and localization of NPC1 and NPC2 appeared to be normal in VPS4 knockdown cells. Importantly, depleting any of the ESCRT-III components did not exert a significant effect on endosomal cholesterol transport. Our results thus identify an important cytoplasmic regulator of endosomal cholesterol trafficking and represent the first functional separation of VPS4 from ESCRT-III. PMID:23009658

  17. The AAA-type ATPase AtSKD1 contributes to vacuolar maintenance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mojgan; Keshavaiah, Channa; Scheuring, David; Sabovljevic, Aneta; Pimpl, Peter; Häusler, Rainer E; Hülskamp, Martin; Schellmann, Swen

    2010-10-01

    The vacuole is the most prominent organelle of plant cells. Despite its importance for many physiological and developmental aspects of plant life, little is known about its biogenesis and maintenance. Here we show that Arabidopsis plants expressing a dominant-negative version of the AAA (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) ATPase AtSKD1 (SUPPRESSOR OF K+ TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) under the control of the trichome-specific GLABRA2 (GL2) promoter exhibit normal vacuolar development in early stages of trichome development. Shortly after its formation, however, the large central vacuole is fragmented and finally disappears completely. Secretion assays with amylase fused to the vacuolar sorting signal of Sporamin show that dominant-negative AtSKD1 inhibits vacuolar trafficking of the reporter that is instead secreted. In addition, trichomes expressing dominant-negative AtSKD1 frequently contain multiple nuclei. Our results suggest that AtSKD1 contributes to vacuolar protein trafficking and thereby to the maintenance of the large central vacuole of plant cells, and might play a role in cell-cycle regulation. PMID:20663085

  18. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  19. Maintenance of mitochondrial genome distribution by mitochondrial AAA+ protein ClpX.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sumitani, Megumi; Endo, Hitoshi

    2012-11-01

    The segregation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is important for the maintenance and transmission of the genome between generations. Recently, we clarified that human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for equal distribution and symmetric segregation of mtDNA in cultured cells; however, the molecular mechanism involved is largely unknown. ClpX is an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) proteins that localize to the mitochondrial matrix and is suggested to associate with mtDNA. In this study, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ClpX in HeLa cells resulted in enlarged mtDNA nucleoids, which is very similar to that observed in TFAM-knockdown cells in several properties. The expression of TFAM protein was not significantly reduced in ClpX-knockdown cells. However, the enlarged mtDNA nucleoids caused by ClpX-knockdown were suppressed by overexpression of recombinant TFAM and the phenotype was not observed in knockdown with ClpP, a protease subunit of ClpXP. Endogenous ClpX and TFAM exist in close vicinity, and ClpX enhanced DNA-binding activity of TFAM in vitro. These results suggest that human ClpX, a novel mtDNA regulator, maintains mtDNA nucleoid distribution through TFAM function as a chaperone rather than as a protease and its involvement in mtDNA segregation. PMID:22841477

  20. Design of a low-[beta-2]-gap spoke resonator for the AAA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F. L.; Garnett, R. W.; La Fave, R. P.; Kelley, J. P.; Schrage, D. L.; Tajima, T.; Roybal, P. L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present the electromagnetic and structural design of a low-b superconducting spoke resonator for a beam-test in the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA). This test is part of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) project. Recently, the use of superconducting resonators for energies greater than 6.7 MeV has been approved. The beam test will use the lowest-b resonator from this accelerator design. The choices of the cavity dimensions are driven by its use immediately downstream of the LEDA Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The frequency is 350 MHz. The length corresponds to a geometric b (bg) of 0.175. Our design approach has been to carry out an integrated RF and mechanical design from the start. The final cavity is well understood in terms of RF and mechanical properties. The RF properties, like Q, R/Q, peak surface fields and acceleration efficiency are very reasonable for such a low-b structure. The design also includes power coupler, vacuum and pick-up ports and their influences. The mechanical design added tuning sensitivities, tuning forces, stiffening schemes and the understanding of stresses under various load conditions.

  1. Subunit Interactions and Cooperativity in the Microtubule-severing AAA ATPase Spastin*

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Thomas; Link, Susanne; Le, Doan Tuong-Van; Sobczak, Jean-Philippe; Gieseke, Anja; Richter, Klaus; Woehlke, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Spastin is a hexameric ring AAA ATPase that severs microtubules. To see whether the ring complex funnels the energy of multiple ATP hydrolysis events to the site of mechanical action, we investigate here the cooperativity of spastin. Several lines of evidence indicate that interactions among two subunits dominate the cooperative behavior: (i) the ATPase activity shows a sigmoidal dependence on the ATP concentration; (ii) ATPγS displays a mixed-inhibition behavior for normal ATP turnover; and (iii) inactive mutant subunits inhibit the activity of spastin in a hyperbolic dependence, characteristic for two interacting species. A quantitative model based on neighbor interactions fits mutant titration experiments well, suggesting that each subunit is mainly influenced by one of its neighbors. These observations are relevant for patients suffering from SPG4-type hereditary spastic paraplegia and explain why single amino acid exchanges lead to a dominant negative phenotype. In severing assays, wild type spastin is even more sensitive toward the presence of inactive mutants than in enzymatic assays, suggesting a weak coupling of ATPase and severing activity. PMID:22637577

  2. AAA+ Chaperone ClpX Regulates Dynamics of Prokaryotic Cytoskeletal Protein FtsZ*

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Nishikori, Shingo; Miyagi, Atsushi; Ando, Toshio; Ogura, Teru

    2010-01-01

    AAA+ chaperone ClpX has been suggested to be a modulator of prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein FtsZ, but the details of recognition and remodeling of FtsZ by ClpX are largely unknown. In this study, we have extensively investigated the nature of FtsZ polymers and mechanisms of ClpX-regulated FtsZ polymer dynamics. We found that FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by ClpX in an ATP-independent manner and that the N-terminal domain of ClpX plays a crucial role for the inhibition of FtsZ polymerization. Single molecule analysis with high speed atomic force microscopy directly revealed that FtsZ polymer is in a dynamic equilibrium between polymerization and depolymerization on a time scale of several seconds. ClpX disassembles FtsZ polymers presumably by blocking reassembly of FtsZ. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells overproducing ClpX and N-terminal domain of ClpX show filamentous morphology with abnormal localization of FtsZ. These data together suggest that ClpX modulates FtsZ polymer dynamics in an ATP-independent fashion, which is achieved by interaction between the N-terminal domain of ClpX and FtsZ monomers or oligomers. PMID:20022957

  3. Critical clamp loader processing by an essential AAA+ protease in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Vass, Robert H.; Chien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome replication relies on sliding clamps that are loaded by energy-dependent complexes. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-binding clamp loader subunit DnaX exists as both long (τ) and short (γ) forms generated through programmed translational frameshifting, but the need for both forms is unclear. Here, we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, DnaX isoforms are unexpectedly generated through partial proteolysis by the AAA+ protease casein lytic proteinase (Clp) XP. We find that the normally processive ClpXP protease partially degrades DnaX to produce stable fragments upon encountering a glycine-rich region adjacent to a structured domain. Increasing the sequence complexity of this region prevents partial proteolysis and generates a τ-only form of DnaX in vivo that is unable to support viability on its own. Growth is restored when γ is provided in trans, but these strains are more sensitive to DNA damage compared with strains that can generate γ through proteolysis. Our work reveals an unexpected mode of partial processing by the ClpXP protease to generate DnaX isoforms, demonstrates that both τ and γ forms of DnaX are required for Caulobacter viability, and identifies a role for clamp loader diversity in responding to DNA damage. The conservation of distinct DnaX isoforms throughout bacteria despite fundamentally different mechanisms for producing them suggests there may be a conserved need for alternate clamp loader complexes during DNA damaging conditions. PMID:24145408

  4. The Archaeal Proteasome Is Regulated by a Network of AAA ATPases*

    PubMed Central

    Forouzan, Dara; Ammelburg, Moritz; Hobel, Cedric F.; Ströh, Luisa J.; Sessler, Nicole; Martin, Jörg; Lupas, Andrei N.

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is the central machinery for targeted protein degradation in archaea, Actinobacteria, and eukaryotes. In its basic form, it consists of a regulatory ATPase complex and a proteolytic core particle. The interaction between the two is governed by an HbYX motif (where Hb is a hydrophobic residue, Y is tyrosine, and X is any amino acid) at the C terminus of the ATPase subunits, which stimulates gate opening of the proteasomal α-subunits. In archaea, the proteasome-interacting motif is not only found in canonical proteasome-activating nucleotidases of the PAN/ARC/Rpt group, which are absent in major archaeal lineages, but also in proteins of the CDC48/p97/VAT and AMA groups, suggesting a regulatory network of proteasomal ATPases. Indeed, Thermoplasma acidophilum, which lacks PAN, encodes one CDC48 protein that interacts with the 20S proteasome and activates the degradation of model substrates. In contrast, Methanosarcina mazei contains seven AAA proteins, five of which, both PAN proteins, two out of three CDC48 proteins, and the AMA protein, function as proteasomal gatekeepers. The prevalent presence of multiple, distinct proteasomal ATPases in archaea thus results in a network of regulatory ATPases that may widen the substrate spectrum of proteasomal protein degradation. PMID:22992741

  5. ATP-binding sites in brain p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), a multifunctional AAA ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Zalk, Ran; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2003-01-01

    VCP (valosin-containing protein) or p97 is a member of the AAA family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities family), a diverse group of proteins sharing a key conserved AAA module containing duplicate putative ATP-binding sites. Although the functions of the AAA family are related to their putative ATP-binding sites, the binding of ATP to these sites has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, the ATP-binding site(s) of brain VCP was characterized using the photoreactive ATP analogue, BzATP [3'- O -(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP]. Photo-activation of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP resulted in its covalent binding to a 97-kDa purified soluble or membrane-associated protein, identified by amino acid sequencing as VCP. Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP covalently bound to the purified homo-hexameric VCP with an apparent high affinity (74-111 nM). A molar stoichiometry of 2.23+/-0.14 BzATP bound per homo-hexameric VCP (n =6) was determined using different methods for analysis of radiolabelling and protein determination. Nucleotides inhibited the binding of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP to VCP with the following efficiency: BzATP>ATP>ADP>>adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate>or=adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate, whereas AMP, GTP and CTP were ineffective. VCP was observed to possess very low ATPase activity, with nucleotide specificity similar to that for BzATP binding. Conformational changes induced by an alternating site mechanism for ATP binding are suggested as a molecular mechanism for coupling ATP binding to the diverse activities of the AAA family. PMID:12747802

  6. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal. PMID:22608611

  7. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential

  8. Removal of fragrance materials during U.S. and European wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Simonich, Staci L; Federle, Tom W; Eckhoff, William S; Rottiers, Andre; Webb, Simon; Sabaliunas, Darius; de Wolf, Watze

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations and removals of 16 fragrance materials (EMs) were measured in 17 U.S. and European wastewater treatment plants between 1997 and 2000 and were compared to predicted values. The average FM profile and concentrations in U.S. and European influent were similar. The average FM profile in primary effluent was similar to the average influent profile; however, the concentration of FMs was reduced by 14.6-50.6% in primary effluent. The average FM profile in final effluent was significantly different from the primary effluent profile and was a function of the design of the wastewater treatment plant. In general, the removal of sorptive, nonbiodegradable FMs was correlated with the removal of total suspended solids in the plant, while the removal of nonsorptive, biodegradable FMs was correlated with 5-day Biological Oxidation Demand removal in the plant. The overall plant removal (primary + secondary treatment) of FMs ranged from 87.8 to 99.9% for activated sludge plants, 58.6-99.8% for carousel plants, 88.9-99.9% for oxidation ditch plants, 71.3-98.6% for trickling filter plants, 80.8-99.9% for a rotating biological contactor plant, and 96.7-99.9% for lagoons. The average concentration of FMs in final effluent ranged from the limit of quantitation (1-3 ng/L) to 8 microg/L. Measured FM removal and concentrations were compared to predicted values, which were based on industry volume, per capita water use, octanol-water partition coefficient, and biodegradability. PMID:12144256

  9. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  10. Architecture and Nucleotide-Dependent Conformational Changes of the Rvb1-Rvb2 AAA+ Complex Revealed by Cryoelectron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ewens, Caroline A; Su, Min; Zhao, Liang; Nano, Nardin; Houry, Walid A; Southworth, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Rvb1 and Rvb2 are essential AAA+ proteins that interact together during the assembly and activity of diverse macromolecules including chromatin remodelers INO80 and SWR-C, and ribonucleoprotein complexes including telomerase and snoRNPs. ATP hydrolysis by Rvb1/2 is required for function; however, the mechanism that drives substrate remodeling is unknown. Here we determined the architecture of the yeast Rvb1/2 dodecamer using cryoelectron microscopy and identify that the substrate-binding insertion domain undergoes conformational changes in response to nucleotide state. 2D and 3D classification defines the dodecamer flexibility, revealing distinct arrangements and the hexamer-hexamer interaction interface. Reconstructions of the apo, ATP, and ADP states identify that Rvb1/2 undergoes substantial conformational changes that include a twist in the insertion-domain position and a corresponding rotation of the AAA+ ring. These results reveal how the ATP hydrolysis cycle of the AAA+ domains directs insertion-domain movements that could provide mechanical force during remodeling or helicase activities. PMID:27112599

  11. Chaperone-like activity of the AAA+ proteins Rvb1 and Rvb2 in the assembly of various complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nano, Nardin; Houry, Walid A.

    2013-01-01

    Rvb1 and Rvb2 are highly conserved and essential eukaryotic AAA+ proteins linked to a wide range of cellular processes. AAA+ proteins are ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities and are characterized by the presence of one or more AAA+ domains. These domains have the canonical Walker A and Walker B nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs. Rvb1 and Rvb2 have been found to be part of critical cellular complexes: the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 complex, chromatin remodelling complexes Ino80 and SWR-C, and the telomerase complex. In addition, Rvb1 and Rvb2 are components of the R2TP complex that was identified by our group and was determined to be involved in the maturation of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) complexes. Furthermore, the Rvbs have been associated with mitotic spindle assembly, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) signalling. This review sheds light on the potential role of the Rvbs as chaperones in the assembly and remodelling of these critical complexes. PMID:23530256

  12. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed. PMID:27162372

  13. Evaporation drift of pesticides active ingredients.

    PubMed

    De Schampheleire, M; Nuyttens, D; De Keyser, D; Spanoghe, P

    2008-01-01

    Losses of pesticide active ingredients (a.i.) into the atmosphere can occur through several pathways. A main pathway is evaporation drift. The evaporation process of pesticide a.i., after application, is affected by three main factors: Physicochemical properties of the pesticide a.i., weather conditions and crop structure. The main physicochemical parameters are the Henry coefficient, which is a measure for the volatilization tendency of the pesticide a.i. from a dilute aqueous solution, and the vapour pressure, which is a measure for the volatilization tendency of the pesticide a.i. from the solid phase. Five pesticide a.i., with various Henry coefficients and various vapour pressures, were selected to conduct laboratory experiments: metalaxyl-m, dichlorovos, diazinon, Lindane and trifluralin. Evaporation experiments were conducted in a volatilization chamber. It was found that the evaporation tendencies significantly differed according to the physicochemical properties of the a.i. PMID:19226822

  14. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. PMID:25712493

  15. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Tian, W D; Wei, X L; Wu, D Y; Li, J; Sheng, H Z

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes (MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient, heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it. PMID:11590726

  16. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2<--1) linear fructans including native inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated. PMID:17951492

  17. Determination of fragrance allergens in indoor air by active sampling followed by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-03-19

    Fragrances are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, present in the most of household products, air fresheners, insecticides and cosmetics. Commercial perfumes may contain hundreds of individual fragrance chemicals. In addition to the widespread use and exposure to fragranced products, many of the raw fragrance materials have limited available health and safety data. Because of their nature as artificial fragrances, inhalation should be considered as an important exposure pathway, especially in indoor environments. In this work, a very simple, fast, and sensitive methodology for the analysis of 24 fragrance allergens in indoor air is presented. Considered compounds include those regulated by the EU Directive, excluding limonene; methyl eugenol was also included due to its toxicity. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a very low amount of adsorbent to retain the target compounds, and the rapid ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) using a very low volume of solvent which avoids further extract concentration. Quantification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influence of main factors involved in the UAE step (type of adsorbent and solvent, solvent volume and extraction time) was studied using an experimental design approach to account for possible factor interactions. Using the optimized procedure, 0.2 m(-3) air are sampled, analytes are retained on 25 mg Florisil, from which they are extracted by UAE (5 min) with 2 mL ethyl acetate. Linearity was demonstrated in a wide concentration range. Efficiency of the total sampling-extraction process was studied at several concentration levels (1, 5 and 125 microg m(-3)), obtaining quantitative recoveries, and good precision (RSD<10%). Method detection limits were < or =0.6 microg m(-3). Finally, the proposed method was applied to real samples collected in indoor environments in which several of the target compounds were determined. PMID:20138288

  18. Crystal structure of a novel archaeal AAA+ ATPase SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-08-28

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND), a large class of P-loop NTPases, belong to AAA+ ATPases. They include AP(apoptotic)-ATPases (e.g., animal apoptosis regulators CED4/Apaf-1, plant disease resistance proteins, and bacterial AfsR-like transcription regulators), NACHT NTPases (e.g. CARD4, NAIP, Het-E-1, TLP1), and several other less well-characterized families. STAND differ from other P-loop NTPases by their unique sequence motifs, which include an hhGRExE (h, hydrophobic; x, any residue) motif at the N-terminal region, a GxP/GxxP motif at the C-terminal region of the NTPase domain, in addition to a C-terminal helical domain and additional domains such as WD40, TPR, LRR or catalytic modules. Despite significant biological interests, structural coverage of STAND proteins is very limited and only two other structures are currently known: the cell death regulators Apaf-1 and CED-4. Here, we report the crystal structure of SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which was determined using the semi-automated, high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG; http://www.jcsg.org), as part of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences' Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). SSO1545 (NP-342973.1), a representative of the archaeal STANDs, is a member of Pfam PF01637 and encodes a protein of 356 residues with calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of 41.7 kD and 8.2, respectively.

  19. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  20. Single-molecule denaturation and degradation of proteins by the AAA+ ClpXP protease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yongdae; Davis, Joseph H.; Brau, Ricardo R.; Martin, Andreas; Kenniston, Jon A.; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    ClpXP is an ATP-fueled molecular machine that unfolds and degrades target proteins. ClpX, an AAA+ enzyme, recognizes specific proteins, and then uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to denature any native structure and to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we develop and apply single-molecule fluorescence assays to probe the kinetics of protein denaturation and degradation by ClpXP. These assays employ a single-chain variant of the ClpX hexamer, linked via a single biotin to a streptavidin-coated surface, and fusion substrates with an N-terminal fluorophore and a C-terminal GFP-titin-ssrA module. In the presence of adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS), ClpXP degrades the titin-ssrA portion of these substrates but stalls when it encounters GFP. Exchange into ATP then allows synchronous resumption of denaturation and degradation of GFP and any downstream domains. GFP unfolding can be monitored directly, because intrinsic fluorescence is quenched by denaturation. The time required for complete degradation coincides with loss of the substrate fluorophore from the protease complex. Fitting single-molecule data for a set of related substrates provides time constants for ClpX unfolding, translocation, and a terminal step that may involve product release. Comparison of these single-molecule results with kinetics measured in bulk solution indicates similar levels of microscopic and macroscopic ClpXP activity. These results support a stochastic engagement/unfolding mechanism that ultimately results in highly processive degradation and set the stage for more detailed single-molecule studies of machine function. PMID:19892734

  1. Maintenance of Nucleosomal Balance in cis by Conserved AAA-ATPase Yta7

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Laura M.; Davis, Matthew D.; Rine, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    The extent of chromatin compaction is a fundamental driver of nuclear metabolism . Yta7 is a chromatin-associated AAA-ATPase, the human ortholog of which, ANCCA/ATAD2 transcriptionally activates pathways of malignancy in a broad range of cancers. Yta7 directly binds histone H3, and bulk chromatin exhibits increased nucleosomal density in yta7Δ mutants. The suppression of yta7Δ mutant growth and transcriptional phenotypes in budding yeast by decreased dosage of histones H3 and H4 indicates the acute sensitivity of cells to deviations in nucleosome spacing. This study investigated the global changes in chromatin structure upon Yta7 loss or overexpression and determined which of these effects reflected direct Yta7 activity. Metagene analysis of Yta7’s genome-wide localization indicated peak binding of Yta7 just downstream of the transcription start site. Cells lacking Yta7 exhibited increased nucleosome density within genes downstream of the +1 nucleosome, as defined by decreased internucleosomal distance, resulting in progressively 5′-shifted nucleosomes within the gene. In contrast, cells overexpressing Yta7 displayed profound 3′-shifts in nucleosome position and reduced nucleosome density within genes. Importantly, Yta7-bound regions were enriched for nucleosomal shifts, indicating that Yta7 acted locally to modulate nucleosome spacing. The phenotype of cells lacking both Yta7 and Rtt106, the histone H3/H4 chaperone, indicated that Yta7 functions in both Rtt106-dependent and Rtt106-independent ways to modulate nucleosome spacing within genes. This study suggested that Yta7 affected nucleosome density throughout the gene by both blocking Rtt106 from entering the gene, as shown previously at HTA1, and facilitating the loss of nucleosomes from the 5′-end. PMID:25406467

  2. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy. PMID:27215751

  3. Co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in seafood and macroalgae collected in European hotspots.

    PubMed

    Cunha, S C; Fernandes, J O; Vallecillos, L; Cano-Sancho, G; Domingo, J L; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F; Maulvault, A L; Ferrari, F; Fernandez-Tejedor, M; Van den Heuvel, F; Kotterman, M

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and wildlife. Seafood is one of the most significant food commodities in the world and, certainly, one of the most prone to bioaccumulation of PCP, what can consequently lead to human exposure, especially for coastal population, where its consumption is more marked. The aim of this work was to evaluate the co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in both seafood and macroalgae collected in different European hotspots (areas with high levels of pollution, highly populated and near wastewater treatment plants). Despite the fact that UV-filters were detected in three different kind of samples (mussel, mullet, and clam), in all cases they were below the limit of quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the musk fragrances most frequently detected and quantified in samples from the European hotspots. Cashmeran (DPMI) was also detected in most samples but only quantified in two of them (flounder/herring and mullet). The highest levels of HHCB and AHTN were found in mussels from Po estuary. PMID:25985745

  4. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35 Section 700.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product...

  5. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35 Section 700.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product...

  6. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  7. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... declared according to the provisions of § 501.22. (2) An ingredient which itself contains two or...

  8. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... declared according to the provisions of § 501.22. (2) An ingredient which itself contains two or...

  9. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active... measured by the testing procedures established in subpart D of this part. (a) Combinations of sunscreen active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e),...

  10. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active... measured by the testing procedures established in subpart D of this part. (a) Combinations of sunscreen active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e),...

  11. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active... measured by the testing procedures established in subpart D of this part. (a) Combinations of sunscreen active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e),...

  12. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active... measured by the testing procedures established in subpart D of this part. (a) Combinations of sunscreen active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e),...

  13. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active... measured by the testing procedures established in subpart D of this part. (a) Combinations of sunscreen active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e),...

  14. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 1.5 percent, 1.0 percent, or 0.5 percent, as appropriate. No ingredient to which the quantifying..., soybean oil)”. No fat or oil ingredient shall be listed unless actually present if the fats and/or oils... is no label for the food, including foods that comply with standards of identity, shall be...

  16. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  17. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  18. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  19. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  20. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING General Provisions § 701.3 Designation of ingredients. (a) The label on each package of a cosmetic shall bear a declaration of the name of each ingredient in descending order of... amendment to this paragraph shall be submitted pursuant to part 10 of this chapter. (c) A...

  1. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING General Provisions § 701.3 Designation of ingredients. (a) The label on each package of a cosmetic shall bear a declaration of the name of each ingredient in descending order of... amendment to this paragraph shall be submitted pursuant to part 10 of this chapter. (c) A...

  2. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING General Provisions § 701.3 Designation of ingredients. (a) The label on each package of a cosmetic shall bear a declaration of the name of each ingredient in descending order of... amendment to this paragraph shall be submitted pursuant to part 10 of this chapter. (c) A...

  3. 21 CFR 331.15 - Combination with nonantacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.15 Combination with nonantacid active ingredients. (a) An antacid may contain any generally... antacid. No labeling claim of the laxative effect may be used for such a product. (b) An antacid...

  4. 21 CFR 331.15 - Combination with nonantacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.15 Combination with nonantacid active ingredients. (a) An antacid may contain any generally... antacid. No labeling claim of the laxative effect may be used for such a product. (b) An antacid...

  5. 21 CFR 331.15 - Combination with nonantacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.15 Combination with nonantacid active ingredients. (a) An antacid may contain any generally... antacid. No labeling claim of the laxative effect may be used for such a product. (b) An antacid...

  6. 21 CFR 331.15 - Combination with nonantacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.15 Combination with nonantacid active ingredients. (a) An antacid may contain any generally... antacid. No labeling claim of the laxative effect may be used for such a product. (b) An antacid...

  7. 21 CFR 331.15 - Combination with nonantacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 331.15 Combination with nonantacid active ingredients. (a) An antacid may contain any generally... antacid. No labeling claim of the laxative effect may be used for such a product. (b) An antacid...

  8. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active...

  9. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients §...

  11. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of ingredients. 701.3 Section 701.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING General Provisions § 701.3 Designation of ingredients. (a) The label on each package of a cosmetic shall bear a declaration...

  15. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients. 205.305 Section 205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. Application of a β-cyclodextrin/graphene oxide-modified fiber for solid-phase microextraction of six fragrance allergens in personal products.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiudan; Wang, Licheng; Tang, Xiaofen; Xiong, Chunming; Guo, Yong; Liu, Xia

    2015-10-01

    A new β-cyclodextrin/graphene oxide hybrid material prepared via a chemical covalent interaction and layer-to-layer assembly was developed as a sorbent for the solid-phase microextraction of fragrance allergens. As a result of its ultra-large surface area, large delocalized π-electron system and abundant hydroxyls, the β-cyclodextrin/graphene oxide-coated fiber could be used to extract particular compounds via strong π-π interactions, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding interactions. β-Cyclodextrin with a hydrophobic interior cavity and hydrophilic peripheral face was conducive in extracting the fragrances with hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. Under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions, the β-cyclodextrin/graphene oxide-coated fiber showed acceptable extraction efficiency for hydrophilic and hydrogen-bonding-donating alcohols. Compared with other methods based on different coating fibers, the proposed fiber obtained wide linear ranges for fragrances with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9921 to 0.9970, and low limits of detection in the range of 0.050-0.150 μg L(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly developed fiber was a selective, feasible and cost-effective microextraction medium and could be successfully applied for the determination of several fragrances in personal products. PMID:26332186

  17. Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Y; Hino, Y; Kawasaki, M; Hara, C; Tamura, K; Sugimoto, N; Yamanishi, Y; Miyauchi, M; Masujima, T; Aoki, T

    1999-08-01

    The perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. The essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. In evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. Scores were recorded after inhaling a fragrance before and after each type of work, and the statistical significance of the change of score for 13 impression descriptors was examined by Student's t-test for each type of work. It was confirmed that inhalation of essential oil caused a different subjective perception of fragrance depending on the type of work. For example, inhalation of cypress after physical work produced a much more favorable impression than before work, in contrast to orange, which produced an unfavorable impression after physical work when compared with that before work. For mental work, inhalation of juniper seemed to create a favorable impression after work, whereas geranium and orange both produced an unfavorable impression then. From these studies, together with those conducted previously with lavender, rosemary, linalool, peppermint, marjoram, cardamom, sandalwood, basil and lime, we thus concluded that the sensory test described here might serve not only as a screening test for efficacy of aroma but also as a categorized table for aroma samples which can act as a reference to each other. PMID:10480677

  18. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  19. A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1 cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1 mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46 mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC.

  20. Nanomechanical and Thermophoretic Analyses of the Nucleotide-Dependent Interactions between the AAA(+) Subunits of Magnesium Chelatase.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan B P; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Brindley, Amanda A; Hunter, C Neil

    2016-05-25

    In chlorophyll biosynthesis, the magnesium chelatase enzyme complex catalyzes the insertion of a Mg(2+) ion into protoporphyrin IX. Prior to this event, two of the three subunits, the AAA(+) proteins ChlI and ChlD, form a ChlID-MgATP complex. We used microscale thermophoresis to directly determine dissociation constants for the I-D subunits from Synechocystis, and to show that the formation of a ChlID-MgADP complex, mediated by the arginine finger and the sensor II domain on ChlD, is necessary for the assembly of the catalytically active ChlHID-MgATP complex. The N-terminal AAA(+) domain of ChlD is essential for complex formation, but some stability is preserved in the absence of the C-terminal integrin domain of ChlD, particularly if the intervening polyproline linker region is retained. Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to determine the factors that stabilize formation of the ChlID-MgADP complex at the single molecule level; ChlD was attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe in two different orientations, and the ChlI subunits were tethered to a silica surface; the probability of subunits interacting more than doubled in the presence of MgADP, and we show that the N-terminal AAA(+) domain of ChlD mediates this process, in agreement with the microscale thermophoresis data. Analysis of the unbinding data revealed a most probable interaction force of around 109 pN for formation of single ChlID-MgADP complexes. These experiments provide a quantitative basis for understanding the assembly and function of the Mg chelatase complex. PMID:27133226

  1. Nanomechanical and Thermophoretic Analyses of the Nucleotide-Dependent Interactions between the AAA+ Subunits of Magnesium Chelatase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In chlorophyll biosynthesis, the magnesium chelatase enzyme complex catalyzes the insertion of a Mg2+ ion into protoporphyrin IX. Prior to this event, two of the three subunits, the AAA+ proteins ChlI and ChlD, form a ChlID–MgATP complex. We used microscale thermophoresis to directly determine dissociation constants for the I-D subunits from Synechocystis, and to show that the formation of a ChlID–MgADP complex, mediated by the arginine finger and the sensor II domain on ChlD, is necessary for the assembly of the catalytically active ChlHID–MgATP complex. The N-terminal AAA+ domain of ChlD is essential for complex formation, but some stability is preserved in the absence of the C-terminal integrin domain of ChlD, particularly if the intervening polyproline linker region is retained. Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to determine the factors that stabilize formation of the ChlID–MgADP complex at the single molecule level; ChlD was attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe in two different orientations, and the ChlI subunits were tethered to a silica surface; the probability of subunits interacting more than doubled in the presence of MgADP, and we show that the N-terminal AAA+ domain of ChlD mediates this process, in agreement with the microscale thermophoresis data. Analysis of the unbinding data revealed a most probable interaction force of around 109 pN for formation of single ChlID–MgADP complexes. These experiments provide a quantitative basis for understanding the assembly and function of the Mg chelatase complex. PMID:27133226

  2. Influence of pre-treatment process on matrix effect for the determination of musk fragrances in fish and mussel.

    PubMed

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2015-03-01

    Musk compounds are widely used as fragrances in personal care products. On account of their widespread use and their low biodegradation, they can be found in environmental samples. In our study two extraction methodologies were compared and different clean-up strategies were also studied in order to develop a reliable analytical method, with minimum matrix effect and good detection limits, to determine synthetic musk fragrances- six polycyclic musks, three nitro musks and the degradation product of one polycyclic musk- in fish and mussel samples. The first extraction technique involves a QuEChERS extraction, a consolidate extraction methodology in the field of food analysis of growing interest over recent years, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) as clean-up strategy. The second extraction technique consists of a conventional pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and an in-cell clean-up to decrease the matrix effect and remove the undesired components(⁎)present in PLE extracts. Large volume injection (LVI) followed by gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS) was chosen as the separation and detection technique. Validation parameters, such as method detection limits and method quantification limits were found at ng g(-1) levels for both fish and mussel matrices. Good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities were obtained analysing fish and mussel samples spiked at 50 ng g(-1) (d.w.) (n=5, RSDs<17%). The developed PLE/GC-IT-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine the target musk fragrances present in fish and mussel samples from the local market in Tarragona and fish samples from the Ebro River. The results showed the presence of galaxolide (2.97-18.04 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) and tonalide (1.17-8.42 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) in all the samples analysed, while the remaining polycyclic musks such as cashmeran, celestolide and phantolide, were only detected in some of the fish samples analysed. None

  3. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  4. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  5. Unfolding the mechanism of the AAA+ unfoldase VAT by a combined cryo-EM, solution NMR study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Ripstein, Zev A; Augustyniak, Rafal; Lazniewski, Michal; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Kay, Lewis E; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-19

    The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded. PMID:27402735

  6. Improved Structures of Full-Length P97, An AAA ATPase: Implications for Mechanisms of Nucleotide-Dependent Conformational Change

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.M.; Brunger, A.T.; Weis, W.I.

    2009-05-14

    The ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) protein p97 has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and homotypic membrane fusion. p97 belongs to a subgroup of AAA proteins that contains two nucleotide binding domains, D1 and D2. We determined the crystal structure of D2 at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution. This model enabled rerefinement of full-length p97 in different nucleotide states against previously reported low-resolution diffraction data to significantly improved R values and Ramachandran statistics. Although the overall fold remained similar, there are significant improvements, especially around the D2 nucleotide binding site. The rerefinement illustrates the importance of knowledge of high-resolution structures of fragments covering most of the whole molecule. The structures suggest that nucleotide hydrolysis is transformed into larger conformational changes by pushing of one D2 domain by its neighbor in the hexamer, and transmission of nucleotide-state information through the D1-D2 linker to displace the N-terminal, effector binding domain.

  7. The AAA ATPase Vps4 Plays Important Roles in Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and is Inhibited by DBeQ.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yahui; Li, Wanjie; Chu, Mi; Chen, Hengye; Yu, Haoyuan; Fang, Chaoguang; Sun, Ningze; Wang, Qiming; Luo, Tian; Luo, Kaiju; She, Xueping; Zhang, Mengqian; Yang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen, and its pathogenicity is associated with hyphal formation. Previous studies have shown that at neutral-to-alkaline pH, hyphal growth is dependent on the Rim101 pathway whose activation requires Snf7, a member of the ESCRT system. In this work, we described the purification and characterization of the C. albicans Vps4, an AAA ATPase required for recycling of the ESCRTs. Its role on hyphal growth has been investigated. Our data suggest deletion of Vps4 decreases overall hyphal growth at pH 7 and increases the growth of multiple hyphae induced by serum, which indicates that the ESCRTs may make a Rim101-independent contribution to hyphal growth. Furthermore, DBeQ, an inhibitor of the AAA ATPase p97, was shown to inhibit the ATPase activity of Vps4 with an IC50 of about 11.5 μM. To a less degree, it also inhibits hyphal growth. Our work may provide a new strategy to control C. albicans infection. PMID:26700222

  8. Nucleotide binding and allosteric modulation of the second AAA+ domain of ClpB probed by transient kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Werbeck, Nicolas D; Kellner, Julian N; Barends, Thomas R M; Reinstein, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    The bacterial AAA+ chaperone ClpB provides thermotolerance by disaggregating aggregated proteins in collaboration with the DnaK chaperone system. Like many other AAA+ proteins, ClpB is believed to act as a biological motor converting the chemical energy of ATP into molecular motion. ClpB has two ATPase domains, NBD1 and NBD2, on one polypeptide chain. The functional unit of ClpB is a homohexameric ring, with a total of 12 potential nucleotide binding sites. Previously, two separate constructs, one each containing NBD1 or NBD2, have been shown to form a functional complex with chaperone activity when mixed. Here we aimed to elucidate the nucleotide binding properties of the ClpB complex using pre-steady state kinetics and fluorescent nucleotides. For this purpose, we first disassembled the complex and characterized in detail the binding kinetics of a construct comprising NBD2 and the C-terminal domain of ClpB. The monomeric construct bound nucleotides very tightly. ADP bound 2 orders of magnitude more tightly than ATP; this difference in binding affinity resulted almost exclusively from different dissociation rate constants. The nucleotide binding properties of NBD2 changed when this construct was complemented with a construct comprising NBD1 and the middle domain. Our approach shows how complex formation can influence the binding properties of the individual domains and allows us to assign nucleotide binding features of this highly complex, multimeric enzyme to specific domains. PMID:19594134

  9. Recent Advances in Deciphering the Structure and Molecular Mechanism of the AAA+ ATPase N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minglei; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-05-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), first discovered in 1988, is a key factor for eukaryotic trafficking, including protein and hormone secretion and neurotransmitter release. It is a member of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities). NSF disassembles soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in conjunction with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP). Structural studies of NSF and its complex with SNAREs and SNAPs (known as 20S supercomplex) started about 20years ago. Crystal structures of individual N and D2 domains of NSF and low-resolution electron microscopy structures of full-length NSF and 20S supercomplex have been reported over the years. Nevertheless, the molecular architecture of the 20S supercomplex and the molecular mechanism of NSF-mediated SNARE complex disassembly remained unclear until recently. Here we review recent atomic-resolution or near-atomic resolution structures of NSF and of the 20S supercomplex, as well as recent insights into the molecular mechanism and energy requirements of NSF. We also compare NSF with other known AAA+ family members. PMID:26546278

  10. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Bruno Di; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fargeas, Elodie; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping:attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction,the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species,with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome,or nectar rim,accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species. PMID:18376077

  11. Influence of energy drink ingredients on mood and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy products have grown enormously in recent years. Manufacturers claim that the products, in the form of drinks, shots, supplements, and gels, enhance physical and cognitive performance, while users believe the products promote concentration, alertness, and fun. Most of these products contain caffeine, a mild psychostimulant, as their foremost active ingredient. However, they also contain additional ingredients, e.g., carbohydrates, amino acids, herbal extracts, vitamins, and minerals, often in unspecified amounts and labeled as an "energy blend." It is not clear whether these additional ingredients provide any physical or cognitive enhancement beyond that provided by caffeine alone. This article reviews the available empirical data on the interactive effects of these ingredients and caffeine on sleep and cognitive performance and suggests objectives for future study. PMID:25293543

  12. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  13. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  14. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  15. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  16. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  17. SU-E-T-137: Dosimetric Validation for Pinnacle, Acuros, AAA, and Brainlab Algorithms with Induced Inhomogenieties

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P; Tambasco, M; LaFontaine, R; Burns, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Eclipse 11.0 Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution, and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms using measurement as the gold standard. Methods: Ion chamber and diode measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a phantom made up of slab densities corresponding to solid water, lung, and bone. The phantom was setup at source-to-surface distance of 100 cm, and the field sizes were 3.0 × 3.0, 5.0 × 5.0, and 10.0 × 10.0 cm2. Data from the planning systems were computed along the central axis of the beam. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber and edge diode for interface regions. Results: The best agreement between data from the algorithms and our measurements occurs away from the slab interfaces. For the 6 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 1.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 10 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 PB performs the best with 2.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 18 MV beam, Acuros performs the best with 2.0% absolute average percent difference from measurement. It is interesting to note that the steepest drop in dose occurred the at lung heterogeneity-solid water interface of the18 MV, 3.0 × 3.0 cm2 field size setup. In this situation, Acuros and AAA performed best with an average percent difference within −1.1% of measurement, followed by iPlan 4.1 MC, which was within 4.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that all of the algorithms perform reasonably well in computing dose in a heterogeneous slab phantom. Moreover, Acuros and AAA perform particularly well at the lung-solid water interfaces for higher energy beams and small field sizes.

  18. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from <2% (e.g., caseinates, milk protein isolates) to 100% in lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose

  19. Targeting the AAA ATPase p97 as an approach to treat cancer through disruption of protein homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Daniel J.; Le Moigne, Ronan; Djakovic, Stevan; Kumar, Brajesh; Rice, Julie; Wong, Steve; Wang, Jinhai; Yao, Bing; Valle, Eduardo; von Soly, Szerenke Kiss; Madriaga, Antonett; Soriano, Ferdie; Menon, Mary-Kamala; Wu, Zhi Yong; Kampmann, Martin; Chen, Yuwen; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Aftab, Blake T.; Yakes, F. Michael; Shawver, Laura; Zhou, Han-Jie; Wustrow, David; Rolfe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Summary p97 is a AAA-ATPase with multiple cellular functions, one of which is critical regulation of protein homeostasis pathways. We describe the characterization of CB-5083, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of p97. Treatment of tumor cells with CB-5083 leads to accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, retention of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) substrates and generation of irresolvable proteotoxic stress leading to activation of the apoptotic arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In xenograft models, CB-5083 causes modulation of key p97-related pathways, induces apoptosis and has antitumor activity in a broad range of both hematological and solid tumor models. Molecular determinants of CB-5083 activity include expression of genes in the ERAD pathway providing a potential strategy for patient selection. PMID:26555175

  20. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved Inert Ingredients § 174.705 Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and residues of the inert ingredient, are exempt if all of the following conditions are met: (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved Inert Ingredients § 174.705 Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and residues of the inert ingredient, are exempt if all of the following conditions are met: (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved Inert Ingredients § 174.705 Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and residues of the inert ingredient, are exempt if all of the following conditions are met: (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  4. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  5. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  6. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  7. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  8. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  9. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  10. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  11. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  12. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  13. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease. PMID:20626172

  14. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W; Gonzalez, Raul C; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. We show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment. PMID:26538283

  15. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.

  16. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locusmore » include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.« less

  17. Three semidominant barley mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the smallest magnesium chelatase subunit form defective AAA+ hexamers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, A.; Willows, R. D.; Roberts, T. H.; Hansson, M.

    2002-01-01

    Many enzymes of the bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathways have been conserved throughout evolution, but the molecular mechanisms of the key steps remain unclear. The magnesium chelatase reaction is one of these steps, and it requires the proteins BchI, BchD, and BchH to catalyze the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX upon ATP hydrolysis. Structural analyses have shown that BchI forms hexamers and belongs to the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) family of proteins. AAA+ proteins are Mg2+-dependent ATPases that normally form oligomeric ring structures in the presence of ATP. By using ATPase-deficient BchI subunits, we demonstrate that binding of ATP is sufficient to form BchI oligomers. Further, ATPase-deficient BchI proteins can form mixed oligomers with WT BchI. The formation of BchI oligomers is not sufficient for magnesium chelatase activity when combined with BchD and BchH. Combining WT BchI with ATPase-deficient BchI in an assay disrupts the chelatase reaction, but the presence of deficient BchI does not inhibit ATPase activity of the WT BchI. Thus, the ATPase of every WT segment of the hexamer is autonomous, but all segments of the hexamer must be capable of ATP hydrolysis for magnesium chelatase activity. We suggest that ATP hydrolysis of each BchI within the hexamer causes a conformational change of the hexamer as a whole. However, hexamers containing ATPase-deficient BchI are unable to perform this ATP-dependent conformational change, and the magnesium chelatase reaction is stalled in an early stage. PMID:12357035

  18. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. We show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment. PMID:26538283

  19. Heartwood-specific transcriptome and metabolite signatures of tropical sandalwood (Santalum album) reveal the final step of (Z)-santalol fragrance biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Celedon, Jose M; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire M S; Diaz-Chavez, Maria L; Madilao, Lufiani L; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Tropical sandalwood (Santalum album) produces one of the world's most highly prized fragrances, which is extracted from mature heartwood. However, in some places such as southern India, natural populations of this slow-growing tree are threatened by over-exploitation. Sandalwood oil contains four major and fragrance-defining sesquiterpenols: (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol. The first committed step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-product santalene/bergamotene synthase. Sandalwood cytochromes P450 of the CYP76F sub-family were recently shown to hydroxylate santalenes and bergamotene; however, these enzymes produced mostly (E)-santalols and (E)-α-exo-bergamotol. We hypothesized that different santalene/bergamotene hydroxylases evolved in S. album to stereo-selectively produce (E)- or (Z)-sesquiterpenols, and that genes encoding (Z)-specific P450s contribute to sandalwood oil formation if co-expressed in the heartwood with upstream genes of sesquiterpene biosynthesis. This hypothesis was validated by the discovery of a heartwood-specific transcriptome signature for sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, including highly expressed SaCYP736A167 transcripts. We characterized SaCYP736A167 as a multi-substrate P450, which stereo-selectively produces (Z)-α-santalol, (Z)-β-santalol, (Z)-epi-β-santalol and (Z)-α-exo-bergamotol, matching authentic sandalwood oil. This work completes the discovery of the biosynthetic enzymes of key components of sandalwood fragrance, and highlights the evolutionary diversification of stereo-selective P450s in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis. Bioengineering of microbial systems using SaCYP736A167, combined with santalene/bergamotene synthase, has potential for development of alternative industrial production systems for sandalwood oil fragrances. PMID:26991058

  20. Resolving of challenging gas chromatography-mass spectrometry peak clusters in fragrance samples using multicomponent factorization approaches based on polygon inflation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ghaheri, Salehe; Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-15

    Analysis of fragrance composition is very important for both the fragrance producers and consumers. Unraveling of fragrance formulation is necessary for quality control, competitor and trace analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been introduced as the most appropriate analytical technique for this type of analysis, which is based on Kovats index and MS database. The most straightforward method to analyze a GC-MS dataset is to integrate those peaks that can be recognized by their mass profiles. But, because of common problems of chromatographic data such as spectral background, baseline offset and specially overlapped peaks, accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis could be failed. Some chemometric modeling techniques such as bilinear multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods have been introduced to overcome these problems and obtained well resolved chromatographic profiles. The main drawback of these methods is rotational ambiguity or nonunique solution that is represented as area of feasible solutions (AFS). Polygonal inflation algorithm (PIA) is an automatic and simple to use algorithm for numerical computation of AFS. In this study, the extent of rotational ambiguity in curve resolution methods is calculated by MCR-BAND toolbox and the PIA. The ability of the PIA in resolving GC-MS data sets is evaluated by simulated GC-MS data in comparison with other popular curve resolution methods such as multivariate curve resolution alternative least square (MCR-ALS), multivariate curve resolution objective function minimization (MCR-FMIN) by different initial estimation methods and independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, two typical challenging area of total ion chromatogram (TIC) of commercial fragrances with overlapped peaks were analyzed by the PIA to investigate the possibility of peak deconvolution analysis. PMID:26711156

  1. Sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation. Results of the IVDK and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Frosch, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    To study the frequency of sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation. During 4 periods of 6 months, from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004, 26 fragrances were patch tested additionally to the standard series in a total of 21 325 patients; the number of patients tested with each of the fragrances ranged from 1658 to 4238. Hydroxymethylpentylcyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPCC) was tested throughout all periods. The following frequencies of sensitization (rates in %, standardized for sex and age) were observed: tree moss (2.4%), HMPCC (2.3), oak moss (2.0), hydroxycitronellal (1.3), isoeugenol (1.1), cinnamic aldehyde (1.0), farnesol (0.9), cinnamic alcohol (0.6), citral (0.6), citronellol (0.5), geraniol (0.4), eugenol (0.4), coumarin (0.4), lilial (0.3), amyl-cinnamic alcohol (0.3), benzyl cinnamate (0.3), benzyl alcohol (0.3), linalool (0.2), methylheptin carbonate (0.2), amyl-cinnamic aldehyde (0.1), hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (0.1), limonene (0.1), benzyl salicylate (0.1), gamma-methylionon (0.1), benzyl benzoate (0.0), anisyl alcohol (0.0). 1) Substances with higher sensitization frequencies were characterized by a considerable number of '++/+++' reactions. 2) Substances with low sensitization frequencies were characterized by a high number of doubtful/irritant and a low number of stronger (++/+++) reactions. 3) There are obviously fragrances among the 26 which are, with regard to contact allergy, of great, others of minor, and some of no importance at all. PMID:17577350

  2. Opportunities of marker-assisted selection for rice fragrance through marker-trait association analysis of microsatellites and gene-based markers.

    PubMed

    Golestan Hashemi, F S; Rafii, M Y; Razi Ismail, M; Mohamed, M T M; Rahim, H A; Latif, M A; Aslani, F

    2015-09-01

    Developing fragrant rice through marker-assisted/aided selection (MAS) is an economical and profitable approach worldwide for the enrichment of an elite genetic background with a pleasant aroma. The PCR-based DNA markers that distinguish the alleles of major fragrance genes in rice have been synthesised to develop rice scent biofortification through MAS. Thus, the present study examined the aroma biofortification potential of these co-dominant markers in a germplasm panel of 189 F2 progeny developed from crosses between a non-aromatic variety (MR84) and a highly aromatic but low-yielding variety (MRQ74) to determine the most influential diagnostic markers for fragrance biofortification. The SSRs and functional DNA markers RM5633 (on chromosome 4), RM515, RM223, L06, NKSbad2, FMbadh2-E7, BADEX7-5, Aro7 and SCU015RM (on chromosome 8) were highly associated with the 2AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) content across the population. The alleles traced via these markers were also in high linkage disequilibrium (R(2) > 0.70) and explained approximately 12.1, 27.05, 27.05, 27.05, 25.42, 25.42, 20.53, 20.43 and 20.18% of the total phenotypic variation observed for these biomarkers, respectively. F2 plants harbouring the favourable alleles of these effective markers produced higher levels of fragrance. Hence, these rice plants can be used as donor parents to increase the development of fragrance-biofortified tropical rice varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, thus contributing to the global rice market. PMID:25865409

  3. An assessment of biodegradability of quaternary carbon-containing fragrance compounds: comparison of experimental OECD screening test results and in silico prediction data.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Markus; Boschung, Alain

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of biodegradability was carried out for fragrance substances containing quaternary carbons by using data obtained from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301F screening tests for ready biodegradation and from Biowin and Catalogic prediction models. Despite an expected challenging profile, a relatively high percentage of common-use fragrance substances showed significant biodegradation under the stringent conditions applied in the OECD 301F test. Among 27 test compounds, 37% met the pass level criteria after 28 d, while another 26% indicated partial breakdown (≥20% biodegradation). For several compounds for which structural analogs were available, the authors found that structures that were rendered less water soluble by either the presence of an acetate ester or the absence of oxygen tended to degrade to a lesser extent compared to the primary alcohols or oxygenated counterparts under the test conditions applied. Difficulties were encountered when attempting to correlate experimental with in silico data. Whereas the Biowin model combinations currently recommended by regulatory agencies did not allow for a reliable discrimination between readily and nonbiodegradable compounds, only a comparably small proportion of the chemicals studied (30% and 63% depending on the model) fell within the applicability domain of Catalogic, a factor that critically reduced its predictive power. According to these results, currently neither Biowin nor Catalogic accurately reflects the potential for biodegradation of fragrance compounds containing quaternary carbons. PMID:24453060

  4. Real-time monitoring of fragrance release from cotton towels by low thermal mass gas chromatography using a longitudinally modulating cryogenic system for headspace sampling and injection.

    PubMed

    Haefliger, Olivier P; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Ouali, Lahoussine; León, Géraldine

    2010-01-15

    An innovative headspace sampling and injection system for gas chromatography was designed using a longitudinally modulating cryogenic system mounted around the sampling loop of a two-position loop injector. The setup was hyphenated to a fast low thermal mass gas chromatograph, allowing transient concentrations of semivolatile analytes to be monitored in real time with a time resolution of 4.5 min. The performance of the instrument, and in particular its cryotrapping efficiency, was characterized using a mixture of long-chain alkanes, methyl esters, ethyl esters, and alcohols of different volatilities. The device was found to be ideally suited to the analysis of semivolatile compounds with boiling points ranging between 190 and 320 degrees C, which are typical for a majority of perfumery raw materials. The new instrument was successfully used to monitor the release of eight odorant compounds from cotton towels to which fabric softener had been applied that alternatively contained the fragrance in free form or in microencapsulated form. The analytical results, unprecedented in their level of precision and time resolution for such an application, evidenced the major impact of microencapsulation technology on the kinetics of fragrance release during the drying of the towels and on the triggering of additional fragrance release by applying mechanical stress to the fabric to rupture the microcapsule walls. PMID:20025230

  5. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  6. Essential Ingredients for Successful Redesign of Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since the passage of healthcare reform, there have been many discussions about how the mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) system will need to change. Of the many components involved in a system redesign, the identification of essential ingredients is crucial to its success. In an effort to determine what essential ingredients the new MH/SUD system requires to optimally meet the needs of its customers, we convened a group of 16 multi-industrial experts who analyzed data collected from a string of 7 focus groups and 15 interviews with people dealing with or working in the SUD field. This paper summarizes the 11 essential ingredients our group identified. PMID:25243237

  7. Pharmacokinetics in the oral cavity: fluoride and other active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    Modern commercial toothpastes contain therapeutic ingredients to combat various oral conditions, for example, caries, gingivitis, calculus and tooth stain. The efficient delivery and retention of such ingredients in the mouth is essential for good performance. The aim of this chapter is to review the literature on the oral pharmacokinetics of, primarily, fluoride but also other active ingredients, mainly anti-plaque agents. Elevated levels of fluoride have been found in saliva, plaque and the oral soft tissues after use of fluoridated toothpaste, which persist at potentially active concentrations for hours. Both experiment and mathematical modelling suggest that the soft tissues are the main oral reservoir for fluoride. Qualitatively similar observations have been made for anti-plaque agents such as triclosan and metal cations, though their oral substantivity is generally greater. Scope for improved retention and subsequent efficacy exists. PMID:23817065

  8. [Effects of ingredient study in traditional Chinese medicine research].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Wang, Jie

    2009-03-01

    Effective ingredients are the material base for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat disease, also are the powerful method to explain the science of TCM theory. But to only emphasis the effective ingredient and to neglect the feature "based on symptoms to take effect" of TCM, it will falled into imitating the methods of western medicine, so there is little contribution to TCM development. To correctly comprehend the principal of TCM, draw assistance from advanced modern biology technology, scientific analysis the valid cases of TCM, explore the mechanism of action of TCM, to search the material curing disease are the necessary paths of TCM research. PMID:19526770

  9. Research on the immunosuppressive activity of ingredients contained in sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Frikeche, Jihane; Couteau, Céline; Roussakis, Christos; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2015-04-01

    The immunosuppressive properties of Benzophenone-4, an UV-filter and three ingredients, Allantoin, Bisabolol and Enoxolon used in sunscreen formulation, previously characterized as anti-inflammatory compounds, are studied. The results of this study demonstrate that four tested molecules have effects on DCs and T cells which are the most important cells of the immune system. The impact is also visible on keratinocyte cells which are in the direct contact with skin sunscreens. Each ingredient should be used with caution at reduced doses or even removed from some cosmetic preparations, such as sunscreens. PMID:25556843

  10. Solid rocket propellant waste disposal/ingredient recovery study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of facility and operating costs of alternate methods shows open burning to be the lowest cost incineration method of waste propellant disposal. The selection, development, and implementation of an acceptable alternate is recommended. The recovery of ingredients from waste propellant has the probability of being able to pay its way, and even show a profit, when large consistent quantities of composite propellant are available. Ingredients recovered from space shuttle waste propellant would be worth over $1.5 million. Open and controlled burning are both energy wasteful.

  11. Myths and misperceptions about ingredients used in commercial pet foods.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dottie; Izquierdo, Oscar; Eirmann, Laura; Binder, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Information and misinformation about pet nutrition and pet foods, including ingredients used in pet foods, is widely available through various sources. Often, this "information" raises questions or concerns among pet owners. Many pet owners will turn to their veterinarian for answers to these questions. One of the challenges that veterinarians have is keeping up with the volume of misinformation about pet foods and sorting out fact from fiction. The goal of this article is to provide facts regarding some common myths about ingredients used in commercial pet foods so as to better prepare veterinarians to address their client's questions. PMID:24951341

  12. Quantitative structure-property relationship analysis for the retention index of fragrance-like compounds on a polar stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Cristian; Duchowicz, Pablo R; Tripaldi, Piercosimo; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2015-11-27

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was developed for modeling the retention index of 1184 flavor and fragrance compounds measured using a Carbowax 20M glass capillary gas chromatography column. The 4885 molecular descriptors were calculated using Dragon software, and then were simultaneously analyzed through multivariable linear regression analysis using the replacement method (RM) variable subset selection technique. We proceeded in three steps, the first one by considering all descriptor blocks, the second one by excluding conformational descriptor blocks, and the last one by analyzing only 3D-descriptor families. The models were validated through an external test set of compounds. Cross-validation methods such as leave-one-out and leave-many-out were applied, together with Y-randomization and applicability domain analysis. The developed model was used to estimate the I of a set of 22 molecules. The results clearly suggest that 3D-descriptors do not offer relevant information for modeling the retention index, while a topological index such as the Randić-like index from reciprocal squared distance matrix has a high relevance for this purpose. PMID:26521096

  13. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity. PMID:26003925

  14. Room temperature ionic liquids: new GC stationary phases with a novel selectivity for flavor and fragrance analyses.

    PubMed

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2012-12-14

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are of great interest as moderately polar to polar stationary phases for GC, because their selectivity differs markedly from that of conventionally used phases. In the flavor, fragrance and essential oil fields, analysts often deal with complex mixtures of compounds having similar structural and physical characteristics (e.g., mono- and sesquiterpenoids), therefore requiring an interactive combination between chromatographic and mass spectral data for correct identification. New GC stationary phases with different selectivity must therefore be continually tested. Performance and evolution over time of commercially available IL columns versus those commonly used in these fields are here evaluated, mainly in view of their routine use. Chromatographic and separative properties (efficiency, separation capability, inertness and/or activity) of commercially available IL columns were compared to those of columns coated with 5% phenyl-95% methylpolysiloxane, 14% cyanopropyl-86% polysiloxane, and polyethylene glycol, on different complexity samples, including standard mixtures of volatile suspected allergens and pesticides, and cornmint and vetiver essential oils. The results show that IL columns can successfully be used for a wide range of applications characteristic of these fields, mainly because of their unusual selectivity, in particular when separations based on functional groups are required. Moreover, the latest generation of IL columns (IL61 and IL60) presents chromatographic performance comparable to or only slightly lower than that of the conventional columns routinely used in these fields. PMID:23122273

  15. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography: an application for the simultaneous determination of suspected fragrance allergens in rinse-off products.

    PubMed

    Furlanetto, Sandra; Orlandini, Serena; Giannini, Iacopo; Pasquini, Benedetta; Pinzauti, Sergio

    2010-11-15

    A mixture of 18 neutral UV-active compounds with different characteristics of polarity was determined by capillary electrophoresis using a pseudostationary phase constituted by a microemulsion. The test analytes were volatile fragrance compounds, included in a list of 24 chemicals classified as suspected allergens according to Directive 2003/15/CE. The considered compounds were detected at 195 nm and p-anisaldehyde was chosen as internal standard. The background electrolyte consisted of a standard microemulsion made of 90.95% 10mM borax buffer, pH 9.2, 1.05% n-heptane, 8.00% SDS/n-butanol in 1:2 ratio, to which 40 mM methyl-β-cyclodextrin was added. Temperature and voltage were set at 20 °C and 25 kV, respectively. These experimental conditions allowed separation of the compounds to be obtained in about 20 min. The method was applied to real samples made up of rinse-off scented products. The results obtained using the standard microemulsion as pseudostationary phase showed its high resolution power, capable of effectively separating a complex mixture of analytes. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography was confirmed to have a great potential for different analytical challenges, holding up the possibility of using this technique as a good and complementary alternative to HPLC methods for routine analysis. PMID:21035646

  16. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  17. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... represents or suggests that it is intended to prevent, cure, treat, or mitigate disease or to affect a... radiation. These ingredients also help to prevent diseases such as sunburn and may reduce the chance of premature skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful effects due to the sun when used in conjunction...

  18. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... represents or suggests that it is intended to prevent, cure, treat, or mitigate disease or to affect a... radiation. These ingredients also help to prevent diseases such as sunburn and may reduce the chance of premature skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful effects due to the sun when used in conjunction...

  19. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... represents or suggests that it is intended to prevent, cure, treat, or mitigate disease or to affect a... radiation. These ingredients also help to prevent diseases such as sunburn and may reduce the chance of premature skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful effects due to the sun when used in conjunction...

  20. Sweetpotato purees and powders for functional food ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing technologies have been developed in various parts of the world to convert sweetpotatoes into purees and dehydrated forms that can be used as food ingredients in numerous food products. This article reviews the processing operations involved in these technologies and their effects on quali...

  1. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  2. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  3. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  4. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  5. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  6. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  7. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  8. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  9. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  10. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4 Section 501.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4...

  11. Literacy: An Essential Ingredient in the Recipe for Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The ingredients that underpin economic growth are well-known and generally accepted; population growth, physical capital, financial capital and human capital all play a part in creating long term differences in the wealth of nations. There remains, however, considerable debate about the ideal recipe for economic growth. Recently, Statistics Canada…

  12. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358.720 Section 358.720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of...

  13. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358.720 Section 358.720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of...

  14. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products §...

  15. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110...

  16. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 333.120 Section 333.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products §...

  17. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358.720 Section 358.720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of...

  18. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358.720 Section 358.720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of...

  19. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section 358.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Wart Remover Drug Products § 358.110 Wart remover...

  20. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358.720 Section 358.720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of...

  1. Rehearsal and Hamilton's "Ingredients Model" of Theatrical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, David

    2009-01-01

    One among the many virtues of James Hamilton's book, "The Art of Theater," is that it challenges the hegemony of the classical paradigm in the performing arts by questioning its applicability to theatrical performances. He argues instead for an "ingredients model" of the relationship between a literary script and a theatrical work. According to…

  2. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  3. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  4. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  5. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  6. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  7. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  8. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  9. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  10. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  12. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  13. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  15. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  16. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  17. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  19. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  20. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cholecystokinetic active ingredients. 357.210 Section 357.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS INTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Cholecystokinetic Drug Products §...