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Sample records for aaa group cv

  1. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  3. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana. PMID:27186015

  4. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana.

  5. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    PubMed

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  6. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  7. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  8. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  9. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  11. AAAS: Politics. . . and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed during the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting held in Washington, D.C. Topics included: the equal rights amendment, laetrile, nuclear radiation hazards, sociobiology, and various science topics. (SL)

  12. Science Education at AAAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livermore, Arthur H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes several programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Office of Science Education (OSE), including short courses offered in the natural and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering to college teachers. Discusses several OSE publications. (MLH)

  13. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Survey: Teens should be wired less while driving, AAA Arizona says ... - ABC15 Arizona Graduated Licensing Laws - Insurance ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA More... Spotlight American Driving Survey This survey provides ...

  14. Molecularly Defined Nanostructures Based on a Novel AAA-DDD Triple Hydrogen-Bonding Motif.

    PubMed

    Papmeyer, Marcus; Vuilleumier, Clément A; Pavan, Giovanni M; Zhurov, Konstantin O; Severin, Kay

    2016-01-26

    A facile and flexible method for the synthesis of a new AAA-DDD triple hydrogen-bonding motif is described. Polytopic supramolecular building blocks with precisely oriented AAA and DDD groups are thus accessible in few steps. These building blocks were used for the assembly of large macrocycles featuring four AAA-DDD interactions and a macrobicyclic complex with a total of six AAA-DDD interactions.

  15. Sequence analysis of the AAA protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The AAA protein family, a recently recognized group of Walker-type ATPases, has been subjected to an extensive sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the existence of a region of sequence similarity, the so-called AAA cassette. The borders of this cassette were localized and within it, three boxes of a high degree of conservation were identified. Two of these boxes could be assigned to substantial parts of the ATP binding site (namely, to Walker motifs A and B); the third may be a portion of the catalytic center. Phylogenetic trees were calculated to obtain insights into the evolutionary history of the family. Subfamilies with varying degrees of intra-relatedness could be discriminated; these relationships are also supported by analysis of sequences outside the canonical AAA boxes: within the cassette are regions that are strongly conserved within each subfamily, whereas little or even no similarity between different subfamilies can be observed. These regions are well suited to define fingerprints for subfamilies. A secondary structure prediction utilizing all available sequence information was performed and the result was fitted to the general 3D structure of a Walker A/GTPase. The agreement was unexpectedly high and strongly supports the conclusion that the AAA family belongs to the Walker superfamily of A/GTPases. PMID:9336829

  16. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  17. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  18. Jug r 4, a legumin group food allergen from walnut (Juglans regia Cv. Chandler).

    PubMed

    Wallowitz, Mikhael; Peterson, W Rich; Uratsu, Sandie; Comstock, Sarah S; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2006-10-18

    Allergy to walnut is the most frequently reported tree nut allergy in the United States. Walnut 2S albumin, a vicilin-like protein, and a lipid transfer protein allergen have previously been described. Our objective was to clone and express a cDNA encoding a legumin group protein, assess IgE-binding with sera from walnut allergic patients, and investigate cross-reactivity with selected nuts. Primers were used to obtain the cDNA by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends from walnut mRNA. The cDNA was subcloned into the pMAL-c2X vector and the recombinant fusion protein, named rJug r 4, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The obtained cDNA encoded a precursor protein with a predicted molecular weight of 58.1 kD, which showed significant sequence homology to hazelnut and cashew legumin allergens. Serum IgE from 21 of 37 (57%) patients bound the rJug r 4 fusion protein. In vitro cross-reactivity was demonstrated with hazelnut, cashew, and peanut protein extracts.

  19. Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3"-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2" secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9 μM, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7 μM), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:26775737

  20. Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3"-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2" secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9 μM, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7 μM), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  1. Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Brian O.; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms found in screening programs are small, and as no effective treatment exits, many will expand until surgery is indicated. Therefore, it remains intriguing to develop a safe and low cost treatment of these small aneurysms, that is able to prevent or delay their expansion. In this study, we investigated whether intraluminal delivered pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can impair the early AAA development in a porcine model. Methods The infrarenal aorta was exposed in thirty pigs. Twenty underwent an elastase based AAA inducing procedure and ten of these received an additional intraluminal PGG infusion. The final 10 were sham operated and served as controls. Results All pigs who only had an elastase infusion developed macroscopically expanding AAAs. In pigs treated with an additional PGG infusion the growth rate of the AP-diameter rapidly returned to physiological values as seen in the control group. In the elastase group, histology revealed more or less complete resolution of the elastic lamellae in the media while they were more abundant, coherent and structurally organized in the PGG group. The control group displayed normal physiological growth and histology. Conclusion In our model, intraluminal delivered PGG is able to penetrate the aortic wall from the inside and impair the early AAA development by stabilizing the elastic lamellae and preserving their integrity. The principle holds a high clinical potential if it can be translated to human conditions, since it, if so, potentially could represent a new drug for stabilizing small abdominal aneurysms. PMID:27144001

  2. Genetic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Jean, P.L.; Hart, B.K.; Zhang, X.C.

    1994-09-01

    The association between AAA and gender, smoking (SM), hypertension (HTN) and inguinal herniation (IH) was examined in 141 AAA probands and 139 of their 1st degree relatives with aortic exam (36 affected, 103 unaffected). There was no significant difference between age at diagnosis of affecteds and age at exam of unaffecteds. Of 181 males, 142 had AAA; of 99 females, 35 had AAA. Using log-linear modeling AAA was significantly associated at the 5% level with gender, SM and HTN but not IH. The association of AAA with SM and HTN held when males and females were analyzed separately. HTN was -1.5 times more common in both affected males and females, while SM was 1.5 and 2 times more common in affected males and females, respectively. Tests of association and linkage analyses were performed with relevant candidate genes: 3 COL3A1 polymorphisms (C/T, ALA/THR, AvaII), 2 ELN polymorphisms (SER/GLY, (CA)n), FBN1(TAAA)n, 2 APOB polymorphisms (Xbal,Ins/Del), CLB4B (CA)n, PI and markers D1S243 (CA)n, HPR (CA)n and MFD23(CA)n. The loci were genotyped in > 100 AAA probands and > 95 normal controls. No statistically significant evidence of association at the 5% level was obtained for any of the loci using chi-square test of association. 28 families with 2 or more affecteds were analyzed using the affected pedigree member method (APM) and lod-score analyses. There was no evidence for linkage with any loci using APM. Lod-score analysis under an autosomal recessive model resulted in excluding linkage (lod score < -2) of all loci to AAA at {theta}=0.0. Under an autosomal dominant model, linkage was excluded at {theta}=0.0 to ELN, APOB, CLG4B, D1S243, HPR and MFD23. The various genes previously proposed in AAA pathogenesis are neither associated nor casually related in our study population.

  3. Pathophysiology of AAA: heredity vs environment.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin; Wanhainen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a complex pathophysiology, in which both environmental and genetic factors play important roles, the most important being smoking. The recently reported falling prevalence rates of AAA in northern Europe and Australia/New Zeeland are largely explained by healthier smoking habits. Dietary factors and obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, are also of importance. A family history of AAA among first-degree relatives is present in approximately 13% of incident cases. The probability that a monozygotic twin of a person with an AAA has the disease is 24%, 71 times higher than that for a monozygotic twin of a person without AAA. Approximately 1000 SNPs in 100 candidate genes have been studied, and three genome-wide association studies were published, identifying different diverse weak associations. An example of interaction between environmental and genetic factors is the effect of cholesterol, where genetic and dietary factors affect levels of both HDL and LDL. True epigenetic studies have not yet been published.

  4. Determining the influence of calcification on the failure properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Mulvihill, John J; Barrett, Hilary E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    Varying degrees of calcification are present in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, their impact on AAA failure properties and AAA rupture risk is unclear. The aim of this work is evaluate and compare the failure properties of partially calcified and predominantly fibrous AAA tissue and investigate the potential reasons for failure. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed on AAA samples harvested from 31 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Individual tensile samples were divided into two groups: fibrous (n=31) and partially calcified (n=38). The presence of calcification was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 69 mechanical tests were performed and the failure stretch (λf), failure stress (σf) and failure tension (Tf) were recorded for each test. Following mechanical testing, the failure sites of a subset of both tissue types were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the potential reasons for failure. It has been shown that the failure properties of partially calcified tissue are significantly reduced compared to fibrous tissue and SEM and EDS results suggest that the junction between a calcification deposit and the fibrous matrix is highly susceptible to failure. This study implicates the presence of calcification as a key player in AAA rupture risk and provides further motivation for the development of non-invasive methods of measuring calcification.

  5. Determining the influence of calcification on the failure properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Mulvihill, John J; Barrett, Hilary E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    Varying degrees of calcification are present in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, their impact on AAA failure properties and AAA rupture risk is unclear. The aim of this work is evaluate and compare the failure properties of partially calcified and predominantly fibrous AAA tissue and investigate the potential reasons for failure. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed on AAA samples harvested from 31 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Individual tensile samples were divided into two groups: fibrous (n=31) and partially calcified (n=38). The presence of calcification was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 69 mechanical tests were performed and the failure stretch (λf), failure stress (σf) and failure tension (Tf) were recorded for each test. Following mechanical testing, the failure sites of a subset of both tissue types were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the potential reasons for failure. It has been shown that the failure properties of partially calcified tissue are significantly reduced compared to fibrous tissue and SEM and EDS results suggest that the junction between a calcification deposit and the fibrous matrix is highly susceptible to failure. This study implicates the presence of calcification as a key player in AAA rupture risk and provides further motivation for the development of non-invasive methods of measuring calcification. PMID:25482218

  6. Development of an Automatic Program to Analyze Sunspot Groups on White Light Images using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Moon, Y.; Choi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Sunspots usually appear in a group which can be classified by certain morphological criteria. In this study we examine the moments which are statistical parameters computed by summing over every pixels of contours, for quantifying the morphological characteristics of a sunspot group. The moments can be another additional characteristics to the sunspot group classification such as McIntosh classification. We are developing a program for image processing, detection of contours and computation of the moments using white light full disk images from Big Bear Solar Observatory. We apply the program to count the sunspot number from 530 white light images in 2003. The sunspot numbers obtained by the program are compared with those by SIDC. The comparison shows that they have a good correlation (r=84%). We are extending this application to automatic sunspot classification (e.g., McIntosh classification) and flare forecasting.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2... adjustments account (AAA). (a) Accumulated adjustments account—(1) In general. The accumulated adjustments account is an account of the S corporation and is not apportioned among shareholders. The AAA is...

  8. AAA-DDD triple hydrogen bond complexes.

    PubMed

    Blight, Barry A; Camara-Campos, Amaya; Djurdjevic, Smilja; Kaller, Martin; Leigh, David A; McMillan, Fiona M; McNab, Hamish; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2009-10-01

    Experiment and theory both suggest that the AAA-DDD pattern of hydrogen bond acceptors (A) and donors (D) is the arrangement of three contiguous hydrogen bonding centers that results in the strongest association between two species. Murray and Zimmerman prepared the first example of such a system (complex 3*2) and determined the lower limit of its association constant (K(a)) in CDCl(3) to be 10(5) M(-1) by (1)H NMR spectroscopy (Murray, T. J. and Zimmerman, S. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4010-4011). The first cationic AAA-DDD pair (3*4(+)) was described by Bell and Anslyn (Bell, D. A. and Anslyn, E. A. Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 7161-7172), with a K(a) > 5 x 10(5) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. We were recently able to quantify the strength of a neutral AAA-DDD arrangement using a more chemically stable AAA-DDD system, 6*2, which has an association constant of 2 x 10(7) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) (Djurdjevic, S., Leigh, D. A., McNab, H., Parsons, S., Teobaldi, G. and Zerbetto, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 476-477). Here we report on further AA(A) and DDD partners, together with the first precise measurement of the association constant of a cationic AAA-DDD species. Complex 6*10(+)[B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3))(4)(-)] has a K(a) = 3 x 10(10) M(-1) at RT in CH(2)Cl(2), by far the most strongly bound triple hydrogen bonded system measured to date. The X-ray crystal structure of 6*10(+) with a BPh(4)(-) counteranion shows a planar array of three short (NH...N distances 1.95-2.15 A), parallel (but staggered rather than strictly linear; N-H...N angles 165.4-168.8 degrees), primary hydrogen bonds. These are apparently reinforced, as theory predicts, by close electrostatic interactions (NH-*-N distances 2.78-3.29 A) between each proton and the acceptor atoms of the adjacent primary hydrogen bonds.

  9. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  10. Integrated Control of Axonemal Dynein AAA+ Motors

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are AAA+ enzymes that convert ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. This leads to the sliding of doublet microtubules with respect to each other and ultimately the generation of ciliary/flagellar beating. However, in order for useful work to be generated, the action of individual dynein motors must be precisely controlled. In addition, cells modulate the motility of these organelles through a variety of second messenger systems and these signals too must be integrated by the dynein motors to yield an appropriate output. This review describes the current status of efforts to understand dynein control mechanisms and their connectivity focusing mainly on studies of the outer dynein arm from axonemes of the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas. PMID:22406539

  11. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  12. The two faces of hydrogen-bond strength on triple AAA-DDD arrays.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alfredo Henrique Duarte; Caramori, Giovanni Finoto; Coimbra, Daniel Fernando; Parreira, Renato Luis Tame; da Silva, Éder Henrique

    2013-12-01

    Systems that are connected through multiple hydrogen bonds are the cornerstone of molecular recognition processes in biology, and they are increasingly being employed in supramolecular chemistry, specifically in molecular self-assembly processes. For this reason, the effects of different substituents (NO2, CN, F, Cl, Br, OCH3 and NH2) on the electronic structure, and consequently on the magnitude of hydrogen bonds in triple AAA-DDD arrays (A=acceptor, D=donor) were evaluated in the light of topological [electron localization function (ELF) and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM)], energetic [Su-Li energy-decomposition analysis (EDA) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO)], and geometrical analysis. The results based on local H-bond descriptors (geometries, QTAIM, ELF, and NBO) indicate that substitutions with electron-withdrawing groups on the AAA module tend to strengthen, whereas electron-donating substituents tend to weaken the covalent character of the AAA-DDD intermolecular H-bonds, and also indicate that the magnitude of the effect is dependent on the position of substitution. In contrast, Su-Li EDA results show an opposite behavior when compared to local H-bond descriptors, indicating that electron-donating substituents tend to increase the magnitude of H-bonds in AAA-DDD arrays, and thus suggesting that the use of local H-bond descriptors describes the nature of H bonds only partially, not providing enough insight about the strength of such H bonds.

  13. The mouse fidgetin gene defines a new role for AAA family proteins in mammalian development.

    PubMed

    Cox, G A; Mahaffey, C L; Nystuen, A; Letts, V A; Frankel, W N

    2000-10-01

    The mouse mutation fidget arose spontaneously in a heterogeneous albino stock. This mutant mouse is characterized by a side-to-side head-shaking and circling behaviour, due to reduced or absent semicircular canals. Fidget mice also have small eyes, associated with cell-cycle delay and insufficient growth of the retinal neural epithelium, and lower penetrance skeletal abnormalities, including pelvic girdle dysgenesis, skull bone fusions and polydactyly. By positional cloning, we found the gene mutated in fidget mice, fidgetin (Fign), which encodes a new member of the 'meiotic' or subfamily-7 (SF7; ref. 7) group of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). We also discovered two closely related mammalian genes. AAA proteins are molecular chaperones that facilitate a variety of functions, including membrane fusion, proteolysis, peroxisome biogenesis, endosome sorting and meiotic spindle formation, but functions for the SF7 AAA proteins are largely unknown. Fidgetin is the first mutant AAA protein found in a mammalian developmental mutant, thus defining a new role for these proteins in embryonic development.

  14. Fundamental Characteristics of AAA+ Protein Family Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many complex cellular events depend on multiprotein complexes known as molecular machines to efficiently couple the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to the generation of mechanical force. Members of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) are critical components of many molecular machines. AAA+ proteins are defined by conserved modules that precisely position the active site elements of two adjacent subunits to catalyze ATP hydrolysis. In many cases, AAA+ proteins form a ring structure that translocates a polymeric substrate through the central channel using specialized loops that project into the central channel. We discuss the major features of AAA+ protein structure and function with an emphasis on pivotal aspects elucidated with archaeal proteins. PMID:27703410

  15. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  16. Inhibitors of the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Eli; Maksim, Nick; de la Cruz, Fabian; La Clair, James J.

    2015-01-01

    It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and physiology. PMID

  17. Substituent effects in double-helical hydrogen-bonded AAA-DDD complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Wisner, James A

    2012-01-27

    Two series of DDD and AAA hydrogen-bond arrays were synthesized that form triply-hydrogen-bonded double-helical complexes when combined in CDCl(3) solution. Derivatization of the DDD arrays with electron-withdrawing groups increases the complex association constants by up to a factor of 30 in those arrays examined. Derivatization of the AAA arrays with electron donating substituents reveals a similar magnitude effect on the complex stabilities. The effect of substitution on both types of arrays are modeled quite satisfactorily (R(2) > 0.96 in all cases) as free energy relationships with respect to the sums of their Hammett substituent constants. In all, the complex stabilities can be manipulated over more than three orders of magnitude (>20 kJ mol(-1)) using this type of modification.

  18. Structural basis for DNA-mediated allosteric regulation facilitated by the AAA+ module of Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Chen, Yu-Da; Chang, Yu-Yung; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chi-Fon; Huang, Shing-Jong; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Lon belongs to a unique group of AAA+ proteases that bind DNA. However, the DNA-mediated regulation of Lon remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the α subdomain of the Lon protease from Brevibacillus thermoruber (Bt-Lon) is presented, together with biochemical data, and the DNA-binding mode is delineated, showing that Arg518, Arg557 and Arg566 play a crucial role in DNA binding. Electrostatic interactions contributed by arginine residues in the AAA+ module are suggested to be important to DNA binding and allosteric regulation of enzymatic activities. Intriguingly, Arg557, which directly binds DNA in the α subdomain, has a dual role in the negative regulation of ATPase stimulation by DNA and in the domain-domain communication in allosteric regulation of Bt-Lon by substrate. In conclusion, structural and biochemical evidence is provided to show that electrostatic interaction in the AAA+ module is important for DNA binding by Lon and allosteric regulation of its enzymatic activities by DNA and substrate.

  19. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

  20. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  1. Ex-congressman Rush Holt to lead AAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The particle physicist Rush Holt, who served in the US Congress for 15 years, has been named as the next chief executive of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) - the non-profit US society that promotes public engagement with science and technology.

  2. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  3. THE AAA3 DOMAIN OF CYTOPLASMIC DYNEIN ACTS AS A SWITCH TO FACILITATE MICROTUBULE RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, Mark A.; Cypranowska, Caroline A.; Cleary, Frank B.; Belyy, Vladislav; Yildiz, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is an AAA+ motor responsible for intracellular cargo transport and force generation along microtubules (MTs). Unlike kinesin and myosin, dynein contains multiple ATPase subunits, with AAA1 serving as the primary catalytic site. ATPase activity at AAA3 is also essential for robust motility, but its role in dynein’s mechanochemical cycle remains unclear. Here, we introduced transient pauses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein motility by using a slowly hydrolyzing ATP analog. Analysis of pausing behavior revealed that AAA3 hydrolyzes nucleotide an order of magnitude slower than AAA1 and the two sites do not coordinate. ATPase mutations to AAA3 abolish the ability of dynein to modulate MT release. Nucleotide hydrolysis at AAA3 lifts this “MT gate” to fast motility. These results suggest that AAA3 acts as a switch that repurposes cytoplasmic dynein for fast cargo transport and MT anchoring tasks in cells. PMID:25486306

  4. CV-990 LSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), is serviced on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, before a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  5. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  6. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG (*)) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG(*) protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG (*) transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG (*). This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG(*) cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well.

  7. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  8. Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors relative to calcification in AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xun . E-mail: mpscrs@bath.ac.uk; Winrow, Vivienne R.; Horrocks, Michael; Stevens, Cliff R.

    2007-06-22

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. Human AAA tissue displays cells undergoing all stages of apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumour cells but not in normal cells. It has death receptors and decoy receptors. An inhibitor of TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), is involved in osteogenesis and vascular calcification. We investigated TRAIL and its receptors in AAA compared within normal aorta (NA). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of calcification in AAA walls were determined using Von Kossa staining and pre-operation computer tomography (CT) scans. There was a significant difference in calcification level at different locations in the AAA wall (p < 0.05). Apoptosis was confirmed in AAA by TUNEL assay. A significant difference in TRAIL and its receptor expression was observed between normal aortae and AAA (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed between tissues displaying different extents of calcification for TRAIL mRNA (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR examination and OPG protein (p < 0.01) by protein blotting examination. We propose that this pattern of expression of TRAIL and its receptors may contribute to AAA formation and calcification in the AAA wall.

  9. Adapting the machine: adaptor proteins for Hsp100/Clp and AAA+ proteases.

    PubMed

    Kirstein, Janine; Molière, Noël; Dougan, David A; Turgay, Kürşad

    2009-08-01

    Members of the AAA+ protein superfamily contribute to many diverse aspects of protein homeostasis in prokaryotic cells. As a fundamental component of numerous proteolytic machines in bacteria, AAA+ proteins play a crucial part not only in general protein quality control but also in the regulation of developmental programmes, through the controlled turnover of key proteins such as transcription factors. To manage these many, varied tasks, Hsp100/Clp and AAA+ proteases use specific adaptor proteins to enhance or expand the substrate recognition abilities of their cognate protease. Here, we review our current knowledge of the modulation of bacterial AAA+ proteases by these cellular arbitrators.

  10. ATP-binding sites in brain p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), a multifunctional AAA ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Zalk, Ran; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2003-01-01

    VCP (valosin-containing protein) or p97 is a member of the AAA family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities family), a diverse group of proteins sharing a key conserved AAA module containing duplicate putative ATP-binding sites. Although the functions of the AAA family are related to their putative ATP-binding sites, the binding of ATP to these sites has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, the ATP-binding site(s) of brain VCP was characterized using the photoreactive ATP analogue, BzATP [3'- O -(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP]. Photo-activation of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP resulted in its covalent binding to a 97-kDa purified soluble or membrane-associated protein, identified by amino acid sequencing as VCP. Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP covalently bound to the purified homo-hexameric VCP with an apparent high affinity (74-111 nM). A molar stoichiometry of 2.23+/-0.14 BzATP bound per homo-hexameric VCP (n =6) was determined using different methods for analysis of radiolabelling and protein determination. Nucleotides inhibited the binding of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP to VCP with the following efficiency: BzATP>ATP>ADP>>adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate>or=adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate, whereas AMP, GTP and CTP were ineffective. VCP was observed to possess very low ATPase activity, with nucleotide specificity similar to that for BzATP binding. Conformational changes induced by an alternating site mechanism for ATP binding are suggested as a molecular mechanism for coupling ATP binding to the diverse activities of the AAA family. PMID:12747802

  11. Engineering fluorescent protein substrates for the AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Wohlever, Matthew L; Nager, Andrew R; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2013-04-01

    AAA+ proteases, such as Escherichia coli Lon, recognize protein substrates by binding to specific peptide degrons and then unfold and translocate the protein into an internal degradation chamber for proteolysis. For some AAA+ proteases, attaching specific degrons to the N- or C-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) generates useful substrates, whose unfolding and degradation can be monitored by loss of fluorescence, but Lon fails to degrade appropriately tagged GFP variants at a significant rate. Here, we demonstrate that Lon catalyzes robust unfolding and degradation of circularly permuted variants of GFP with a β20 degron appended to the N terminus or a sul20 degron appended to the C terminus. Lon degradation of non-permuted GFP-sul20 is very slow, in part because the enzyme cannot efficiently extract the degron-proximal C-terminal β-strand to initiate denaturation. The circularly permuted GFP substrates described here allow convenient high-throughput assays of the kinetics of Lon degradation in vitro and also permit assays of Lon proteolysis in vivo.

  12. Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…

  13. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  14. Modelling of residually stressed materials with application to AAA.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, T; Dorfmann, L; Ogden, R W

    2016-08-01

    Residual stresses are generated in living tissues by processes of growth and adaptation and they significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of the tissues. Thus, to effectively model the elastic response of the tissues relative to a residually stressed configuration the residual stresses need to be incorporated into the constitutive equations. The purposes of this paper are (a) to summarise a general elastic constitutive formulation that includes residual stress, (b) to specify the tensors needed for the three-dimensional implementation of the theory in a nonlinear finite element code, and (c) to use the theory and its implementation to evaluate the wall stress distribution in an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using patient specific geometry and material model parameters. The considered material is anisotropic with two preferred directions indicating the orientation of the collagen fibres in the aortic tissue. The method described in this paper is general and can be used, by specifying appropriate energy functions, to investigate other residually stressed biological systems. PMID:26874252

  15. AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways

    MedlinePlus

    ... Highways Crashes involving objects that have fallen from vehicles up 40 percent since 2001 To use the ... the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Crashes involving vehicle-related debris are up 40 percent since the ...

  16. An AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded complex easily accessible for supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi-Fei; Chen, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wu, Na-Na; Song, Xiang-Zhi; Yang, Lan

    2014-12-15

    For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7)  M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials.

  17. Verification of IMRT dose calculations using AAA and PBC algorithms in dose buildup regions.

    PubMed

    Oinam, Arun S; Singh, Lakhwant

    2010-08-26

    The purpose of this comparative study was to test the accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithms of Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculations in the low- and high-dose buildup regions. AAA and PBC algorithms were used to create two intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of the same optimal fluence generated from a clinically simulated oropharynx case in an in-house fabricated head and neck phantom. The TPS computed buildup doses were compared with the corresponding measured doses in the phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD 100). Analysis of dose distribution calculated using PBC and AAA shows an increase in gamma value in the dose buildup region indicating large dose deviation. For the surface areas of 1, 50 and 100 cm2, PBC overestimates doses as compared to AAA calculated value in the range of 1.34%-3.62% at 0.6 cm depth, 1.74%-2.96% at 0.4 cm depth, and 1.96%-4.06% at 0.2 cm depth, respectively. In high-dose buildup region, AAA calculated doses were lower by an average of -7.56% (SD = 4.73%), while PBC was overestimated by 3.75% (SD = 5.70%) as compared to TLD measured doses at 0.2 cm depth. However, at 0.4 and 0.6 cm depth, PBC overestimated TLD measured doses by 5.84% (SD = 4.38%) and 2.40% (SD = 4.63%), respectively, while AAA underestimated the TLD measured doses by -0.82% (SD = 4.24%) and -1.10% (SD = 4.14%) at the same respective depth. In low-dose buildup region, both AAA and PBC overestimated the TLD measured doses at all depths except -2.05% (SD = 10.21%) by AAA at 0.2 cm depth. The differences between AAA and PBC at all depths were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in high-dose buildup region, whereas it is not statistically significant in low-dose buildup region. In conclusion, AAA calculated the dose more accurately than PBC in clinically important high-dose buildup region at 0.4 cm and 0.6 cm depths. The use of an orfit cast increases the dose buildup

  18. Relative importance of aneurysm diameter and body size for predicting AAA rupture in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Lu, Bing; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Conrad, Mark; Patel, Virendra I.; Fillinger, Mark; Matyal, Robina; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Women have been shown to have up to a four-fold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared to men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and to determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Using each patient’s height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, BMI, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size [e.g. aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm) / BSA (m2)]. Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs. elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately and different models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC). Results We identified 4045 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 53% EVAR). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men (Table 1). For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (AUC = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5cm: OR 1.0; 5.5–6.4cm: OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1

  19. AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship Program: Building Communication Skills in Young Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasco, S.

    2006-12-01

    The AAAS Mass Media Science &Engineering Fellowship program has succeeded in training scientists to become more effective communicators for more than 30 years. The program places advanced science, engineering and mathematics students at media sites to work as science reporters for ten weeks each summer. AAAS places between 15 to 20 students a year at newspapers, magazines and radio stations. Our goal is to create better science communicators who understand their role in fostering the public's understanding of science. Fellows leave the program with a greater awareness of how to communicate complex issues by making the connection as to why people should be interested in certain developments, and more specifically, how they will impact their communities. 2004 AGU Fellow Rei Ueyama put her lessons learned to good use during her Fellowship at the Sacramento Bee. "In a regional paper like The Bee, a (story) also had to have a local touch. I needed to show why people in Sacramento (or California) should bother to read the story. One example is the story I wrote about seeding the ocean with iron particles to fight global warming. Since ocean fertilization is a global issue, I had to clearly specify the reason why The Bee and not The New York Times was running the story. The local angle I chose was to point out that the core group of scientists involved in this study was from Monterey Bay, Calif." Many alumni tell us the program has been an integral force in shaping the course of their career. Similarly, sites often report that having a scientist on staff is an invaluable resource that allows them to cover additional science stories as well as report some technical stories in more depth. The American Geophysical Union has sponsored a Mass Media Fellow since 1997. Sponsorship allows affiliate program partners to establish connections with young professionals in their field. They are then also able to take advantage of the communication skills resident in their alumni base

  20. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  1. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates its attachment to microtubules via nucleotide state-switched mechanosensing at multiple AAA domains.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Matthew P; Berger, Florian; Rao, Lu; Brenner, Sibylle; Cho, Carol; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-05-19

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a homodimeric microtubule (MT) motor protein responsible for most MT minus-end-directed motility. Dynein contains four AAA+ ATPases (AAA: ATPase associated with various cellular activities) per motor domain (AAA1-4). The main site of ATP hydrolysis, AAA1, is the only site considered by most dynein motility models. However, it remains unclear how ATPase activity and MT binding are coordinated within and between dynein's motor domains. Using optical tweezers, we characterize the MT-binding strength of recombinant dynein monomers as a function of mechanical tension and nucleotide state. Dynein responds anisotropically to tension, binding tighter to MTs when pulled toward the MT plus end. We provide evidence that this behavior results from an asymmetrical bond that acts as a slip bond under forward tension and a slip-ideal bond under backward tension. ATP weakens MT binding and reduces bond strength anisotropy, and unexpectedly, so does ADP. Using nucleotide binding and hydrolysis mutants, we show that, although ATP exerts its effects via binding AAA1, ADP effects are mediated by AAA3. Finally, we demonstrate "gating" of AAA1 function by AAA3. When tension is absent or applied via dynein's C terminus, ATP binding to AAA1 induces MT release only if AAA3 is in the posthydrolysis state. However, when tension is applied to the linker, ATP binding to AAA3 is sufficient to "open" the gate. These results elucidate the mechanisms of dynein-MT interactions, identify regulatory roles for AAA3, and help define the interplay between mechanical tension and nucleotide state in regulating dynein motility.

  2. Identification of AAAS gene mutation in Allgrove syndrome: A report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    LI, WENJING; GONG, CHUNXIU; QI, ZHAN; WU, DI; CAO, BINGYAN

    2015-01-01

    Allgrove syndrome (AS) is an autosomal recessive congenital disease, caused by mutations in the AAAS gene, and is characterized by the triad of Addison's disease, achalasia and alacrima. The present study describes three newly diagnosed cases of AS, in which genetic analysis of the AAAS gene was used to identify AAAS gene mutations, to enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of AS in the Chinese population. Two of the cases exhibited homozygous mutations of c.771delG (p.Arg258GlyfsX33) in exon 8 and one case exhibited a homozygous mutation of c.1366C>T (p.Q456X) in exon 15. A review of the current literature suggests that the AAAS c.771delG mutation has only been reported in the Chinese population. Genetic analysis of the AAAS gene in Chinese AS patients at a young age may facilitate an earlier diagnosis and the timely initiation of the appropriate treatment, ultimately improving the patient outcome. PMID:26622478

  3. Dynein motors: How AAA+ ring opening and closing coordinates microtubule binding and linker movement.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Helgo

    2015-05-01

    Dyneins are a family of motor proteins that move along the microtubule. Motility is generated in the motor domain, which consists of a ring of six AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) domains, the linker and the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD). The cyclic ATP-hydrolysis in the AAA+ ring causes the remodelling of the linker, which creates the necessary force for movement. The production of force has to be synchronized with cycles of microtubule detachment and rebinding to efficiently create movement along the microtubule. The analysis of four dynein motor domain crystal structures in the essay presented here provides evidence that this crucial coordination is carried out by open/closed AAA+ ring conformations.

  4. Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

  5. Norwalk Community College AA-AS Degree Review Committee Curriculum Report, August 21, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennino, Eileen M.; Luster, Gwen Tolliver

    In an attempt to revitalize and reform its curriculum, the Associate of Arts-Associate of Science (AA-AS) Degree Review Committee (DRC) of Connecticut's Norwalk Community College issued a curriculum report proposing a 21 credit, limited distributive core for the AS degree (which accounts for 80% of the college's degree recipients). This proposal…

  6. Professional Ethics Activities in the Scientific and Engineering Societies. AAAS Professional Ethics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalk, Rosemary; And Others

    Presented is an overview of the depth and range of the ethics activities undertaken by societies affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Included in this report are: (1) reviews of previous surveys of organizations which had adopted codes of ethics; (2) descriptions of the methodology and findings of the…

  7. Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

    2008-11-01

    It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

  8. Effects of doping and bias voltage on the screening in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam; Shirzadi Tabar, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the static polarization of AAA-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG) and study its screening properties within the random phase approximation (RPA) in all undoped, doped and biased regimes. We find that the static polarization of undoped AAA-stacked TLG is a combination of the doped and undoped single-layer graphene static polarization. This leads to an enhancement of the dielectric background constant along a Thomas-Fermi screening with the Thomas-Fermi wave vector which is independent of carrier concentrations and a 1/r3 power law decay for the long-distance behavior of the screened Coulomb potential. We show that effects of a bias voltage can be taken into account by a renormalization of the interlayer hopping energy to a new bias-voltage-dependent value, indicating screening properties of AAA-stacked TLG can be tuned electrically. We also find that screening properties of doped AAA-stacked TLG, when μ exceeds √{2}γ, are similar to that of doped SLG only depending on doping. While for μ<√{2}γ, its screening properties are combination of SLG and AA-stacked bilayer graphene screening properties and they are determined by doping and the interlayer hopping energy.

  9. Structure of Lmaj006129AAA, a hypothetical protein from Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, Tracy; Le Trong, Isolde; Phizicky, Eric; Quartley, Erin; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Worthey, Elizabeth; Myler, Peter J.; Kim, David; Baker, David; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-03-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from L. major, Pfam sequence family PF04543, structural genomics target ID Lmaj006129AAA, has been determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å. The gene product of structural genomics target Lmaj006129 from Leishmania major codes for a 164-residue protein of unknown function. When SeMet expression of the full-length gene product failed, several truncation variants were created with the aid of Ginzu, a domain-prediction method. 11 truncations were selected for expression, purification and crystallization based upon secondary-structure elements and disorder. The structure of one of these variants, Lmaj006129AAH, was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) using ELVES, an automatic protein crystal structure-determination system. This model was then successfully used as a molecular-replacement probe for the parent full-length target, Lmaj006129AAA. The final structure of Lmaj006129AAA was refined to an R value of 0.185 (R{sub free} = 0.229) at 1.60 Å resolution. Structure and sequence comparisons based on Lmaj006129AAA suggest that proteins belonging to Pfam sequence families PF04543 and PF01878 may share a common ligand-binding motif.

  10. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  11. National dosimetric audit network finds discrepancies in AAA lung inhomogeneity corrections.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Leon; Lehmann, Joerg; Lye, Jessica; Kenny, John; Kron, Tomas; Alves, Andrew; Cole, Andrew; Zifodya, Jackson; Williams, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service's (ACDS) findings of an investigation of systematic discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured audit doses. Specifically, a comparison between the Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) and other common dose-calculation algorithms in regions downstream (≥2cm) from low-density material in anthropomorphic and slab phantom geometries is presented. Two measurement setups involving rectilinear slab-phantoms (ACDS Level II audit) and anthropomorphic geometries (ACDS Level III audit) were used in conjunction with ion chamber (planar 2D array and Farmer-type) measurements. Measured doses were compared to calculated doses for a variety of cases, with and without the presence of inhomogeneities and beam-modifiers in 71 audits. Results demonstrate a systematic AAA underdose with an average discrepancy of 2.9 ± 1.2% when the AAA algorithm is implemented in regions distal from lung-tissue interfaces, when lateral beams are used with anthropomorphic phantoms. This systemic discrepancy was found for all Level III audits of facilities using the AAA algorithm. This discrepancy is not seen when identical measurements are compared for other common dose-calculation algorithms (average discrepancy -0.4 ± 1.7%), including the Acuros XB algorithm also available with the Eclipse TPS. For slab phantom geometries (Level II audits), with similar measurement points downstream from inhomogeneities this discrepancy is also not seen. PMID:25921329

  12. Asymmetric processing of a substrate protein in sequential allosteric cycles of AAA+ nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravats, Andrea N.; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Bucher, Ryan J.; Stan, George

    2013-09-01

    Essential protein quality control includes mechanisms of substrate protein (SP) unfolding and translocation performed by powerful ring-shaped AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) nanomachines. These SP remodeling actions are effected by mechanical forces imparted by AAA+ loops that protrude into the central channel. Sequential intra-ring allosteric motions, which underlie repetitive SP-loop interactions, have been proposed to comprise clockwise (CW), counterclockwise (CCW), or random (R) conformational transitions of individual AAA+ subunits. To probe the effect of these allosteric mechanisms on unfoldase and translocase functions, we perform Langevin dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of an all-alpha SP processed by the single-ring ClpY ATPase or by the double-ring p97 ATPase. We find that, in all three allosteric mechanisms, the SP undergoes conformational transitions along a common set of pathways, which reveals that the active work provided by the ClpY machine involves single loop-SP interactions. Nevertheless, the rates and yields of SP unfolding and translocation are controlled by mechanism-dependent loop-SP binding events, as illustrated by faster timescales of SP processing in CW allostery compared with CCW and R allostery. The distinct efficacy of allosteric mechanisms is due to the asymmetric collaboration of adjacent subunits, which involves CW-biased structural motions of AAA+ loops and results in CW-compatible torque applied onto the SP. Additional simulations of mutant ClpY rings, which render a subset of subunits catalytically-defective or reduce their SP binding affinity, reveal that subunit-based conformational transitions play the major role in SP remodeling. Based on these results we predict that the minimally functional AAA+ ring includes three active subunits, only two of which are adjacent.

  13. Asymmetric processing of a substrate protein in sequential allosteric cycles of AAA+ nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Kravats, Andrea N; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Bucher, Ryan J; Stan, George

    2013-09-28

    Essential protein quality control includes mechanisms of substrate protein (SP) unfolding and translocation performed by powerful ring-shaped AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) nanomachines. These SP remodeling actions are effected by mechanical forces imparted by AAA+ loops that protrude into the central channel. Sequential intra-ring allosteric motions, which underlie repetitive SP-loop interactions, have been proposed to comprise clockwise (CW), counterclockwise (CCW), or random (R) conformational transitions of individual AAA+ subunits. To probe the effect of these allosteric mechanisms on unfoldase and translocase functions, we perform Langevin dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of an all-alpha SP processed by the single-ring ClpY ATPase or by the double-ring p97 ATPase. We find that, in all three allosteric mechanisms, the SP undergoes conformational transitions along a common set of pathways, which reveals that the active work provided by the ClpY machine involves single loop-SP interactions. Nevertheless, the rates and yields of SP unfolding and translocation are controlled by mechanism-dependent loop-SP binding events, as illustrated by faster timescales of SP processing in CW allostery compared with CCW and R allostery. The distinct efficacy of allosteric mechanisms is due to the asymmetric collaboration of adjacent subunits, which involves CW-biased structural motions of AAA+ loops and results in CW-compatible torque applied onto the SP. Additional simulations of mutant ClpY rings, which render a subset of subunits catalytically-defective or reduce their SP binding affinity, reveal that subunit-based conformational transitions play the major role in SP remodeling. Based on these results we predict that the minimally functional AAA+ ring includes three active subunits, only two of which are adjacent.

  14. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    PubMed

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  15. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  16. Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite - Evidence for aqueous alteration in an oxidizing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Most CV chondrites contain little if any phyllosilicate mineralization. A petrographic and transmission electron microscopy study of the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite shows that the matrix, chondrules, aggregates, and inclusions all contain considerable amounts of phyllosilicates. The mineralogy and occurrence of phyllosilicates in Mokoia differ from those in the CI and CM chondrites. The differences suggests that aqueous alteration of the three meteorite groups probably occurred under a variety of conditions.

  17. Children with ANSD fitted with hearing aids applying the AAA Pediatric Amplification Guideline: Current Practice and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Roush, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up to 15% of children with permanent hearing loss have auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which involves normal outer hair cell function and disordered afferent neural activity in the auditory nerve or brainstem. Given the varying presentations of ANSD in children, there is a need for more evidence-based research on appropriate clinical interventions for this population. Purpose This study compared the speech production, speech perception, and language outcomes of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) who are hard of hearing and children with similar degrees of mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), all of whom were fitted with bilateral hearing aids based on the American Academy of Audiology (AAA) pediatric amplification guidelines. Research design Speech perception and communication outcomes data were gathered in a prospective accelerated longitudinal design, with entry into the study between six months and seven years of age. Three sites were involved in participant recruitment: Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Iowa. Study sample: The sample consisted of 12 children with ANSD and 22 children with SNHL. The groups were matched based on better-ear pure-tone average, better-ear aided speech intelligibility index, gender, maternal education level, and newborn hearing screening result (i.e., pass or refer). Data collection and analysis Children and their families participated in an initial baseline visit, followed by visits twice a year for children under age 2 years and once a year for children older than 2 years. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare children with ANSD to children with SNHL. Results Paired t-tests indicated no significant differences between the ANSD and SNHL groups on language and articulation measures. Children with ANSD displayed functional speech perception skills in quiet. Although the number of

  18. SFM-FDTD analysis of triangular-lattice AAA structure: Parametric study of the TEM mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, M.; Chemrouk, C.; Belkhir, A.; Kebci, Z.; Ndao, A.; Lamrous, O.; Baida, F. I.

    2014-05-01

    This theoretical work reports a parametric study of enhanced transmission through annular aperture array (AAA) structure arranged in a triangular lattice. The effect of the incidence angle in addition to the inner and outer radii values on the evolution of the transmission spectra is carried out. To this end, a 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain code based on the Split Field Method (SFM) is used to calculate the spectral response of the structure for any angle of incidence. In order to work through an orthogonal unit cell which presents the advantage to reduce time and space of computation, special periodic boundary conditions are implemented. This study provides a new modeling of AAA structures useful for producing tunable ultra-compact devices.

  19. Geometrical factors influencing the hemodynamic behavior of the AAA stent grafts: essentials for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Argyriou, Christos; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Ioannou, Chris V; Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Morgan, Robert; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is considered to be the treatment of choice for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Despite the initial technical success, EVAR is amenable to early and late complications, among which the migration of the endograft (EG) with subsequent proximal endoleak (Type Ia) leads to repressurization of the AAA sac, exposure to excessive wall stress, and, hence, to potential rupture. This article discusses the influence that certain geometrical factors, such as neck angulation, iliac bifurcation, EG curvature, neck-to-iliac diameter, and length ratios, as well as iliac limbs configuration can exert on the hemodynamic behavior of the EGs. The information provided could help both clinicians and EG manufacturers towards further development and improvement of EG designs and better operational planning. PMID:24938906

  20. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  1. The Drug Diazaborine Blocks Ribosome Biogenesis by Inhibiting the AAA-ATPase Drg1*

    PubMed Central

    Loibl, Mathias; Klein, Isabella; Prattes, Michael; Schmidt, Claudia; Kappel, Lisa; Zisser, Gertrude; Gungl, Anna; Krieger, Elmar; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The drug diazaborine is the only known inhibitor of ribosome biogenesis and specifically blocks large subunit formation in eukaryotic cells. However, the target of this drug and the mechanism of inhibition were unknown. Here we identify the AAA-ATPase Drg1 as a target of diazaborine. Inhibitor binding into the second AAA domain of Drg1 requires ATP loading and results in inhibition of ATP hydrolysis in this site. As a consequence the physiological activity of Drg1, i.e. the release of Rlp24 from pre-60S particles, is blocked, and further progression of cytoplasmic preribosome maturation is prevented. Our results identify the first target of an inhibitor of ribosome biogenesis and provide the mechanism of inhibition of a key step in large ribosomal subunit formation. PMID:24371142

  2. Severity of the Aggression/Anxiety-Depression/Attention (A-A-A) CBCL Profile Discriminates between Different Levels of Deficits in Emotional Regulation in Youth with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Day, Helen; Goldin, Rachel L.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Surman, Craig B.H.; Wozniak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined whether severity scores (1SD vs. 2SDs) of a unique profile of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) consisting of the Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, and Attention (A-A-A) scales would help differentiate levels of deficits in children with ADHD. Study Design Subjects were 197 children with and 224 without ADHD. We defined deficient emotional selfregulation (DESR) as an aggregate cut-off score of >180 but <210 (1SD) on the A-A-A scales of the CBCL (CBCL-DESR) and Severe Dysregulation as an aggregate cut-off score of ≥210 on the same scales (CBCL-Severe Dysregulation). All subjects were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a range of functional measures. Results 36% of children with ADHD had a positive CBCL-DESR profile vs. 2% of controls (p<0.001) and 19% had a positive CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile vs. 0% of controls (p<0.001). The subjects positive for the CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile differed selectively from those with the CBCL-DESR profile in having higher rates of unipolar and bipolar mood disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, psychiatric hospitalization at both baseline and follow up assessments, and a higher rate of the CBCL-Severe Dysregulation in siblings. In contrast, the CBCL-DESR was associated with higher rates of comorbid disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, and impaired interpersonal functioning compared to other ADHD children. Conclusion Severity scores of the A-A-A CBCL profiles can help distinguish two groups of emotional regulation problems in children with ADHD. PMID:22278125

  3. Indications for and outcome of open AAA repair in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Wieker, Carola M; Spazier, Max; Böckler, Dittmar

    2016-04-01

    The benefits, safety and efficacy of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is well documented and intensively reported in multiple randomized trials and meta-analysis. Therefore, EVAR became the first choice of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) treatment in almost 70-100% of patients. Consecutively, open repair (OR) is performed less frequently in morphologically preselected patients. Anatomical condition remains the most important factor for indication for OR. Especially unfavorable intrarenal landing zone based on difficult neck anatomy like very short neck or excessive neck angulation is still the most predictive factor. Furthermore, patients presenting additional iliac aneurysms, aortoiliac occlusive disease or variations of renal arteries are recommended for OR. Randomized trials like EVAR 1, DREAM and OVER from the year 2004/2005 and 2009 showed lower 30-day mortality rates in EVAR compared to OR. However, the late mortality rates after two years became equal in both treatment options. Furthermore, reinterventions after EVAR occur more frequently than after OR. Analysis from our own data showed a higher 30-day mortality in the patients who underwent OR in the endovascular era (15% vs. 2.5%), however the number of emergency open AAA repair because of ruptured aneurysms was much higher in the endovascular era (32.5% vs. 5%). In conclusion, treatment of AAA has changed in the past decade. Nevertheless OR of AAA still remains as a safe and durable method in experienced surgeons, even in the endovascular era. High volume centres are needed to offer the best patients' treatment providing the best postoperative outcome. Therefore OR must remain a part of fellowship training in the future. To decide the best treatment option many facts like patients' fitness and preference or finally the anatomic suitability for endovascular repair have to be considered. PMID:26822580

  4. Structures of the double-ring AAA ATPase Pex1-Pex6 involved in peroxisome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dongyan; Blok, Neil B; Rapoport, Tom A; Walz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The Pex1 and Pex6 proteins are members of the AAA family of ATPases and are involved in peroxisome biogenesis. Recently, cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Pex1-Pex6 complex in different nucleotide states have been determined. This Structural Snapshot describes the structural features of the complex and their implications for its function, as well as questions that still await answers.

  5. Characterization of ATPase activity of the AAA ARC from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Mabel; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Santos, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be probiotics that exist in the large intestine and are helpful to maintain human health. Oral administration of bifidobacteria may be effective in improving the intestinal flora and environment, stimulating the immune response and possibly preventing cancer. However, for consistent and positive results, further well-controlled studies are urgently needed to describe the basic mechanisms of this microorganism. Analysis of the proteasome-lacking Bifidobacterium longum genome reveals that it possesses a gene, IPR003593 AAA ATPase core, which codes a 56 kDa protein containing one AAA ATPase domain. Phylogenetic classification made by CLANS, positioned this sequence into the ARC divergent branch of the AAA ATPase family of proteins. N-terminal analysis of the sequence indicates this protein is closely related to other ATPases such as the Rhodococcus erythropolis ARC, Archaeoglobus fulgidus PAN, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mpa and the human proteasomal Rpt1 subunit. This gene was cloned, the full-length recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a high-molecular size complex and named Bl-ARC. Enzymatic characterization showed that Bl-ARC ATPase is active, Mg(+2)-dependent and sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Gene organization positions bl-arc in a region flanked by a cluster of genes that includes pup, dop and pafA genes. These findings point to a possible function as a chaperone in the degradation pathway via pupylation.

  6. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  7. Subunit dynamics and nucleotide-dependent asymmetry of an AAA(+) transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Joly, Nicolas; Lawton, Edward; Robinson, Carol V; Buck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial enhancer binding proteins (bEBPs) are transcription activators that belong to the AAA(+) protein family. They form higher-order self-assemblies to regulate transcription initiation at stress response and pathogenic promoters. The precise mechanism by which these ATPases utilize ATP binding and hydrolysis energy to remodel their substrates remains unclear. Here we employed mass spectrometry of intact complexes to investigate subunit dynamics and nucleotide occupancy of the AAA(+) domain of one well-studied bEBP in complex with its substrate, the σ(54) subunit of RNA polymerase. Our results demonstrate that the free AAA(+) domain undergoes significant changes in oligomeric states and nucleotide occupancy upon σ(54) binding. Such changes likely correlate with one transition state of ATP and are associated with an open spiral ring formation that is vital for asymmetric subunit function and interface communication. We confirmed that the asymmetric subunit functionality persists for open promoter complex formation using single-chain forms of bEBP lacking the full complement of intact ATP hydrolysis sites. Outcomes reconcile low- and high-resolution structures and yield a partial sequential ATP hydrolysis model for bEBPs. PMID:24055699

  8. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Berube, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N. . E-mail: wnf@jax.org

    2005-03-10

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice.

  9. Molecular snapshots of the Pex1/6 AAA+ complex in action

    PubMed Central

    Ciniawsky, Susanne; Grimm, Immanuel; Saffian, Delia; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Wendler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The peroxisomal proteins Pex1 and Pex6 form a heterohexameric type II AAA+ ATPase complex, which fuels essential protein transport across peroxisomal membranes. Mutations in either ATPase in humans can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death. We present an extensive structural and biochemical analysis of the yeast Pex1/6 complex. The heterohexamer forms a trimer of Pex1/6 dimers with a triangular geometry that is atypical for AAA+ complexes. While the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domains (D2) of Pex6 constitute the main ATPase activity of the complex, both D2 harbour essential substrate-binding motifs. ATP hydrolysis results in a pumping motion of the complex, suggesting that Pex1/6 function involves substrate translocation through its central channel. Mutation of the Walker B motif in one D2 domain leads to ATP hydrolysis in the neighbouring domain, giving structural insights into inter-domain communication of these unique heterohexameric AAA+ assemblies. PMID:26066397

  10. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L; Bérubé, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N

    2005-03-10

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice.

  11. Experimental and computational studies on the flow fields in aortic aneurysms associated with deployment of AAA stent-grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Shangdong

    2007-10-01

    Pulsatile flow fields in rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models were investigated numerically, and the simulation results are found in good agreement with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. There are one or more vortexes in the AAA bulge, and a fairly high wall shear stress exists at the distal end, and thus the AAA is in danger of rupture. Medical treatment consists of inserting a vascular stent-graft in the AAA, which would decrease the blood impact to the inner walls and reduce wall shear stress so that the rupture could be prevented. A new computational model, based on porous medium model, was developed and results are documented. Therapeutic effect of the stent-graft was verified numerically with the new model.

  12. Inflorescence proliferation for somatic embryogenesis induction and suspension-derived plant regeneration from banana (Musa AAA, cv. 'Dwarf Cavendish') male flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Juan Bernardo; Rosell-García, Purificación

    2008-06-01

    Availability of explants with adequate embryogenic competence is one of the most important limitations for the development of regenerable cell suspensions in banana. To increase the number and ease of accessibility to potentially embryogenic explants, a novel methodology is described by which young male flower clusters isolated from adult plants are induced to form new flower buds and proliferate in vitro. Different concentrations of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) induced inflorescence proliferation, which could be maintained over time as a continuous source of young flower buds. Intensity of proliferation was evaluated during successive subcultures. At the third cycle of proliferation, the highest multiplication rate (2.89) was obtained on the medium containing 5 microM TDZ. Newly generated floral tissues were assessed for embryogenic competence, resulting in an average embryogenic frequency of 12.5%. The observed embryogenic capacity, together with the recurrent availability of immature flowers, allowed for the direct initiation of cell suspensions from bulked explant cultures. Regular observation and regeneration tests during the development of suspended cell cultures confirmed their embryogenic condition. Produced embryos successfully matured and germinated to regenerate hundreds of somatic in vitro plants.

  13. Structural Insights into the Unusually Strong ATPase Activity of the AAA Domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans Fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function. PMID:23979136

  14. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  15. Morphological State as a Predictor for Reintervention and Mortality After EVAR for AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrlander, Tomas; Dencker, Magnus; Acosta, Stefan

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess aorto-iliac morphological characteristics in relation to reintervention and all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard EVAR for infrarenal AAA. Methods: Patients treated with EVAR (Zenith{sup Registered-Sign} Stentgrafts, Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database where comorbidities and preoperative aneurysm morphology were entered. Reinterventions and mortality were checked until December 1, 2010. Median follow-up time was 68 months. Results: A total of 304 patients were included, of which 86% were men. Median age was 74 years. The reintervention rate was 23.4% (71/304). A greater diameter of the common iliac artery (p = 0.037; hazard ratio (HR) 1.037 [1.002-1.073]) was an independent factor for an increased number of reinterventions. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.0% (9/304). Aneurysm-related deaths due to AAA occurred in 4.9% (15/304). Five patients died due to a concomitant ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. The mortality until end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61.6%. The severity of angulation of the iliac arteries (p = 0.014; HR 1.018 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.033]) and anemia (p = 0.044; HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.029-7.556]) remained as independent factors associated with all-cause long-term mortality. The crude reintervention-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 84.5%, 64.8%, and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The initial aorto-iliac morphological state in patients scheduled for standard EVAR for AAA seems to be strongly related to the need for reinterventions and long-term mortality.

  16. SU-E-P-16: A Feasibility Study of Using Eclipse AAA for SRS Treatement

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, S; LoSasso, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To commission Varian Eclipse AAA for SRS treatment and compare the accuracy with Brainlab iPlan system for clinical cases measured with radiochromic film. Methods: A 6MV AAA clinical model for a Varian TrueBeam STx is used as baseline. The focal spot and field size of the baseline model(BASE) are (1.75,0.75) and 40×40cm{sup 2} respectively. Maximum field sizes, output factors(S{sub t}), FWHM focal spot and secondary source sizes are systematically adjusted to obtain an optimized model(OPT) by comparing the calculated PDD’s, profiles, and output factors with measurements taken with a stereotactic diode(SD) and, cc01 and cc04 ion chambers in Blue Phantom. In-phantom dose distributions of clinical SRS fields are calculated using the OPT and the clinical Brainlab iPlan pencil-beam. Within the 90% isodose-line(ROI), the average dose difference between the calculations and radiochromic film measurements are assessed. Results: The maximum field, focal spot and secondary source sizes for the OPT are 15×15cm{sup 2}, (0,0), and 32.3mm respectively. The OPT St input at 1.0 and 2.0cm fields are increased by 4.5% and 1.5% from BASE. The calculated output of the BASE and OPT underestimate by 16.1%–3.2% respectively at 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field and 3.1%−0.02% respectively at 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2} field. The depth doses at 10cm are within 3.5% and 0.4% of measurements for 0.5×0.5 and 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2}. The ROI dose of OPT and iPlan are within 1.6% and 0.6% of film measurements for 3.0cm clinical fields. For 1.0cm fields, the ROI dose of OPT underestimate 0.0–2.0% and iPlan overestimates 1.7–2.9% relative to measurements. Conclusion: The small field dose calculation of Eclipse AAA algorithm can be significantly improved by carefully adjusting the input parameters. The larger deviation of the OPT for 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field from measurements can be attributed to the lowest 1.0cm field size input limit of AAA. The OPT compares reasonably well with the iPlan pencil

  17. A higher plant mitochondrial homologue of the yeast m-AAA protease. Molecular cloning, localization, and putative function.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczak, Marta; Kolaczkowska, Anna; Szczesny, Bartosz; Urantowka, Adam; Knorpp, Carina; Kieleczawa, Jan; Janska, Hanna

    2002-11-15

    Mitochondrial AAA metalloproteases play a fundamental role in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. They have been identified in yeast and animals but not yet in plants. This work describes the isolation and sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA from the pea (Pisum sativum) with significant homology to the yeast matrix AAA (m-AAA) protease. The product of this clone was imported into isolated pea mitochondria where it was processed to its mature form (PsFtsH). We have shown that the central region of PsFtsH containing the chaperone domain is exposed to the matrix space. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the pea protease can complement respiration deficiency in the yta10 and/or yta12 null yeast mutants, indicating that the plant protein can compensate for the loss of at least some of the important m-AAA functions in yeast. Based on biochemical experiments using isolated pea mitochondria, we propose that PsFtsH-like m-AAA is involved in the accumulation of the subunit 9 of the ATP synthase in the mitochondrial membrane.

  18. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  19. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  20. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Rosenberg, Scott C; Moeller, Arne; Speir, Jeffrey A; Su, Tiffany Y; Corbett, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active ‘closed’ conformer to an inactive ‘open’ conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07367.001 PMID:25918846

  1. Going the distance: validation of Acuros and AAA at an extended SSD of 400 cm.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Narottam; Patel, Vivek N; Studenski, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation and treatment delivery is essential for total body irradiation (TBI). In an effort to verify the accuracy of TBI dose calculation at our institution, we evaluated both the Varian Eclipse AAA and Acuros algorithms to predict dose distributions at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 400 cm. Measurements were compared to calculated values for a 6 MV beam in physical and virtual phantoms at 400 cm SSD using open beams for both 5 × 5 and 40 × 40cm2 field sizes. Inline and crossline profiles were acquired at equivalent depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm. Depth-dose curves were acquired using EBT2 film and an ion chamber for both field sizes. Finally, a RANDO phantom was used to simulate an actual TBI treatment. At this extended SSD, care must be taken using the planning system as there is good relative agreement between measured and calculated profiles for both algorithms, but there are deviations in terms of the absolute dose. Acuros has better agreement than AAA in the penumbra region. PMID:27074473

  2. Changes in the wall shear stresses (WSS) during the enlargement of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven R.; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2004-11-01

    The changes in the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution of the WSS and gradients of WSS at different stages of the enlargement of AAAs are important to understand the etiology and progression of this vascular disease, since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. PIV measurements were performed in aneurysm models, while changing systematically their geometric parameters. We show that, even at very early stages of the disease (dilatation > 30%), the flow separates from the wall and the formation of a large vortex ring followed by internal shear layers leads to the generation of WSS that drastically differ from the healthy vessel. Inside the AAA, the mean WSS decreases to zero and the magnitude of the WSS can be as low as 26% of the value in a healthy vessel. Two regions with distinct patterns of WSS were identified. The region of flow detachment, with oscillatory WSS of very low mean, and the region of flow reattachment, located distally, where large, negative WSS and sustained gradients of WSS are produced as a result of the impact of the vortex ring on the wall.

  3. Structural Characterization of the ATPase Reaction Cycle of Endosomal AAA Protein Vps4

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Junyu; Xia, Hengchuan; Yoshino-Koh, Kae; Zhou, Jiahai; Xu, Zhaohui

    2008-12-12

    The multivesicular body (MVB) pathway functions in multiple cellular processes including cell surface receptor down-regulation and viral budding from host cells. An important step in the MVB pathway is the correct sorting of cargo molecules, which requires the assembly and disassembly of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) on the endosomal membrane. Disassembly of the ESCRTs is catalyzed by ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA) protein Vps4. Vps4 contains a single AAA domain and undergoes ATP-dependent quaternary structural change to disassemble the ESCRTs. Structural and biochemical analyses of the Vps4 ATPase reaction cycle are reported here. Crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vps4 in both the nucleotide-free form and the ADP-bound form provide the first structural view illustrating how nucleotide binding might induce conformational changes within Vps4 that lead to oligomerization and binding to its substrate ESCRT-III subunits. In contrast to previous models, characterization of the Vps4 structure now supports a model where the ground state of Vps4 in the ATPase reaction cycle is predominantly a monomer and the activated state is a dodecamer. Comparison with a previously reported human VPS4B structure suggests that Vps4 functions in the MVB pathway via a highly conserved mechanism supported by similar protein-protein interactions during its ATPase reaction cycle.

  4. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  5. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  6. The ATPase of the phi29 DNA packaging motor is a member of the hexameric AAA+ superfamily.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Chad; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Fang, Huaming; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-08-15

    The AAA+ superfamily of proteins is a class of motor ATPases performing a wide range of functions that typically exist as hexamers. The ATPase of phi29 DNA packaging motor has long been a subject of debate in terms of stoichiometry and mechanism of action. Here, we confirmed the stoichiometry of phi29 motor ATPase to be a hexamer and provide data suggesting that the phi29 motor ATPase is a member of the classical hexameric AAA+ superfamily. Native PAGE, EMSA, capillary electrophoresis, ATP titration, and binomial distribution assay show that the ATPase is a hexamer. Mutations in the known Walker motifs of the ATPase validated our previous assumptions that the protein exists as another member of this AAA+ superfamily. Our data also supports the finding that the phi29 DNA packaging motor uses a revolution mechanism without rotation or coiling (Schwartz et al., this issue).

  7. Effects of the Transient Blood Flow-Wall Interaction on the Wall Stress Distribution in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Geindreau, Christian; Lasheras, Juan

    2006-11-01

    Our static finite element analysis (FEA) of both idealized and real clinical models has shown that the maximum diameter and asymmetry have substantial influence on the AAA wall stress distribution. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to reduce the magnitude of the wall stresses. To achieve a better understanding of the wall stress distribution in real AAAs, a dynamic FEA was also performed. We considered models, both symmetric and non-symmetric, in which the aorta is assumed isotropic with nonlinear material properties. For the limiting case of rigid walls, the evolution of the flow pattern and the wall shear stresses due to fluid flow at different stages of cardiac cycle predicted by our simulations are compared with experimental results obtained in in-vitro models. A good agreement is found between both results. Finally, we have extended the analysis to the physiologically correct case of deformable walls and characterized the transient effects on the wall stresses.

  8. Moyamoya disease-associated protein mysterin/RNF213 is a novel AAA+ ATPase, which dynamically changes its oligomeric state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kouki; Hoseki, Jun; Kitamura, Akira; Kotani, Yuri; Kiso, Kazumi; Kinjo, Masataka; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic human cerebrovascular disorder that is characterized by progressive stenosis and abnormal collateral vessels. We recently identified mysterin/RNF213 as its first susceptibility gene, which encodes a 591-kDa protein containing enzymatically active P-loop ATPase and ubiquitin ligase domains and is involved in proper vascular development in zebrafish. Here we demonstrate that mysterin further contains two tandem AAA+ ATPase modules and forms huge ring-shaped oligomeric complex. AAA+ ATPases are known to generally mediate various biophysical and mechanical processes with the characteristic ring-shaped structure. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biochemical evaluation suggested that mysterin dynamically changes its oligomeric forms through ATP/ADP binding and hydrolysis cycles. Thus, the moyamoya disease-associated gene product is a unique protein that functions as ubiquitin ligase and AAA+ ATPase, which possibly contributes to vascular development through mechanical processes in the cell.

  9. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  10. SecAAA trimer is fully functional as SecAA dimer in the membrane: Existence of higher oligomers?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyun; Ma, Yamin; Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Yang, Hsiuchin; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C.

    2014-01-01

    SecA is an essential ATPase in bacterial Sec-dependent protein translocation pathway, and equilibrates between monomers and dimers in solution. The question of whether SecA functions as monomers or dimers in membranes during the protein translocation is controversial. We previously constructed a tail-to-head SecAA tandem dimer, and showed it is fully functional by complementation in vivo and protein translocation in vitro, indicating that SecA can function at least as a dimer in the membrane without dissociating into monomers. In this study, we further constructed genetically a tail-to-head SecAAA trimer, which is functional in complementing a temperature-sensitive secA mutant. The purified SecAAA trimer per protomer is fully active as SecAA tandem dimers in ATPase activity, in protein translocation in vitro and in ion channel activities in the oocytes. With these functional tail-to-head trimer SecAAA and tandem SecAA, we examined their surface topology in the presence of liposomes using AFM. As expected, the soluble SecAAA without lipids are larger than SecAA. However, the ring/pore structures of SecAAA trimers were, surprisingly, almost identical to the SecA 2-monomers and SecAA dimers, raising the intriguing possibility that the SecA may exist and function as hexamer ring-structures in membranes. Cross-linking with formaldehyde showed that SecA, SecAA and SecAAA could form larger oligomers, including the hexamers. The molecular modeling simulation shows that both tail-to-head and tail-to-tail hexamers in the membranes are possible. PMID:24704204

  11. Walker-A threonine couples nucleotide occupancy with the chaperone activity of the AAA+ ATPase ClpB

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Maria; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Zhonghua; Kedzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina; Zolkiewski, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Hexameric AAA+ ATPases induce conformational changes in a variety of macromolecules. AAA+ structures contain the nucleotide-binding P-loop with the Walker A sequence motif: GxxGxGK(T/S). A subfamily of AAA+ sequences contains Asn in the Walker A motif instead of Thr or Ser. This noncanonical subfamily includes torsinA, an ER protein linked to human dystonia and DnaC, a bacterial helicase loader. Role of the noncanonical Walker A motif in the functionality of AAA+ ATPases has not been explored yet. To determine functional effects of introduction of Asn into the Walker A sequence, we replaced the Walker-A Thr with Asn in ClpB, a bacterial AAA+ chaperone which reactivates aggregated proteins. We found that the T-to-N mutation in Walker A partially inhibited the ATPase activity of ClpB, but did not affect the ClpB capability to associate into hexamers. Interestingly, the noncanonical Walker A sequence in ClpB induced preferential binding of ADP vs. ATP and uncoupled the linkage between the ATP-bound conformation and the high-affinity binding to protein aggregates. As a consequence, ClpB with the noncanonical Walker A sequence showed a low chaperone activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate a novel role of the Walker-A Thr in sensing the nucleotide's γ-phosphate and in maintaining an allosteric linkage between the P-loop and the aggregate binding site of ClpB. We postulate that AAA+ ATPases with the noncanonical Walker A might utilize distinct mechanisms to couple the ATPase cycle with their substrate-remodeling activity. PMID:19177562

  12. Lytic Water Dynamics Reveal Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanisms of ATP Hydrolysis by TIP49 AAA+ ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyeva, Arina; Hirtreiter, Angela; Schreiber, Anne; Grohmann, Dina; Pobegalov, Georgii; McKay, Adam R.; Tsaneva, Irina; Petukhov, Michael; Käs, Emmanuel; Grigoriev, Mikhail; Werner, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic TIP49a (Pontin) and TIP49b (Reptin) AAA+ ATPases play essential roles in key cellular processes. How their weak ATPase activity contributes to their important functions remains largely unknown and difficult to analyze because of the divergent properties of TIP49a and TIP49b proteins and of their homo- and hetero-oligomeric assemblies. To circumvent these complexities, we have analyzed the single ancient TIP49 ortholog found in the archaeon Methanopyrus kandleri (mkTIP49). All-atom homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations validated by biochemical assays reveal highly conserved organizational principles and identify key residues for ATP hydrolysis. An unanticipated crosstalk between Walker B and Sensor I motifs impacts the dynamics of water molecules and highlights a critical role of trans-acting aspartates in the lytic water activation step that is essential for the associative mechanism of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:24613487

  13. Distinct quaternary structures of the AAA+ Lon protease control substrate degradation.

    PubMed

    Vieux, Ellen F; Wohlever, Matthew L; Chen, James Z; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2013-05-28

    Lon is an ATPase associated with cellular activities (AAA+) protease that controls cell division in response to stress and also degrades misfolded and damaged proteins. Subunits of Lon are known to assemble into ring-shaped homohexamers that enclose an internal degradation chamber. Here, we demonstrate that hexamers of Escherichia coli Lon also interact to form a dodecamer at physiological protein concentrations. Electron microscopy of this dodecamer reveals a prolate structure with the protease chambers at the distal ends and a matrix of N domains forming an equatorial hexamer-hexamer interface, with portals of ∼45 Å providing access to the enzyme lumen. Compared with hexamers, Lon dodecamers are much less active in degrading large substrates but equally active in degrading small substrates. Our results support a unique gating mechanism that allows the repertoire of Lon substrates to be tuned by its assembly state.

  14. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  15. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Her, Joonyoung; Chung, In Kwon

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 associates with catalytically active telomerase via an interaction with hTERT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding and telomerase assembly. -- Abstract: Continued cell proliferation requires telomerase to maintain functional telomeres that are essential for chromosome integrity. Although the core enzyme includes a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA component (TERC), a number of auxiliary proteins have been identified to regulate telomerase assembly, localization, and enzymatic activity. Here we describe the characterization of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. NVL2 interacts and co-localizes with hTERT in the nucleolus. NLV2 is also found in association with catalytically competent telomerase in cell lysates through an interaction with hTERT. Depletion of endogenous NVL2 by small interfering RNA led to a decrease in hTERT without affecting the steady-state levels of hTERT mRNA, thereby reducing telomerase activity, suggesting that NVL2 is an essential component of the telomerase holoenzyme. We also found that ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding as well as telomerase assembly. Our findings suggest that NVL2, in addition to its role in ribosome biosynthesis, is essential for telomerase biogenesis and provides an alternative approach for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer.

  16. Endosomal transport function in yeast requires a novel AAA-type ATPase, Vps4p.

    PubMed Central

    Babst, M; Sato, T K; Banta, L M; Emr, S D

    1997-01-01

    In a late-Golgi compartment of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuolar proteins such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are actively sorted away from the secretory pathway and transported to the vacuole via a pre-vacuolar, endosome-like intermediate. The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutant vps4 accumulates vacuolar, endocytic and late-Golgi markers in an aberrant multilamellar pre-vacuolar compartment. The VPS4 gene has been cloned and found to encode a 48 kDa protein which belongs to the protein family of AAA-type ATPases. The Vps4 protein was purified and shown to exhibit an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase activity. A single amino acid change within the AAA motif of Vps4p yielded a protein that lacked ATPase activity and did not complement the protein sorting or morphological defects of the vps4 delta1 mutant. Indeed, when expressed at normal levels in wild-type cells, the mutant vps4 gene acted as a dominant-negative allele. The phenotypic characterization of a temperature-sensitive vps4 allele showed that the immediate consequence of loss of Vps4p function is a defect in vacuolar protein delivery. In this mutant, precursor CPY was not secreted but instead accumulated in an intracellular compartment, presumably the pre-vacuolar endosome. Electron microscopy revealed that upon temperature shift, exaggerated stacks of curved cisternal membranes (aberrant endosome) also accumulated in the vps4ts mutant. Based on these and other observations, we propose that Vps4p function is required for efficient transport out of the pre-vacuolar endosome. PMID:9155008

  17. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936

  18. Isolation and characterization of a virus (CvV-BW1) that infects symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria in Lake Biwa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We performed an environmental study of viruses infecting the symbiotic single-celled algae of Paramecium bursaria (Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus, PBCV) in Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan. The viruses detected were all Chlorella variabilis virus (CvV = NC64A virus). One of them, designated CvV-BW1, was subjected to further characterization. Results CvV-BW1 formed small plaques and had a linear DNA genome of 370 kb, as judged by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Restriction analysis indicated that CvV-BW1 DNA belongs to group H, one of the most resistant groups among CvV DNAs. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the dnapol gene, CvV was classified into two clades, A and B. CvV-BW1 belonged to clade B, in contrast to all previously identified virus strains of group H that belonged to clade A. Conclusions We conclude that CvV-BW1 composes a distinct species within C. variabilis virus. PMID:20831832

  19. Student-Athlete Perceptions of a Summer Pre-Enrollment Experience at an NCAA Division I-AAA Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Michael Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine student-athlete perceptions of the role of summer pre-enrollment in their adjustment and transition to college. The study focused on student-athletes who received athletically-related financial aid at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AAA institution. The…

  20. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, R. O.; Karlsson, A.; Behrens, C. F.

    2010-08-01

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  1. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, R O; Karlsson, A; Behrens, C F

    2010-08-21

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  2. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect.

  3. Critical clamp loader processing by an essential AAA+ protease in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Vass, Robert H; Chien, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Chromosome replication relies on sliding clamps that are loaded by energy-dependent complexes. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-binding clamp loader subunit DnaX exists as both long (τ) and short (γ) forms generated through programmed translational frameshifting, but the need for both forms is unclear. Here, we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, DnaX isoforms are unexpectedly generated through partial proteolysis by the AAA+ protease casein lytic proteinase (Clp) XP. We find that the normally processive ClpXP protease partially degrades DnaX to produce stable fragments upon encountering a glycine-rich region adjacent to a structured domain. Increasing the sequence complexity of this region prevents partial proteolysis and generates a τ-only form of DnaX in vivo that is unable to support viability on its own. Growth is restored when γ is provided in trans, but these strains are more sensitive to DNA damage compared with strains that can generate γ through proteolysis. Our work reveals an unexpected mode of partial processing by the ClpXP protease to generate DnaX isoforms, demonstrates that both τ and γ forms of DnaX are required for Caulobacter viability, and identifies a role for clamp loader diversity in responding to DNA damage. The conservation of distinct DnaX isoforms throughout bacteria despite fundamentally different mechanisms for producing them suggests there may be a conserved need for alternate clamp loader complexes during DNA damaging conditions.

  4. Abo1, a conserved bromodomain AAA-ATPase, maintains global nucleosome occupancy and organisation.

    PubMed

    Gal, Csenge; Murton, Heather E; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Whale, Alex J; Moore, Karen M; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg; Creamer, Kevin M; Partridge, Janet F; Allshire, Robin C; Kent, Nicholas A; Whitehall, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of the correct level and organisation of nucleosomes is crucial for genome function. Here, we uncover a role for a conserved bromodomain AAA-ATPase, Abo1, in the maintenance of nucleosome architecture in fission yeast. Cells lacking abo1(+) experience both a reduction and mis-positioning of nucleosomes at transcribed sequences in addition to increased intragenic transcription, phenotypes that are hallmarks of defective chromatin re-establishment behind RNA polymerase II. Abo1 is recruited to gene sequences and associates with histone H3 and the histone chaperone FACT. Furthermore, the distribution of Abo1 on chromatin is disturbed by impaired FACT function. The role of Abo1 extends to some promoters and also to silent heterochromatin. Abo1 is recruited to pericentromeric heterochromatin independently of the HP1 ortholog, Swi6, where it enforces proper nucleosome occupancy. Consequently, loss of Abo1 alleviates silencing and causes elevated chromosome mis-segregation. We suggest that Abo1 provides a histone chaperone function that maintains nucleosome architecture genome-wide.

  5. Simulation of bifurcated stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, J.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper a method is introduced, to visualize bifurcated stent grafts in CT-Data. The aim is to improve therapy planning for minimal invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Due to precise measurement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and exact simulation of the bifurcated stent graft, physicians are supported in choosing a suitable stent prior to an intervention. The presented method can be used to measure the dimensions of the abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as simulate a bifurcated stent graft. Both of these procedures are based on a preceding segmentation and skeletonization of the aortic, right and left iliac. Using these centerlines (aortic, right and left iliac) a bifurcated initial stent is constructed. Through the implementation of an ACM method the initial stent is fit iteratively to the vessel walls - due to the influence of external forces (distance- as well as balloonforce). Following the fitting process, the crucial values for choosing a bifurcated stent graft are measured, e.g. aortic diameter, right and left common iliac diameter, minimum diameter of distal neck. The selected stent is then simulated to the CT-Data - starting with the initial stent. It hereby becomes apparent if the dimensions of the bifurcated stent graft are exact, i.e. the fitting to the arteries was done properly and no ostium was covered.

  6. CODAS syndrome is associated with mutations of LONP1, encoding mitochondrial AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Jinks, Robert N; Puffenberger, Erik G; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Singh, Kamalendra; Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Thilagavathi, Jayapalraja; Lee, Jae; Sarafianos, Stefan; Benkert, Abigail; Koehler, Alanna; Zhu, Anni; Trovillion, Victoria; McGlincy, Madeleine; Morlet, Thierry; Deardorff, Matthew; Innes, A Micheil; Prasad, Chitra; Chudley, Albert E; Lee, Irene Nga Wing; Suzuki, Carolyn K

    2015-01-01

    CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA(+) domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease.

  7. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  8. AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Chloe; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Choinard, Sandrine; Froger, Nicole; Macaisne, Nicolas; Lehmemdi, Afef; Mazel, Julien; Crismani, Wayne; Mercier, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic crossovers (COs) generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1) as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression. PMID:26161528

  9. Critical clamp loader processing by an essential AAA+ protease in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Vass, Robert H.; Chien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome replication relies on sliding clamps that are loaded by energy-dependent complexes. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-binding clamp loader subunit DnaX exists as both long (τ) and short (γ) forms generated through programmed translational frameshifting, but the need for both forms is unclear. Here, we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, DnaX isoforms are unexpectedly generated through partial proteolysis by the AAA+ protease casein lytic proteinase (Clp) XP. We find that the normally processive ClpXP protease partially degrades DnaX to produce stable fragments upon encountering a glycine-rich region adjacent to a structured domain. Increasing the sequence complexity of this region prevents partial proteolysis and generates a τ-only form of DnaX in vivo that is unable to support viability on its own. Growth is restored when γ is provided in trans, but these strains are more sensitive to DNA damage compared with strains that can generate γ through proteolysis. Our work reveals an unexpected mode of partial processing by the ClpXP protease to generate DnaX isoforms, demonstrates that both τ and γ forms of DnaX are required for Caulobacter viability, and identifies a role for clamp loader diversity in responding to DNA damage. The conservation of distinct DnaX isoforms throughout bacteria despite fundamentally different mechanisms for producing them suggests there may be a conserved need for alternate clamp loader complexes during DNA damaging conditions. PMID:24145408

  10. CODAS Syndrome Is Associated with Mutations of LONP1, Encoding Mitochondrial AAA+ Lon Protease

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Jinks, Robert N.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Singh, Kamalendra; Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Thilagavathi, Jayapalraja; Lee, Jae; Sarafianos, Stefan; Benkert, Abigail; Koehler, Alanna; Zhu, Anni; Trovillion, Victoria; McGlincy, Madeleine; Morlet, Thierry; Deardorff, Matthew; Innes, A. Micheil; Prasad, Chitra; Chudley, Albert E.; Lee, Irene Nga Wing; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    2015-01-01

    CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA+ domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease. PMID:25574826

  11. Maintenance of mitochondrial genome distribution by mitochondrial AAA+ protein ClpX.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sumitani, Megumi; Endo, Hitoshi

    2012-11-01

    The segregation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is important for the maintenance and transmission of the genome between generations. Recently, we clarified that human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for equal distribution and symmetric segregation of mtDNA in cultured cells; however, the molecular mechanism involved is largely unknown. ClpX is an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) proteins that localize to the mitochondrial matrix and is suggested to associate with mtDNA. In this study, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ClpX in HeLa cells resulted in enlarged mtDNA nucleoids, which is very similar to that observed in TFAM-knockdown cells in several properties. The expression of TFAM protein was not significantly reduced in ClpX-knockdown cells. However, the enlarged mtDNA nucleoids caused by ClpX-knockdown were suppressed by overexpression of recombinant TFAM and the phenotype was not observed in knockdown with ClpP, a protease subunit of ClpXP. Endogenous ClpX and TFAM exist in close vicinity, and ClpX enhanced DNA-binding activity of TFAM in vitro. These results suggest that human ClpX, a novel mtDNA regulator, maintains mtDNA nucleoid distribution through TFAM function as a chaperone rather than as a protease and its involvement in mtDNA segregation. PMID:22841477

  12. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  13. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huailing; Ji, Feng; Lin, Ying; Zhang, Mulan; Qin, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague‑Dawley rats (4.5‑months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non‑acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three‑point‑bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β‑catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (P<0.01), and activated the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway.

  14. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HUAILING; JI, FENG; LIN, YING; ZHANG, MULAN; QIN, WEI; ZHOU, QI; WU, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4.5-months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non-acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three-point-bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (P<0.01), and activated the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26846191

  15. An amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI) in CK3 NWA 1559, comparison to AOIs in CV3 Allende, and the origin of AOIs in CK and CV chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-03-01

    An amoeboid olivine inclusion in CK3 NWA 1559 (0.54 × 1.3 mm) consists of a diopside-rich interior (approximately 35 vol%) and an olivine-rich rim (approximately 65 vol%). It is the first AOI to be described in CK chondrites; the apparent paucity of these inclusions is due to extensive parent-body recrystallization. The AOI interior contains irregular 3-15 μm-sized Al-bearing diopside grains (approximately 70 vol%), 2-20 μm-sized pores (approximately 30 vol%), and traces of approximately 2 μm plagioclase grains. The 75-160 μm-thick rim contains 20-130 μm-sized ferroan olivine grains, some with 120º triple junctions. A few coarse (25-50 μm-sized) patches of plagioclase with 2-18 μm-thick diopside rinds occur in several places just beneath the rim. The occurrence of olivine rims around AOI-1 and around many AOIs in CV3 Allende suggests that CK and CV AOIs formed by the acquisition of porous forsteritic rims around fine-grained, rimless CAIs that consisted of diopside, anorthite, melilite, and spinel. Individual AOIs in carbonaceous chondrites may have formed after transient heating events melted their olivine rims as well as portions of the underlying interiors. In AOI-1, coarse plagioclase grains with diopside rinds crystallized immediately below the olivine rim. Secondary parent-body alteration transformed forsterite in the rims of CV and CK AOIs into more-ferroan olivine. Some of the abundant pores in the interior of AOI-1 may have formed during aqueous alteration after fine-grained melilite and anorthite were leached out. Chondrite groups with large chondrules tend to have large AOIs. AOIs that formed in dust-rich nebular regions (where CV and CK chondrites later accreted) tend to be larger than AOIs from less-dusty regions.

  16. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  17. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments. PMID:26264932

  18. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments.

  19. AAA+ proteases and their role in distinct stages along the Vibrio cholerae lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Katharina; Vorkapic, Dina; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Malli, Gerald; Barilich, Benjamin P; Cakar, Fatih; Zingl, Franz G; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae has to adapt to different environmental conditions along its lifecycle by means of transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation. This study provides a first comprehensive analysis regarding the contribution of the cytoplasmic AAA+ proteases Lon, ClpP and HslV to distinct features of V. cholerae behaviour, including biofilm formation, motility, cholera toxin expression and colonization fitness in the mouse model. While absence of HslV did not yield to any altered phenotype compared to wildtype, absence of Lon or ClpP resulted in significantly reduced colonization in vivo. In addition, a Δlon deletion mutant showed altered biofilm formation and increased motility, which could be correlated with higher expression of V. cholerae flagella gene class IV. Concordantly, we could show by immunoblot analysis, that Lon is the main protease responsible for proteolytic control of FliA, which is required for class IV flagella gene transcription, but also downregulates virulence gene expression. FliA becomes highly sensitive to proteolytic degradation in absence of its anti-sigma factor FlgM, a scenario reported to occur during mucosal penetration due to FlgM secretion through the broken flagellum. Our results confirm that the high stability of FliA in the absence of Lon results in less cholera toxin and toxin corgulated pilus production under virulence gene inducing conditions and in the presence of a damaged flagellum. Thus, the data presented herein provide a molecular explanation on how V. cholerae can achieve full expression of virulence genes during early stages of colonization, despite FliA getting liberated from the anti-sigma factor FlgM. PMID:27345492

  20. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  1. Crystal structure of a novel archaeal AAA+ ATPase SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-08-28

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND), a large class of P-loop NTPases, belong to AAA+ ATPases. They include AP(apoptotic)-ATPases (e.g., animal apoptosis regulators CED4/Apaf-1, plant disease resistance proteins, and bacterial AfsR-like transcription regulators), NACHT NTPases (e.g. CARD4, NAIP, Het-E-1, TLP1), and several other less well-characterized families. STAND differ from other P-loop NTPases by their unique sequence motifs, which include an hhGRExE (h, hydrophobic; x, any residue) motif at the N-terminal region, a GxP/GxxP motif at the C-terminal region of the NTPase domain, in addition to a C-terminal helical domain and additional domains such as WD40, TPR, LRR or catalytic modules. Despite significant biological interests, structural coverage of STAND proteins is very limited and only two other structures are currently known: the cell death regulators Apaf-1 and CED-4. Here, we report the crystal structure of SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which was determined using the semi-automated, high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG; http://www.jcsg.org), as part of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences' Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). SSO1545 (NP-342973.1), a representative of the archaeal STANDs, is a member of Pfam PF01637 and encodes a protein of 356 residues with calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of 41.7 kD and 8.2, respectively.

  2. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy. PMID:27215751

  3. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy.

  4. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a

  5. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  6. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  7. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Matias, Pedro M; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10-12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models.

  8. The AAA+ ATPase ATAD3A Controls Mitochondrial Dynamics at the Interface of the Inner and Outer Membranes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gilquin, Benoît; Taillebourg, Emmanuel; Cherradi, Nadia; Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Gay, Olivia; Merle, Nicolas; Assard, Nicole; Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Tomohiro, Shiho; Kuge, Osamu; Baudier, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between components of the outer (OM) and inner (IM) membranes control a number of critical mitochondrial functions such as channeling of metabolites and coordinated fission and fusion. We identify here the mitochondrial AAA+ ATPase protein ATAD3A specific to multicellular eukaryotes as a participant in these interactions. The N-terminal domain interacts with the OM. A central transmembrane segment (TMS) anchors the protein in the IM and positions the C-terminal AAA+ ATPase domain in the matrix. Invalidation studies in Drosophila and in a human steroidogenic cell line showed that ATAD3A is required for normal cell growth and cholesterol channeling at contact sites. Using dominant-negative mutants, including a defective ATP-binding mutant and a truncated 50-amino-acid N-terminus mutant, we showed that ATAD3A regulates dynamic interactions between the mitochondrial OM and IM sensed by the cell fission machinery. The capacity of ATAD3A to impact essential mitochondrial functions and organization suggests that it possesses unique properties in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and cellular functions in multicellular organisms. PMID:20154147

  9. Unfolding the mechanism of the AAA+ unfoldase VAT by a combined cryo-EM, solution NMR study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Ripstein, Zev A; Augustyniak, Rafal; Lazniewski, Michal; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Kay, Lewis E; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-19

    The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded.

  10. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  11. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  12. Ultrastructural changes in shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) treated with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa

    2008-04-15

    In the present research, structure and ultrastructure of shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) under salinity conditions were investigated. The experiments were conducted in five groups (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) under greenhouse conditions. Sampling of apical meristem and TEM tissue preparation procedure were carried out. Semithin and ultrathin sections were prepared and viewed in light and electron microscopy, respectively. The results included reduction of meristem size, disorders in meristem structure. Also formation of autophagic vacuoles was observed that is probably one of the plant responses to salt stress for more water storage in these vacuoles and decreasing of cell water requirements.

  13. Computational simulation of CV combination preferences in babbling

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hosung; Goldstein, Louis M.; Giulivi, Sara; Levitt, Andrea G.; Whalen, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency for spoken consonant-vowel (CV) syllables, in babbling in particular, to show preferred combinations: labial consonants with central vowels, alveolars with front, and velars with back. This pattern was first described by MacNeilage and Davis, who found the evidence compatible with their “frame-then-content” (F/C) model. F/C postulates that CV syllables in babbling are produced with no control of the tongue (and therefore effectively random tongue positions) but systematic oscillation of the jaw. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman & Goldstein) predicts that CV preferences will depend on the degree of synergy of tongue movements for the C and V. We present computational modeling of both accounts using articulatory synthesis. Simulations found better correlations between patterns in babbling and the AP account than with the F/C model. These results indicate that the underlying assumptions of the F/C model are not supported and that the AP account provides a better and account with broader coverage by showing that articulatory synergies influence all CV syllables, not just the most common ones. PMID:24496111

  14. SU-E-T-137: Dosimetric Validation for Pinnacle, Acuros, AAA, and Brainlab Algorithms with Induced Inhomogenieties

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P; Tambasco, M; LaFontaine, R; Burns, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Eclipse 11.0 Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution, and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms using measurement as the gold standard. Methods: Ion chamber and diode measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a phantom made up of slab densities corresponding to solid water, lung, and bone. The phantom was setup at source-to-surface distance of 100 cm, and the field sizes were 3.0 × 3.0, 5.0 × 5.0, and 10.0 × 10.0 cm2. Data from the planning systems were computed along the central axis of the beam. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber and edge diode for interface regions. Results: The best agreement between data from the algorithms and our measurements occurs away from the slab interfaces. For the 6 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 1.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 10 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 PB performs the best with 2.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 18 MV beam, Acuros performs the best with 2.0% absolute average percent difference from measurement. It is interesting to note that the steepest drop in dose occurred the at lung heterogeneity-solid water interface of the18 MV, 3.0 × 3.0 cm2 field size setup. In this situation, Acuros and AAA performed best with an average percent difference within −1.1% of measurement, followed by iPlan 4.1 MC, which was within 4.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that all of the algorithms perform reasonably well in computing dose in a heterogeneous slab phantom. Moreover, Acuros and AAA perform particularly well at the lung-solid water interfaces for higher energy beams and small field sizes.

  15. Targeting the AAA ATPase p97 as an approach to treat cancer through disruption of protein homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Daniel J.; Le Moigne, Ronan; Djakovic, Stevan; Kumar, Brajesh; Rice, Julie; Wong, Steve; Wang, Jinhai; Yao, Bing; Valle, Eduardo; von Soly, Szerenke Kiss; Madriaga, Antonett; Soriano, Ferdie; Menon, Mary-Kamala; Wu, Zhi Yong; Kampmann, Martin; Chen, Yuwen; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Aftab, Blake T.; Yakes, F. Michael; Shawver, Laura; Zhou, Han-Jie; Wustrow, David; Rolfe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Summary p97 is a AAA-ATPase with multiple cellular functions, one of which is critical regulation of protein homeostasis pathways. We describe the characterization of CB-5083, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of p97. Treatment of tumor cells with CB-5083 leads to accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, retention of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) substrates and generation of irresolvable proteotoxic stress leading to activation of the apoptotic arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In xenograft models, CB-5083 causes modulation of key p97-related pathways, induces apoptosis and has antitumor activity in a broad range of both hematological and solid tumor models. Molecular determinants of CB-5083 activity include expression of genes in the ERAD pathway providing a potential strategy for patient selection. PMID:26555175

  16. The Pex1/Pex6 complex is a heterohexameric AAA+ motor with alternating and highly coordinated subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brooke M.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Lander, Gabriel C.; Martin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Pex1 and Pex6 are Type-2 AAA+ ATPases required for the de-novo biogenesis of peroxisomes. Mutations in Pex1 and Pex6 account for the majority of the most severe forms of peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Here we show that the ATP-dependent complex of Pex1 and Pex6 from S. cerevisiae is a heterohexamer with alternating subunits. Within the Pex1/Pex6 complex, only the D2 ATPase ring hydrolyzes ATP, while nucleotide binding in the D1 ring promotes complex assembly. ATP hydrolysis by Pex1 is highly coordinated with that of Pex6. Furthermore, Pex15, the membrane anchor required for Pex1/Pex6 recruitment to peroxisomes inhibits the ATP-hydrolysis activity of Pex1/Pex6. PMID:25659908

  17. The talent endoluminal AAA stent-graft system. Report of the phase I USA trial, and summary of worldwide experience.

    PubMed

    Criado, F J; Fry, P D; Machan, L S; Twena, M; Patten, P

    1998-12-01

    In the United States, the Phase I Feasibility Study under IDE G970065 was approved by the Food and Drug Administration on 04/11/97. The approved protocol called for implantation of the bifurcated Talent spring stent-graft system on patients who are high-risk candidates for conventional surgery because of cardio-respiratory, medical, general, or local anatomical reasons which would likely complicate the technical execution of the operation or be accompanied by a high expected mortality rate. Patient enrollment was complete with 16 cases as of September 26, 1997. This was a multicenter experience involving five different sites. This is an ongoing study and patients, of course, will continue to be followed longitudinally. Phase II will likely be approved by the FDA for initiation in January or February of 1998. Standard-risk AAA patients will be entered into the study at this time; comparison with concurrent controls will be used for comparison with conventional surgery. PMID:9894193

  18. Multiple genes, including a member of the AAA family, are essential for degradation of unassembled subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, T; Yasuhara, T; Fujiki, Y; Ohashi, A

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase consists of three mitochondrion- and several nucleus-encoded subunits. We previously found that in a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking nucleus-encoded subunit 4 of this enzyme (CoxIV), subunits 2 and 3 (CoxII and CoxIII), both encoded by the mitochondrial DNA, were unstable and rapidly degraded in mitochondria, presumably because the subunits cannot assemble normally. To analyze the molecular machinery involved in this proteolytic pathway, we obtained four mutants defective in the degradation of unassembled CoxII (osd mutants) by screening CoxIV-deficient cells for the accumulation of CoxII. All of the mutants were recessive and were classified into three different complementation groups. Tetrad analyses revealed that the phenotype of each mutant was caused by a single nuclear mutation. These results suggest strongly that at least three nuclear genes (the OSD genes) are required for this degradation system. Interestingly, degradation of CoxIII was not affected in the mutants, implying that the two subunits are degraded by distinct pathways. We also cloned the OSD1 gene by complementation of the temperature sensitivity of osd1-1 mutants with a COXIV+ genetic background on a nonfermentable glycerol medium. We found it to encode a member of a family (the AAA family) of putative ATPases, which proved to be identical to recently described YME1 and YTA11. Immunological analyses revealed that Osd1 protein is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Disruption of the predicted ATP-binding cassette by site-directed mutagenesis eliminated biological activities, thereby underscoring the importance of ATP for function. PMID:7623837

  19. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.

  20. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locusmore » include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.« less

  1. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. We show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment. PMID:26538283

  2. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Patent Extension; REPEL-CV AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined the regulatory review period for REPEL-CV and is... in 35 U.S.C. 156(g)(3)(B). FDA recently approved for marketing the medical device, REPEL-CV....

  3. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  4. [Total parenteral nutrition and the usefulness of CV ports].

    PubMed

    Washizawa, Naohiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Koike, Junichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Kaneko, Hironori

    2014-10-01

    Management of nutrition in cancer patients plays an important role in supporting anti-cancer treatment. Parenteral nutrition is considered to assist with nutrition in cancer patients. Central venous catheters(CVC)are useful for intravenous infusion of not only nutrients with high osmotic pressure but also chemotherapeutic drugs and other substances. Central venous access through CV ports reduces patient's burden and complications, and it contributes to maintaining a patient's quality of life(QOL).

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  6. CV-990 L-band SAR: A calibration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Werner, C.

    1985-01-01

    Calibrated image data is required by most users of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data particularly those attempting to classify targets based upon their radar backscatter signature as a function of frequency polarization or incidence angle. In this experiment, the backscatter derived by calibrating the NASA/JPL CV-990 L-band SAR, and the backscatter reported from a pass of the NASA/JSC C-130 scatterometer as the two instruments flew over the same site at different times are compared.

  7. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  8. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    PubMed

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude.

  9. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).

    PubMed

    Sarić, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusić, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosić, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

  10. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    PubMed

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  11. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  12. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interacting Protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase Is a Novel Mitotic Checkpoint-silencing Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C.; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K.; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31comet. Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31comet-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development. PMID:25012665

  13. Disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes by the joint action of the AAA-ATPase TRIP13 and p31comet

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Esther; Wang, Kexi; Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Kaisari, Sharon; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao; Hershko, Avram

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint system delays anaphase until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle. When the checkpoint is active, a Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC) assembles and inhibits the ubiquitin ligase Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). MCC is composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3 associated with the APC/C activator Cdc20. When the checkpoint signal is turned off, MCC is disassembled and the checkpoint is inactivated. The mechanisms of the disassembly of MCC are not sufficiently understood. We have previously observed that ATP hydrolysis is required for the action of the Mad2-binding protein p31comet to disassemble MCC. We now show that HeLa cell extracts contain a factor that promotes ATP- and p31comet-dependent disassembly of a Cdc20–Mad2 subcomplex and identify it as Thyroid Receptor Interacting Protein 13 (TRIP13), an AAA-ATPase known to interact with p31comet. The joint action of TRIP13 and p31comet also promotes the release of Mad2 from MCC, participates in the complete disassembly of MCC and abrogates checkpoint inhibition of APC/C. We propose that TRIP13 plays centrally important roles in the sequence of events leading to MCC disassembly and checkpoint inactivation. PMID:25092294

  14. Multiple sequence signals direct recognition and degradation of protein substrates by the AAA+ protease HslUV.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shankar; McGinness, Kathleen E; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2010-10-29

    Proteolysis is important for protein quality control and for the proper regulation of many intracellular processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Discerning substrates from other cellular proteins is a key aspect of proteolytic function. The Escherichia coli HslUV protease is a member of a major family of ATP-dependent AAA+ degradation machines. HslU hexamers recognize and unfold native protein substrates and then translocate the polypeptide into the degradation chamber of the HslV peptidase. Although a wealth of structural information is available for this system, relatively little is known about mechanisms of substrate recognition. Here, we demonstrate that mutations in the unstructured N-terminal and C-terminal sequences of two model substrates alter HslUV recognition and degradation kinetics, including changes in V(max). By introducing N- or C-terminal sequences that serve as recognition sites for specific peptide-binding proteins, we show that blocking either terminus of the substrate interferes with HslUV degradation, with synergistic effects when both termini are obstructed. These results support a model in which one terminus of the substrate is tethered to the protease and the other terminus is engaged by the translocation/unfolding machinery in the HslU pore. Thus, degradation appears to consist of discrete steps, which involve the interaction of different terminal sequence signals in the substrate with different receptor sites in the HslUV protease. PMID:20837023

  15. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  16. Roles of the N domain of the AAA+ Lon protease in substrate recognition, allosteric regulation and chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Wohlever, Matthew L; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Degron binding regulates the activities of the AAA+ Lon protease in addition to targeting proteins for degradation. The sul20 degron from the cell-division inhibitor SulA is shown here to bind to the N domain of Escherichia coli Lon, and the recognition site is identified by cross-linking and scanning for mutations that prevent sul20-peptide binding. These N-domain mutations limit the rates of proteolysis of model sul20-tagged substrates and ATP hydrolysis by an allosteric mechanism. Lon inactivation of SulA in vivo requires binding to the N domain and robust ATP hydrolysis but does not require degradation or translocation into the proteolytic chamber. Lon-mediated relief of proteotoxic stress and protein aggregation in vivo can also occur without degradation but is not dependent on robust ATP hydrolysis. In combination, these results demonstrate that Lon can function as a protease or a chaperone and reveal that some of its ATP-dependent biological activities do not require translocation.

  17. The IbpA and IbpB small heat-shock proteins are substrates of the AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Sarah A; Rivera-Rivera, Izarys; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2010-03-01

    Small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) are a widely conserved family of molecular chaperones, all containing a conserved alpha-crystallin domain flanked by variable N- and C-terminal tails. We report that IbpA and IbpB, the sHSPs of Escherichia coli, are substrates for the AAA+ Lon protease. This ATP-fueled enzyme degraded purified IbpA substantially more slowly than purified IbpB, and we demonstrate that this disparity is a consequence of differences in maximal Lon degradation rates and not in substrate affinity. Interestingly, however, IbpB stimulated Lon degradation of IbpA both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, although the variable N- and C-terminal tails of the Ibps were dispensable for proteolytic recognition, these tails contain critical determinants that control the maximal rate of Lon degradation. Finally, we show that E. coli Lon degrades variants of human alpha-crystallin, indicating that Lon recognizes conserved determinants in the folded alpha-crystallin domain itself. These results suggest a novel mode for Lon substrate recognition and provide a highly suggestive link between the degradation and sHSP branches of the protein quality-control network.

  18. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) detection of dwarf off-types in micropropagated Cavendish (Musa spp. AAA) bananas.

    PubMed

    Damasco, O P; Graham, G C; Henry, R J; Adkins, S W; Smiths, M K; Godwin, I D

    1996-11-01

    A RAPD marker specific to the dwarf off-type (hereafter known as dwarf) from micropropagation of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA) cultivars New Guinea Cavendish and Williams was identified following an analysis of 57 normal (true-to-type) and 59 dwarf plants generated from several different micropropagation events. Sixty-six random decamer primers were used in the initial screen, of which 19 (28.8%) revealed polymorphisms between normal and dwarf plants. Primer OPJ-04 (5'-CCGAACACGG-3') was found to amplify an approx. 1.5 kb band which was consistently present in all normal but absent in all dwarf plants of both cultivars. Reliable detection of dwarf plants was achieved using this marker, providing the only available means ofin vitro detection of dwarfs. The use of this marker could facilitate early detection and elimination of dwarfs from batches of micropropagated bananas, and may be a useful tool in determining what factors in the tissue culture process lead to this off type production.Other micropropagation-induced RAPD polymorphisms were observed but were not associated with the dwarf trait. PMID:24178669

  19. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    PubMed Central

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  20. Thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-08-22

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31(comet). Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31(comet)-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development.

  1. Loss of the m-AAA protease subunit AFG₃L₂ causes mitochondrial transport defects and tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kondadi, Arun Kumar; Wang, Shuaiyu; Montagner, Sara; Kladt, Nikolay; Korwitz, Anne; Martinelli, Paola; Herholz, David; Baker, Michael J; Schauss, Astrid C; Langer, Thomas; Rugarli, Elena I

    2014-05-01

    The m-AAA protease subunit AFG₃L₂ is involved in degradation and processing of substrates in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in AFG₃L₂ are associated with spinocerebellar ataxia SCA28 in humans and impair axonal development and neuronal survival in mice. The loss of AFG₃L₂ causes fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. However, the pathogenic mechanism of neurodegeneration in the absence of AFG₃L₂ is still unclear. Here, we show that depletion of AFG₃L₂ leads to a specific defect of anterograde transport of mitochondria in murine cortical neurons. We observe similar transport deficiencies upon loss of AFG₃L₂ in OMA1-deficient neurons, indicating that they are not caused by OMA1-mediated degradation of the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1 and inhibition of mitochondrial fusion. Treatment of neurons with antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E, or decreasing tau levels in axons restored mitochondrial transport in AFG₃L₂-depleted neurons. Consistently, tau hyperphosphorylation and activation of ERK kinases are detected in mouse neurons postnatally deleted for Afg3l2. We propose that reactive oxygen species signaling leads to cytoskeletal modifications that impair mitochondrial transport in neurons lacking AFG₃L₂.

  2. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes.

  3. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA

    PubMed Central

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W. S.; Houry, Walid A.; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  4. High-speed atomic force microscopic observation of ATP-dependent rotation of the AAA+ chaperone p97.

    PubMed

    Noi, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Nishikori, Shingo; Arita-Morioka, Ken-ichi; Kato, Takayuki; Ando, Toshio; Ogura, Teru

    2013-11-01

    p97 (also called VCP and CDC-48) is an AAA+ chaperone, which consists of a substrate/cofactor-binding N domain and two ATPase domains (D1 and D2), and forms a homo-hexameric ring. p97 plays crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes such as the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation, autophagy, and modulation of protein aggregates. Mutations in human p97 homolog VCP are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. The key mechanism of p97 in these various functions has been proposed to be the disassembly of protein complexes. To understand the molecular mechanism of p97, we studied the conformational changes of hexameric CDC-48.1, a Caenorhabditis elegans p97 homolog, using high-speed atomic force microscopy. In the presence of ATP, the N-D1 ring repeatedly rotates ~23 ± 8° clockwise and resets relative to the D2 ring. Mutational analysis reveals that this rotation is induced by ATP binding to the D2 domain. PMID:24055316

  5. Magnetic CVs in the UCT CCD CV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.

    2004-12-01

    An overview is given of all the magnetic CVs found in the UCT CCD CV Survey (Woudt & Warner 2001, 2002, 2003a). We have identified eight new candidate Intermediate Polars (IP), of which six are classical novae (RR Cha, DD Cir, AP Cru, V697 Sco, V373 Sct, and RX J1039.7-0507). The two other candidate IPs are Aqr1 (2236+0052) and RX J0944.5+0357. In addition, there are two probable Polars, namely V351 Pup (= Nova Puppis 1991) and FIRST J102347.6+003841.

  6. Opaque Mineral Assemblages at Chondrule Boundaries in the Vigarano CV Chondrite: Evidence for Gas-Solid Reactions Following Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of opaque minerals in primitive ordinary chondrites suggest that metal grains exposed at chondrule boundaries were corroded when volatile elements recondensed after the transient heating event responsible for chondrule formation. Metal grains at chondrule boundaries in the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite are rimmed by troilite and fayalite. If these layers formed by gas solid reaction, then the composition of the corrosion products can provide information on the chondrule formation environment. Given the broad similarities among chondrules from different chondrite groups, similar scale layers should occur on chondrules in other primitive meteorite groups. Here I report on metal grains at chondrule boundaries in Vigarano (CV3).

  7. Epidemiology and genetic characteristics of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Dai, Wei; Wang, Shaohui; Dai, Dingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is one of four viruses in the family Circoviridae that affect young pigeons around the world. We collected 158 serum or tissue samples from six poultry farms in eastern China to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PiCV in Chinese pigeons. We tested for PiCV using a PCR assay and found that PiCV was present in 80.7 % (88/109) of diseased pigeons and 63.3 % (31/49) of healthy pigeons; overall, 75.3 % (119/158) of samples were PiCV positive. One PiCV-positive sample from each poultry farm was randomly chosen for amplification of the complete PiCV genome by inverse primer PCR (IP-PCR). The six genomic PiCV strains were designated as AHBZ (KJ704801), HBLF-E2 (KJ704802), JSJN (KJ704803), NJPK-21 (KJ704804), SDDZ (KJ704805) and SHWH-AB4 (KJ704806). We compared these new PiCV genomes to six publicly available PiCV genomes and found that the Rep and Cap genes had sequence identity ranging from 93.8 % to 100 % and 79.1 % to 100 %, respectively. In a phylogenetic analysis, PiCV and eight other members of the genus Circovirus were sister to chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of genus Gyrovirus. The results of this study provide evidence that PiCV is present in Chinese pigeons at a high rate and that PiCV is a viral lineage that is distinct from CAV.

  8. Fall of blood ionized calcium on watching a provocative TV program and its prevention by active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca).

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ohgitani, S; Nomura, M

    1999-01-01

    In December 1997, more than 680 children developed convulsive seizures while watching a notorious audiovisually provocative TV program, "Pocket Monster." Emotional stimulation via hyperventilation may cause respiratory alkalosis, fall of blood ionized calcium (Ca), and sensitization of the nervous system to excessive emotional stress. A study was therefore undertaken to follow the changes of blood ionized Ca in eight healthy volunteers after watching the "Pocket Monster" and also a quiet program, "Classical Music," as a control for 20min from 4 P.M. Although neither marked hyperventilation nor convulsions developed in any of these adult volunteers, blood ionized Ca showed a significantly more pronounced fall during and after watching "Pocket Monster," and their plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was significantly higher 120min after the beginning of "Pocket Monster" than the "Classical Music" program. Plasma total Ca, pH, and albumin were free of detectable changes. Ingestion of 600mg Ca as active absorbable algal Ca (AAA Ca) with high bioavailability completely prevented the fall of ionized Ca and suppressed iPTH. Plama osteocalcin was also significantly suppressed after ingestion of AAA Ca. It may be worthwhile to ingest AAA Ca before anticipated emotional stress such as watching a provocative TV program to prevent possible neuromuscular instability. PMID:10340641

  9. Elements in nucleotide sensing and hydrolysis of the AAA+ disaggregation machine ClpB: a structure-based mechanistic dissection of a molecular motor

    SciTech Connect

    Zeymer, Cathleen Barends, Thomas R. M.; Werbeck, Nicolas D.; Schlichting, Ilme; Reinstein, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution crystal structures together with mutational analysis and transient kinetics experiments were utilized to understand nucleotide sensing and the regulation of the ATPase cycle in an AAA+ molecular motor. ATPases of the AAA+ superfamily are large oligomeric molecular machines that remodel their substrates by converting the energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical force. This study focuses on the molecular chaperone ClpB, the bacterial homologue of Hsp104, which reactivates aggregated proteins under cellular stress conditions. Based on high-resolution crystal structures in different nucleotide states, mutational analysis and nucleotide-binding kinetics experiments, the ATPase cycle of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2), one of the motor subunits of this AAA+ disaggregation machine, is dissected mechanistically. The results provide insights into nucleotide sensing, explaining how the conserved sensor 2 motif contributes to the discrimination between ADP and ATP binding. Furthermore, the role of a conserved active-site arginine (Arg621), which controls binding of the essential Mg{sup 2+} ion, is described. Finally, a hypothesis is presented as to how the ATPase activity is regulated by a conformational switch that involves the essential Walker A lysine. In the proposed model, an unusual side-chain conformation of this highly conserved residue stabilizes a catalytically inactive state, thereby avoiding unnecessary ATP hydrolysis.

  10. Substrate delivery by the AAA+ ClpX and ClpC1 unfoldases activates the mycobacterial ClpP1P2 peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Karl R.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mycobacterial Clp-family proteases function via collaboration of the heteromeric ClpP1P2 peptidase with a AAA+ partner, ClpX or ClpC1. These enzymes are essential for M. tuberculosis viability and are validated antibacterial drug targets, but the requirements for assembly and regulation of functional proteolytic complexes are poorly understood. Here, we report the reconstitution of protein degradation by mycobacterial Clp proteases in vitro and describe novel features of these enzymes that distinguish them from orthologs in other bacteria. Both ClpX and ClpC1 catalyze ATP-dependent unfolding and degradation of native protein substrates in conjunction with ClpP1P2, but neither mediates protein degradation with just ClpP1 or ClpP2. ClpP1P2 alone has negligible peptidase activity, but is strongly stimulated by translocation of protein substrates into ClpP1P2 by either AAA+ partner. Interestingly, our results support a model in which both binding of a AAA+ partner and protein-substrate delivery are required to stabilize active ClpP1P2. Our model has implications for therapeutically targeting ClpP1P2 in dormant M. tuberculosis, and our reconstituted systems should facilitate identification of novel Clp protease inhibitors and activators. PMID:24976069

  11. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  12. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  13. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 μT magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  14. The effect of emphatic stress on CV coarticulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarresi, Golnaz; Sussman, Harvey M.

    2001-05-01

    The effect of emphatic stress on CV coarticulation was investigated in the speech of one male and one female native speaker of American English using locus equation slope as a measure of CV coarticulation. Stressed real word C1V2C2 tokens where C1=/b,d,g/ and V2=/i, I, e, ɛ, æ, u, o, squflg, a/ were put in carrier sentences with the, thirty, or two preceding the test word. Each sentence was read three times in a normal manner and three times with emphasis on the test token. This resulted in a total of 486 tokens per speaker (3 stop consonants * 3 V1 contexts * 9 V2 contexts *2 emphasis patterns *3 repetitions). Locus equation slopes were derived by plotting F2 onset of C1 against V2 F2 mid-vowel frequency and fitting a regression line to data points. Consonant closure duration, V2 duration, F0, and amplitude were also measured. Despite a significant increase in the acoustic correlates of emphasis, locus equation slopes remained constant as a function of emphasis and varied as a function of place of articulation. This study provides further evidence of the stability of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place of articulation. [Work supported by NIH.

  15. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  16. High-intensity interval exercise training before abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (HIT-AAA): protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Garry A; Weston, Matthew; Kothmann, Elke; Batterham, Alan M; Gray, Joanne; Kerr, Karen; Martin, Denis; Nawaz, Shah; Yates, David; Danjoux, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), open surgical or endovascular aneurysm repair procedures are often used to minimise the risk of aneurysm-related rupture and death; however, aneurysm repair itself carries a high risk. Low cardiopulmonary fitness is associated with an increased risk of early post-operative complications and death following elective AAA repair. Therefore, fitness should be enhanced before aneurysm repair. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is a potent, time-efficient strategy for enhancing cardiopulmonary fitness. Here, we describe a feasibility study for a definitive trial of a pre-operative HIT intervention to improve post-operative outcomes in patients undergoing elective AAA repair. Methods and analysis A minimum of 50 patients awaiting elective repair of a 5.5–7.0 cm infrarenal AAA will be allocated by minimisation to HIT or usual care control in a 1:1 ratio. The patients allocated to HIT will complete three hospital-based exercise sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Each session will include 2 or 4 min of high-intensity stationary cycling followed by the same duration of easy cycling or passive recovery, repeated until a total of 16 min of high-intensity exercise is accumulated. Outcomes to be assessed before randomisation and 24–48 h before aneurysm repair include cardiopulmonary fitness, maximum AAA diameter and health-related quality of life. In the post-operative period, we will record destination (ward or critical care unit), organ-specific morbidity, mortality and the durations of critical care and hospital stay. Twelve weeks after the discharge, participants will be interviewed to reassess quality of life and determine post-discharge healthcare utilisation. The costs associated with the exercise intervention and healthcare utilisation will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was secured through Sunderland Research Ethics Committee. The findings of the trial

  17. Experimental verification of the Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation adjacent to heterogeneous media for IMRT and RapidArc of nasopharygeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Monica W. K.; Leung, Lucullus H. T.; So, Ronald W. K.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the doses calculated by the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) with experimentally measured data adjacent to and within heterogeneous medium using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc{sup Registered-Sign} (RA) volumetric arc therapy plans for nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Two-dimensional dose distribution immediately adjacent to both air and bone inserts of a rectangular tissue equivalent phantom irradiated using IMRT and RA plans for NPC cases were measured with GafChromic{sup Registered-Sign} EBT3 films. Doses near and within the nasopharygeal (NP) region of an anthropomorphic phantom containing heterogeneous medium were also measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and EBT3 films. The measured data were then compared with the data calculated by AAA and AXB. For AXB, dose calculations were performed using both dose-to-medium (AXB{sub Dm}) and dose-to-water (AXB{sub Dw}) options. Furthermore, target dose differences between AAA and AXB were analyzed for the corresponding real patients. The comparison of real patient plans was performed by stratifying the targets into components of different densities, including tissue, bone, and air. Results: For the verification of planar dose distribution adjacent to air and bone using the rectangular phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the {+-} 3%/3mm criteria were 98.7%, 99.5%, and 97.7% on the axial plane for AAA, AXB{sub Dm}, and AXB{sub Dw}, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans, while they were 97.6%, 98.2%, and 97.7%, respectively, on the coronal plane. For the verification of planar dose distribution within the NP region of the anthropomorphic phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the {+-} 3%/3mm criteria were 95.1%, 91.3%, and 99.0% for AAA, AXB{sub Dm}, and AXB{sub Dw}, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans. Within the NP region where

  18. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K.; Bindics, János; Ślusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases such as cancer. However, active mechanisms of centromere disassembly are unknown. Nondividing Arabidopsis pollen vegetative cells, which transport engulfed sperm by extended tip growth, undergo loss of CenH3; centromeric heterochromatin decondensation; and bulk activation of silent rRNA genes, accompanied by their translocation into the nucleolus. Here, we show that these processes are blocked by mutations in the evolutionarily conserved AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone, CDC48A, homologous to yeast Cdc48 and human p97 proteins, both of which are implicated in ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted protein degradation. We demonstrate that CDC48A physically associates with its heterodimeric cofactor UFD1-NPL4, known to bind ubiquitin and SUMO, as well as with SUMO1-modified CenH3 and mutations in NPL4 phenocopy cdc48a mutations. In WT vegetative cell nuclei, genetically unlinked ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are uniquely clustered together within the nucleolus and all major rRNA gene variants, including those rDNA variants silenced in leaves, are transcribed. In cdc48a mutant vegetative cell nuclei, however, these rDNA loci frequently colocalized with condensed centromeric heterochromatin at the external periphery of the nucleolus. Our results indicate that the CDC48ANPL4 complex actively removes sumoylated CenH3 from centromeres and disrupts centromeric heterochromatin to release bulk rRNA genes into the nucleolus for ribosome production, which fuels single nucleus-driven pollen tube growth and is essential for plant reproduction. PMID:25344531

  19. Micropropagation and organogenesis of Anthurium andreanum Lind cv Rubrun.

    PubMed

    Maira, Oropeza; Alexander, Mejías; Vargas, Teresa Edith

    2010-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques are routinely used for mass propagation and the establishment of disease free stock material. Virtually all pot type Anthuriums available in the market today are produced by tissue culture. In this chapter, we describe an efficient protocol to obtain Anthurium andreanum cv Rubrun vitro plants through micropropagation and organogenesis. Seeds from plant spadixes were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA. Micro-cuttings from in vitro germinated seedlings were subcultured on MS medium containing 2 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA. Four-week-old in vitro plants obtained from microcuttings, showed callus proliferation at the stem base. The development of shoots and plantlets was observed from callus tissue. We also describe a detailed method for the histological analysis of callus tissue and a vitro plants acclimatization protocol.

  20. NASA/ESA CV-990 airborne simulation of Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D.; Neel, C.; De Waard, J.; Lovelett, R.; Weaver, L.; Parker, R.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the joint NASA/ESA extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to conduct studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  1. Chondrule Magnetizations in the Allende CV Chondrite and Implications for the Dynamo of the CV Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Fu, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Many early-accreting planetesimals larger than several tens of km in diameter underwent extensive interior melting and differentiation. Advection in the molten metallic cores of these planetesimals may have generated magnetic dynamos. Remanent magnetization preserved in meteorites can reveal the past presence of core dynamo fields and therefore a metallic core on their parent bodies. Furthermore, the meteoritic magnetic record can constrain the duration of the dynamo, providing insight into the thermal evolution of the parent planetesimal. Carporzen et al. (2011) argued that bulk samples of the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite carry a unidirectional partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) blocked up to ~290C. They interpreted this magnetization as recording a magnetic core dynamo on the CV parent body. However, the previous study provided no constraints on the duration of the dynamo and did not characterize the magnetic recording in each component of the Allende meteorite. We conducted paleomagnetic experiments on 23 mutually oriented individual Allende chondrules and matrix samples. We also studied mutually oriented subsamples of 9 of these chondrules. We found that Allende chondrules can be divided into two distinct classes based on their natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Class A chondrules carry a strong low temperature overprint parallel to that of bulk Allende and matrix material that also unblocks at ~290C. Class B chondrules do not carry this low temperature overprint and exhibit randomly oriented NRMs. Electron microprobe analysis and thermal demagnetization of saturation remanence showed that magnetic phases in both Class A and Class B chondrules are likely products of parent body metasomatism. We infer that the random magnetization of Class B chondrules as well as the magnetization blocked above 290C in Class A chondrules and matrix material is a chemical remanent magnetization that resulted in randomly oriented remanence at the sub

  2. Identification and Expression of Two Novel Cytochrome P450 Genes, CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38, in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Li, Chuan; Yang, Zhifan

    2015-01-01

    Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée can cause severe losses in rice. Cytochrome P450s play crucial roles in the metabolism of allelochemicals in herbivorous insects. Two novel P450 cDNAs, CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38, were cloned from the midgut of C. medinalis. CYP6CV1 encodes a protein of 500 amino acid residues, while CYP9A38-predicted protein has 531 amino acid residues. Both cDNA-predicted proteins contain the conserved functional domains for all P450s. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CYP6CV1 is grouped in the cluster containing CYP6B members, while CYP9A38 is in the cluster including CYP9 members. However, both clusters are contained in the same higher lineage. Homologous analysis revealed that CYP6CV1 is most similar to CYP6B8, CYP6B7, CYP6B6, CYP6B2, and CYP6B4 with the highest amino acid identity of 41%. CYP9A38 is closest to CYP9A17, CYP9A21, CYP9A20, and CYP9A19 with the highest amino acid identity of 66%. Studies of temporal expression profiles revealed that CYP9A38 showed a steady increase in mRNA level during the five instar stages, but a low-expression level in pupae, and then presented at a high-expression level again in adults. Similar expression patterns were obtained with CYP6CV1. In the fifth instar larvae, CYP6CV1 was mainly expressed in midgut and fat bodies, whereas CYP9A38 was mainly expressed in midgut. Expression studies also revealed a 3.20-fold over-expression of CYP6CV1 and 3.54-fold over-expression of CYP9A38 after larval exposure to host rice resistance. Our results suggest that both CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38 may be involved in detoxification of rice phytochemicals. PMID:25896119

  3. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  4. The Lon AAA+ protease.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    As the first ATP-dependent protease to be identified, Lon holds a special place in the history of cellular biology. In fact, the concept of ATP-dependent protein degradation was established through the findings that led to the discovery of Lon. Therefore, this chapter begins with a historical perspective, describing the milestones that led to the discovery of Lon and ATP-dependent proteolysis, starting from the early findings in the 1960s until the demonstration of Lon's ATP-dependent proteolytic activity in vitro, in 1981. Most of our knowledge on Lon derives from studies of the Escherichia coli Lon ortholog, and, therefore, most of this chapter relates to this particular enzyme. Nonetheless, Lon is not only found in most bacterial species, it is also found in Archaea and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of eukaryotic cells. Therefore many of the conclusions gained from studies on the E. coli enzyme are relevant to Lon proteases in other organisms. Lon, more than any other bacterial or organellar protease, is associated with the degradation of misfolded proteins and protein quality control. In addition, Lon also degrades many regulatory proteins that are natively folded, thus it also plays a prominent role in regulation of physiological processes. Throughout the years, many Lon substrates have been identified, confirming its role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell division, DNA replication, differentiation, and adaptation to stress conditions. Some examples of these functions are described and discussed here, as is the role of Lon in the degradation of misfolded proteins and in protein quality control. Finally, this chapter deals with the exquisite sensitivity of protein degradation inside a cell. How can a protease distinguish so many substrates from cellular proteins that should not be degraded? Can the specificity of a protease be regulated according to the physiological needs of a cell? This chapter thus broadly discusses the substrate specificity of Lon and its allosteric regulation.

  5. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  6. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments.

  7. Determination of the self-association residues within a homomeric and a heteromeric AAA+ enhancer binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Edward; Jovanovic, Milija; Joly, Nicolas; Waite, Christopher; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Baojun; Burrows, Patricia; Buck, Martin

    2014-04-17

    The σ(54)-dependent transcription in bacteria requires specific activator proteins, bacterial enhancer binding protein (bEBP), members of the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) protein family. The bEBPs usually form oligomers in order to hydrolyze ATP and make open promoter complexes. The bEBP formed by HrpR and HrpS activates transcription from the σ(54)-dependent hrpL promoter responsible for triggering the Type Three Secretion System in Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. Unlike other bEBPs that usually act as homohexamers, HrpR and HrpS operate as a highly co-dependent heterohexameric complex. To understand the organization of the HrpRS complex and the HrpR and HrpS strict co-dependence, we have analyzed the interface between subunits using the random and directed mutagenesis and available crystal structures of several closely related bEBPs. We identified key residues required for the self-association of HrpR (D32, E202 and K235) with HrpS (D32, E200 and K233), showed that the HrpR D32 and HrpS K233 residues form interacting pairs directly involved in an HrpR-HrpS association and that the change in side-chain length at position 233 in HrpS affects self-association and interaction with the HrpR and demonstrated that the HrpS D32, E200 and K233 are not involved in negative regulation imposed by HrpV. We established that the equivalent residues K30, E200 and E234 in a homo-oligomeric bEBP, PspF, are required for the subunit communication and formation of an oligomeric lock that cooperates with the ATP γ-phosphate sensing PspF residue R227, providing insights into their roles in the heteromeric HrpRS co-complex. PMID:24434682

  8. Noncanonical Role for the Host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT Protein in the Formation of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Judit; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs) consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+)RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE) from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+)RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation. PMID:24763736

  9. A Screen for Dominant Negative Mutants of SEC18 Reveals a Role for the AAA Protein Consensus Sequence in ATP Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Gregor J.; Harley, Carol; Boyd, Alan; Morgan, Alan

    2000-01-01

    An evolutionarily ancient mechanism is used for intracellular membrane fusion events ranging from endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi traffic in yeast to synaptic vesicle exocytosis in the human brain. At the heart of this mechanism is the core complex of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), and SNAP receptors (SNAREs). Although these proteins are accepted as key players in vesicular traffic, their molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. To illuminate important structure–function relationships in NSF, a screen for dominant negative mutants of yeast NSF (Sec18p) was undertaken. This involved random mutagenesis of a GAL1-regulated SEC18 yeast expression plasmid. Several dominant negative alleles were identified on the basis of galactose-inducible growth arrest, of which one, sec18-109, was characterized in detail. The sec18-109 phenotype (abnormal membrane trafficking through the biosynthetic pathway, accumulation of a membranous tubular network, growth suppression, increased cell density) is due to a single A-G substitution in SEC18 resulting in a missense mutation in Sec18p (Thr394→Pro). Thr394 is conserved in most AAA proteins and indeed forms part of the minimal AAA consensus sequence that serves as a signature of this large protein family. Analysis of recombinant Sec18-109p indicates that the mutation does not prevent hexamerization or interaction with yeast α-SNAP (Sec17p), but instead results in undetectable ATPase activity that cannot be stimulated by Sec17p. This suggests a role for the AAA protein consensus sequence in regulating ATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, this approach of screening for dominant negative mutants in yeast can be applied to other conserved proteins so as to highlight important functional domains in their mammalian counterparts. PMID:10749934

  10. Mundrabilla 012: A New CV2(?) Chondrite Find from the Southwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulff-Moller, F.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Grundvig, S.

    1993-07-01

    and fractures in olivine--terrestrial oxidation of metal would probably have created a rusty crust and vein filllings of goethite instead. The coarse-grained matrix patches were formed by a mild metamorphic event that did not cause any notable equilibration. Because of the predominating hydrothermal imprint, we propose "petrologic type 2" for the meteorite although the metamorphic event probably was in the low part of the "type 3" range or of very brief duration. Classification and Discussion: The size and abundance of chondrules, the abundance of "metal" and the presence of a Ca-Al inclusion are characteristic of the CV chondrite group and inconsistent with the properties of known CI, CO, CM, CR, and CK carbonaceous chondrites. Aligned, elongate chondrules also occur in Leoville (CV3). Most known CV chondrites belong to petrologic type 3 or 4 and hydrothermally altered members are unusual though not unique. Thorough hydrothermal alteration also affected Read Bluff (CV3), which, however, still contains some metal [1]. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation. Our description is based on a polished thin section (150 mm^2) kindly provided by David New. References: [1] Treiman A. H. and DeHart J. M. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 299.

  11. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  12. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  13. Dosimetric accuracy and clinical quality of Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation algorithm for stereotactic and conventional lung volumetric modulated arc therapy plans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The main aim of the current study was to assess the dosimetric accuracy and clinical quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for stereotactic (stage I) and conventional (stage III) lung cancer treatments planned with Eclipse version 10.0 Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm. Methods The dosimetric impact of using AAA instead of AXB, and grid size 2.5 mm instead of 1.0 mm for VMAT treatment plans was evaluated. The clinical plan quality of AXB VMAT was assessed using 45 stage I and 73 stage III patients, and was compared with published results, planned with VMAT and hybrid-VMAT techniques. Results The dosimetric impact on near-minimum PTV dose (D98%) using AAA instead of AXB was large (underdose up to 12.3%) for stage I and very small (underdose up to 0.8%) for stage III lung treatments. There were no significant differences for dose volume histogram (DVH) values between grid sizes. The calculation time was significantly higher for AXB grid size 1.0 than 2.5 mm (p < 0.01). The clinical quality of the VMAT plans was at least comparable with clinical qualities given in literature of lung treatment plans with VMAT and hybrid-VMAT techniques. The average mean lung dose (MLD), lung V20Gy and V5Gy in this study were respectively 3.6 Gy, 4.1% and 15.7% for 45 stage I patients and 12.4 Gy, 19.3% and 46.6% for 73 stage III lung patients. The average contra-lateral lung dose V5Gy-cont was 35.6% for stage III patients. Conclusions For stereotactic and conventional lung treatments, VMAT calculated with AXB grid size 2.5 mm resulted in accurate dose calculations. No hybrid technique was needed to obtain the dose constraints. AXB is recommended instead of AAA for avoiding serious overestimation of the minimum target doses compared to the actual delivered dose. PMID:23800024

  14. Experimental Aqueous Alteration of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Kojima, T.

    1995-09-01

    Aqueous alteration is an important process that prevailed in the early solar system. In order to better understand the aqueous alteration processes and conditions, we embarked in hydrothermal alteration experiments of the Allende CV3 chondrite. We here present the first results of our experiments. Samples of Allende were sealed in gold tubes with 1-N HCl and heated in a reactor vessel at 450 degrees C and 800 bars for 4 to 6 weeks. Thin sections were made from the run products and were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS spectrometer. Our experiments produced remarkable alteration textures in the Allende chondrite. Parts of internal areas of most of the chondrules are replaced by brownish-to-greenish phyllosilicate, exhibiting an appearance closely similar to the altered ("spinach"-bearing) chondrules in CM chondrites. Fractures and interstices in chondrules and matrix, up to 20 micrometers in width and 1 mm in length, are filled with phyllosilicate, producing remarkable veins similar to those observed in CI chondrites. Mainly two kinds of phyllosilicates were produced. One contains major Mg and Fe and has compositions similar to Fe-rich saponite. This is the most common phyllosilicate that occurs in both chondrules and matrix; it is primarily formed by replacing olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. The other kind of phyllosilicate contains major Mg and Fe and variable Al; it is probably a mixture of two phases, so we tentatively call it high-Al phyllosilicates (HAP). HAP occurs mainly in chondrule mesostasis, where it is formed by replacing mesostasis glass. Chondrules and aggregates are altered from their edges to inward. Olivine in outer areas of chondrules and aggregates are enriched in Fe, and most of individual olivine grains show strong Fe-Mg zoning, indicating substantial Fe was added from matrix to chondrules. Mesostasis in central areas is preferentially replaced by HAP, while that in outer areas is replaced by saponite

  15. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  16. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  17. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  18. Characterization of esterases from Cucurbita pepo cv. "Eskandrani".

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Afaf S; Abo-Zeid, Amal Z; Mohamed, Tarek M; Ghanem, Hala M; Borai, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2008-01-01

    Two of the six esterases identified in Cucurbita pepo cv. "Eskandrani" were purified to homogeneity using two chromatography steps: anion exchange and gel filtration. The molecular weights of C. pepo esterases EIc and EII were 50,000 +/- 1500 and 68,000 +/- 1900 Da from gel filtration and 47,000 and 66,000 Da from SDS/PAGE, respectively, suggesting a monomeric structure for both enzymes. Esterases EIc and EII had K(m) values of 1.22 and 1.56 mM and pH optima at 9.0 and 8.0, respectively. The substrate specificity of C. pepo esterases EIc and EII were determined for a number of p-nitrophenyl esters, where their affinity toward these substrates were decreased as carbon atom number increased. Esterases EIc and EII had the same temperature optima, 40 degrees C. Thermal stability studies of esterases EIc and EII indicated that half maximal activities of EIc and EII esterases were reached at 55 degrees C and 50 degrees C, while they lost 45%, 51% and 70%, 77% of their activities after 30 and 90 min of incubation at 40 degrees C, respectively. The effect of different metal cations and inhibitors were examined. The inhibition studies revealed that the active sites of the two esterases contain serine and cysteine residues. The characteristics of C. pepo esterases are closely similar to those of microbial esterases used in food processing and food industry. PMID:17321740

  19. [Characteristics of Papaver somniferum L. cv. ikkanshu cultivated in Izu].

    PubMed

    Iida, O; Sekine, T; Inoue, O; Yoshimatsu, K; Shimomura, K

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of Papaver somniferum L. cv. Ikkanshu were sown in November (Autumn sowing: AS) and March (Spring sowing: SS) in a field at Izu Experimental Station for Medicinal Plants of National Institute of Health Sciencs, and both AS and SS plants were cultivated to investigate their growth, opium yield and alkaloid content in the opium. Growing periods from the sowing to the opium harvest were approximately six months for AS plants and three months for SS plants. Sizes of plants and capsules in AS were bigger than those in SS, reflecting their growth period. Opium yields per an are in AS and SS were 212.09 g and 142.03 g, respectively. The opium was able to be collected four times in the AS plants though the SS plants ceased to exude opium after the second incision. Therefore higher yield of opium in AS plants seems to be attributed to an amount of opium in the third and fourth incision. Average morphine content in the total opium was 15.61% in AS plants and 15.04% in SS plants, and the estimated amounts of morphine per an are in AS and SS plants were 33.16 g and 21.38 g, respectively.

  20. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  1. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  2. MIZEX-WEST NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Bering Sea marginal ice zone winter experiment (MIZEX-WEST), the CV-990 airborne laboratory was flown to assess the potential of using an extended range of wavelengths for improving passive microwave sea ice observations from spacecraft and second to provide an overview of the MIZ for large-scale processes studies. The aircraft was equipped with both imaging and fixed-beam, dual-polarized passive microwave radiometers ranging from 1.5 millimeter to 3 centimeter wavelengths. Visual, photographic, and thermal (10.7 micron) infrared surface observations were also made from the aircraft to complement the microwave measurements. The flight operations and in-flight observations are discussed and each flight is summarized including flight objective and instrument status. Preliminary mosaic images obtained with the ESMR imager, Nimbus-7 orbits over the Bering Sea, ice observations obtained by an ice observer on board, and composite maps of the general ice conditions for the month of February are also presented.

  3. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of CV-580 lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Poh H.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical models developed for the study of lightning strike data acquired by in-flight aircraft are applied to the data measured on the CV-580. The basic technique used is the three dimensional time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. Both linear and nonlinear models are used in the analysis. In the linear model, the lightning channel and the aircraft are assumed to form a linear time invariant system. A transfer function technique can then be used to study the response of the aircraft to a given lightning strike current. Conversely, the lightning current can be inferred from the measured response. In the nonlinear model, the conductivity of air in the vicinity of the aircraft is calculated and incorporated into the solution of the Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear model thus simulates corona formation and air breakdown. Results obtained from the models are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. This study provides another validation of the models and increases confidence that the models may be used to predict aircraft response to any general lightning strike.

  4. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  5. The Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs)-Localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 Inhibits Immunity and Cell Death Likely through Regulating MVBs-Mediated Vesicular Trafficking in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Yin, Junjie; Liang, Sihui; Liang, Ruihong; Zhou, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Jing; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Yuan, Can; Miyamoto, Koji; Ma, Bingtian; Wang, Jichun; Qin, Peng; Chen, Weilan; Wang, Yuping; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhu, Lihuang; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes-mediated vesicular trafficking may play key roles in plant immunity and cell death. However, the molecular regulation is poorly understood in rice. Here we report the identification and characterization of a MVBs-localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 in rice. Disruption of LRD6-6 leads to enhanced immunity and cell death in rice. The ATPase activity and homo-dimerization of LRD6-6 is essential for its regulation on plant immunity and cell death. An ATPase inactive mutation (LRD6-6E315Q) leads to dominant-negative inhibition in plants. The LRD6-6 protein co-localizes with the MVBs marker protein RabF1/ARA6 and interacts with ESCRT-III components OsSNF7 and OsVPS2. Further analysis reveals that LRD6-6 is required for MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking and inhibits the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Collectively, our study shows that the AAA ATPase LRD6-6 inhibits plant immunity and cell death most likely through modulating MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking in rice. PMID:27618555

  6. The Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs)-Localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 Inhibits Immunity and Cell Death Likely through Regulating MVBs-Mediated Vesicular Trafficking in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Yin, Junjie; Liang, Sihui; Liang, Ruihong; Zhou, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Jing; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Yuan, Can; Miyamoto, Koji; Ma, Bingtian; Wang, Jichun; Qin, Peng; Chen, Weilan; Wang, Yuping; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhu, Lihuang; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes-mediated vesicular trafficking may play key roles in plant immunity and cell death. However, the molecular regulation is poorly understood in rice. Here we report the identification and characterization of a MVBs-localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 in rice. Disruption of LRD6-6 leads to enhanced immunity and cell death in rice. The ATPase activity and homo-dimerization of LRD6-6 is essential for its regulation on plant immunity and cell death. An ATPase inactive mutation (LRD6-6E315Q) leads to dominant-negative inhibition in plants. The LRD6-6 protein co-localizes with the MVBs marker protein RabF1/ARA6 and interacts with ESCRT-III components OsSNF7 and OsVPS2. Further analysis reveals that LRD6-6 is required for MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking and inhibits the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Collectively, our study shows that the AAA ATPase LRD6-6 inhibits plant immunity and cell death most likely through modulating MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking in rice.

  7. The Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs)-Localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 Inhibits Immunity and Cell Death Likely through Regulating MVBs-Mediated Vesicular Trafficking in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sihui; Liang, Ruihong; Zhou, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Jing; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Yuan, Can; Miyamoto, Koji; Ma, Bingtian; Wang, Jichun; Qin, Peng; Chen, Weilan; Wang, Yuping; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhu, Lihuang; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes-mediated vesicular trafficking may play key roles in plant immunity and cell death. However, the molecular regulation is poorly understood in rice. Here we report the identification and characterization of a MVBs-localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 in rice. Disruption of LRD6-6 leads to enhanced immunity and cell death in rice. The ATPase activity and homo-dimerization of LRD6-6 is essential for its regulation on plant immunity and cell death. An ATPase inactive mutation (LRD6-6E315Q) leads to dominant-negative inhibition in plants. The LRD6-6 protein co-localizes with the MVBs marker protein RabF1/ARA6 and interacts with ESCRT-III components OsSNF7 and OsVPS2. Further analysis reveals that LRD6-6 is required for MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking and inhibits the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Collectively, our study shows that the AAA ATPase LRD6-6 inhibits plant immunity and cell death most likely through modulating MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking in rice. PMID:27618555

  8. An Afg2/Spaf-related Cdc48-like AAA ATPase regulates the stability and activity of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2

    PubMed Central

    Heallen, Todd R.; Adams, Henry P.; Furuta, Tokiko; Verbrugghe, Koen J.; Schumacher, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aurora B kinase is the enzymatic core of the chromosomal passenger complex, which is a critical regulator of mitosis. To identify novel regulators of Aurora B, we performed a genome-wide screen for suppressors of a temperature-sensitive lethal allele of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2. This screen uncovered a member of the Afg2/Spaf subfamily of Cdc48-like AAA ATPases as an essential inhibitor of AIR-2 stability and activity. Depletion of CDC-48.3 restores viability to air-2 mutant embryos and leads to abnormally high AIR-2 levels at the late telophase/G1 transition. Furthermore, CDC-48.3 binds directly to AIR-2 and inhibits its kinase activity from metaphase through telophase. While canonical p97/Cdc48 proteins have been assigned contradictory roles in the regulation of Aurora B, our results are the first to identify a member of the Afg2/Spaf AAA ATPases as a critical in vivo inhibitor of this kinase during embryonic development. PMID:18854144

  9. Comparison of build-up region doses in oblique tangential 6 MV photon beams calculated by AAA and CCC algorithms in breast Rando phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunun, P.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Dumrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the build-up region doses on breast Rando phantom surface with the bolus covered, the doses in breast Rando phantom and also the doses in a lung that is the heterogeneous region by two algorithms. The AAA in Eclipse TPS and the collapsed cone convolution algorithm in Pinnacle treatment planning system were used to plan in tangential field technique with 6 MV photon beam at 200 cGy total doses in Breast Rando phantom with bolus covered (5 mm and 10 mm). TLDs were calibrated with Cobalt-60 and used to measure the doses in irradiation process. The results in treatment planning show that the doses in build-up region and the doses in breast phantom were closely matched in both algorithms which are less than 2% differences. However, overestimate of doses in a lung (L2) were found in AAA with 13.78% and 6.06% differences at 5 mm and 10 mm bolus thickness, respectively when compared with CCC algorithm. The TLD measurements show the underestimate in buildup region and in breast phantom but the doses in a lung (L2) were overestimated when compared with the doses in the two plannings at both thicknesses of the bolus.

  10. The Torsin-family AAA+ Protein OOC-5 Contains a Critical Disulfide Adjacent to Sensor-II That Couples Redox State to Nucleotide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Wrabl, James O.; Hayashi, Adam P.; Rose, Lesilee S.

    2008-01-01

    A subgroup of the AAA+ proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope including human torsinA, a protein mutated in hereditary dystonia, is called the torsin family of AAA+ proteins. A multiple-sequence alignment of this family with Hsp100 proteins of known structure reveals a conserved cysteine in the C-terminus of torsin proteins within the Sensor-II motif. A structural model predicts this cysteine to be a part of an intramolecular disulfide bond, suggesting that it may function as a redox sensor to regulate ATPase activity. In vitro experiments with OOC-5, a torsinA homolog from Caenorhabditis elegans, demonstrate that redox changes that reduce this disulfide bond affect the binding of ATP and ADP and cause an attendant local conformational change detected by limited proteolysis. Transgenic worms expressing an ooc-5 gene with cysteine-to-serine mutations that disrupt the disulfide bond have a very low embryo hatch rate compared with wild-type controls, indicating these two cysteines are essential for OOC-5 function. We propose that the Sensor-II in torsin family proteins is a redox-regulated sensor. This regulatory mechanism may be central to the function of OOC-5 and human torsinA. PMID:18550799

  11. Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcome Network Early Anti-inflammatory Treatment in Patients with Acute ACL Tear” (MOON-AAA) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lattermann, Christian; Proffitt, Mary; Huston, Laura J.; Gammon, Lee; Johnson, Darren L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We present the early results from the “Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcome Network Early Anti-inflammatory Treatment in Patients with Acute ACL Tear and Painful Effusions” (MOON-AAA) clinical trial (figure 1). This trial allows for a well controlled prospective cohort of patients with isolated ACL injury at risk for OA. We compared the effect of a single versus a repeated dosage of Kenalog within the first two weeks after ACL injury and its effect on chondral degradation in the first 4 weeks prior to surgical reconstruction of the ACL. Methods: 49 patients with isolated ACL tears were enrolled. Knee joints were aspirated and patients received an injection with 40 mg Kenalog either within 4 days, 10 days, both time points or not at all (saline injection control). Serum, synovial fluid and urine were collected at 3 time points. Permutated block randomization, triple blinding, independent monitoring and standardized x-ray was performed to comply with GCP standards. Patient reported outcomes were collected at 6 time points up to 6 months post-ACL reconstruction(IKDC, KOOS and Marx activity level). A standardized synovial fluid biomarker panel was analyzed according to OARSI guidelines. Statistical analysis were performed using SAS mixed models analysis. Results: Serum analysis shows significant change after injury. Chondrodegradatory markers such as CTX-II, MMP-1 and MMP-3 as well as COMP indicate a progressive destruction of chondral matrix and collagen breakdown . There is a dramatic (250%) increase of CTX-II in the first 4 weeks. Matrix proteins such as MMP-1 and 3 as well as COMP show an initial increase and then a steep decline (see figure 1). Inflammatory markers (IL-1 alpha, IL-1beta, IRAP) show a decline from the time of injury. IL-1 alpha, however shows a dramatic uptake after week 2. This longitudinal data confirms a dramatic onset of early osteoarthritic biomarker profiles immediately after ACL injury as measured in synovial fluid

  12. [Image segmentation in tumor CT based on the improved C-V model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Rongguo; Xue, Fei; Liu, Kun

    2012-04-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings of slow convergence and inaccuracy segmentation in non-homogeneous images, improvements were made on the traditional C-V model in two aspects. Firstly, using a novel model based on local gradient, the initial contour of the C-V model was quickly moved near the target border, greatly reducing the evolution time. Secondly, combining the characteristics of GVF model from two directions to the target border, an adaptive velocity reconciling item was added for velocity equation of the C-V model to make the model converge to the true border. The segmentation experiments for liver tumors in CT showed that the proposed method could be effective.

  13. Properties of a cationic peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Drees, Ehab A; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2008-08-01

    The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors. PMID:18633734

  14. Influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on cv. Emir wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Balikci, Eren Kemal; Tanguler, Hasan; Jolly, Neil P; Erten, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    The present paper describes the behaviour of Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in pure, co-cultured and sequential fermentations in cv. Emir grape must. Faster fermentation rates were observed in wine made with a pure culture of S. cerevisiae and wine produced with simultaneously inoculated cultures of L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae. Both L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae gave high population numbers. The use of L. thermotolerans in mixed and sequential cultures led to an increase in final total acidity content in the wines, varying in the range 5.40-6.28 g/l (as tartaric acid), compared to pure culture S. cerevisiae, which gave the lowest level of total acidity (5 g/l). The increase was in the order of 1.18-2.06 g/l total acidity. Increase in final acidity by the use of L. thermotolerans might be useful to improve wines with low acidity due to global climate change. Volatile acidity levels (as acetic acid) were in the range 0.53-0.73 g/l, while the concentration of ethyl alcohol varied in the range 10.76-11.62% v/v. Sequential fermentations of wines and pure culture fermentation of L. thermotolerans resulted in reduction in the concentrations of acetaldehyde and higher alcohols, with exception of N-propanol and esters. According to the sensory analysis, wine obtained with sequential inoculation of L. thermotolerans followed by inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 h, and simultaneous inoculation of these yeasts, was the most preferred. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27113383

  15. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Giri, Abhishek; Thi Thuy Chinh BKrong, Nguyen; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease. PMID:24495921

  16. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. PMID:23999063

  17. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  18. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  19. TU-C-BRE-05: Clinical Implications of AAA Commissioning Errors and Ability of Common Commissioning ' Credentialing Procedures to Detect Them

    SciTech Connect

    McVicker, A; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Adamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To test the ability of the TG-119 commissioning process and RPC credentialing to detect errors in the commissioning process for a commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS). Methods: We introduced commissioning errors into the commissioning process for the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) within the Eclipse TPS. We included errors in Dosimetric Leaf Gap (DLG), electron contamination, flattening filter material, and beam profile measurement with an inappropriately large farmer chamber (simulated using sliding window smoothing of profiles). We then evaluated the clinical impact of these errors on clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans (head and neck, low and intermediate risk prostate, mesothelioma, and scalp) by looking at PTV D99, and mean and max OAR dose. Finally, for errors with substantial clinical impact we determined sensitivity of the RPC IMRT film analysis at the midpoint between PTV and OAR using a 4mm distance to agreement metric, and of a 7% TLD dose comparison. We also determined sensitivity of the 3 dose planes of the TG-119 C-shape IMRT phantom using gamma criteria of 3% 3mm. Results: The largest clinical impact came from large changes in the DLG with a change of 1mm resulting in up to a 5% change in the primary PTV D99. This resulted in a discrepancy in the RPC TLDs in the PTVs and OARs of 7.1% and 13.6% respectively, which would have resulted in detection. While use of incorrect flattening filter caused only subtle errors (<1%) in clinical plans, the effect was most pronounced for the RPC TLDs in the OARs (>6%). Conclusion: The AAA commissioning process within the Eclipse TPS is surprisingly robust to user error. When errors do occur, the RPC and TG-119 commissioning credentialing criteria are effective at detecting them; however OAR TLDs are the most sensitive despite the RPC currently excluding them from analysis.

  20. The d'--d--d' vertical triad is less discriminating than the a'--a--a' vertical triad in the antiparallel coiled-coil dimer motif.

    PubMed

    Steinkruger, Jay D; Bartlett, Gail J; Hadley, Erik B; Fay, Lindsay; Woolfson, Derek N; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-02-01

    Elucidating relationships between the amino-acid sequences of proteins and their three-dimensional structures, and uncovering non-covalent interactions that underlie polypeptide folding, are major goals in protein science. One approach toward these goals is to study interactions between selected residues, or among constellations of residues, in small folding motifs. The α-helical coiled coil has served as a platform for such studies because this folding unit is relatively simple in terms of both sequence and structure. Amino acid side chains at the helix-helix interface of a coiled coil participate in so-called "knobs-into-holes" (KIH) packing whereby a side chain (the knob) on one helix inserts into a space (the hole) generated by four side chains on a partner helix. The vast majority of sequence-stability studies on coiled-coil dimers have focused on lateral interactions within these KIH arrangements, for example, between an a position on one helix and an a' position of the partner in a parallel coiled-coil dimer, or between a--d' pairs in an antiparallel dimer. More recently, it has been shown that vertical triads (specifically, a'--a--a' triads) in antiparallel dimers exert a significant impact on pairing preferences. This observation provides impetus for analysis of other complex networks of side-chain interactions at the helix-helix interface. Here, we describe a combination of experimental and bioinformatics studies that show that d'--d--d' triads have much less impact on pairing preference than do a'--a--a' triads in a small, designed antiparallel coiled-coil dimer. However, the influence of the d'--d--d' triad depends on the lateral a'--d interaction. Taken together, these results strengthen the emerging understanding that simple pairwise interactions are not sufficient to describe side-chain interactions and overall stability in antiparallel coiled-coil dimers; higher-order interactions must be considered as well.

  1. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http

  2. Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Top Crop) pods.

    PubMed

    Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina

    2013-03-13

    The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups.

  3. Abstract morphemes and lexical representation: the CV-Skeleton in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2004-07-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the phonological shape of the surface word and its primary syntactic function, which has no surface phonetic content (McCarthy, J. J. (1981). A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology, Linguistic Inquiry, 12 373-418). The other two morphemes are proposed to be the vocalic melody, which conveys additional syntactic information, and the root, which defines meaning. In three experiments using masked, cross-modal, and auditory-auditory priming we examined the role of the vocalic melody and the CV-Skeleton as potential morphemic units in the processing and representation of Arabic words. Prime/target pairs sharing the vocalic melody but not the CV-Skeleton consistently failed to prime. In contrast, word pairs sharing only the CV-Skeleton primed reliably throughout, with the amount of priming being as large as that observed between word pattern pairs sharing both vocalic melody and CV-Skeleton. Priming between morphologically related words can be observed when there is no overlap either in meaning or in surface phonetic form.

  4. Non-contact C-V measurements of ultra thin dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, P.; Savtchouk, A.; Wilson, M.; D'Amico, J.; Kochey, J. N.; Marinskiy, D.; Lagowski, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-contact C-V technique for ultra-thin dielectrics on silicon. The technique uses incremental corona charging of dielectric and a measurement of the surface potential with a vibrating capacitive electrode. A differential quasistatic C-V curve is generated using time-resolved measurements. The technique incorporates transconductance corrections that enable corresponding ultra-low electrical oxide thickness (EOT) determination down to the sub-nanometer range. It also provides a means for monitoring the flat band voltage, V{FB}, the interface trap spectrum, D{IT}, and the total dielectric charge, Q{TOT}. This technique is seen as a replacement for not only MOS C-V measurements but also for mercury-probe C-V. In addition, EOT measurement by the corona C-V has a major advantage over optical thickness methods because it is not affected by water adsorption and molecular airborne contamination, MAC. These effects have been a problem for optical metrology of ultra-thin dielectrics.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3–4–5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17–19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children. PMID:25830489

  6. Differences in outcomes between GOLD groups in patients with COPD in the TIOSPIR® trial

    PubMed Central

    Dusser, Daniel; Wise, Robert A; Dahl, Ronald; Anzueto, Antonio; Carter, Kerstine; Fowler, Andy; Calverley, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification could predict mortality risk factors and whether baseline treatment intensity would relate to mortality within each group, using data from TIOSPIR®, the largest randomized clinical trial in COPD performed to date. Methods A total of 17,135 patients from TIOSPIR® were pooled and grouped by GOLD grading (A–D) according to baseline Medical Research Council breathlessness score, exacerbation history, and spirometry. All-cause mortality and adjudicated cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality were assessed. Results Of the 16,326 patients classified, 1,248 died on treatment. Group B patients received proportionally more CV treatment at baseline. CV mortality risk, but not all-cause mortality risk, was significantly higher in Group B than Group C patients (CV mortality – hazard ratio [HR] =1.74, P=0.004; all-cause mortality – HR =1.18, P=0.11). Group D patients had a higher incidence of all-cause mortality than Group B patients (10.9% vs 6.6%). Similar trends were observed regardless of respiratory or CV medication at baseline. In contrast, respiratory deaths increased consistently from Groups A–D (0.3%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively). Conclusion The data obtained from the TIOSPIR® trial, supporting earlier studies, suggest that proportionally more CV medication and CV deaths occur in GOLD Group B COPD patients, although deaths attributed to respiratory causes are more prevalent in Groups C and D. PMID:26855568

  7. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  8. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e−07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

  9. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  10. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  11. Analysis of Positive Superhump Shapes Near Superoutburst Maximum in CV SU UMa-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobertz, Michele; Voloshina, Irina; Goel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Positive superhumps are hump-shaped modulations in light curves of some Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) that have a period that is slightly longer than the orbital period. In CV SU UMa-like systems, the shape of the positive superhump is known to change throughout the superoutburst, which thus slightly changes the published, observed, positive superhump period. In this presentation, we analyze numerical simulations of prograde precession in accretion disks of CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum. We compare the simulated positive superhump shapes with the shapes obtained from observations, using AW Sge as our model. Similarly, we compare associated Fourier Transforms with associated periodograms. We conclude with our analysis of the likely sources that generate the shape of the positive superhump in CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum.

  12. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  13. Academic Achievement Academy (AAA), 2011-12. Eye on Evaluation. D&A Report No. 13.03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Anisa

    2013-01-01

    Extending the school day through programs that will supplement core courses, such as offering intensive, after-school tutoring or small-group study sessions in reading and mathematics, is one method districts use to boost school performance and narrow educational achievement gaps between students of different racial and economic backgrounds (Redd…

  14. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:27481298

  15. Quantifying the CV: Adapting an Impact Assessment Model to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohémier, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    We present the process and results of applying the Becker Model to the curriculum vitae of a Yale University astronomy professor. As background, in July 2013, the Becker Medical Library at Washington Univ. in St. Louis held a workshop for librarians on the Becker Model, a framework developed by research assessment librarians for quantifying medical researchers' individual and group outputs. Following the workshop, the model was analyzed for content to adapt it to the physical sciences.

  16. Application of Five Light-Response Models in the Photosynthesis of Populus × Euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46' Leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lidong; Zhang, Shuyong; Zhang, Guangcan; Liu, Xia; Xia, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Songsong; Xing, Wei; Fang, Xiaochen

    2015-05-01

    The light-response curve of photosynthesis is an important tool used to study plant ecophysiology and can provide a scientific basis for the response of plant photosynthetic characteristics to environmental factors. At present, there are five common light-response models of photosynthesis. To gain deeper insight into the applicability of different light-response models of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Populus euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46', two typical light-response curves of photosynthesis in P. euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46' leaves, one under drought stress and the other under control conditions, were measured using a CIRAS-2 portable photosynthesis system. The light-response data were divided into two groups: one set of data was used to fit light-response curves, and the other set of data was used to test them. The accuracy of the fitting and the predictions of the different models were evaluated by mean square error and mean absolute error. The results showed that the light-response curves of P. euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46' under drought stress matched the light-saturated inhibition type and that those under the control condition matched the approaching light-saturation type. The two new models (i.e., the modified rectangular hyperbola model and modified exponential model) fit the two light-response curves and their characteristic parameters well, and the fitting results of the two models were similar. Conversely, the three traditional models (i.e., the rectangular hyperbola model, nonrectangular hyperbola model, and exponential model) did not fit the two light-response curves well; in particular, they overestimated the maximum net photosynthetic rate, underestimated the light saturation point (LSP), and did not fit the net photosynthetic rate during the light-saturated stage. The LSP calculated by the "linear method" combined with the traditional models was significantly lower than the measured values; additionally, the

  17. [Genetic Characteristics of Coxsackievirus Group A Type 4 Isolated from Patients with Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Si, Yuan; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Qian; Ji, Tianjiao; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed the genetic characteristics of coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) based on the entire VP1 coding region. Samples were isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Shaanxi, China from 2006 to 2010. We wished to ascertain the predominant genotype and the relationship between CV-A4 infection and AFP. Sixty-eight non-polio enteroviruses were inoculated onto RD cells (to increase the virus titer) and molecular typing was undertaken. The entire VP1 coding region was amplified. Percentage of CV-A4 was 10.3% (7/68). Analyses of genetic identify and creation of phylogenetic trees revealed that CV-A4 could be classified into A, B and C genotypes. Seven CV-A4 strains from Shaanxi and other CV-A4 strains from China formed an independent evolution lineage located in group 4 and belonged to the C2 sub-genotype. These data suggested that CV-A4 strains of sub-genotype C2 were the predominant genotypes in China. These strains co-evolved and co-circulated with those from other provinces in China, so continued monitoring of CV-A4 (by clinical and genetic surveillance) should be enhanced. PMID:27396156

  18. MHC class I antigen presentation of DRiP-derived peptides from a model antigen is not dependent on the AAA ATPase p97.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Amy L; Dolan, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    CD8(+) T cells are responsible for killing cells of the body that have become infected or oncogenically transformed. In order to do so, effector CD8(+) T cells must recognize their cognate antigenic peptide bound to a MHC class I molecule that has been directly presented by the target cell. Due to the rapid nature of antigen presentation, it is believed that antigenic peptides are derived from a subset of newly synthesized proteins which are degraded almost immediately following synthesis and termed Defective Ribosomal Products or DRiPs. We have recently reported on a bioassay which can distinguish antigen presentation of DRiP substrates from other forms of rapidly degraded proteins and found that poly-ubiquitin chain disassembly may be necessary for efficient DRiP presentation. The AAA ATPase p97 protein is necessary for efficient cross-presentation of antigens on MHC class I molecules and plays an important role in extracting mis-folded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we find that genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of p97 does not diminish DRiP antigen presentation to any great extent nor does it alter the levels of MHC class I molecules on the cell surface, despite our observations that p97 inhibition increased the levels of poly-ubiquitinated proteins in the cell. These data demonstrate that inhibiting poly-ubiquitin chain disassembly alone is insufficient to abolish DRiP presentation.

  19. Diverse pore loops of the AAA+ ClpX machine mediate unassisted and adaptor-dependent recognition of ssrA-tagged substrates.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andreas; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2008-02-29

    ClpX, an archetypal proteolytic AAA+ unfoldase, must engage the ssrA tags of appropriate substrates prior to ATP-dependent unfolding and translocation of the denatured polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, specificity-transplant and disulfide-crosslinking experiments reveal that the ssrA tag interacts with different loops that form the top, middle, and lower portions of the central channel of the ClpX hexamer. Our results support a two-step binding mechanism, in which the top loop serves as a specificity filter and the remaining loops form a binding site for the peptide tag relatively deep within the pore. Crosslinking experiments suggest a staggered arrangement of pore loops in the hexamer and nucleotide-dependent changes in pore-loop conformations. This mechanism of initial tag binding would allow ATP-dependent conformational changes in one or more pore loops to drive peptide translocation, force unfolding, and mediate threading of the denatured protein through the ClpX pore.

  20. Differential roles of the COOH termini of AAA subunits of PA700 (19 S regulator) in asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Thomas G; Kumar, Brajesh; Thompson, David; Slaughter, Clive A; DeMartino, George N

    2008-11-14

    The 26 S proteasome is an energy-dependent protease that degrades proteins modified with polyubiquitin chains. It is assembled from two multi-protein subcomplexes: a protease (20 S proteasome) and an ATPase regulatory complex (PA700 or 19 S regulatory particle) that contains six different AAA family subunits (Rpt1 to -6). Here we show that binding of PA700 to the 20 S proteasome is mediated by the COOH termini of two (Rpt2 and Rpt5) of the six Rpt subunits that constitute the interaction surface between the subcomplexes. COOH-terminal peptides of either Rpt2 or Rpt5 bind to the 20 S proteasome and activate hydrolysis of short peptide substrates. Simultaneous binding of both COOH-terminal peptides had additive effects on peptide substrate hydrolysis, suggesting that they bind to distinct sites on the proteasome. In contrast, only the Rpt5 peptide activated hydrolysis of protein substrates. Nevertheless, the COOH-terminal peptide of Rpt2 greatly enhanced this effect, suggesting that proteasome activation is a multistate process. Rpt2 and Rpt5 COOH-terminal peptides cross-linked to different but specific subunits of the 20 S proteasome. These results reveal critical roles of COOH termini of Rpt subunits of PA700 in the assembly and activation of eukaryotic 26 S proteasome. Moreover, they support a model in which Rpt subunits bind to dedicated sites on the proteasome and play specific, nonequivalent roles in the asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

  1. Identification of an AAA ATPase VPS4B-Dependent Pathway That Modulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Abundance and Signaling during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, H. Helen; Li, Xu; Chen, Jo-Lin; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cooper, Fariba Norouziyan; Chen, Yun-Ru; Zhang, Wenyu; Chung, Yiyin; Li, Angela; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Yang, Lixin; Deng, XuTao; Liu, Xiyong; Yen, Yun; Johnson, Deborah L.; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Yang, Austin

    2012-01-01

    VPS4B, an AAA ATPase (ATPase associated with various cellular activities), participates in vesicular trafficking and autophagosome maturation in mammalian cells. In solid tumors, hypoxia is a common feature and an indicator of poor treatment outcome. Our studies demonstrate that exogenous or endogenous (assessed with anchorage-independent three-dimensional multicellular spheroid culture) hypoxia induces VPS4B downregulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of VPS4B function by short hairpin VPS4B (sh-VPS4B) or expression of dominant negative VPS4B(E235Q) promotes anchorage-independent breast cancer cell growth and resistance to gefitinib, U0126, and genotoxicity. Biochemically, hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for cell proliferation and survival, accompanied by increased EGFR accumulation and altered intracellular compartmentalization, is observed in cells with compromised VPS4B. Furthermore, enhanced FOS/JUN induction and AP-1 promoter activation are noted in EGF-treated cells with VPS4B knockdown. However, VPS4B depletion does not affect EGFRvIII stability or its associated signaling. An inverse correlation between VPS4B expression and EGFR abundance is observed in breast tumors, and high-grade or recurrent breast carcinomas exhibit lower VPS4B expression. Together, our findings highlight a potentially critical role of VPS4B downregulation or chronic-hypoxia-induced VPS4B degradation in promoting tumor progression, unveiling a nongenomic mechanism for EGFR overproduction in human breast cancer. PMID:22252323

  2. Effects of the changes in the wall shear stresses (WSS) acting on endothelial cells (EC) during the enlargement of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2005-03-01

    The changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of the WSS and gradients of WSS during the enlargement of AAAs are important to understand the etiology and progression of this vascular disease, since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. PIV measurements were performed in aneurysm models, while changing systematically their size and geometry. Two regions with distinct patterns of WSS were identified. The region of flow detachment extends over the proximal half and is characterized by oscillatory WSS of very low mean. The region of flow reattachment, located distally, is dominated by large, negative WSS and sustained gradients of WSS that result from the impact of the vortex ring on the wall. Cultured EC were subjected to these two types of stimuli in vitro. The permeability of the endothelium was found to be largely increased in the flow detachment region. Endothelium cell-cell adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis were also affected by the high gradients of WSS.

  3. Abundance of the Fanconi anaemia core complex is regulated by the RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 AAA+ ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, Eeson; Garaycoechea, Juan I.; Patel, Ketan J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genome instability disease caused by defects in the FA DNA repair pathway that senses and repairs damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. At least 8 of the 16 genes found mutated in FA encode proteins that assemble into the FA core complex, a multisubunit monoubiquitin E3 ligase. Here, we show that the RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 AAA+ ATPases co-purify with FA core complex isolated under stringent but native conditions from a vertebrate cell line. Depletion of the RuvBL1-RuvBL2 complex in human cells causes hallmark features of FA including DNA crosslinker sensitivity, chromosomal instability and defective FA pathway activation. Genetic knockout of RuvBL1 in a murine model is embryonic lethal while conditional inactivation in the haematopoietic stem cell pool confers profound aplastic anaemia. Together these findings reveal a function for RuvBL1-RuvBL2 in DNA repair through a physical and functional association with the FA core complex. Surprisingly, depletion of RuvBL1-RuvBL2 leads to co-depletion of the FA core complex in human cells. This suggests that a potential mechanism for the role of RuvBL1-RuvBL2 in maintaining genome integrity is through controlling the cellular abundance of FA core complex. PMID:25428364

  4. Engagement of Arginine Finger to ATP Triggers Large Conformational Changes in NtrC1 AAA+ ATPase for Remodeling Bacterial RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; De Carlo, Sacha; Hanson, Jeffrey A.; Yang, Haw; Nixon, B. Tracy

    2010-11-19

    The NtrC-like AAA+ ATPases control virulence and other important bacterial activities through delivering mechanical work to {sigma}54-RNA polymerase to activate transcription from {sigma}54-dependent genes. We report the first crystal structure for such an ATPase, NtrC1 of Aquifex aeolicus, in which the catalytic arginine engages the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP. Comparing the new structure with those previously known for apo and ADP-bound states supports a rigid-body displacement model that is consistent with large-scale conformational changes observed by low-resolution methods. First, the arginine finger induces rigid-body roll, extending surface loops above the plane of the ATPase ring to bind {sigma}54. Second, ATP hydrolysis permits Pi release and retraction of the arginine with a reversed roll, remodeling {sigma}54-RNAP. This model provides a fresh perspective on how ATPase subunits interact within the ring-ensemble to promote transcription, directing attention to structural changes on the arginine-finger side of an ATP-bound interface.

  5. Identification of novel biomarkers of abdominal aortic aneurysms by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-MS from AAA-thrombus-conditioned media.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pinna, Roxana; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Ramos-Mozo, Priscila; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Camafeita, Emilio; Calvo, Enrique; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Egido, Jesús; Martin-Ventura, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    In the search for novel biomarkers, noncandidate-based proteomic strategies open up new opportunities to gain a deeper insight into disease processes regarding their molecular mechanisms, the risk factors involved, and the monitoring of disease progression. To carry out these complex analyses, the combined use of gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) represents a powerful choice. In addition, the introduction of protein dye labeling has notably improved the reliability of differential expression studies by increasing the statistical significance of the protein candidates. Here, we describe a strategy where different layers (luminal/abluminal) from the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients were incubated in protein-free medium. Then, the levels of the proteins released were compared by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and the proteins of interest identified by MS. We consider that the use of tissue-conditioned media could offer a substantial advantage in the analytical study of biological fluids, as they provide a source of proteins to be released to the bloodstream, which could serve as potential circulating biomarkers.

  6. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  8. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.

  9. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management. PMID:24726969

  10. Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.

    2015-02-01

    Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.

  11. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. PMID:23040992

  12. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  13. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  14. Simple Cp/Cv Resonance Apparatus Suitable for the Physics Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a resonance apparatus for the measurement of Cp/Cv for different gases. In the apparatus a magnetically supported piston in a vertical cylindrical glass tube containing the gas is forced into oscillation by means of a standard audio signal generator. (Author/GA)

  15. SIMS Oxygen Isotope Study of Chondrules in the Least Metamorphosed CV3 Chondrite Kaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, A.; Defouilloy, C.; Kita, N. T.

    2016-08-01

    High-precision SIMS oxygen three isotope analyses of chondrules in Kaba CV3 show that most chondrules are internally homogeneous in oxygen isotopes and dominated by high Mg# (≥98) and Δ17O from –6‰ to –4‰.

  16. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  17. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  18. NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711) C-141 KAO, CV-990 (712) Galileo, T-38, YO-3A, Lear Jet, X-14, U-2, OH-6, CH-47, SH-3G, RSRA, AH-1G, XV-15, UH-1H

  19. Multilocus half-tetrad analysis and centromere mapping in citrus: evidence of SDR mechanism for 2n megagametophyte production and partial chiasma interference in mandarin cv 'Fortune'.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, J; Froelicher, Y; Aleza, P; Juárez, J; Navarro, L; Ollitrault, P

    2011-10-01

    The genetic structure of 2n gametes and, particularly, the parental heterozygosity restitution at each locus depends on the meiotic process by which they originated, with first-division restitution and second-division restitution (SDR) being the two major mechanisms. The origin of 2n gametes in citrus is still controversial, although sexual polyploidisation is widely used for triploid seedless cultivar development. In this study, we report the analysis of 2n gametes of mandarin cv 'Fortune' by genotyping 171 triploid hybrids with 35 simple sequence repeat markers. The microsatellite DNA allele counting-peak ratios method for allele-dosage evaluation proved highly efficient in segregating triploid progenies and allowed half-tetrad analysis (HTA) by inferring the 2n gamete allelic configuration. All 2n gametes arose from the female genitor. The observed maternal heterozygosity restitution varied between 10 and 82%, depending on the locus, thus SDR appears to be the mechanism underlying 2n gamete production in mandarin cv 'Fortune'. A new method to locate the centromere, based on the best fit between observed heterozygosity restitution within a linkage group and theoretical functions under either partial or no chiasmata interference hypotheses was successfully applied to linkage group II. The maximum value of heterozygosity restitution and the pattern of restitution along this linkage group would suggest there is partial chiasma interference. The implications of such a restitution mechanism for citrus breeding are discussed.

  20. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    PubMed

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  1. Training Groups, Encounter Groups, Sensitivity Groups and Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Louis A.; Pattison, E. Mansell; Schafer, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    Descriptions and comparison of group therapies and the new group procedures (training groups and sensitivity groups—an outgrowth of the so-called Laboratory Movement methods of the mid-1930's) have been provided for the better understanding of non-psychiatric physicians. A group leader must have proper training and must help his group in its search for its avowed goals, whether he is a group therapist, a sensitivity trainer, or anyone else interested in utilizing group processes. Those goals are either the therapeutic benefit of the individual, as defined in group psychotherapy, or a better understanding of how one functions in groups, as in T-groups or the other group processes in the area of sensitive living. All group situations contain powerful tools which must be handled with proper respect. When so handled by experienced leaders, the individuals involved can achieve their goals in these group experiences. PMID:18730582

  2. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  3. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  4. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  5. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  6. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2-dose catch-up vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children in the second year of life: Results from an open study

    PubMed Central

    Dicko, Alassane; Dicko, Yahia; Barry, Amadou; Sidibe, Youssoufa; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Santara, Gaoussou; Dolo, Amagana; Diallo, Aminata; Doumbo, Ogobara; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is still the leading cause of death among African children with pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 being dominant in the below 5 y of age group. The present study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children. This phase III, open-label study (NCT00985465) was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and July 2010. The study population consisted of PHiD-CV unprimed Malian children previously enrolled in the control group of study NCT00678301 receiving a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with PHiD-CV in the second year of life. Adverse events were recorded following each PHiD-CV dose. Antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured pre-vaccination and after the second PHiD-CV catch-up dose. Swelling and fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) were the most frequently reported solicited symptoms following either PHiD-CV dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms were reported. Large swelling reactions and serious adverse events were not reported. Post-catch-up vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 94.7% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.5%) and 23F (87.7%). At least 94.0% of subjects had OPA titres ≥ 8, except for serotype 19F (89.4%). The geometric mean concentration for antibodies against protein D was 839.3 (95% CI: 643.5-1094.6) EL.U/ml. Two-dose PHiD-CV catch-up regimen in the second year of life was well-tolerated and immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D when administered to Malian children PMID:26020101

  7. Mode of interaction of TRIP13 AAA-ATPase with the Mad2-binding protein p31comet and with mitotic checkpoint complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Kaisari, Sharon; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Hershko, Avram

    2015-01-01

    The AAA-ATPase thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13), jointly with the Mad2-binding protein p31comet, promotes the inactivation of the mitotic (spindle assembly) checkpoint by disassembling the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). This checkpoint system ensures the accuracy of chromosome segregation by delaying anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromatids to the mitotic spindle is achieved. MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets for degradation securin, an inhibitor of anaphase initiation. MCC is composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3, in association with the APC/C activator Cdc20. The assembly of MCC in active checkpoint is initiated by the conversion of Mad2 from an open (O-Mad2) to a closed (C-Mad2) conformation, which then binds tightly to Cdc20. Conversely, the disassembly of MCC that takes place when the checkpoint is turned off involves the conversion of C-Mad2 back to O-Mad2. Previously, we found that the latter process is mediated by TRIP13 together with p31comet, but the mode of their interaction remained unknown. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of TRIP13 binds both p31comet and MCC. Furthermore, p31comet and checkpoint complexes mutually promote the binding of each other to oligomeric TRIP13. We propose that p31comet bound to C-Mad2–containing checkpoint complex is the substrate for the ATPase and that the substrate-binding site of TRIP13 is composed of subsites specific for p31comet and C-Mad2–containing complex. The simultaneous occupancy of both subsites is required for high-affinity binding to TRIP13. PMID:26324890

  8. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagahama, Masami

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  9. The Arabidopsis AAA ATPase SKD1 is involved in multivesicular endosome function and interacts with its positive regulator LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN5.

    PubMed

    Haas, Thomas J; Sliwinski, Marek K; Martínez, Dana E; Preuss, Mary; Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi; Nielsen, Erik; Odorizzi, Greg; Otegui, Marisa S

    2007-04-01

    In yeast and mammals, the AAA ATPase Vps4p/SKD1 (for Vacuolar protein sorting 4/SUPPRESSOR OF K(+) TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) is required for the endosomal sorting of secretory and endocytic cargo. We identified a VPS4/SKD1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, which localizes to the cytoplasm and to multivesicular endosomes. In addition, green fluorescent protein-SKD1 colocalizes on multivesicular bodies with fluorescent fusion protein endosomal Rab GTPases, such as ARA6/RabF1, RHA1/RabF2a, and ARA7/RabF2b, and with the endocytic marker FM4-64. The expression of SKD1(E232Q), an ATPase-deficient version of SKD1, induces alterations in the endosomal system of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow 2 cells and ultimately leads to cell death. The inducible expression of SKD1(E232Q) in Arabidopsis resulted in enlarged endosomes with a reduced number of internal vesicles. In a yeast two-hybrid screen using Arabidopsis SKD1 as bait, we isolated a putative homolog of mammalian LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN5 (LIP5)/SKD1 BINDING PROTEIN1 and yeast Vta1p (for Vps twenty associated 1 protein). Arabidopsis LIP5 acts as a positive regulator of SKD1 by increasing fourfold to fivefold its in vitro ATPase activity. We isolated a knockout homozygous Arabidopsis mutant line with a T-DNA insertion in LIP5. lip5 plants are viable and show no phenotypic alterations under normal growth conditions, suggesting that basal SKD1 ATPase activity is sufficient for plant development and growth.

  10. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  11. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  12. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    , 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n = 11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n = 11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  13. Characterization of polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant capacity in grape pomace of the cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel R; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2015-07-01

    Low molecular weight polyphenols (LMW-PPs) and anthocyanins, along with the antioxidant capacity, were assessed in grape pomace extract (GPE) of red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec. Twenty-six phenolics (13 LMW-PPs and 13 anthocyanins) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-MWD and UPLC-ESI-MS. The maximum concentrations of LMW-PPs corresponded to the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Piceatannol, a stilbene analogue to resveratrol with higher antioxidant activity, was firstly identified and quantified in GPE of the cv. Malbec. The antioxidant activity for Malbec GPE determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was 2,756 μmol TEg(-1) GPE. Therefore, the data reported sustain the use of winemaking by-products as a cheap source of phenolic compounds suitable for biotechnological applications, as a strategy for sustainable oenology.

  14. Fayalitic olivine in CV3 chondrite matrix and dark inclusions: A nebular origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin

    1998-09-01

    Fayalitic olivine (Fa>32) is the major component of the matrices and Dark Inclusions (DI) of CV3 and other unequilibrated chondrites. It occurs most commonly as rims, veins and halos in and around chondrule silicates in the Allende-type (CV3OxA) chondrites and to a much lesser extent in the reduced (CV3R) and Bali-type (CV3OxB) chondrites. The olivines have distinctive platy, tabular and lath- or irregular-shaped crystals, with the ratio the two types varying widely. In CV3OxB chondrites, matrix fayalitic olivines range up to Fa99.9, whereas in the other CV3 chondrites the range is much smaller. The platy and tabular anisotropic forms of the fayalitic olivines strongly suggest growth from a vapor and the nature of occurrences suggests that CV3 matrices are unequilibrated mixtures of nebular materials. We argue that the parent body hydration/dehydration model has numerous inconsistencies that make this hypothesis highly unlikely. These include: (1) There is no direct evidence linking fayalitic olivine to precursor phyllosilicates. (2) Dehydration of phyllosilicates cannot explain the wide range of morphologies of the fayalitic olivines. (3) Fayalitic olivine clearly predates the formation of the hydrous phases in CV3 chondrites and is one of the phases that breaks down to form phyllosilicates (Keller et al., 1994). (4) The unequilibrated nature of the matrix, including fine scale zoning in 10=B5-sized fayalitic olivine crystals, would not survive the parent body metamorphism required in the dehydration model. (5) A DI in the Ningqiang chondrite contains fayalitic olivine rimmed by glassy and microcrystalline material (Zolensky et al., 1997), which probably formed by radiation damage. This indicates that the fayalitic olivine was exposed to solar radiation in a nebular setting. (6) Some Allende chondrules contain unaltered primary, anhydrous glassy mesostasis in contact with the host matrix (e.g., Ikeda and Kimura, 1995). Chondrule mesostases would not have survived

  15. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  16. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  17. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  18. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  19. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Utsukihara, Takamitsu; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, C Akira

    2008-05-01

    The biotransformation of racemic 1-phenylethanol (30 mg) with plant cultured cells of basil (Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens, 5 g wet wt) by shaking 120 rpm at 25 degrees C for 7 days in the dark gave (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol and acetophenone in 34 and 24% yields, respectively. The biotransformation can be applied to other 1-arylethanols and basil cells oxidized the (S)-alcohols to the corresponding ketones remaining the (R)-alcohols in excellent ee.

  20. Comparison of direct mercury analyzer and FIA-CV-AAS in determination of methylmercury in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Nakatsubo, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been determined in fish reference materials by direct mercury analyzer (DMA 80) and FIA-CV-AAS. In order to evaluate accuracy, certified reference materials (Fish protein, NRCC - Dorm 4 and fish material, Ipen - Dourada 1) were analyzed after extraction and separation of mercury species. Good agreement of the results have been obtained (relative error of the determination between the methods varied from 1.5% to 39%). The repeatability of the results varied from 4% to 26%.

  1. Long-term treatment of bromocriptine-intolerant prolactinoma patients with CV 205-502.

    PubMed

    Glaser, B; Nesher, Y; Barziliai, S

    1994-06-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are an importance cause of male and female infertility. Dopaminergic drug therapy is the cornerstone of treatment. However, the currently available drugs, particularly bromocriptine, are associated with frequent adverse effects. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with a new dopaminergic agent, CV 205-502 (CV) in prolactinoma patients previously intolerant of bromocriptine. Nine patients (five male, four female) were treated for up to 39 months. Six had macroprolactinomas, and three had microprolactinomas; four had had previous transphenoidal surgery. Prolactin levels, tumor size and pituitary function were determined before treatment. These parameters and indices of drug toxicity were monitored at regular intervals. Prolactin decreased from 546 +/- 381 (SE) to 19.3 +/- 9.4 micrograms/L on CV doses ranging from 75 to 600 micrograms orally, given at bedtime (percent decrease, 37-99; mean +/- SE, 87 +/- 6.5%). Levels were normalized in six patients. Twenty-four-hour prolactin profiles documented adequate suppression with a single daily dose. All clinical symptoms related to hyperprolactinemia subsided. One accidental pregnancy occurred, and two other women had normalization of menstrual function. One man regained a normal sperm count. Of the four patients who presented with arrested puberty, only the one without previous surgery completed normal puberty during CV treatment. Mild drug-related adverse effects were reported by three patients. Dose reduction eliminated the adverse effects with adequate prolactin suppression in two; the third stopped treatment. Tumor size decreased in three of six macroprolactinoma patients. Liver and kidney function, hematocrit, WBC and platelet counts, EKG and urinalysis remained normal in all.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  3. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  4. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  5. MIRRORCLE-CV The Portable Synchrotron For Precise Non-Destructive Testing And Medical Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-30

    We are developing the portable synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV series, which provides a high quality x-ray beam for high precision non-destructive testing (NDT). Computer simulations for the magnetic field design and electron dynamics reveal that the outer diameter of the synchrotron magnet can be as small as 30 cm. This synchrotron size approaches that of a conventional x-ray tube.

  6. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  7. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  8. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  9. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; García-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets.

  10. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  11. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  12. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity in chondrules from the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Guan, Yunbin; Sharp, Zachary D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Schilk, Alan J.

    2004-08-01

    We report a study of the oxygen isotope ratios of chondrules and their constituent mineral grains from the Mokoia, oxidized CV3 chondrite. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of 23 individual chondrules were determined by laser ablation fluorination, and oxygen isotope ratios of individual grains, mostly olivine, were obtained in situ on polished mounts using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our results can be compared with data obtained previously for the oxidized CV3 chondrite, Allende. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of Mokoia chondrules form an array on an oxygen three-isotope plot that is subparallel to, and slightly displaced from, the CCAM (carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals) line. The best-fit line for all CV3 chondrite chondrules has a slope of 0.99, and is displaced significantly (by δ 17O ˜ -2.5‰) from the Young and Russell slope-one line for unaltered calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) minerals. Oxygen isotope ratios of many bulk CAIs also lie on the CV-chondrule line, which is the most relevant oxygen isotope array for most CV chondrite components. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of most chondrules in Mokoia have δ 18O values around 0‰, and olivine grains in these chondrules have similar oxygen isotope ratios to their bulk values. In general, it appears that chondrule mesostases have higher δ 18O values than olivines in the same chondrules. Our bulk chondrule data spread to lower δ 18O values than any ferromagnesian chondrules that have been measured previously. Two chondrules with the lowest bulk δ 18O values (-7.5‰ and -11.7‰) contain olivine grains that display an extremely wide range of oxygen isotope ratios, down to δ 17O, δ 18O around -50‰ in one chondrule. In these chondrules, there are no apparent relict grains, and essentially no relationships between olivine compositions, which are homogeneous, and oxygen isotopic compositions of individual grains. Heterogeneity of oxygen isotope ratios within these chondrules may be the

  13. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  14. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  15. Using the HP-41CV calculator as a data acquisition system for personal carbon monoxide exposure monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fitz-Simons, T.; Sauls, H.B.

    1984-09-01

    The use of small, personal monitors as instruments for air pollution data acquisition, storage, and retrieval presents a new set of monitoring considerations. Portability, ruggedness, power supplies, and data capture are functions to be addressed in designing personal monitoring systems. The emphasis herein is on the data capture function. This paper describes experiences using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV system as a data management system interfaced with personal carbon monoxide monitors (General Electric Carbon Monoxide Detector, Model 15EC53CO3). In general, the HP-41CV proved to be reliable, adaptable, and easy to use. Problems with the monitor power source (battery failure) were more frequent than with the HP-41CV itself. Using the HP-41CV for the specific data collection requirements of the Washington Microenvironment Study is a focal point of this presentation.

  16. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  17. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  18. Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung extract inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung Ah; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung (SH) is a widely consumed anthocyanin-rich food and medicinal plant, which possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. The present study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of SH extract on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by the topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice. SH extract was orally administered to the DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice. The anti-AD effects of SH extract were examined by measuring symptom severity; ear thickness; scratching behavior; serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E; T-helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels in the spleen; mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; and tissue infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrated that SH extract inhibited the development of AD-like lesions, and reduced IgE levels and the production of cytokines. Furthermore, SH extract significantly suppressed the expression of AD-associated mRNAs in lesional skin. Histological alterations in the AD-like lesions were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining in the DNCB-treated group; the alterations were attenuated following SH treatment. In addition, thickening of the epidermis and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the DNCB-treated mice were suppressed by SH treatment. These results suggested that SH extract may suppress the development of AD symptoms through modulation of the Th1 and Th2 responses. PMID:27510042

  19. Effect of organic matter additions on uptake of weathered DDT by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the impact of organic matter additions on plant uptake of DDT [2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] from weathered soil. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden pumpkins were grown in 100 g of DDT contaminated soil ([DDT] - 1100 ng/g) mixed with equal volumes of either clean soil, perlite, vermiculite, peat, potting soil, or granular activated carbon (GAC) to give total organic carbon contents of 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 11.5%, 12.2%, and 27.3%, respectively. As in other studies, root DDT concentrations were significantly lower in soils with high organic matter. Root bioaccumulation factors (BAF = [DDT]root/[DDT]soil) approximated this trend. Root concentrations correlated with organic matter concentrations and not with soil DDT concentrations. Conversely, shoot DDT concentrations, shoot BAFs and translocation factors (TLF = BAF(shoot)/BAF(root)) were not significantly different between treatment groups, except for plants grown in GAC/DDT soil. This suggests that amendments with a range of organic matter contents may be added to improve soil conditions at industrial sites without significant adverse effects on phytoextraction potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. PMID:20734916

  20. Cotton gene expression profiles in resistant Gossypium hirsutum cv. Zhongzhimian KV1 responding to Verticillium dahliae strain V991 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Jian, Gui-Liang; Jiang, Teng-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Zheng; Qi, Fang-Jun; Xu, Shi-Chang

    2012-10-01

    Verticillium wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a widespread and destructive disease that is caused by the soil-borne fungus pathogen Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To study the molecular mechanism in wilt tolerance, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and dot blot techniques were used to identify the specifically expressed genes in a superior wilt-resistant cotton cultivar (G. hirsutum cv. Zhongzhimian KV1) after inoculation with pathogen. cDNAs from the root tissues of Zhongzhimian KV1 inoculated with V. dahliae strain V991 or water mock were used to construct the libraries that contain 4800 clones. Based on the results from dot blot analysis, 147 clones were clearly induced by V. dahliae and selected from the SSH libraries for sequencing. A total of 92 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated non-redundant expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were identified as disease responsive genes and classified into 9 functional groups. Two important clues regarding wilt-resistant G. hirsutum were obtained from this study. One was Bet v 1 family; the other was UbI gene family that may play an important role in the defense reaction against Verticillium wilt. The result from real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were activated quickly and transiently after inoculation with V. dahliae.

  1. Altitudinal variation of phenolic contents in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO: a 3-year comparison.

    PubMed

    Spitaler, Renate; Winkler, Andrea; Lins, Isabella; Yanar, Sema; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    In continuation of our studies of altitudinal effects on secondary metabolite profile of flowering heads from taxa of the Asteraceae, we investigated phenolic contents and radical scavenging potential from cultivated plants of Arnica montana cv. ARBO during the growing seasons 2003, 2004, and 2005. By conducting experiments on potted plants, we excluded that differences in phenolic contents from plants grown at different altitudes were related primarily to differences in soil composition at these sites. To assess altitudinal and interseasonal variation, plants of A. montana cultivar ARBO were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck, Austria. In all growing seasons and regardless of the soil the plants were grown in, the proportion of flavonoids with vicinal-free hydroxy groups in ring B to flavonoids lacking this feature, and the total amount of caffeic acid derivatives, significantly increased with elevation. These increases of antioxidant phenolics corresponded to an increase of the radical scavenging potential of extracts from plants grown at different altitudes. The results are discussed in regard to previous studies that suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation and decreased temperatures trigger augmented biosynthesis of UV-absorbing and antioxidant phenolics in higher plants.

  2. Describing Assay Precision – Reciprocal of Variance is correct, not CV percent: its use should significantly improve laboratory performance

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe, Roger W.; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Fu, Xiaowei; Neely, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Describing assay error as percent coefficient of variation (CV%) fails as measurements approach zero [1]. Results are censored if below some arbitrarily chosen lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). CV% gives incorrect weighting to data obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), with incorrect parameter values in the resulting pharmacokinetic models, and incorrect dosage regimens for patient care. Methods CV% was compared with the reciprocal of the variance (1/var) of each assay measurement. This method [2] has not been considered by the laboratory community. A simple description of assay standard deviation (SD) as a polynomial function of the assay measurement over its working range was developed, the reciprocal of the assay variance determined, and its results compared with CV%. Results CV% does not provide correct weighting of measured serum concentrations as required for optimal TDM. It does not permit optimally individualized models of the behavior of a drug in a patient, resulting in incorrect dosage regimens. The assay error polynomial described here, using 1/var, provides correct weighting of such data, all the way down to and including zero. There is no need to censor low results, and no need to set any arbitrary lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). Conclusion Reciprocal of variance is the correct measure of assay precision, and should replace CV%. The information is easily stored as an assay error polynomial. The laboratory can serve the medical community better. There is no longer any need for LLOQ, a significant improvement. Regulatory agencies should implement this more informed policy. PMID:25970509

  3. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  4. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system. PMID:27649138

  5. Potato virus Y CFH, a putative recombinant isolate from Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero.

    PubMed

    Comes, S; Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Parrella, G; Crescenzi, A

    2006-01-01

    Ornamental plants of Chili pepper, Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero, with symptoms of leaf mosaic, necrotic rings on fruits and necrotic stems were observed in June 2003 in a private garden in the province of Naples (Italy). Preliminary serological characterisation allowed the association of these symptoms with infections by Potato virus Y (PVY). The virus was isolated on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi and characterised by mechanical inoculation on herbaceous hosts and molecular characterisation of the P1 and the coat protein (CP) genes. Symptoms produced on indicator plants were generally consistent with those described for PVY. The identity of PVY was further confirmed by reaction with PVYN, PVYC and PVYO specific monoclonal antibodies: the isolate reacted only with the PVYC specific Mab. Immuno capture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was performed on extracts of PVY-CFH infected N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants, using two couples of primers specifically designed out of the P1 and the CP coding regions of the so far fully sequenced PVY isolates. PCR products were then cloned into pCRII-TOPO vector using TOPO-TA cloning kit (Invitrogen) and sequenced. Sequence analysis suggests that PVY-CFH originated from a recombination event involving a virus of the PVYO type and another parental virus, maybe resembling the PVYNP isolates, given the reasonably high similarity shared by PVY-CFH and, respectively, non potato PVY isolates in the CP coding region, PVYO isolates in the P1 coding region. Evidence for the existence of such a recombination comes, apart from similarity analysis, by the different locations of CFH within phylogenetic trees constructed from P1 and CP genomic regions.

  6. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  7. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  8. [Root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Wei; Pan, Cun-De

    2012-09-01

    By the methods of layered digging and image scanning analysis, this paper studied the root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation. The root system of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing was mainly constituted by fine roots (d < or = 1 mm), while medium roots (12 mm) only had a small proportion. For the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old, the percentage of fine root length in the total root length was 90.9%, 88.4%, and 79.9% respectively, the root length density increased with tree age, and the length density of the roots with different diameter classes was 15-year old>10-year old>5-year old. In vertical direction, the root length density decreased after an initial decrease, and the root dry mass density had a significant difference between soil layers. The intensive distribution region of the root biomass density for the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old was 30-80 cm, 30-100 cm, and 30-100 cm soil depth within the 200 cm range from the trees, respectively. In horizontal direction, the root dry mass density at different distances from the trees had significant difference, i. e., the farther the distance from the tree trunk, the smaller the root dry mass density. In order to decrease the overlap between the tree line and to reduce water and nutrient competition, the row ledge of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation should not be less than 6 m. PMID:23285988

  9. [Root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Wei; Pan, Cun-De

    2012-09-01

    By the methods of layered digging and image scanning analysis, this paper studied the root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation. The root system of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing was mainly constituted by fine roots (d < or = 1 mm), while medium roots (12 mm) only had a small proportion. For the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old, the percentage of fine root length in the total root length was 90.9%, 88.4%, and 79.9% respectively, the root length density increased with tree age, and the length density of the roots with different diameter classes was 15-year old>10-year old>5-year old. In vertical direction, the root length density decreased after an initial decrease, and the root dry mass density had a significant difference between soil layers. The intensive distribution region of the root biomass density for the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old was 30-80 cm, 30-100 cm, and 30-100 cm soil depth within the 200 cm range from the trees, respectively. In horizontal direction, the root dry mass density at different distances from the trees had significant difference, i. e., the farther the distance from the tree trunk, the smaller the root dry mass density. In order to decrease the overlap between the tree line and to reduce water and nutrient competition, the row ledge of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation should not be less than 6 m.

  10. Antifeedant and mosquitocidal compounds from Delphinium x cultorum cv. Magic fountains flowers.

    PubMed

    Miles, J E; Ramsewak, R S; Nair, M G

    2000-02-01

    Six volatile compounds, ethylmethylbenzene (1), 1-isopentyl-2,4, 5-trimethylbenzene (2), 2-(hex-3-ene-2-one)phenylmethyl ketone (3), E and Z isomers of 3-butylidene-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one (4 and 5), and 2-penten-1-ylbenzoic acid (6), were isolated from the mosquitocidal hexane extract of Delphinium x cultorum cv. Magic Fountains flowers. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract, which displayed corn earworm antifeedant activity, yielded 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanol (8). However, compounds 7 and 8 were not biologically active. PMID:10691665

  11. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    PubMed

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  12. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  13. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1990-01-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  14. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    PubMed

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse. PMID:24226709

  15. Preliminary measurements of aircraft airframe noise with the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. C.; Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted in a CV-990 jet transport with engines at idle power to investigate aircraft airframe noise. Test results showed that airframe noise was measured for the aircraft in the landing configuration. The results agreed well with the expected variation with the fifth power of velocity. For the aircraft in the clean configuraton, it was concluded that airframe noise was measured only at higher airspeeds with engine idle noise present at lower speeds. The data show that landing gear and flaps make a significant contribution to airframe noise.

  16. Low-lift-to-drag-ratio approach and landing studies using a CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kock, B. M.; Fulton, F. L.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a flight-test program utilizing a CV-990 airplane, flow in low-lift-to-drag-ratio (L/D) configurations, to simulate terminal area operation, approach, and landing of large unpowered vehicles. The results indicate that unpowered approaches and landings are practical with vehicles of the size and performance characteristics of the proposed shuttle vehicle. Low L/D landings provided touchdown dispersion patterns acceptable for operation on runways of reasonable length. The dispersion pattern was reduced when guidance was used during the final approach. High levels of pilot proficiency were not required for acceptable performance.

  17. The light curve of CV Serpentis, the sometimes-eclipsing Wolf-Rayet star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Liller, W.

    1975-01-01

    New photoelectric observations of the B-magnitude of CV Ser made in 1973 and 1974 show no clear evidence of an eclipse, but they establish night-to-night variability of several percent, a systematic brightness change of 0.035 mag during a portion of the single orbit observed in 1973, and irregular flaring in 1974. We made iris photometer measurements of Harvard patrol plates taken between 1905 June and 1953 July, and find no evidence of a very deep eclipse such as observed by Hjellming and Hiltner. We present several new light curves and discuss then in the light of the recent results of Cowley et al.

  18. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  19. CV Protection in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial: A "Thrifty Substrate" Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Mark, Michael; Mayoux, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The striking and unexpected relative risk reductions in cardiovascular (CV) mortality (38%), hospitalization for heart failure (35%), and death from any cause (32%) observed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial using an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk have raised the possibility that mechanisms other than those observed in the trial-modest improvement in glycemic control, small decrease in body weight, and persistent reductions in blood pressure and uric acid level-may be at play. We hypothesize that under conditions of mild, persistent hyperketonemia, such as those that prevail during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors, β-hydroxybutyrate is freely taken up by the heart (among other organs) and oxidized in preference to fatty acids. This fuel selection improves the transduction of oxygen consumption into work efficiency at the mitochondrial level. In addition, the hemoconcentration that typically follows SGLT2 inhibition enhances oxygen release to the tissues, thereby establishing a powerful synergy with the metabolic substrate shift. These mechanisms would cooperate with other SGLT2 inhibition-induced changes (chiefly, enhanced diuresis and reduced blood pressure) to achieve the degree of cardioprotection revealed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. This hypothesis opens up new lines of investigation into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic and nondiabetic heart disease. PMID:27289126

  20. The Glycine max cv. Enrei Genome for Improvement of Japanese Soybean Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Michihiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Setsuko; Namiki, Nobukazu; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kamatsuki, Kaori; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the genome sequence of Glycine max cv. Enrei to provide a reference for characterization of Japanese domestic soybean cultivars. The whole genome sequence obtained using a next-generation sequencer was used for reference mapping into the current genome assembly of G. max cv. Williams 82 obtained by the Soybean Genome Sequencing Consortium in the USA. After sequencing and assembling the whole genome shotgun reads, we obtained a data set with about 928 Mbs total bases and 60,838 gene models. Phylogenetic analysis provided glimpses into the ancestral relationships of both cultivars and their divergence from the complex that include the wild relatives of soybean. The gene models were analyzed in relation to traits associated with anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis and an overall profile of the proteome. The sequence data are made available in DAIZUbase in order to provide a comprehensive informatics resource for comparative genomics of a wide range of soybean cultivars in Japan and a reference tool for improvement of soybean cultivars worldwide.

  1. In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from diploid Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua.

    PubMed

    Gu, X F; Yang, A F; Meng, H; Zhang, J R

    2005-12-01

    Tetraploid plants of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua were obtained with in vitro colchicine treatment. Shoot tips from in vitro-grown plants were treated with five different concentrations of colchicine (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3%) in liquid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962), and shaken (100 rpm) at 25 degrees C in darkness for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, respectively. Tetraploids were obtained at a frequency of over 3% by using 0.05% colchicine (48 h, 72 h) and 0.1% colchicine (24 h, 48 h) treatment as determined by flow cytometry. Cytological and morphological evidence confirmed the results of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome number of diploid plants was 24 and that of tetraploid plants was 48. The stomata sizes of tetraploid plants were significantly larger than those of diploid plants, while the frequency of stomata were reduced significantly. Similarly, the chloroplast number of guard cells of tetraploid plants increased significantly. The selected tetraploid plants were grafted onto mature trees of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua in the field, resulted in thicker stems, rounder and succulent leaves, larger flowers and a delay in florescence time (3-4 days later) than diploid plants. PMID:16094528

  2. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  3. CV205-502, a new non-ergot dopamine agonist, reduces prolactinoma size in man.

    PubMed

    Barnett, P S; Dawson, J M; Butler, J; Coskeran, P B; Maccabe, J J; McGregor, A M

    1990-08-01

    Seven patients with large prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were treated for 8 weeks with once-daily doses of the new, potent, non-ergot, long-acting dopamine agonist CV205-502. In five patients previous treatment with bromocriptine had failed to control their disease or been poorly tolerated and had therefore ceased. In all seven patients serum prolactin levels fell over the 8-week period of CV205-502 treatment with the decrease ranging from 33 to 99%. Associated with this decline in prolactin all patients showed symptomatic improvement with two of the five women beginning to menstruate and the two patients with visual field impairment showing marked improvement. Tolerance of the drug, with doses at 8 weeks ranging from 0.075 to 0.3 mg, was excellent with only minimal and transient side-effects being noted in three patients in none of whom was discontinuation of therapy necessary. In one patient noncompliance after 6 weeks of therapy was associated with a rapid return of her serum prolactin towards pretreatment levels. In all seven patients the clinical and biochemical improvement was accompanied by a marked reduction in tumour size.

  4. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp.

  5. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  6. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A.; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dimitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step. PMID:21827737

  7. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step.

  8. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  9. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp. PMID:23898551

  10. Determination of replacement of some inorganic elements in pulvinus of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) at chilling temperature by the WDXRF spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Demir, Faruk; Budak, Gokhan; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Kadi, Nuray; Karakurt, Halil; Erdal, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) were exposed to chilling temperatures until leaves are wrinkled (9 day), that is, showed nyctinastic movement. Pulvinus were subsequently were cut from the leaves. Concentrations of inorganic elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu) in the pulvinus were measured by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry. Results indicated that concentration change (%) was not significant for Ca (0.82) but it was significant for K, P, Cl, S, and especially Cu concentrations (5.4%, 12.8%, 40.2%, 43.7%, 365%, respectively) in pulvinus of plants exposed to chilling temperature compared with control group. We hypothesize here the presence of association between nyctinasti movement brought about by pulvinus at chilling temperature in bean and changes of K, P, Cl, S and especially Cu concentrations measured by WDXRF analysis method.

  11. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  12. Structural insight into amino group-carrier protein-mediated lysine biosynthesis: crystal structure of the LysZ·LysW complex from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Tomita, Takeo; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the biosynthesis of lysine by Thermus thermophilus, the metabolite α-ketoglutarate is converted to the intermediate α-aminoadipate (AAA), which is protected by the 54-amino acid acidic protein LysW. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of LysZ from T. thermophilus (TtLysZ), an amino acid kinase that catalyzes the second step in the AAA to lysine conversion, which was in a complex with LysW at a resolution of 1.85 Å. A crystal analysis coupled with isothermal titration calorimetry of the TtLysZ mutants for TtLysW revealed tight interactions between LysZ and the globular and C-terminal extension domains of the LysW protein, which were mainly attributed to electrostatic forces. These results provided structural evidence for LysW acting as a protecting molecule for the α-amino group of AAA and also as a carrier protein to guarantee better recognition by biosynthetic enzymes for the efficient biosynthesis of lysine.

  13. An automated Dengue virus microneutralization plaque assay performed in human Fc{gamma} receptor-expressing CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, W W Shanaka I; Alcena, Danielle C; Rose, Robert C; Jin, Xia; Schlesinger, Jacob J

    2009-01-01

    We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcgammaRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. Classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) end-point titers were determined by probit analysis. Neutralization titers against DENV measured in CV-1 transfectants were expressed in terms of both conventional 50% to 90% PRNT end-point titers and differential infectivity of antibody-treated virus in control and CD32-expressing CV-1 cells. Significantly reduced PRNT titers and strikingly heightened infectivity (up to 100-fold) of antibody-treated DENV was observed in CV-1 CD32 transfectants compared with that observed in control CV-1 or Vero cells. Because DENVs may preferentially replicate in CD32-expressing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, in vivo, it is possible that CD32 introduced into a conventional DENV neutralization assay might provide results that better correlate with protection.

  14. Group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  15. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  16. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen NtabSPL genes in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Qinyan95.

    PubMed

    Han, Yao-Yao; Ma, Yan-Qin; Li, Dian-Zhen; Yao, Jing-Wen; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen SPL (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) genes were identified and characterized in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Qinyan95. The exon-intron structures of these genes were determined according to the coding sequences confirmed by RT-PCR and the genomic DNA sequences downloaded from the databases in Sol Genomics Network, and thirteen of them were found to carry the response element of miR156. To elucidate the origin of the validated NtabSPL genes, multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences encompassing the open reading frames were conducted by using the orthologs in N. tabacum, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, and Nicotiana otophora. The results showed that six NtabSPL genes were derived from a progenitor of N. sylvestris, and nine NtabSPL genes were derived from a progenitor of N. tomentosiformis, further corroborating that N. tabacum came from the interspecific hybridization between the ancestors of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. In contrast to previous statements about highly repetitive sequences, the genome of N. tabacum mainly retained the paternal-derived SPL genes in diploidization process. Phylogenetic analyses based on the highly conserved SBP (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN) domains and the full-length amino acid sequences reveal that the SPL proteins of tobacco, tomato, and Arabidopsis can be categorized into eight groups. It is worth noting that N. tabacum contains seven NtabSPL6 genes originated from two parental genomes and NtabSPL6-2 possesses a GC-AG intron. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants harboring Arabidopsis Pri-miR156A were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and the constitutive expression of miR156 could obviously inhibit the activity of the NtabSPL genes containing its target site, suggesting the function of miR156 is conservative in tobacco and Arabidopsis.

  17. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300°C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475°C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 μT for ALH 84028 and 14-45 μT for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body

  18. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  19. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  20. C-V measurements of micron diameter metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using a scanning-electron-microscope-based nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Jia, H; Wallace, R M; Gnade, B E

    2007-10-01

    The C-V electrical characterization of microstructures on a standard probe station is limited by the magnification of the imaging system and the precision of the probe manipulators. To overcome these limitations, we examine the combination of in situ electrical probing and a dual column scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system. The imaging parameters and probing procedures are carefully chosen to reduce e-beam damage to the metal oxide semiconductor capacitor device under test. Estimation of shunt capacitance is critical when making femtofarad level measurements. C-V measurements of micron size metal-oxide-silicon capacitors are demonstrated. PMID:17979444

  1. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  2. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  3. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations.

  4. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  5. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations. PMID:26918635

  6. Partial Melting of the Aliende (CV3) Meteorite: Implications for Origins of Basaltic Meteorites.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, A J; Mittlefehldt, D W; Jones, J H

    1991-05-01

    Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity (fo(2)). Melts are eucritic if thefo(2) is below that of the iron-wüstite buffer or angritic if above the fo(2) of that buffer. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wüstite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid >110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting.

  7. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  8. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  9. Seed Development in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seminole: II. Precocious Germination in Late Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fountain, D W; Outred, H A

    1990-07-01

    Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seminole in late maturation phase germinated precociously in vitro. Germination occurred in the absence of free water after 5 days but within 24 to 48 hours in contact with water. Excised axes germinated within 12 hours and embryos by 48 hours only if supplied with water. Ethylene accelerated the germination of seeds and embryos irrespective of water availability. There was no effect of ethylene on the rate of axis germination. Ethylene was equally effective within the range 0.5 to 1000 parts per million and 1 hour exposure was fully effective. Induction of precocious germination in vivo was observed by manipulating water content inside pods or by ethylene injection, whether pods were attached to the parent plant or not. These results demonstrate the importance of endogenous regulation of water supply in suppressing precocious germination. Ethylene is identified as a powerful antagonist to the natural control.

  10. Changes in color and phenolic compounds during the raisining of grape cv. Pedro Ximenez.

    PubMed

    Serratosa, María P; Lopez-Toledano, Azahara; Merida, Julieta; Medina, Manuel

    2008-04-23

    Changes in color parameters and phenolic compounds during the sun-drying grape raisining of cv. Pedro Ximenez to obtain sweet wines are studied. Browning increases during the process as a result of the contribution to a greater extent of the low and medium molecular size polymers than the high molecular size polymers. Raisining decreases hue and lightness and increases chroma, all measured as CIELab parameters, indicating a color change to dark reddish hues that is also preferentially due to low and medium molecular size polymers. Most of the phenols studied increase in concentration during raisining, essentially through the concentration effect resulting from the loss of water in the grapes. The concentration changes, however, are comparatively small for hydroxycinnamic esters and flavan-3-ol derivatives, suggesting that these phenolic fractions undergo predominantly oxidative degradation reactions by enzymatic pathways, contributing strongly to the browning of grapes. PMID:18345634

  11. [Effects of simulated acid rain on chloroplast activity in Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. wulongling leaves].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dongliang; Liu, Xinghui

    2002-12-01

    A decreased content of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid (Car) was found in the Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. wulongling leaves when treated with < pH 3.5 acid rain. The decline of Chl content was caused by the reduction of Chla, while Chlb was less sensitive to the acid rain, which resulted in a decrease of Chla/Chlb ratio. The content of Car and the ratio of Chla to Chlb reduced with the duration of stress time. The injury of acid rain to photosynthetic pigments was intensified by illumination. The activities of photoreduction, photophosphorylation and H(+)-ATPase activity decreased with the reduction of pH value under the simulated acid rain. Therefore, the injury of electron transport chain and the uncoupling of photophosphorylation might lead to the ineffective absorption, transportation and transformation of light energy. In our study, the process of photophosphorylation was more sensitive to acid rain than that of photoreduction.

  12. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

  13. Analysis of ultraviolet atmospheric eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet binary CV Serpentis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Khaliullin, Kh. F.

    1985-01-01

    While no eclipses deeper than 0.04 mag are noted in the present UV spectra, covering one-half of an orbital cycle of CV Ser, in the electron scattering continuum at 2400-3200 A or in fine error sensor observations, marked atmospheric eclipses of up to 0.5 mag depth are observed in individual strong lines and over large ranges of the continuum at shorter wavelengths. The flux above the continuum in the C II 1247 A, Si IV 1400 A, and Si IV 1723 lines showed similar phase dependence with emission weakening, as well as with the emission's going into absorption as phase progresses from superior to inferior conjunction of the WC star (primary eclipse). These observations show effects very similar to the behavior of WN stars in the UV.

  14. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  15. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics of the CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Flight-determined longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives are presented for the CV-990 airplane for various combinations of Mach number, altitude, and flap setting throughout the flight envelope up to a Mach number of 0.87. Also presented are the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft calculated from the flight-obtained derivatives and the measured phugoid characteristics. The derivative characteristics were obtained from flight records of longitudinal and lateral-directional transient oscillation maneuvers by using a modified Newton-Raphson digital derivative determination technique. Generally the derivatives exhibited consistent variation with lift coefficient in the low-speed data and with Mach number and altitude in the high-speed data. Many also varied with flap deflection, notably spoiler effectiveness and directional stability.

  16. Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

    2008-01-01

    The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits.

  17. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    PubMed

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit. PMID:12166965

  18. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  19. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  20. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development. PMID:27462328

  1. Chondritic ingredients: I. Usual suspects and some oddballs in the Leoville CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzer, Andrea; Hezel, Dominik C.; Bendel, Verena; Pack, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Reduced CV3 chondrites are relatively pristine rocks and prime candidates for studies exploring processes that predated planet formation. We closely examined the petrographic features and trace elemental composition of different CV3 constituents in the accretionary breccia Leoville. The petrographic results are presented here. Our sample (2.2 cm2) is not brecciated. The main ingredient—about 65 area%—is fine- to coarse-grained ferromagnesian type I chondrules. Minor constituents (in order of 2-D abundance) include refractory inclusions, Al-rich chondrules, and very fine-crystalline clasts of moderately volatile composition. Type II chondrules and metal nuggets occur sporadically. The chondrule-matrix ratio is approximately 3:1. Medium- and coarse-grained chondrules exhibit porphyritic textures, probably caused by incomplete melting, and frequent, partial or continuous, recrystallized dust rims. The fine-grained population most likely represents randomly sectioned dust rims. The rim material and some of the medium-grained objects are relatively troilite-rich. Iron-nickel metal is rare. In addition, almost all constituents show strikingly ragged or convoluted outlines. Only a few, rim-less components exhibit smooth contours. Evidence for incomplete melting and the formation of recrystallized or igneous rims in carbonaceous chondrites is well established, suggesting that both processes were widespread events. The observed features in Leoville support this conclusion. In addition, our findings indicate that surface abrasion in a turbulent dust-filled regime may have taken place after the consolidation of dust rims. Alternatively, the irregular, convoluted nature of at least the rimmed chondrules may have been inherent to the dust accretion event and was not erased by subsequent heating.

  2. Economic valuation of the Seto Inland Sea by using an Internet CV survey.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Takahiro; Washida, Toyoaki

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the economic value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea after the introduction of the Law on Temporary Measures for the Environmental Conservation of the Seto Inland Sea (Setouchi Law) and the value of the natural environment that survived, using a Contingent Valuation (CV) survey on an Internet web site. The CV survey contains three plans. Plan 1 is to restore 4 ha of reclaimed land. By estimating the Willingness To Pay (WTP) for plan 1, we can appraise the value of the natural environment that was damaged as a result of the original reclamation. Plan 2 is to transplant Zostera (eel-grass) into an area of 10 ha offshore. Plan 3 is to preserve the shore area, a natural habitat for rare animal species, under the National Trust Program. From the WTP for plans 2 and 3, we can estimate the value of the shore area and the areas a little farther offshore. The value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea as a result of reclaiming projects after the introduction of the Setouchi Law and the value of the existing natural environment of the Seto Inland Sea from the WTP for the plans were estimated to about 172 trillion yen (1.46 trillion dollars) and about 424 trillion yen (3.60 trillion dollars), respectively. The results indicate that in the 25 years since the introduction of the Setouchi Law, we have degraded every year about 6.88 trillion yen (58.5 billion dollars) worth of the natural environment by reclaiming. Some seaweed farms and natural shore areas, natural habitats to rare marine life-forms like the horseshoe crab and the fiddler crab have survived, but their value amounts to about 80% of Japan's GDP.

  3. [Models for estimating foliar Fe and Mn Concentration of Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing using spectral reflectance].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-Zhu; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Shi-Wei; Guo, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Ding, Fan; Li, Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Aimed at providing technology for a rapid nutrition diagnosis system of micronutrients in Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing, we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar ferrum (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentration based on spectrum analysis. The foliar spectrum reflectance at various phenological periods of fruit development under different soil fertility conditions was measured by Unispec-SC spectrometer. By analyzing the correlation of foliar Fe, Mn concentration at various phenological periods of fruit development, the spectrum reflectance Rλ and its first-order differential f' (Rλ), we filtered out its sensitive bands. And we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar Fe and Mn at various phenological periods of fruit development with the linear regression model. The results showed that the spectral sensitive bands of foliar Fe in fruit setting period were 873 and 874 nm, 375 and 437 nm in fruit core-hardening period, 836 and 837 nm in maturity period and 325 and 1 054 nm in post-harvest period. However, the spectral sensitive bands of Mn were 913 and 1 129 nm, 425 and 970 nm, 390 and 466 nm, 423 and 424 nm, respectively. The Fe and Mn concentration of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing leaves were the most relevant to the first-order differential f' (RD) of its spectrum reflectance, whose linear spectrum estimation model fitting degree was the highest and reached to a significant or highly significant level. It showed that the spectral sensitive bands of Fe and Mn element varied with different phenological periods of fruit development. The spectrum estimation models for its foliar Fe and Mn concentration could be established with linear model according to its first-order differential f' (Rλ). PMID:25532350

  4. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  5. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  6. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  7. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  8. Experimental determination of the boundary layer at air-sample inlet positions on the NASA CV 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, S. W.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    Full-scale, in-flight measurements of the boundary-layer thickness, velocity profile, and flow angle have been made at several sample collection stations on the fuselage of the NASA CV 990. These results are given as functions of Mach number, Reynolds number, yaw, and angle of attack.

  9. Using Multidimensional Rasch Analysis to Validate the Chinese Version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-CV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yin, Hongbiao

    2010-01-01

    This article used the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model to examine the construct validity and detect the substantial differential item functioning (DIF) of the Chinese version of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ-CV). A total of 1,354 Hong Kong junior high school students were administered the…

  10. Psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire--Child Version (OBQ-CV).

    PubMed

    Wolters, Lidewij H; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Koolstra, Tim; Vervoort, Leentje; Boer, Frits; Prins, Pier J M; de Haan, Else

    2011-06-01

    To improve research in cognitive theories of childhood OCD, a child version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-CV) has been developed (Coles et al., 2010). In the present study, psychometric properties of the Dutch OBQ-CV were examined in a community sample (N=547; 8-18 years) and an OCD sample (N=67; 8-18 years). Results revealed good internal consistency and adequate retest reliability (retest interval 7-21 weeks and 6-12 weeks, respectively). Children with OCD reported more beliefs than non-clinical children. Obsessive beliefs were related to self-reported OCD symptoms, but not to clinician-rated OCD severity. Beliefs were also related to anxiety and depression. This is the first study examining the factor structure of the OBQ-CV. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed best fit for four factors representing Perfectionism/Certainty, Importance/Control of Thoughts, Responsibility, and Threat, and a higher-order factor. This is in line with results from adult samples. These results support the reliability and validity of the Dutch OBQ-CV.

  11. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  12. Evidence for Oxygen-Isotope Exchange in Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions During Fluid-Rock Interaction on the CV Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-08-01

    Plagioclase in chondrules, CAIs and AOAs from the carbonaceous chondrite Kaba (CV3.1) experienced oxygen-isotope exchange with a metasomatic fluid responsible for the formation of magnetite, fayalite and Ca,Fe-rich silicates on the CV parent body.

  13. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease).

    PubMed

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C; Nelson, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  16. Multilocus half-tetrad analysis and centromere mapping in citrus: evidence of SDR mechanism for 2n megagametophyte production and partial chiasma interference in mandarin cv ‘Fortune'

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, J; Froelicher, Y; Aleza, P; Juárez, J; Navarro, L; Ollitrault, P

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of 2n gametes and, particularly, the parental heterozygosity restitution at each locus depends on the meiotic process by which they originated, with first-division restitution and second-division restitution (SDR) being the two major mechanisms. The origin of 2n gametes in citrus is still controversial, although sexual polyploidisation is widely used for triploid seedless cultivar development. In this study, we report the analysis of 2n gametes of mandarin cv ‘Fortune' by genotyping 171 triploid hybrids with 35 simple sequence repeat markers. The microsatellite DNA allele counting-peak ratios method for allele-dosage evaluation proved highly efficient in segregating triploid progenies and allowed half-tetrad analysis (HTA) by inferring the 2n gamete allelic configuration. All 2n gametes arose from the female genitor. The observed maternal heterozygosity restitution varied between 10 and 82%, depending on the locus, thus SDR appears to be the mechanism underlying 2n gamete production in mandarin cv ‘Fortune'. A new method to locate the centromere, based on the best fit between observed heterozygosity restitution within a linkage group and theoretical functions under either partial or no chiasmata interference hypotheses was successfully applied to linkage group II. The maximum value of heterozygosity restitution and the pattern of restitution along this linkage group would suggest there is partial chiasma interference. The implications of such a restitution mechanism for citrus breeding are discussed. PMID:21587302

  17. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  18. Unusual Dark Clasts in the Vigarano CV3 Chondrite: Record of Parent Body Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, T.; Tomeoka, K.; Takeda, H.

    1993-07-01

    A variety of dark lithic clasts have been reported from CV3 chondrites and are commonly called "dark inclusions" (DIs). The DIs widely range in texture from chondritic with chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) embedded in a matrix (similar to host meteorites), to fine-grained aggregates of Fe-rich olivine free of coarse-grained components [1,2]. The DIs have been interpreted to represent (1) primary aggregates of materials in the solar nebula [3-5] and (2) materials that were affected by thermal metamorphism on their parent bodies [6]. We present the results of petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of two unusual clasts found in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. The two unusual clasts, which we will call CL1 and CL2, are approximately 1.2 x 1.0 mm^2 (CLl) and 0.8 x 0.6 mm^2 (CL2) and occur within one of the large clasts (2.8 x 1.0 mm^2). CL1 and CL2 have very similar mineralogies and textures; they contain irregular to oval-shaped inclusions consisting mostly of fine grains of Fe-rich olivine embedded in the matrix of the clasts, and are free of distinct chondrules, CAIs, and coarse mineral fragments. Thus, they resemble the fine-grained variety of DIs. Under the optical microscope, most inclusions resemble chondrules or chondrule fragments in shape and size. However, they are brownish-translucent in transmitted light and are clearly distinct from chondrules in the Vigarano host. The inclusions are characteristically flattened in direction, exhibiting apparent foliation. Our SEM observations reveal the following unusual characteristics: (1) the inclusions are not mere random aggregates of olivine grains but have peculiar internal textures, i.e., assemblies of round or oval-shaped outlines, which are suggestive of pseudomorphs after porphyritic or granular olivine chondrules; (2) one of the thick inclusion rims contains a network of vein-like strings of elongated olivine grains, (3) an Fe-Ni metal aggregate in CL1 has an Fe-, Ni-, S-rich halo

  19. NEA 2100 Ra-Shalom: K-class and Source of CV3 Chondrite Grosnaja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, M. K.; Clark, B. E.; Swetra, S.; Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K.; Lederer, S. M.

    2004-11-01

    We obtained rotationally resolved spectra of the near-Earth asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom in Aug 2003 in the visible (0.5-0.9 micron) at McDonald Observatory and infrared (0.8-2.5 micron) at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Ra-Shalom is one of the larger members of the Aten family. Its effective diameter is 2.5 km (Harris et al. Icarus 135, 441-450, 1998; Shepard et al. Icarus 147, 520-529, 2000) and its rotation period is 19.8 h (Pravec et al. Icarus 136, 124-153, 1998). Ra-Shalom has been classified as C- (Binzel et al., Icarus 170, 259-294, 2004), S- (Harris et al. 1998), and Xc- class (Bus and Binzel, Icarus 158, 146-177, 2002). Our observations show significant spectral variations with rotation phase, however their proximity to the Milky Way makes interpretation difficult. Our hemispheric-averaged spectrum is an excellent match to the CV3 chondrite Grosnaja, suggesting Ra-Shalom to be its source (RELAB sample MR-MJG-119-P1; Gaffey, JGR 81, 905-920, 1976). Given the purported link between K-class asteroids and CV3 and CO3 chondrites (Bell, Meteoritics 23, 256-257, 1988; Doressoundiram, et al. Icarus 131, 15-31, 1998; Burbine et al. Meteoritics Planet. Sci 36, 245-253, 2001), we suggest that Ra-Shalom is K-class, making it the second known Aten of that class after 1999 JD6 (Binzel et al. Icarus 151, 139-149, 2001). This raises difficult dynamical questions. The major reservoir of K-class asteroids is the Eos family in the outer main-belt ( 3 AU). Dynamical simulations by Bottke et al. (Icarus 156, 399-433, 2002) suggest that Atens originate from the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter (2.5 AU), the nu6 secular resonance (2.1-2.3 AU), or the Mars crossing population (2.1-2.8 AU). Specific computations for Ra-Shalom mirror this (Bottke, personal comm.). Either there is an unknown dynamical path or another K-class source to populate the Atens.

  20. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), 3N from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) CAI and UR CAI 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB CAI are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA CAI and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861174"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable progeny production of the amphidiploid resynthesized Brassica napus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hanakkori, a newly bred vegetable.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujii, K; Ohmido, N</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Resynthesized Brassica napus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hanakkori (AACC, 2n = 38) was produced by cross-hybridization between B. rapa (AA, 2n = 20) and B. oleracea (CC, 2n = 18) as a new vegetative crop. Many studies have provided evidences for the instability and close relationship between A and C genome in the resynthesized B. napus cultivars. In fact, seed produced to obtain progeny in Hanakkori had unstable morphological characters and generated many off-type plants. In this study, we investigated the pollen fertility, chromosome number, structure, and behavior linked to various Hanakkori phenotypes to define factors of unstable phenotypic expression in the progeny. Hanakkori phenotypes were categorized into five types. The results of pollen fertility, chromosome number, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for somatic mitosis cells indicated that the off-type plants had lower pollen fertility, aberrant chromosome number, and structures with small chromosome fragments. Observation of chromosomes at meiosis showed that the meiotic division in off-type plants led to appreciably higher abnormalities than in on-type plants. However, polyvalent chromosomes were observed frequently in both on- and off-type plants in diplotene stage of meiosis. We assume that the unstable morphological characters in resynthesized progeny were the result of abnormal division in meiosis. It results as important that the plants of normal phenotype, chromosome structure and minimized abnormal meiosis are selected to stabilize progeny.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381473"><span id="translatedtitle">Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz) latex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees’ latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins’ autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547"><span id="translatedtitle">Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz</p> <p>2013-04-24</p> <p>Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442011"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...33H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...33H"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualisation and quantification of <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite petrography using micro-tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hezel, Dominik C.; Elangovan, Premkumar; Viehmann, Sebastian; Howard, Lauren; Abel, Richard L.; Armstrong, Robin</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Micro-computed tomography is a non-destructive technique that allows the study of 3D meteorite petrography. The technique produces a unique and instructive visualisation of the meteorite for quantifying its components. We studied the overall petrography of the two <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites Allende and Mokoia to constrain their formation histories. A set of movies and stereographic images detail the 3D petrography. Component modal abundances agree with previous reports and modal abundance differences between Allende and Mokoia support the chondrule-matrix complementarity and that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir. We identified two types of chondrules, a normal type and one where a normal type I or II chondrule is almost completely encapsulated by an opaque-rich layer. This layer was probably acquired during a late stage condensation process. The appearance of opaques in chondrules and matrix is different, not supporting a genetic relationships between these. Low abundances of compound chondrules (1.75 vol% in Allende and 2.50 vol% in Mokoia) indicate low chondrule densities and/or low relative component velocities in chondrule formation regions. Porosities on a scale <10-20 μm allowed for only local aqueous alteration processes on the meteorite parent bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) Peel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1066031','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1066031"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology of Movements in the Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Alaska 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Phototropic response in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Alaska) seedlings is poor. However, the curvature induced by unilateral blue light can be hastened and increased in magnitude by a previously administered red light pulse followed by several hours of darkness. Phytochrome is involved in the red light effect. Phototropic response was almost completely inhibited by removal of the apical bud and hook, but it was restored if exogenous indole-3-acetic acid was applied apically to the cut stump. Therefore, the stem contains both the phototropic photoreceptor and response mechanism. Perception of gravity and gravitropic response were also localized in the stem, but gravitropism was scarcely inhibited by decapitation. It was also observed that the kinetics and curvature pattern of gravitropism differed greatly from those of phototropism. Like phototropism, stem nutation required auxin and was promoted by red light. Unlike phototropism, photoenhanced nutational curvature required the apical hook and was propagated as a wave down the stem. Naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited, in order of decreasing effect, nutation, phototropism/gravitropism, and growth. Phototropism, gravitropism, and nutation appear to represent distinct forms of stem movement with fundamental differences in the mechanisms of curvature development. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16662824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=drilling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddrilling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=drilling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddrilling"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the <span class="hlt">CV</span>990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387087"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of preservative agents on the respiration rate of minimally processed potato (Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Monalisa).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petri, E; Arroqui, C; Angós, I; Vírseda, P</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The shelf life of minimally processed potatoes (MPP) is limited by enzyme-catalyzed browning reactions, with the increase in respiration being another factor that affects quality retention of this product. Sulfites are commonly used as effective preservative agents in minimally processing potatoes, but ascorbic acid and citric acid are considered natural sulfite substitutes and more accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to study the effect of combinations of the preservative agents cited above (sodium metabisulfite 0.1% and 0.5%; citric acid 0.1% and 0.5%; ascorbic acid 0.5%) on the respiration rate of MPP (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Monalisa) processed at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. The results have revealed that there is a significant effect of dipping treatment and temperature on respiration rate of MPP. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) reduces respiratory activity up to 0.8 mL/kg/h. The addition of either citric or ascorbic acid enhanced the effect of SM on the reduction of the respiration rate of MPP. The strongest effect (up to 3.3 mL/kg/h) was observed when a combination of all 3 agents at the higher concentrations was employed at a temperature of 18 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264640"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bethlehem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B43C0447S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B43C0447S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, F. L.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system, a sustained deficit (SDI)treatment B received 60% of crop evapotranspiration, a regulated deficit(RDI) irrigation treatment C received irrigation water before-flowering and just before pit-hardening, and a Dry-farming treatment. Tree and orchard transpiration and the dynamics of water uptake by roots were estimated from sap flow measurements and water balance technique. Stomatal conductance was modeled from local meteorological variables, measured sap flow and tree canopy variables. Higher than treatment A and B stomatal conductance and the high tree fruit production recommend treatment C as most suitable for scheduling irrigation of olive orchards in wet years of well distributed late summer rainfall. For drier years of no summer and early autumn rains that minimizes available water to extract by roots outside the wet bulb of drip irrigation and for the scarce readily available irrigation water years, as so often occurs in the region, the sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) regime seems a better option. Nonetheless, for years of limited available water resources that preclude sustained deficit irrigation, careful management of the proposed RDI could also allow for efficient use of irrigation water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073"><span id="translatedtitle">Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span> Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19937456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19937456"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing the robustness of phenological models for Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chardonnay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caffarra, Amelia; Eccel, Emanuele</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Phenological models are important tools for planning viticultural practices in the short term and for projecting the impact of climate change on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in the long term. However, the difficulties in obtaining phenological models which provide accurate predictions on a regional scale prevent them from being exploited to their full potential. The aim of this work was to obtain a robust phenological model for V. vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chardonnay. During calibration of the sub-models for budburst, flowering and veraison we implemented a series of measures to prevent overfitting and to give greater physiological meaning to the models. Among these were the use of experimental information on the response of Chardonnay to forcing temperatures, restriction of parameter space into physiologically meaningful limits prior to calibration, and simplification of the previously selected sub-models. The resulting process-based model had good internal validity and a good level of accuracy in predicting phenological events from external datasets. Model performance was especially high for the prediction of flowering and veraison, and comparison with other models confirmed it as a better predictor of phenology, even in extremely warm years. The modelling study highlighted a different phenological behaviour at the only mountain station, Cembra. We hypothesised that phenotypical plasticity could lead to growth rates adapting to a lower mean temperature, a mechanism not usually accounted for by phenological models. PMID:19937456</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hojiblanca.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16664902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16664902"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Ethylene in Lactuca sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span> ;Grand Rapids' Seed Germination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abeles, F B</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>Promotion of thermoinhibited (30 degrees C) lettuce (Lactuca sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span> ;Grand Rapids') seed germination by ethylene is similar to the action of the gas in other hormonal systems. Ethylene was more active than propylene and ethane was inactive. An inhibitor of ethylene production, aminoethoxy-vinylglycine, reduced ethylene evolution and germination. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as, 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-norbornadiene, and silver thiosulfate inhibited germination and the effect was reversed by the addition of ethylene to the gas phase. The action of ethylene appears to be due to the promotion of radial cell expansion in the embryonic hypocotyl. The action of N6-benzyladenine and fusiccocin, which also overcome thermoinhibition, appears to be due to a promotion of hypocotyl elongation. None of the germination promoters studied appeared to function by lowering the mechanical resistance of the endosperm to embryonic growth. Data presented here are consistent with the view that ethylene plays a role in lettuce seed germination under thermoinhibited and normal conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765"><span id="translatedtitle">G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> fluorescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson–Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A</p> <p>2005-07-13</p> <p>The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomonitoring of air pollution with mercury in Croatia by using moss species and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spirić, Zdravko; Vučković, Ivana; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Bačeva, Katerina</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Moss samples from four dominant species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Homalothecium sericeum and Brachythecium rutabulum) were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010 from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the territory of Croatia. Samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion system, whilst mercury was analysed by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS). Descriptive statistics were done from analyses of mercury in all moss samples. The content of mercury ranged from 0.010 to 0.145 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 0.043 mg kg(-1). Hg distribution map shows the sites of the country with higher levels of this element. High contents of Hg were found in moss samples collected from the regions of Podravina and Istria as a result of anthropogenic pollution. Comparison of median values and ranges with those found in moss samples in 2006 shows slight reduction of mercury air pollution. When compared to the results obtained from recent studies conducted in Slovenia, Macedonia and especially in Norway-which serves as a reference considering the fact that it is a pristine area-mercury air pollution in Croatia is insignificant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenolics from strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi and their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Dan; Xie, Haihui; Jiang, Yueming; Wei, Xiaoyi</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Three new phenolic glucosides, falandiosides A (1), B (2), and C (6) were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi fruit, together with three flavone glucuronides (3-5), eleven lignan glycosides (12-22), and five others. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All the known phenolics were reported from strawberry for the first time. They were evaluated for antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three new and fifteen known phenolics showed potent 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity with IC50 values of 22.50-4.28μM in comparison to l-ascorbic acid (14.21μM). Quercetin 3-(6-methylglucuronide) (4), (+)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (12), and (-)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (13) were active in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Moreover, compounds 12 and 13 had moderate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Further, two new and seven known phenolics exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 537.43-25.39μM than acarbose (619.94μM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711423"><span id="translatedtitle">An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Camarosa by a dual plasmid system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haddadi, Fatemeh; Aziz, Maheran Abd; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Tan, Soon Guan; Kamaladini, Hossein</p> <p>2015-02-23</p> <p>An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827138"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Cardinal'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Topalović, Ana; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Knezević, Mirko; Veberic, Robert</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The foliar fertilization has been used as an important agrotechnical measure to avoid deficiencies and to improve quality. During the two consecutive years, a study has been performed on Vitis vinifera L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Cardinal') to examine whether a grape berry quality has been affected by the foliar application of PK fertilizer. A liquid mineral fertilizer containing 15% P2O5, 20% K2O with 0.1% B, 0.1% Mn and 0.01% Mo (% w/w) has been sprayed three times at rate of 8 L ha(-1) every 14-15 days starting at about 15 days before veraison. The sugars, organic acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) have been analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography in the grape berries. The foliar fertilization of grapevine can accelerate the accumulation of sugars and anthocyanins, whereas climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence the content of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in general. The effect of fertilizer spraying on flavonols and flavan-3-ols has not been found. PMID:21827138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067057','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067057"><span id="translatedtitle">Promotion of Flowering in Brassica campestris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ceres by Sucrose</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Friend, Douglas J. C.; Bodson, Monique; Bernier, Georges</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Flower initiation of the quantitative long-day plant Brassica campestris <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ceres was earlier and at a lower final leaf number when sucrose was added to the medium in which plants were grown in sterile culture. The optimal concentration of sucrose was 40 to 80 millimolar. This flower-promoting effect of sucrose was not osmotic, as mannitol, sodium chloride, and polyethylene glycol were not effective at equal osmotic potentials. Seedlings grown heterotrophically after treatment with 4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-phenyl-3-(2H)-pyridazinone to prevent chlorophyll accumulation were also induced to form flower primordia earlier as the sucrose concentration in the medium was increased up to 80 millimolar. Inclusion of 4 millimolar sodium nitrate in the culture medium of green plants did not reduce the flower-promoting effects of sucrose but delayed initiation in plants grown without added sucrose. Removal of CO2 during a single main or supplementary light period, or both, greatly reduced flower initiation. It is concluded that sucrose may be an important controlling factor determining floral initiation in Brassica. PMID:16663739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700"><span id="translatedtitle">Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Encapsulated Microshoots of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3–5 mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 0.1 mg/L α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15–30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1 mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451246"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241592"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>, 'Frontio' from nodal segments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Dheeraj; Sharma, Mamta; Kumar, Sunil</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>An efficient and reproducible protocol for plantlet regeneration from nodal segments of Olive <span class="hlt">cv</span> 'Frontio' has been developed. Media and explants browning due to exudation of phenolics from the explants were controlled by fortification of the medium with 100 mg/L ascorbic acid. Best establishment of olive explants was observed on half-strength MS salts fortified with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in 56.2% of bud break and 93.7% survival whereas, a combination of full strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each of 3-indole-butyric-acid (IBA) and kinetin was found to be the best for shoot multiplication, in terms of number of shoots (3.6 shoots/explant) and shoot length (2.2 cm). The in vitro shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium fortified with 0.2 mg/L IBA and 0.2 mg/L alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 1.5 g/L activated charcoal, which supported optimum rooting (60%), with an average of 2-3 roots/shoot, about 2.4 cm length were produced on four weeks of culture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713"><span id="translatedtitle">[In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation. PMID:25796713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.452..133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.452..133F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hidden secrets of deformation: Impact-induced compaction within a <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forman, L. V.; Bland, P. A.; Timms, N. E.; Collins, G. S.; Davison, T. M.; Ciesla, F. J.; Benedix, G. K.; Daly, L.; Trimby, P. W.; Yang, L.; Ringer, S. P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Allende is one of the most extensively studied meteorites in worldwide collections. It is currently classified as S1-essentially unshocked-using the classification scheme of Stöffler et al. (1991), however recent modelling suggests the low porosity observed in Allende indicates the body should have undergone compaction-related deformation. In this study, we detail previously undetected evidence of impact through use of Electron Backscatter Diffraction mapping to identify deformation microstructures in chondrules, AOAs and matrix grains. Our results demonstrate that forsterite-rich chondrules commonly preserve crystal-plastic microstructures (particularly at their margins); that low-angle boundaries in deformed matrix grains of olivine have a preferred orientation; and that disparities in deformation occur between chondrules, surrounding and non-adjacent matrix grains. We find heterogeneous compaction effects present throughout the matrix, consistent with a highly porous initial material. Given the spatial distribution of these crystal-plastic deformation microstructures, we suggest that this is evidence that Allende has undergone impact-induced compaction from an initially heterogeneous and porous parent body. We suggest that current shock classifications (Stöffler et al., 1991) relying upon data from chondrule interiors do not constrain the complete shock history of a sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129"><span id="translatedtitle">The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter</p> <p>2014-04-20</p> <p>As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513209"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Micro-Tom).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574547"><span id="translatedtitle">Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz</p> <p>2013-04-24</p> <p>Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20836498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20836498"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and modes of antifungal action by Vicia faba <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Egypt trypsin inhibitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun</p> <p>2010-10-13</p> <p>A new 15 kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-E1) from fava beans (Vicia faba <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Egypt 1) was isolated using liquid chromatography. Though it exhibited substantial homology in N-terminal amino acid sequence to other protease inhibitors, VFTI-E1 showed antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (K(i) 11.9 × 10(-9) M) but hardly any activity against chymotrypsin. It demonstrated antifungal activity toward the filamentous fungus Valsa mali with an IC(50) of 20 μM. The mechanism of its antifungal action toward V. mali included (1) induction of alteration of hyphal morphology, (2) growth inhibition by chitin deposition at hyphal tips, and (3) permeabilization of fungal membrane. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 was dependent on the ambient ionic strength as increasing concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) diminished the activity. The membranolytic action of VFTI-E1 was confined to fungus, but not exerted on human and rabbit erythrocytes. This study sheds light on the mode of hyphal growth inhibitory activity of protease inhibitors with antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 amplifies the scope of its potential applications. PMID:20836498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840038496&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840038496&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA <span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA <span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. (Anasazi Beans)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80°C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871543"><span id="translatedtitle">Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span> Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161167','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161167"><span id="translatedtitle">TE7, An Inefficient Symbiotic Mutant of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Jemalong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benaben, V.; Duc, G.; Lefebvre, V.; Huguet, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A mutagenesis program using ethylmethane sulfonate on Medicago truncatula Gaertn <span class="hlt">cv</span> Jemalong, an annual, autogamous and diploid lucerne, permitted the isolation of a mutant (TE7) unable to establish an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, [Nod+Fix-], with Rhizobium meliloti wild-type strains. The mutant phenotype is characterized by an altered infection process that leads to the formation of two kinds of inefficient nodules on the same root system. A certain proportion of the nodules are small, round, and uninfected, with infection threads limited to the outer root cortical cells. Others develop to a normal elongated shape and are infected; bacterial release occurs but the bacteria do not differentiate into bacteroids. The ratio of invaded to uninvaded nodules depends on the bacterial strain used. Throughout the infection process, certain events correlated with the plant defense response against pathogens can be observed: (a) the presence of polyphenolic compounds associated with the walls of infected cells and also with some parts of infection threads in the root cortex; (b) appositions on infection thread walls during the early stage of infection and also within the central tissue of infected nodules; and (c) autophagy of the plant cells that contain released bacteria. Genetic data suggest that the phenotype of TE7 is under monogenic and recessive control; this gene has been designated Mtsym1. PMID:12228341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643"><span id="translatedtitle">Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595066"><span id="translatedtitle">Resequencing of Curcuma longa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kedaram through transcriptome profiling reveals various novel transcripts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahoo, Ambika; Jena, Sudipta; Sahoo, Suprava; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Kar, Basudeba</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), of the family Zingiberaceae, is one of the economically as well as medicinally important plant species. It is a sterile, polyploid and vegetatively propagated spice crop cultivated usually in Southeast Asia. In the current study, we carried out re-sequencing through transcriptome profiling of Curcuma longa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kedaram (Cl_Ked_6). We acquired a total of 1 GB raw data by resequencing through paired-end sequencing using Nextseq 500 platform. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in NCBI database with accession number of SRR3928562 with bioproject accession number PRJNA324755. Cufflinks-2.2.1 tool was used for transcriptome assembly which resulted in 39,554 numbers of transcripts. The transcript length ranged from 76 to 15,568, having N50 value of 1221 and median transcript length of 860. We annotated the transcripts using multiple databases. This data will be beneficial for studying sequence variations particularly SNPs between cultivars of turmeric towards authentic identification and discovery of novel functional transcripts in Kedaram. PMID:27595066</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179184"><span id="translatedtitle">Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677i0013H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677i0013H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ciherang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975106"><span id="translatedtitle">[Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chuanbaizhi].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16653179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16653179"><span id="translatedtitle">Sink to Source Transition in Tendrils of a Semileafless Mutant, Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Curly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Côté, R; Gerrath, J M; Peterson, C A; Grodzinski, B</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Sink to source transition parallels loss of thigmotropic capacity in tendrils of a semileafless mutant, Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Curly. Macroscopic tendril development is subdivided based on thigmotropic capacity. Stage I is the elongation stage and, although the rate of photosynthesis is similar to that of stage II and III tendrils, dark respiration rates are higher in stage I. During stage II, tendrils are thigmotropic and act as a sink. Even though stage II tendrils have CO(2) exchange characteristics similar to those of stage III tendrils, which are coiled, our fluorescein, (14)C-partitioning, and (11)C-translocation experiments suggest that stage I and II tendrils do not export carbon. Only stage III tendrils act as sources of newly fixed carbon. Export from them is blocked by cold, heat girdling of the petiole, or anoxia treatment of the tendrils. A late stage II tendril complex, in which coiling is occurring, may be exporting photoassimilates; however, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that the pea leaf is a compound structure and there may be one or more stage III tendrils, no longer thigmotropic, within the tendril complex. Photosynthetic maturity in pea tendrils occurs at stage III and is characterized by the ability of these tendrils to export photoassimilates. PMID:16653179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713"><span id="translatedtitle">[In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005777"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloning, characterization and localization of CHS gene from blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Ruby.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Xu; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Feng</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Chalcone synthase (CHS) is involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, a full-length DNA of CHS gene (named as CsCHS-bo) was cloned from the blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Ruby. The gene was 1,512 bp in size containing an open reading frame (1,176 bp) encoding 391 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced protein of CsCHS-bo was highly homologous to CHS from other plant species. The protein of CsCHS-bo had four CHS-specific conserved motifs and a CHS-family signature sequence GFGPG. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein of CsCHS-bo was in a subgroup with CHS of Ruta Palmatum. The CsCHS-bo was localized to the chromosomes 2p, 4p and 6p by an improved fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, indicating that at least three copies of CsCHS-bo were present in the genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840064486&hterms=Solids+chemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSolids%2Bchemistry','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840064486&hterms=Solids+chemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSolids%2Bchemistry"><span id="translatedtitle">The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the inclusion and meteorite matrices in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite are described, and the physical and chemical parameters of the conventional equilibrium condensation model of the origin of chondrite meteorites are evaluated. An alternative model of the origin of the mafic constituent of Allende inclusions is presented, on the basis of a new model of chondrule petrogenesis and the physical evolution of the primitive solar nebula. The model shows that the mineral chemistry of the olivine matrix in Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 seems to preserve a good record of nebular and planetary processes, including: (1) vapor-to-solid condensation under relatively oxidizing nonequilibrium conditions; (2) Fe/Mg equilibration in the meteorite parent body; and (3) recrystallization and incipient melting in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941331"><span id="translatedtitle">Essential oil composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Diamante and their lemon hybrids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Zappalá, Mario; Condurso, Cettina; Cotroneo, Antonella</p> <p>2005-06-15</p> <p>In this paper we report the volatile fraction composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Diamante and two new lemon hybrids obtained by cross-breeding them with the tetraploid Citrus limon Burm. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cavone. Both parent and hybrid oils were laboratory-extracted from the peel fruits and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Sixty-three components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards. The average composition as single components for all the oils analyzed is reported. Moreover, the data obtained were statistically analyzed. Since limonene is by far the main component of all the essential oils examined, analysis of variance and multivariate analysis gave interesting information on the similarities and differences between the oils analyzed. The new hybrid oils analyzed have potential commercial value because they could be an acceptable alternative to the valuable lemon oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179027"><span id="translatedtitle">[Leaf anatomy of the mosaic ficus benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Starlight and interaction of source and sink chimera components].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Labunskaia, E A; Zhigalova, T V; Chub, V V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Leaf anatomy was studied in the mosaic Ficus benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Starlight and non-chimeric Ficus benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Daniel. The number of chloroplasts in a white, chlorophyll-deficient tissue declines as compared to the green tissue. However, their functional activity is retained. The leaf of the mosaic F. benjamina contains two or, sometimes, three subepidermal layers. Mesophyll forms one layer in the green and white parts of leaf palisade and one white and one green layer in the transitional zone (edge). In the transitional zone, green spongy mesophyll is located between two white spongy layers and the proportion of photosynthesizing cells varies. In <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Daniel, there are two subepidermal layers and one layer of columnar mesophyll cells. According to the morphometry data, the proportion of white zone in the leaf correlates with the leaf position in the whole shoot: the higher the branch order, the larger the proportion of white zone. The total leaf area depends also on its position in the shoot. No such correlation was found in non-chimeric F. benjamina <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Daniel. In the mosaic chimera, the source-sink status appears to depend on the leaf position in the shoot. Experiments with individual shoots of the same order and elimination of all lateral shoots have shown that the proportion of white zone in new leaves on the shoot increases with the total area of green zone. Thus, the area of assimilating shoot surface affects the formation of leaves in the meristem. A hypothesis was put forward that the source-sink state affects the ratio of green and white parts in the leaf primordium. Products of photosynthesis (carbohydrates) are a possible metabolic signal affecting the meristem. It cannot be excluded as well that the hormonal state undergoes changes in the chimeric plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012119&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012119&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012126&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012126&hterms=BDS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBDS"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012118&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012118&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012134&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012134&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6784120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6784120"><span id="translatedtitle">Specific disruption of vimentin filament organization in monkey kidney <span class="hlt">CV</span>-1 cells by diphtheria toxin, exotoxin A, and cycloheximide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharpe, A H; Chen, L B; Murphy, J R; Fields, B N</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>We have examined the effect of diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, and cycloheximide on the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-1 cell cytoskeleton. Within a few hours after producing an inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, all these agents specifically disrupted the organization of the vimentin filament system with no discernable effect on microtubules or microfilaments during the period of observation. Furthermore, just as the inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide is reversible, so was the disruption of vimentin filaments by cycloheximide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911477"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasertsincharoen, Noppadol; Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey; Elliman, Jennifer</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552748"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) in Chilean Children and Adolescents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475882','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475882"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. PMID:25911477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093261"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and functional characterization of proteinase inhibitors from seeds of Cajanus cajan (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. ICP 7118).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swathi, Marri; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Kannan, Monica; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Proteinase inhibitors (C11PI) from mature dry seeds of Cajanus cajan (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. ICP 7118) were purified by chromatography which resulted in 87-fold purification and 7.9% yield. SDS-PAGE, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrum and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis together resolved that C11PI possessed molecular mass of 8385.682 Da and existed as isoinhibitors. However, several of these isoinhibitors exhibited self association tendency to form small oligomers. All the isoinhibitors resolved in Native-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis showed inhibitory activity against bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as Achaea janata midgut trypsin-like proteases (AjPs), a devastating pest of castor plant. Partial sequences of isoinhibitor (pI 6.0) obtained from MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and N-terminal sequencing showed 100% homology to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs) of leguminous plants. C11PI showed non-competitive inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin. A marginal loss (<15%) in C11PI activity against trypsin at 80 (°)C and basic pH (12.0) was associated with concurrent changes in its far-UV CD spectra. Further, in vitro assays demonstrated that C11PI possessed significant inhibitory potential (IC50 of 78 ng) against AjPs. On the other hand, in vivo leaf coating assays demonstrated that C11PI caused significant mortality rate with concomitant reduction in body weight of both larvae and pupae, prolonged the duration of transition from larva to pupa along with formation of abnormal larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates. Being smaller peptides, it is possible to express C11PI in castor to protect them against its devastating pest A. janata. PMID:25093261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1091943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1091943"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapidly Induced Wound Ethylene from Excised Segments of Etiolated Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saltveit, Mikal E.; Dilley, David R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Wound-induced ethylene synthesis by subapical stem sections of etiolated Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska seedlings, as described by Saltveit and Dilley (Plant Physiol 1978 61: 447-450), was half-saturated at 3.6% (v/v) O2 and saturated at about 10% O2. Corresponding values for CO2 production during the same period were 1.1% and 10% O2, respectively. Anaerobiosis stopped all ethylene evolution and delayed the characteristic pattern of wound ethylene synthesis. Exposing tissue to 3.5% CO2 in air in a flow-through system reduced wound ethylene synthesis by 30%. Enhancing gas diffusivity by reducing the total pressure to 130 mm Hg almost doubled the rate of wound ethylene synthesis and this effect was negated by exposure to 250 μl liter−1 propylene. Applied ethylene or propylene stopped wound ethylene synthesis during the period of application, but unlike N2, no lag period was observed upon flushing with air. It is concluded that the characteristic pattern of wound-induced ethylene synthesis resulted from negative feedback control by endogenous ethylene. No wound ethylene was produced for 2 hours after excision at 10 or 38 C. Low temperatures prolonged the lag period, but did not prevent induction of the wound response, since tissue held for 2 hours at 10 C produced wound ethylene immediately when warmed to 30 C. In contrast, temperatures above 36 C prevented induction of wound ethylene synthesis, since tissue cooled to 30 C after 1 hour at 40 C required 2 hours before ethylene production returned to normal levels. The activation energy between 15 and 36 C was 12.1 mole kilocalories degree−1. PMID:16660362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941088"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Abosora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14607490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14607490"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a cysteine protease from wheat Triticum aestivum (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Giza 164).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fahmy, Afaf S; Ali, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Saleh A</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Enzymes, especially proteases, have become an important and indispensable part of the processes used by the modern food and feed industry to produce a large and diversified range of products for human and animal consumption. A cysteine protease, used extensively in the food industry, was purified from germinated wheat Triticum aestivum (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Giza 164) grains through a simple reproducible method consisting of extraction, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 61000+/-1200-62000+/-1500 by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The cysteine protease had an isoelectric point and pH optimum at 4.4 and 4.0, respectively. The enzyme exhibited more activity toward azocasein than the other examined substrates with K(m) 2.8+/-0.15 mg azocasein/ml. In addition, it had a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C and based on a heat stability study 55% of its initial activity remained after preincubation of the enzyme at 50 degrees C for 30 min prior to substrate addition. All the examined metal cations inhibited the enzyme except Co(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Li(+). The proteolytic activity of the enzyme was inhibited by thiol-specific inhibitors, whereas iodoacetate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate caused a competitive inhibition with Ki values 6+/-0.3 mM and 21+/-1.2 microM, respectively. Soybean trypsin inhibitor had no effect on the enzyme. The enzyme activity remained almost constant for 150 days of storage at -20 degrees C. The properties of this enzyme, temperature and pH optima, substrate specificity, stability and sensitivity to inhibitors or activators, meet the prerequisites needed for food industries. PMID:14607490</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067123','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067123"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska 12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (∥) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (⊥), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ∥-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, α-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018265&hterms=graphite+diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgraphite%2Bdiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018265&hterms=graphite+diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgraphite%2Bdiamond"><span id="translatedtitle">Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733"><span id="translatedtitle">How will climate change influence grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721320C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721320C"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Asphaug, Erik; Garvie, Laurence; Morris, Melissa; Rai, Ashwin; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chawla, Nikhilesh</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth’s atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH11A1889C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH11A1889C"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Morris, M. A.; Rai, A.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Johnston, J.; Borkowski, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth's atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735825"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen supply affects anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon berries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soubeyrand, Eric; Basteau, Cyril; Hilbert, Ghislaine; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Accumulation of anthocyanins in grape berries is influenced by environmental factors (such as temperature and light) and supply of nutrients, i.e., fluxes of carbon and nitrogen feeding the berry cells. It is established that low nitrogen supply stimulates anthocyanin production in berry skin cells of red varieties. The present works aims to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of anthocyanin accumulation to nitrogen supply in berries from field grown-plants. To this end, we developed an integrated approach combining monitoring of plant nitrogen status, metabolite measurements and transcript analysis. Grapevines (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) were cultivated in a vineyard with three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60 and 120 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen applied on the soil). Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed and compared with gene expression levels. Low nitrogen supply caused a significant increase in anthocyanin levels at two ripening stages (26 days post-véraison and maturity). Delphinidin and petunidin derivatives were the most affected compounds. Transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis confirmed the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid-3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plant cultivated without nitrogen compared to the ones cultivated with 120 kg ha(-1) nitrogen fertilization. The results indicate that nitrogen controls a coordinated regulation of both positive (MYB transcription factors) and negative (LBD proteins) regulators of the flavonoid pathway in grapevine. PMID:24735825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396288"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and development of modified atmosphere packaging system for guava (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baruipur).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mangaraj, S; Goswami, T K; Giri, S K; Joshy, C G</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a dynamic system during which respiration and permeation occur simultaneously. Hence factors affecting both respiration and permeation were considered for designing a package. In the design of MA packages for guava (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baruipur) a total of 13 variables were considered. The independent variables includes: weight of fruits, surface area of packaging film, free volume of the package, thickness of the film and permeabilities of film to O2 and CO2 gas. The fixed variables considered were: the surrounding gas composition and temperature, the respiration rates for O2 consumption and CO2 evolution, and the equilibrium gas compositions to be attained in the package so that the fruit's shelf-life is extended. Two types of MA packages, having package size of 19 cm × 19 cm for a fill weight of 1,000 ± 100 g were developed. Packages were designed to accommodate a fill weight range of 0.90-1.10 kg. Various package parameters were optimized to facilitate establishment of dynamic equilibrium at target levels of O2 and CO2 concentration in the package. The storage study of MA packages was performed at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C temperatures. The performance of film packages was evaluated for their ability to establish equilibrium at target levels and to extend the shelf life of the packaged fruit. The MA packaging system increased the shelf life of guava by 128-200 % compared to the unpacked fruits at various storage temperatures with a quality comparable with the freshly harvested commodity. PMID:26396288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733"><span id="translatedtitle">How will climate change influence grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions. PMID:25786733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211345"><span id="translatedtitle">Radical scavenging activity and phenolic compounds in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mopan).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, X N; Fan, J F; Yue, X; Wu, X R; Li, L T</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Mopan persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mopan) is the major cultivar of astringent persimmon in northern China. This study investigates the radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radical, and the content of total and individual phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) with apple, grape, and tomato as controls. The radical scavenging activities against ABTS and DPPH radicals of the Mopan persimmon are 23.575 and 22.597 microm trolox eq/g f.w., respectively. These findings suggest that the Mopan persimmon's antioxidant activity is significantly (P < 0.05) stronger than that of reference materials. The Mopan persimmon showed the highest content of total phenolics among the 4 materials tested. Significant correlations (R(2)= 0.993, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.980, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) are found between the total phenolics and the radical scavenging activities. The total content of these 6 kinds of phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) is significantly correlated (R(2)= 0.831, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.745, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) with the individual radical scavenging activity of the 4 materials, although the total content of the 6 phenolics accounts for no more than 20% of the total phenolics in the Mopan persimmon. Gallic acid exhibits the strongest antioxidant activity in all 6 kinds of phenolics and its content is the largest in the Mopan persimmon, presumably being responsible for its much higher antioxidant activity as compared to apple, grape, and tomato.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20117938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20117938"><span id="translatedtitle">Localisation of hydrogen peroxide accumulation during Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rywal hypersensitive response to Potato virus Y.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Otulak, Katarzyna; Garbaczewska, Grazyna</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was detected cytochemically in Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rywal tissues as a hypersensitive response (HR) 24 and 48 h after a Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Hydrogen peroxide was detected in vivo by its reaction with 3.3-diaminobenzidine, producing a reddish-brown staining in contact with H(2)O(2). Hydrogen peroxide was detected in the necrotic area of the epidermal and mesophyll cells 24 and 48 h after the PVY infection. Highly localised accumulations of H(2)O(2) were found within xylem tracheary elements, and this was much more intensive than in non-infected leaves. Hydrogen peroxide was detected cytochemically in HR also by its reaction with cerium chloride, producing electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides. Inoculation with PVY(NTN) and also PVY(N) Wi induced a rapid hypersensitive response during which highly localised accumulations of H(2)O(2) was detected in plant cell walls. The most intensive accumulation was present in the bordering cell walls of necrotic mesophyll cells and the adjacent non-necrotic mesophyll cells. Intensive electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxide were found along ER cistrenae and chloroplast envelopes connected with PVY particles. The precipitates of hydrogen peroxide were detected in the nuclear envelope and along tracheary elements, especially when virus particles were present inside. The intensive accumulation of H(2)O(2) at the early stages of potato-PVY interaction is consistent with its role as an antimicrobial agent and for this reason it has been regarded as a signalling molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134346"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPBu...40...12H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPBu...40...12H"><span id="translatedtitle">Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 <span class="hlt">CV</span> 26.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hills, Kevin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 <span class="hlt">CV</span>26.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..229..263B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..229..263B"><span id="translatedtitle">Transmission infrared spectra (2-25 μm) of carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, <span class="hlt">CV</span>-CK, CR, C2 ungrouped): Mineralogy, water, and asteroidal processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beck, P.; Garenne, A.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Moynier, F.; Schmitt, B.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>In this work, infrared transmission spectra (2-25 μm range, 5000-400 cm-1) of 40 carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed (21 CMs, 5 CVs, 6 CRs, 3 CKs, 3 C2s and 2 CIs). All these meteorite <span class="hlt">groups</span> are known to have experienced significant aqueous alteration (except the CKs). These IR measurements provide information about the parent body processes experienced, as well as spectra for comparison with observations of Solar System small bodies and possibly with astronomical observations of accretion and debris disks. This study reveals that each meteorite <span class="hlt">group</span> appears to have specific signatures in the measured IR spectral range. In the case of the CI and CM <span class="hlt">groups</span>, results show a variability in the shape of the silicate features that can be related to the evolution of the mineralogy with increasing extent of aqueous alteration extent as described by several authors with other techniques. This evolution of the silicate feature can be seen in the variation in the relative intensities of olivine and phyllosilicate IR features. The variability in the silicate features is correlated with the intensity of an -OH related absorption at 3-μm, which can be used for the classification of the meteorites according to the level of hydration. Interestingly, in the case of CM chondrites, for which the mineralogy is expected to be dominated by phyllosilicates (serpentine mostly), the shape of the silicate absorption resembles that of an amorphous silicate, with a broad and symmetric 10-μm band, unlike terrestrial phyllosilicates. The <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK <span class="hlt">groups</span> have IR spectra that are dominated by olivine absorption. From this feature, it is possible to determine average Mg numbers for the olivine. For the CVs, the olivine Mg numbers appear to decrease in the order Kaba-Grosnaja-Vigarano-Mokoia-Allende. This trend is likely related to the long duration of metamorphism experienced by these samples and the chemical re-equilibration between chondritic components. In the case of CK chondrites, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18943942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18943942"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of heteroduplex mobility assay for identification and differentiation of phytoplasmas in the aster yellows <span class="hlt">group</span> and the clover proliferation <span class="hlt">group</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, K; Hiruki, C</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT This paper describes the identification and differentiation of phytoplasmas by a highly sensitive diagnostic technique, DNA heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). Closely related phytoplasma isolates of clover proliferation (CP), potato witches'-broom (PWB), and alfalfa witches'-broom (AWB) were collected from the field from 1990 to 1999. The entire 16S rRNA gene and 16/23S spacer region were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the field samples and standard CP, PWB, and AWB phytoplasmas and were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and HMA. Two subgroups (I and II) of phytoplasmas in the CP <span class="hlt">group</span> were identified by HMA but not by RFLP analysis. The results were confirmed by 16/23S spacer region sequence data analysis. After HMA analyses of the PCR-amplified 16/23S spacer region, 14 phytoplasma isolates from field samples were classified into two aster yellows subgroups: subgroup I, phytoplasma isolates from China aster (Callistephus chinensis) yellows, French marigold (Tagetes patula) yellows, cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Dazzler) yellows, clarkia (Clarkia unguiculata) yellows, California poppy (Eschscholzia californica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tai Silk) yellows, monarda (Monarda fistulosa) yellows, and strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum) yellows; and subgroup II, phytoplasma isolates from zinnia (Zinnia elegans <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Dahlia Flower) yellows, Queen-Annes-Lace (Daucus carota) yellows, scabiosa (Scabiosa atropurpurea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Giant Imperial) yellows, Swan River daisy (Brachycombe multifida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Misty Pink) yellows, pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) yellows, purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) yellows, and feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) yellows. The results indicate that HMA is a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate method not only for identifying and classifying phytoplasmas but also for studying the molecular epidemiology of phytoplasmas. PMID:18943942</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431326"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino <span class="hlt">groups</span> in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431326"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino <span class="hlt">groups</span> in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a subgenomic <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coxsackieviruses B (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. PMID:26800776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27316499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27316499"><span id="translatedtitle">Presence of elevated non-HDL among patients with T2DM with <span class="hlt">CV</span> events despite of optimal LDL-C - A report from South India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumpatla, Satyavani; Soni, Anju; Narasingan, S N; Viswanathan, Vijay</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was the commonest lipid abnormality among T2DM patients with cardiovascular events (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) events. Prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C was 21.6% among patients who were on statin therapy and with optimal low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Despite an optimal LDL-C level, 47% of the T2DM patients with <span class="hlt">CV</span> events had elevated non-HDL-C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a subgenomic <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coxsackieviruses B (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replication activities in human target cell models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805617"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic <span class="hlt">group</span> number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805617"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic <span class="hlt">group</span> number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824474"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in "Cell part" 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732810','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732810"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in “Cell part” 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1000C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1000C"><span id="translatedtitle">A secondary origin of chondrule magnetization in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span> carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carporzen, L.; Fu, R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a key role in the radial transport of angular momentum and mass during the early accretional phase of the solar system. Chondrules and many calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), millimeter sized silicate objects found in most chondritic meteorites, were heated to high temperatures and cooled in the nebula and therefore may have recorded a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) from the nebula field. Additionally, primitive magnetization in chondrules and CAIs may yield constraints about their mode of formation. However, any such primary magnetization may have been significantly altered during subsequent metamorphism and aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. We performed two tests to determine the nebular origins of remanent magnetization in chondrules and refractory inclusions in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite: 1) a classic paleomagnetic conglomerate test to identify post-accretional remagnetization events and 2) a unidirectionality test of subsamples taken from individual chondrules and CAIs. We conducted individual measurements of mutually oriented chondrules, CAIs, and matrix as well as SQUID microscope maps of the magnetic fields of 30 μm thin sections. All samples and thin sections were mutually oriented to within 5°. Our results confirm previous findings that all subsamples of the meteorite carry a unidirectional overprint blocked up to 260°-290°C (MT component). Chondrules and CAIs also carry a higher temperature (HT) remanence oriented in scattered directions unrelated to the direction of the MT overprint. We have confirmed that this HT magnetization is not an artifact of the demagnetization procedure but is a preterrestrial component. Measurements of subsamples of single chondrules and CAIs show that the HT magnetization is not unidirectional within each inclusion. Petrographic data suggests that most magnetic minerals in Allende were the product of parent body alteration. These facts suggest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcv','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=cv&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcv"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>)Carbonaceous Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872417','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872417"><span id="translatedtitle">Moxibustion Therapy at <span class="hlt">CV</span>4 Prevents Postoperative Dysuria after Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bian, Xue-Mei; Lv, Ling; Lin, Wan-Bing; Liang, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Ying</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective. To explore the intervention methods of the patients with dysuria after performing the procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH). Methods. 100 cases with hemorrhoids were randomly divided into experimental and control <span class="hlt">groups</span>. The control <span class="hlt">group</span> received routine nursing care. As comparison, the experimental <span class="hlt">group</span>, on the basis of conventional care, was treated with moxa roll moxibustion 1 hour after the operation for 30 minutes. The autonomous urination within 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h after operation and the catheterization rate 8 h after operation of two <span class="hlt">groups</span> of patients were observed. Results. The median time of autonomous urination of control <span class="hlt">group</span> (8 h) was significantly greater than that of the experimental <span class="hlt">group</span> (6 h) (P < 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that the moxibustion therapy was positively correlated with automatic micturition in the patients after PPH. The probability of automatic micturition in the experimental <span class="hlt">group</span> was 2.032 times that in the control <span class="hlt">group</span> (RR = 2.032, 95% CI: 1.278~3.230). The catheterization rate of control <span class="hlt">group</span> (38%) was significantly higher than that of the experimental <span class="hlt">group</span> (10%) (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The Guanyuan acupoint moxibustion can prevent dysuria after PPH and reduce the urethral catheterization. PMID:24386005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009087"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite <span class="hlt">Groups</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Meteorites are <span class="hlt">grouped</span> according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite <span class="hlt">groups</span> (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, <span class="hlt">CV</span> and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight <span class="hlt">groups</span>, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25111893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25111893"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing diagnosis-related <span class="hlt">groups</span>: is the information system ready?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Diagnosis-related <span class="hlt">group</span> (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG <span class="hlt">grouping</span> performance. The data was <span class="hlt">grouped</span> on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and <span class="hlt">CV</span> for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889530"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and structure elucidation of tetrameric procyanidins from unripe apples (Malus pumila <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fuji) by NMR spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakashima, Shohei; Oda, Chihiro; Masuda, Susumu; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Procyanidins are plant secondary metabolites widely consumed and known to have various physiological functions, but their bioavailability and mechanism of action are still unclear especially for larger oligomers. One of the reasons is scarce information about the detailed structure of oligomeric procyanidins. As for apple, structures of procyanidin components larger than trimers are scarcely known. In this study, 11 tetrameric procyanidins including two known compounds were isolated from unripe apples (Malus pumila <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fuji) and identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis and phloroglucinol degradation. As a result, the detailed structural diversity of tetrameric procyanidins in apple was established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8979507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8979507"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromium uptake and toxicity effects on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. UP 2003.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Chromium (Cr) at graded levels when added in sand culture of wheat (T. aestivum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. UP2003) under glasshouse conditions resulted in reduction in biomass, chlorophyll and activities of catalase and peroxidase while enhanced acid phosphatase and ribonuclease activities. Elevated levels of Cr supply significantly reduced the concentration of inorganic phosphorus. With an increase in Cr supply the uptake of chromium also increased significantly in different plant parts especially in roots. Above metabolic lesions due to Cr in wheat provided evidence that the element in nutrient medium if present in excess may be inhibitory to plant growth and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462104','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462104"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychodrama&pg=3&id=EJ451220','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychodrama&pg=3&id=EJ451220"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Group</span> Work Publication-1991.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zimpfer, David G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Lists 21 new publications in <span class="hlt">group</span> work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on <span class="hlt">group</span> counseling and psychotherapy, structured <span class="hlt">groups</span>, support <span class="hlt">groups</span>, psychodrama, and social <span class="hlt">group</span> work. (Author/NB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=web&pg=7&id=EJ1031685','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=web&pg=7&id=EJ1031685"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Group</span> Cohesion in Experiential Growth <span class="hlt">Groups</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in <span class="hlt">group</span> cohesion within experiential growth <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Master's students were divided into 2 <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the <span class="hlt">groups</span> was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24627482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24627482"><span id="translatedtitle">The BiP molecular chaperone plays multiple roles during the biogenesis of torsinA, an <span class="hlt">AAA</span>+ ATPase associated with the neurological disease early-onset torsion dystonia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zacchi, Lucía F; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Bell, Samantha L; Millen, Linda; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Thomas, Philip J; Zolkiewski, Michal; Brodsky, Jeffrey L</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and sustained muscle contractions that can lead to paralysis and abnormal posture. EOTD is associated with the deletion of a glutamate (ΔE) in torsinA, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident <span class="hlt">AAA</span>(+) ATPase. To date, the effect of ΔE on torsinA and the reason that this mutation results in EOTD are unclear. Moreover, there are no specific therapeutic options to treat EOTD. To define the underlying biochemical defects associated with torsinAΔE and to uncover factors that might be targeted to offset defects associated with torsinAΔE, we developed a yeast torsinA expression system and tested the roles of ER chaperones in mediating the folding and stability of torsinA and torsinAΔE. We discovered that the ER lumenal Hsp70, BiP, an associated Hsp40, Scj1, and a nucleotide exchange factor, Lhs1, stabilize torsinA and torsinAΔE. BiP also maintained torsinA and torsinAΔE solubility. Mutations predicted to compromise specific torsinA functional motifs showed a synthetic interaction with the ΔE mutation and destabilized torsinAΔE, suggesting that the ΔE mutation predisposes torsinA to defects in the presence of secondary insults. In this case, BiP was required for torsinAΔE degradation, consistent with data that specific chaperones exhibit either pro-degradative or pro-folding activities. Finally, using two independent approaches, we established that BiP stabilizes torsinA and torsinAΔE in mammalian cells. Together, these data define BiP as the first identified torsinA chaperone, and treatments that modulate BiP might improve symptoms associated with EOTD. 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