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Sample records for aaa group cv

  1. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  3. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    PubMed

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  4. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana.

  5. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  6. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  7. Effect of microgravity simulation using 3D clinostat on cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA Group) ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivany, Fenny Martha; Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Prapaisie, Adeline; Puspa Kirana, Listya; Latief, Chunaeni; Ginaldi, Ari

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of microgravity simulation by 3D clinostat on Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA group) ripening process. In this study, physical, physiological changes as well as genes expression were analysed. The result showed that in microgravity simulation condition ripening process in banana was delayed and the MaACOl, MaACSl and MaACS5 gene expression were affected.

  8. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  9. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  10. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  11. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... Analyst Associate Researcher Program Coordinator Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  12. AAAS: Politics. . . and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed during the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting held in Washington, D.C. Topics included: the equal rights amendment, laetrile, nuclear radiation hazards, sociobiology, and various science topics. (SL)

  13. Sequence analysis of the AAA protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The AAA protein family, a recently recognized group of Walker-type ATPases, has been subjected to an extensive sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the existence of a region of sequence similarity, the so-called AAA cassette. The borders of this cassette were localized and within it, three boxes of a high degree of conservation were identified. Two of these boxes could be assigned to substantial parts of the ATP binding site (namely, to Walker motifs A and B); the third may be a portion of the catalytic center. Phylogenetic trees were calculated to obtain insights into the evolutionary history of the family. Subfamilies with varying degrees of intra-relatedness could be discriminated; these relationships are also supported by analysis of sequences outside the canonical AAA boxes: within the cassette are regions that are strongly conserved within each subfamily, whereas little or even no similarity between different subfamilies can be observed. These regions are well suited to define fingerprints for subfamilies. A secondary structure prediction utilizing all available sequence information was performed and the result was fitted to the general 3D structure of a Walker A/GTPase. The agreement was unexpectedly high and strongly supports the conclusion that the AAA family belongs to the Walker superfamily of A/GTPases. PMID:9336829

  14. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  15. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  16. Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3"-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2" secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9 μM, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7 μM), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  17. NWA 1152 and Sahara 00182: New primitive carbonaceous chondrites with affinities to the CR and CV groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Caroline L.; Russell, Sara S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the mineralogy, petrography, bulk chemistry, and light element isotope composition of the ungrouped chondrites North West Africa (NWA) 1152 and Sahara 00182. NWA 1152 contains predominantly type 1 porphyritic olivine (PO) and porphyritic olivine-pyroxene (POP) chondrules. Chondrule silicates are magnesium-rich (Fo98.8 +/- 1.2, n = 36; Fs2.3 +/- 2.1 Wo1.2 +/- 0.3, n = 23). Matrix comprises ~40 vol% of the sample and is composed of a micron sized silicate groundmass with larger silicate, sulfide, magnetite, and Fe-Ni metal (Ni ~50 wt%) grains. Phyllosilicates were not observed in the matrix. Refractory inclusions are rare (0.3 vol%) and are spinel pyroxene aggregates or amoeboid olivine aggregates; melilite is absent from the refractory inclusions. Sahara 00182 contains predominantly type 1 PO chondrules, POP chondrules are less common. Most chondrules contain blebs of, and are often rimmed with, Fe-Ni metal and sulfide. Chondrule phenocrysts are magnesium-rich (Fo92.2 +/- 0.6, n = 129; Fs4.4 +/- 1.8 Wo1.3 +/- 1.1, n = 16). Matrix comprises ~30 vol% of the meteorite and is predominantly sub-micron silicates, with rare larger silicate gains. Matrix Fe-Ni metal (mean Ni = 5.8 wt%) and sulfide grains are up to mm scale. No phyllosilicates were observed in the matrix. Refractory inclusions are rare (1.1 vol%) and melilite is absent. The oxygen isotope composition of NWA 1152 falls within the range of the CV chondrites with ?17O = ?3.43? ?18O = 0.70? and is similar to Sahara 00182, ?17O = ?3.89?, ?18O = ?0.19? (Grossman and Zipfel 2001). Based on mineralogical and petrographic characteristics, we suggest NWA 1152 and Sahara 00182 show many similarities with the CR chondrites, however, oxygen isotopes suggest affinity with the CVs. Thus, neither sample can be assigned to any of the currently known carbonaceous chondrite groups based on traditionally recognized characteristics. Both samples demonstrate the complexity of inter- and intra-group

  18. Pathophysiology of AAA: heredity vs environment.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin; Wanhainen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a complex pathophysiology, in which both environmental and genetic factors play important roles, the most important being smoking. The recently reported falling prevalence rates of AAA in northern Europe and Australia/New Zeeland are largely explained by healthier smoking habits. Dietary factors and obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, are also of importance. A family history of AAA among first-degree relatives is present in approximately 13% of incident cases. The probability that a monozygotic twin of a person with an AAA has the disease is 24%, 71 times higher than that for a monozygotic twin of a person without AAA. Approximately 1000 SNPs in 100 candidate genes have been studied, and three genome-wide association studies were published, identifying different diverse weak associations. An example of interaction between environmental and genetic factors is the effect of cholesterol, where genetic and dietary factors affect levels of both HDL and LDL. True epigenetic studies have not yet been published.

  19. LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenait, Manel

    Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

  20. Determining the influence of calcification on the failure properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Mulvihill, John J; Barrett, Hilary E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    Varying degrees of calcification are present in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, their impact on AAA failure properties and AAA rupture risk is unclear. The aim of this work is evaluate and compare the failure properties of partially calcified and predominantly fibrous AAA tissue and investigate the potential reasons for failure. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed on AAA samples harvested from 31 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Individual tensile samples were divided into two groups: fibrous (n=31) and partially calcified (n=38). The presence of calcification was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 69 mechanical tests were performed and the failure stretch (λf), failure stress (σf) and failure tension (Tf) were recorded for each test. Following mechanical testing, the failure sites of a subset of both tissue types were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the potential reasons for failure. It has been shown that the failure properties of partially calcified tissue are significantly reduced compared to fibrous tissue and SEM and EDS results suggest that the junction between a calcification deposit and the fibrous matrix is highly susceptible to failure. This study implicates the presence of calcification as a key player in AAA rupture risk and provides further motivation for the development of non-invasive methods of measuring calcification.

  1. Development of an Automatic Program to Analyze Sunspot Groups on White Light Images using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Moon, Y.; Choi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Sunspots usually appear in a group which can be classified by certain morphological criteria. In this study we examine the moments which are statistical parameters computed by summing over every pixels of contours, for quantifying the morphological characteristics of a sunspot group. The moments can be another additional characteristics to the sunspot group classification such as McIntosh classification. We are developing a program for image processing, detection of contours and computation of the moments using white light full disk images from Big Bear Solar Observatory. We apply the program to count the sunspot number from 530 white light images in 2003. The sunspot numbers obtained by the program are compared with those by SIDC. The comparison shows that they have a good correlation (r=84%). We are extending this application to automatic sunspot classification (e.g., McIntosh classification) and flare forecasting.

  2. Integrated Control of Axonemal Dynein AAA+ Motors

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are AAA+ enzymes that convert ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. This leads to the sliding of doublet microtubules with respect to each other and ultimately the generation of ciliary/flagellar beating. However, in order for useful work to be generated, the action of individual dynein motors must be precisely controlled. In addition, cells modulate the motility of these organelles through a variety of second messenger systems and these signals too must be integrated by the dynein motors to yield an appropriate output. This review describes the current status of efforts to understand dynein control mechanisms and their connectivity focusing mainly on studies of the outer dynein arm from axonemes of the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas. PMID:22406539

  3. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  4. The two faces of hydrogen-bond strength on triple AAA-DDD arrays.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alfredo Henrique Duarte; Caramori, Giovanni Finoto; Coimbra, Daniel Fernando; Parreira, Renato Luis Tame; da Silva, Éder Henrique

    2013-12-02

    Systems that are connected through multiple hydrogen bonds are the cornerstone of molecular recognition processes in biology, and they are increasingly being employed in supramolecular chemistry, specifically in molecular self-assembly processes. For this reason, the effects of different substituents (NO2, CN, F, Cl, Br, OCH3 and NH2) on the electronic structure, and consequently on the magnitude of hydrogen bonds in triple AAA-DDD arrays (A=acceptor, D=donor) were evaluated in the light of topological [electron localization function (ELF) and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM)], energetic [Su-Li energy-decomposition analysis (EDA) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO)], and geometrical analysis. The results based on local H-bond descriptors (geometries, QTAIM, ELF, and NBO) indicate that substitutions with electron-withdrawing groups on the AAA module tend to strengthen, whereas electron-donating substituents tend to weaken the covalent character of the AAA-DDD intermolecular H-bonds, and also indicate that the magnitude of the effect is dependent on the position of substitution. In contrast, Su-Li EDA results show an opposite behavior when compared to local H-bond descriptors, indicating that electron-donating substituents tend to increase the magnitude of H-bonds in AAA-DDD arrays, and thus suggesting that the use of local H-bond descriptors describes the nature of H bonds only partially, not providing enough insight about the strength of such H bonds.

  5. Fundamental Characteristics of AAA+ Protein Family Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many complex cellular events depend on multiprotein complexes known as molecular machines to efficiently couple the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to the generation of mechanical force. Members of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) are critical components of many molecular machines. AAA+ proteins are defined by conserved modules that precisely position the active site elements of two adjacent subunits to catalyze ATP hydrolysis. In many cases, AAA+ proteins form a ring structure that translocates a polymeric substrate through the central channel using specialized loops that project into the central channel. We discuss the major features of AAA+ protein structure and function with an emphasis on pivotal aspects elucidated with archaeal proteins. PMID:27703410

  6. Inhibitors of the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Eli; Maksim, Nick; de la Cruz, Fabian; La Clair, James J.

    2015-01-01

    It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and physiology. PMID

  7. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  8. Assessing heterogeneity in oligomeric AAA+ machines.

    PubMed

    Sysoeva, Tatyana A

    2017-03-01

    ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+ ATPases) are molecular motors that use the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to remodel their target macromolecules. The majority of these ATPases form ring-shaped hexamers in which the active sites are located at the interfaces between neighboring subunits. Structural changes initiate in an active site and propagate to distant motor parts that interface and reshape the target macromolecules, thereby performing mechanical work. During the functioning cycle, the AAA+ motor transits through multiple distinct states. Ring architecture and placement of the catalytic sites at the intersubunit interfaces allow for a unique level of coordination among subunits of the motor. This in turn results in conformational differences among subunits and overall asymmetry of the motor ring as it functions. To date, a large amount of structural information has been gathered for different AAA+ motors, but even for the most characterized of them only a few structural states are known and the full mechanistic cycle cannot be yet reconstructed. Therefore, the first part of this work will provide a broad overview of what arrangements of AAA+ subunits have been structurally observed focusing on diversity of ATPase oligomeric ensembles and heterogeneity within the ensembles. The second part of this review will concentrate on methods that assess structural and functional heterogeneity among subunits of AAA+ motors, thus bringing us closer to understanding the mechanism of these fascinating molecular motors.

  9. Validation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm at extended SSD.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Brown, Derek; Dunscombe, Peter

    2010-06-08

    The accuracy of dose calculations at extended SSD is of significant importance in the dosimetric planning of total body irradiation (TBI). In a first step toward the implementation of electronic, multi-leaf collimator compensation for dose inhomogeneities and surface contour in TBI, we have evaluated the ability of the Eclipse AAA to accurately predict dose distributions in water at extended SSD. For this purpose, we use the Eclipse AAA algorithm, commissioned with machine-specific beam data for a 6 MV photon beam, at standard SSD (100 cm). The model was then used for dose distribution calculations at extended SSD (179.5 cm). Two sets of measurements were acquired for a 6 MV beam (from a Varian linear accelerator) in a water tank at extended SSD: i) open beam for 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 20 x 20 and 40 x 40 cm2 field sizes (defined at 179.5 cm SSD), and ii) identical field sizes but with a 1.3 cm thick acrylic spoiler placed 10 cm above the water surface. Dose profiles were acquired at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depths. Dose distributions for the two setups were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse. Confidence limits for comparisons between measured and calculated absolute depth dose curves and normalized dose profiles were determined as suggested by Venselaar et al. The confidence limits were within 2% and 2 mm for both setups. Extended SSD calculations were also performed using Eclipse AAA, commissioned with Varian Golden beam data at standard SSD. No significant difference between the custom commissioned and Golden Eclipse AAA was observed. In conclusion, Eclipse AAA commissioned at standard SSD can be used to accurately predict dose distributions in water at extended SSD for 6 MV open beams.

  10. Informed Consent for AAA Repair: The Patient’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Loren; Curry, Leslie; Gusberg, Richard; Dardik, Alan; Fraenkel, Liana

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although information about risks, benefits and alternatives to intervention is central to ensuring adequate informed consent, patients are often not well-informed about potential adverse outcomes when they are considering whether to have surgery. Whether or not to undergo surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and whether to have open or endovascular repair (EVAR), is a complex decision that relies heavily on patient preferences, and yet little is known about the patient perspective on informed consent in this context. Understanding patients’ views on their decision-making processes and the quality of surgeon-patient communication could inform improvements in informed consent for AAA repair. METHODS We conducted in-depth interviews with AAA patients (n=20) who underwent open AAA repair, endovascular repair, or declined surgery. Data were independently transcribed and analyzed by a team of individuals with diverse backgrounds, using the constant comparative method of analysis and systematic coding procedures. RESULTS We identified four central themes characterizing patients’ experiences with informed consent for AAA repair: 1) some patients perceived that there was no choice regarding whether or not to have surgery; 2) some patients did not feel adequately informed prior to making a decision; 3) patients differed in the scope and content of information they desired during informed consent; and 4) trust in the surgeon had an impact on the informed consent process. CONCLUSION Our research highlights the limitations of the informed consent encounter in the current clinical context, and points to several ways in which informed consent could be improved. Adapting the informed consent encounter to incorporate the patient’s perspective is critical in order to ensure that the decision regarding AAA repair is consistent with the patient’s informed preference. PMID:18572357

  11. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  12. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... § 1.312-10(a). (e) Election to terminate year under section 1377(a)(2) or § 1.1368-1(g)(2). If an... described in section 1367(a)(2)(E). (ii) Extent of allowable reduction. The AAA may be decreased...

  13. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  14. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss... the adjusted basis of which exceeds its fair market value on the date of the distribution and...

  15. CV-990 LSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), is serviced on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, before a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  16. [The normotensive carriers of the MTHFR 677T allele, displaying the increased risk of development of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), occur at the highest frequency among the smoking patients].

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ewa; Waliszewski, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Andrzej L

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) presents itself as a progressive dilation of the abdominal aorta, leading--if untreated--to rupture. It is a common disease of the elderly, with a complex etiology. Smoking, hypertension and several genetic factors are recognized as relevant for the pathogenesis of AAA. We studied association between the polymorphism of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) gene within the fourth exon (677C>T) and the occurrence of hypertension and smoking status in the group of 74 male patients with AAA. In the patients group, the smoking hypertensive persons represented the largest subgroup (43%). We determined the the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in AAA patients and compared it to that in 71 healthy normotensive males. The frequencies of the 677T allele and MTHFR 677C>T genotypes were similar in both groups, but the subgroup of normotensive AAA patients (n=29) displayed significantly increased frequencies of 677T allele (0.4) and of 677CT and TT genotypes (69%), as compared to those in the control group (0.28 and 46%, respectively). This corresponds to the 3.3-fold greater risk of AAA in normotensive subjects with the 677T allele of MTHFR, as compared to the homo-zygotes 677CC (p<0.03; 95% CI=1.2-9.2). The highest frequencies of MTHFR 677T allele (0.43) and 677CT and TT genotypes (73%) were found in the subgroup of normotensive smoking patients (n=22).

  17. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  18. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  19. Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors relative to calcification in AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xun . E-mail: mpscrs@bath.ac.uk; Winrow, Vivienne R.; Horrocks, Michael; Stevens, Cliff R.

    2007-06-22

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. Human AAA tissue displays cells undergoing all stages of apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumour cells but not in normal cells. It has death receptors and decoy receptors. An inhibitor of TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), is involved in osteogenesis and vascular calcification. We investigated TRAIL and its receptors in AAA compared within normal aorta (NA). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of calcification in AAA walls were determined using Von Kossa staining and pre-operation computer tomography (CT) scans. There was a significant difference in calcification level at different locations in the AAA wall (p < 0.05). Apoptosis was confirmed in AAA by TUNEL assay. A significant difference in TRAIL and its receptor expression was observed between normal aortae and AAA (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed between tissues displaying different extents of calcification for TRAIL mRNA (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR examination and OPG protein (p < 0.01) by protein blotting examination. We propose that this pattern of expression of TRAIL and its receptors may contribute to AAA formation and calcification in the AAA wall.

  20. Emerging Mechanistic Insights into AAA Complexes Regulating Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M.; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates. The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases, shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship. Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  1. The oligomeric state of the active Vps4 AAA ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Eckert, Debra M.; Karren, Mary Anne; Whitby, Frank G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits. PMID:24161953

  2. Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…

  3. A nucleolar AAA-NTPase is required for parasite division

    PubMed Central

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Radke, Joshua B.; Ting, Li-Min; Vinayak, Sumiti; Alvarez, Carmelo A.; Kratzer, Stella; Kim, Kami; Striepen, Boris; White, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Apicomplexa division involves several distinct phases shared with other eukaryote cell cycles including a gap period (G1) prior to chromosome synthesis, although how progression through the parasite cell cycle is controlled is not understood. Here we describe a cell cycle mutant that reversibly arrests in the G1 phase. The defect in this mutant was mapped by genetic complementation to a gene encoding a novel AAAATPase/CDC48 family member called TgNoAP1. TgNoAP1 is tightly regulated and expressed in the nucleolus during the G1/S phases. A tyrosine to a cysteine change upstream of the second AAA+ domain in the temperature sensitive TgNoAP1 allele leads to conditional protein instability, which is responsible for rapid cell cycle arrest and a primary defect in 28S rRNA processing as confirmed by knock-in of the mutation back into the parent genome. The interaction of TgNoAP1 with factors of the snoRNP and R2TP complexes indicates this protein has a role in pre-rRNA processing. This is a novel role for a cdc48-related chaperone protein and indicates that TgNoAP1 may be part of a dynamic mechanism that senses the health of the parasite protein machinery at the initial steps of ribosome biogenesis and conveys that information to the parasite cell cycle checkpoint controls. PMID:23964771

  4. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  5. The Mitochondrial m-AAA Protease Prevents Demyelination and Hair Greying

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemyn, Julie; Barth, Esther; Langer, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M.; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The m-AAA protease preserves proteostasis of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It ensures a functional respiratory chain, by controlling the turnover of respiratory complex subunits and allowing mitochondrial translation, but other functions in mitochondria are conceivable. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the m-AAA protease have been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinocerebellar ataxia. While essential functions of the m-AAA protease for neuronal survival have been established, its role in adult glial cells remains enigmatic. Here, we show that deletion of the highly expressed subunit AFG3L2 in mature mouse oligodendrocytes provokes early-on mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling, as previously shown in neurons, but causes only late-onset motor defects and myelin abnormalities. In contrast, total ablation of the m-AAA protease, by deleting both Afg3l2 and its paralogue Afg3l1, triggers progressive motor dysfunction and demyelination, owing to rapid oligodendrocyte cell death. Surprisingly, the mice showed premature hair greying, caused by progressive loss of melanoblasts that share a common developmental origin with Schwann cells and are targeted in our experiments. Thus, while both neurons and glial cells are dependant on the m-AAA protease for survival in vivo, complete ablation of the complex is necessary to trigger death of oligodendrocytes, hinting to cell-autonomous thresholds of vulnerability to m-AAA protease deficiency. PMID:27911893

  6. Engineering Silicone Rubbers for In vitro Studies: Creating AAA Models and ILT Analogues with Physiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, T.J.; Doyle, B.J.; Callanan, A.; Walsh, M.T.; McGloughlin, T.M

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro studies of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have been widely reported. Frequently mock artery models with intraluminal thrombus (ILT) analogues are used to mimic the AAA in vivo. While the models used may be physiological, their properties are frequently either not reported or investigated. Method of Approach This study is concerned with the testing and characterisation of previously used vessel analogue materials and the development of new materials for the manufacture of AAA models. These materials were used in conjunction with a previously validated injection moulding technique to manufacture AAA models of ideal geometry. To determine the model properties (stiffness (β) and compliance) the diameter change of each AAA model was investigated under incrementally increasing internal pressures and compared to published in vivo studies to determine if the models behaved physiologically. A FEA study was implemented to determine if the pressure – diameter change behaviour of the models could be predicted numerically. ILT analogues were also manufactured and characterised. Ideal models were manufactured with ILT analogue internal to the aneurysm region and the effect of the ILT analogue on the model compliance and stiffness was investigated. Results The wall materials had similar properties to aortic tissue at physiological pressures (Einit 2.22MPa and 1.57MPa (aortic tissue: 1.8MPa)). ILT analogues had similar Young’s modulus to the medial layer of ILT (0.24 and 0.33MPa (ILT: 0.28MPa)). All models had aneurysm sac compliance in the physiological range (2.62 – 8.01×10-4/mmHg (AAA in vivo: 1.8 – 9.4×10-4/mmHg)). The necks of our AAA models had similar stiffness to healthy aortas (20.44 – 29.83 (healthy aortas in vivo: 17.5±5.5)). Good agreement was seen between the diameter changes due to pressurisation in the experimental and FEA wall models with a maximum error of 7.3% at 120mmHg. It was also determined that the inclusion of ILT analogue

  7. Relative importance of aneurysm diameter and body size for predicting AAA rupture in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Lu, Bing; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Conrad, Mark; Patel, Virendra I.; Fillinger, Mark; Matyal, Robina; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Women have been shown to have up to a four-fold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared to men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and to determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Using each patient’s height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, BMI, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size [e.g. aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm) / BSA (m2)]. Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs. elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately and different models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC). Results We identified 4045 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 53% EVAR). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men (Table 1). For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (AUC = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5cm: OR 1.0; 5.5–6.4cm: OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1

  8. The AAA+ ATPases and HflB/FtsH proteases of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali': phylogenetic diversity, membrane topology, and relationship to strain virulence.

    PubMed

    Seemüller, Erich; Sule, Sandor; Kube, Michael; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Schneider, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Previous examination revealed a correlation of phytopathogenic data of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' strains and the DNA sequence variability of a type ATP00464 hflB gene fragment. To further investigate such a relationship, all distinct genes previously annotated as hflB in the genome of 'Ca. P. mali' strain AT were fully sequenced and analyzed from a number of representative mild, moderate, and severe strains. The re-annotation indicated that the sequences encode six AAA+ ATPases and six HflB proteases. Each of the nine distinct deduced AAA+ proteins that were examined formed a coherent phylogenetic cluster. However, within these groups, sequences of three ATPases and three proteases from mild and severe strains clustered distantly, according to their virulence. This grouping was supported by an association with virulence-related amino acid substitutions. Another finding was that full-length genes from ATPase AP11 could only be identified in mild and moderate strains. Prediction of the membrane topology indicated that the long ATPase- and protease-carrying C-terminal tails of approximately half of the AAA+ proteins are extracellular, putatively facing the environment of the sieve tubes. Thus, they may be involved in pathogen-host interactions and may compromise phloem function, a major effect of phytoplasma infection. All full-length genes examined appear transcriptionally active and all deduced peptides show the key positions indicative for protein function.

  9. Engineering silicone rubbers for in vitro studies: creating AAA models and ILT analogues with physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Corbett, T J; Doyle, B J; Callanan, A; Walsh, M T; McGloughlin, T M

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have been widely reported. Frequently mock artery models with intraluminal thrombus (ILT) analogs are used to mimic the in vivo AAA. While the models used may be physiological, their properties are frequently either not reported or investigated. This study is concerned with the testing and characterization of previously used vessel analog materials and the development of new materials for the manufacture of AAA models. These materials were used in conjunction with a previously validated injection molding technique to manufacture AAA models of ideal geometry. To determine the model properties (stiffness (beta) and compliance), the diameter change of each AAA model was investigated under incrementally increasing internal pressures and compared with published in vivo studies to determine if the models behaved physiologically. A FEA study was implemented to determine if the pressure-diameter change behavior of the models could be predicted numerically. ILT analogs were also manufactured and characterized. Ideal models were manufactured with ILT analog internal to the aneurysm region, and the effect of the ILT analog on the model compliance and stiffness was investigated. The wall materials had similar properties (E(init) 2.22 MPa and 1.57 MPa) to aortic tissue at physiological pressures (1.8 MPa (from literature)). ILT analogs had a similar Young's modulus (0.24 MPa and 0.33 MPa) to the medial layer of ILT (0.28 MPa (from literature)). All models had aneurysm sac compliance (2.62-8.01 x 10(-4)/mm Hg) in the physiological range (1.8-9.4 x 10(-4)/mm Hg (from literature)). The necks of the AAA models had similar stiffness (20.44-29.83) to healthy aortas (17.5+/-5.5 (from literature)). Good agreement was seen between the diameter changes due to pressurization in the experimental and FEA wall models with a maximum difference of 7.3% at 120 mm Hg. It was also determined that the inclusion of ILT analog in the sac of the

  10. Machines of destruction - AAA+ proteases and the adaptors that control them.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eyal; Ottofueling, Ralf; Dougan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are frequently exposed to changes in environmental conditions, such as fluctuations in temperature, pH or the availability of nutrients. These assaults can be detrimental to cell as they often result in a proteotoxic stress, which can cause the accumulation of unfolded proteins. In order to restore a productive folding environment in the cell, bacteria have evolved a network of proteins, known as the protein quality control (PQC) network, which is composed of both chaperones and AAA+ proteases. These AAA+ proteases form a major part of this PQC network, as they are responsible for the removal of unwanted and damaged proteins. They also play an important role in the turnover of specific regulatory or tagged proteins. In this review, we describe the general features of an AAA+ protease, and using two of the best-characterised AAA+ proteases in Escherichia coli (ClpAP and ClpXP) as a model for all AAA+ proteases, we provide a detailed mechanistic description of how these machines work. Specifically, the review examines the physiological role of these machines, as well as the substrates and the adaptor proteins that modulate their substrate specificity.

  11. Structural basis for the ATP-independent proteolytic activity of LonB proteases and reclassification of their AAA+ modules.

    PubMed

    An, Young Jun; Na, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Il; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2015-10-01

    Lon proteases degrade defective or denature proteins as well as some folded proteins for the control of cellular protein quality. There are two types of Lon proteases, LonA and LonB. Each consists of two functional components: a protease component and an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ module). Here, we report the 2.03 -resolution crystal structure of the isolated AAA+ module (iAAA+ module) of LonB from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 (TonLonB). The iAAA+ module, having no bound nucleotide, adopts a conformation virtually identical to the ADP-bound conformation of AAA+ modules in the hexameric structure of TonLonB; this provides insights into the ATP-independent proteolytic activity observed in a LonB protease. Structural comparison of AAA+ modules between LonA and LonB revealed that the AAA+ modules of Lon proteases are separated into two distinct clades depending on their structural features. The AAA+ module of LonB belongs to the -H2 & Ins1 insert clade (HINS clade)- defined for the first time in this study, while the AAA+ module of LonA is a member of the HCLR clade.

  12. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  13. Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

  14. Research in the Age of the Steady-State University. AAAS Selected Symposium 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Don I., Ed.; Shen, Benjamin, S. P., Ed.

    Based on an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) symposium, this book examines the future of academic research in light of the following: (1) direct funds for basic science had increased for 4 to 5 years, and nonbudget items (i.e., declining enrollments) had become of increasing concern; (2) the Sloan Commission on Government…

  15. Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

    2008-11-01

    It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

  16. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    PubMed

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  17. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Michael; Loibl, Mathias; Zisser, Gertrude; Luschnig, Daniel; Kappel, Lisa; Rössler, Ingrid; Grassegger, Manuela; Hromic, Altijana; Krieger, Elmar; Gruber, Karl; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2017-03-17

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research. Here, we present the characterization of a novel mutant variant of the eukaryotic AAA-ATPase Drg1 that shows dysregulation of ATPase activity and altered interaction with Rlp24, its substrate in ribosome biogenesis. This defective regulation is the consequence of amino acid exchanges at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the adjacent D1 AAA-domain. The effects caused by these mutations strongly resemble those of pathological mutations of the AAA-ATPase p97 which cause the hereditary proteinopathy IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia). Our results therefore suggest well conserved mechanisms of regulation between structurally, but not functionally related members of the AAA-family.

  18. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1

    PubMed Central

    Prattes, Michael; Loibl, Mathias; Zisser, Gertrude; Luschnig, Daniel; Kappel, Lisa; Rössler, Ingrid; Grassegger, Manuela; Hromic, Altijana; Krieger, Elmar; Gruber, Karl; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research. Here, we present the characterization of a novel mutant variant of the eukaryotic AAA-ATPase Drg1 that shows dysregulation of ATPase activity and altered interaction with Rlp24, its substrate in ribosome biogenesis. This defective regulation is the consequence of amino acid exchanges at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the adjacent D1 AAA-domain. The effects caused by these mutations strongly resemble those of pathological mutations of the AAA-ATPase p97 which cause the hereditary proteinopathy IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget’s disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia). Our results therefore suggest well conserved mechanisms of regulation between structurally, but not functionally related members of the AAA-family. PMID:28303975

  19. Children with ANSD fitted with hearing aids applying the AAA Pediatric Amplification Guideline: Current Practice and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Roush, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up to 15% of children with permanent hearing loss have auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which involves normal outer hair cell function and disordered afferent neural activity in the auditory nerve or brainstem. Given the varying presentations of ANSD in children, there is a need for more evidence-based research on appropriate clinical interventions for this population. Purpose This study compared the speech production, speech perception, and language outcomes of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) who are hard of hearing and children with similar degrees of mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), all of whom were fitted with bilateral hearing aids based on the American Academy of Audiology (AAA) pediatric amplification guidelines. Research design Speech perception and communication outcomes data were gathered in a prospective accelerated longitudinal design, with entry into the study between six months and seven years of age. Three sites were involved in participant recruitment: Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Iowa. Study sample: The sample consisted of 12 children with ANSD and 22 children with SNHL. The groups were matched based on better-ear pure-tone average, better-ear aided speech intelligibility index, gender, maternal education level, and newborn hearing screening result (i.e., pass or refer). Data collection and analysis Children and their families participated in an initial baseline visit, followed by visits twice a year for children under age 2 years and once a year for children older than 2 years. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare children with ANSD to children with SNHL. Results Paired t-tests indicated no significant differences between the ANSD and SNHL groups on language and articulation measures. Children with ANSD displayed functional speech perception skills in quiet. Although the number of

  20. Coordinated gripping of substrate by subunits of a AAA+ proteolytic machine

    PubMed Central

    Iosefson, Ohad; Nager, Andrew R.; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Hexameric AAA+ unfoldases of ATP-dependent proteases and protein-remodeling machines use conserved loops that line the axial pore to apply force to substrates during the mechanical processes of protein unfolding and translocation. Whether loops from multiple subunits act independently or coordinately in these processes is a critical aspect of mechanism but is currently unknown for any AAA+ machine. By studying covalently linked hexamers of the E. coli ClpX unfoldase bearing different numbers and configurations of wild-type and mutant pore loops, we show that loops function synergistically, with the number of wild-type loops required for efficient degradation depending upon the stability of the protein substrate. Our results support a mechanism in which a power stroke initiated in one subunit of the ClpX hexamer results in the concurrent movement of all six pore loops, which coordinately grip and apply force to the substrate. PMID:25599533

  1. Neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish by a large AAA+ ATPase/ubiquitin ligase, mysterin/RNF213

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Yuri; Morito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Satoru; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Kawakami, Koichi; Takashima, Seiji; Hirata, Hiromi; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Mysterin (also known as RNF213) is a huge intracellular protein with two AAA+ ATPase modules and a RING finger ubiquitin ligase domain. Mysterin was originally isolated as a significant risk factor for the cryptogenic cerebrovascular disorder moyamoya disease, and was found to be involved in physiological angiogenesis in zebrafish. However, the function and the physiological significance of mysterin in other than blood vessels remain largely unknown, although mysterin is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. In this study, we performed antisense-mediated suppression of a mysterin orthologue in zebrafish larvae and revealed that mysterin-deficient larvae showed significant reduction in fast myofibrils and immature projection of primary motoneurons, leading to severe motor deficits. Fast muscle-specific restoration of mysterin expression cancelled these phenotypes, and interestingly both AAA+ ATPase and ubiquitin ligase activities of mysterin were indispensable for proper fast muscle formation, demonstrating an essential role of mysterin and its enzymatic activities in the neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish. PMID:26530008

  2. Structural Basis of ATP Hydrolysis and Intersubunit Signaling in the AAA+ ATPase p97.

    PubMed

    Hänzelmann, Petra; Schindelin, Hermann

    2016-01-05

    p97 belongs to the superfamily of AAA+ ATPases and is characterized by a tandem AAA module, an N-terminal domain involved in substrate and cofactor interactions, and a functionally important unstructured C-terminal tail. The ATPase activity is controlled by an intradomain communication within the same protomer and an interdomain communication between neighboring protomers. Here, we present for the first time crystal structures in which the physiologically relevant p97 hexamer constitutes the content of the asymmetric unit, namely in the apo state without nucleotide in either the D1 or D2 module and in the pre-activated state with ATPγS bound to both modules. The structures provide new mechanistic insights into the interdomain communication mediated by conformational changes of the C terminus as well as an intersubunit signaling network, which couples the nucleotide state to the conformation of the central putative substrate binding pore.

  3. The AAA+ ATPase, Thorase Regulates AMPA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianmin; Wang, Yue; Chi, Zhikai; Keuss, Matthew J.; Pai, Ying-Min Emily; Kang, Ho Chul; Shin, Jooho; Bugayenko, Artem; Wang, Hong; Xiong, Yulan; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Mattson, Mark P.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) plays critical roles in the regulation of synaptic activity reflected in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The cellular events underlying this important process in learning and memory are still being revealed. Here we describe and characterize the AAA+ ATPase, Thorase, that regulates the expression of surface AMPAR. In an ATPase-dependent manner Thorase mediates the internalization of AMPAR by disassembling the AMPAR-GRIP1 complex. Following genetic deletion of Thorase, the internalization of AMPAR is substantially reduced, leading to increased amplitudes of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, enhancement of LTP and elimination of LTD. These molecular events are expressed as deficits in learning and memory in Thorase null mice. This study identifies an AAA+ ATPase that plays a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPAR and thereby regulates synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. PMID:21496646

  4. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  5. Identification of a Degradation Signal Sequence within Substrates of the Mitochondrial i-AAA Protease.

    PubMed

    Rampello, Anthony J; Glynn, Steven E

    2017-03-24

    The i-AAA protease is a component of the mitochondrial quality control machinery that regulates respiration, mitochondrial dynamics, and protein import. The protease is required to select specific substrates for degradation from among the diverse complement of proteins present in mitochondria, yet the rules that govern this selection are unclear. Here, we reconstruct the yeast i-AAA protease, Yme1p, to examine the in vitro degradation of two intermembrane space chaperone subunits, Tim9 and Tim10. Yme1p degrades Tim10 more rapidly than Tim9 despite high sequence and structural similarity, and loss of Tim10 is accelerated by the disruption of conserved disulfide bonds within the substrate. An unstructured N-terminal region of Tim10 is necessary and sufficient to target the substrate to the protease through recognition of a short phenylalanine-rich motif, and the presence of similar motifs in other small Tim proteins predicts robust degradation by the protease. Together, these results identify the first specific degron sequence within a native i-AAA protease substrate.

  6. The plant i-AAA protease controls the turnover of an essential mitochondrial protein import component.

    PubMed

    Opalińska, Magdalena; Parys, Katarzyna; Murcha, Monika W; Jańska, Hanna

    2017-03-06

    Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that play a central role in energy metabolism. Owing to the life-essential functions of these organelles, mitochondrial content, quality and dynamics are tightly controlled. Across the species, highly conserved ATP-dependent proteases prevent malfunction of mitochondria through versatile activities. This study focuses on a molecular function of the plant mitochondrial inner membrane-embedded AAA protease (denoted i-AAA) FTSH4, providing its first bona fide substrate. Here, we report that the abundance of the Tim17-2 protein, an essential component of the TIM17:23 translocase (Tim17-2 together with Tim50 and Tim23), is directly controlled by the proteolytic activity of FTSH4. Plants that are lacking functional FTSH4 protease are characterized by significantly enhanced capacity of preprotein import through the TIM17:23-dependent pathway. Taken together, with the observation that FTSH4 prevents accumulation of Tim17-2, our data point towards the role of this i-AAA protease in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in plants.

  7. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Berube, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N. . E-mail: wnf@jax.org

    2005-03-10

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice.

  8. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  9. Regulation and action of the bacterial enhancer-binding protein AAA+ domains

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Nixon, B. Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial EBPs (enhancer-binding proteins) play crucial roles in regulating cellular responses to environmental changes, in part by providing efficient control over σ54-dependent gene transcription. The AAA+ (ATPase associated with various cellular activites) domain of the EBPs, when assembled into a ring, uses energy from ATP binding, hydrolysis and product release to remodel the σ54–RNAP (RNA polymerase) holoenzyme so that it can transition from closed to open form at promoter DNA. The assembly, and hence activity, of these ATPases are regulated by many different signal transduction mechanisms. Recent advances in solution scattering techniques, when combined with high-resolution structures and biochemical data, have enabled us to obtain mechanistic insights into the regulation and action of a subset of these σ54 activators: those whose assembly into ring form is controlled by two-component signal transduction. We review (i) experimental considerations of applying the SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering)/WAXS (wide-angle X-ray scattering) technique, (ii) distinct regulation mechanisms of the AAA+ domains of three EBPs by similar two-component signal transduction receiver domains, and (iii) major conformational changes and correlated σ54-binding activity of an isolated EBP AAA+ domain in the ATP hydrolysis cycle. PMID:18208392

  10. A threonine turnstile defines a dynamic amphiphilic binding motif in the AAA ATPase p97 allosteric binding site.

    PubMed

    Burnett, James C; Lim, Chaemin; Peyser, Brian D; Samankumara, Lalith P; Kovaliov, Marina; Colombo, Raffaele; Bulfer, Stacie L; LaPorte, Matthew G; Hermone, Ann R; McGrath, Connor F; Arkin, Michelle R; Gussio, Rick; Huryn, Donna M; Wipf, Peter

    2017-03-29

    The turnstile motion of two neighboring threonines sets up a dynamic side chain interplay that can accommodate both polar and apolar ligands in a small molecule allosteric protein binding site. A computational model based on SAR data and both X-ray and cryo-EM structures of the AAA ATPase p97 was used to analyze the effects of paired threonines at the inhibitor site. Specifically, the Thr side chain hydroxyl groups form a hydrogen bonding network that readily accommodates small, highly polar ligand substituents. Conversely, diametric rotation of the χ1 torsion by 150-180° orients the side chain β-methyl groups into the binding cleft, creating a hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate small, apolar substituents. This motif was found to be critical for rationalizing the affinities of a structurally focused set of inhibitors of p97 covering a > 2000-fold variation in potencies, with a preference for either small-highly polar or small-apolar groups. The threonine turnstile motif was further validated by a PDB search that identified analogous binding modes in ligand interactions in PKB, as well as by an analysis of NMR structures demonstrating additional gear-like interactions between adjacent Thr pairs. Combined, these data suggest that the threonine turnstile motif may be a general feature of interest in protein binding pockets.

  11. Experimental and computational studies on the flow fields in aortic aneurysms associated with deployment of AAA stent-grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Shangdong

    2007-10-01

    Pulsatile flow fields in rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models were investigated numerically, and the simulation results are found in good agreement with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. There are one or more vortexes in the AAA bulge, and a fairly high wall shear stress exists at the distal end, and thus the AAA is in danger of rupture. Medical treatment consists of inserting a vascular stent-graft in the AAA, which would decrease the blood impact to the inner walls and reduce wall shear stress so that the rupture could be prevented. A new computational model, based on porous medium model, was developed and results are documented. Therapeutic effect of the stent-graft was verified numerically with the new model.

  12. Inflorescence proliferation for somatic embryogenesis induction and suspension-derived plant regeneration from banana (Musa AAA, cv. 'Dwarf Cavendish') male flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Juan Bernardo; Rosell-García, Purificación

    2008-06-01

    Availability of explants with adequate embryogenic competence is one of the most important limitations for the development of regenerable cell suspensions in banana. To increase the number and ease of accessibility to potentially embryogenic explants, a novel methodology is described by which young male flower clusters isolated from adult plants are induced to form new flower buds and proliferate in vitro. Different concentrations of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) induced inflorescence proliferation, which could be maintained over time as a continuous source of young flower buds. Intensity of proliferation was evaluated during successive subcultures. At the third cycle of proliferation, the highest multiplication rate (2.89) was obtained on the medium containing 5 microM TDZ. Newly generated floral tissues were assessed for embryogenic competence, resulting in an average embryogenic frequency of 12.5%. The observed embryogenic capacity, together with the recurrent availability of immature flowers, allowed for the direct initiation of cell suspensions from bulked explant cultures. Regular observation and regeneration tests during the development of suspended cell cultures confirmed their embryogenic condition. Produced embryos successfully matured and germinated to regenerate hundreds of somatic in vitro plants.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  14. The ClpS adaptor mediates staged delivery of N-end-rule substrates to the AAA+ ClpAP protease

    PubMed Central

    Román-Hernández, Giselle; Hou, Jennifer Y.; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The ClpS adaptor delivers N-end-rule substrates to ClpAP, an energy-dependent AAA+ protease, for degradation. How ClpS binds specific N-end residues is known in atomic detail and clarified here, but the delivery mechanism is poorly understood. We show that substrate binding is enhanced when ClpS binds hexameric ClpA. Reciprocally, N-end-rule substrates increase ClpS affinity for ClpA6. Enhanced binding requires the N-end residue and peptide bond of the substrate, as well as multiple aspects of ClpS, including, a side chain that contacts the substrate α-amino group and the flexible N-terminal extension (NTE). Finally, enhancement also needs the N domain and AAA+ rings of ClpA, connected by a long linker. The NTE can be engaged by the ClpA translocation pore, but ClpS resists unfolding/degradation. We propose a staged-delivery model that illustrates how intimate contacts between the substrate, adaptor, and protease reprogram specificity and coordinate handoff from the adaptor to the protease. PMID:21777811

  15. The AAA(+) motor complex of subunits CobS and CobT of cobaltochelatase visualized by single particle electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Joakim; Elmlund, Dominika; Heldt, Dana; Deery, Evelyne; Söderberg, Christopher A G; Hansson, Mats; Warren, Martin; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2009-09-01

    Cobalamins belong to the tetrapyrrole family of prosthetic groups. The presence of a metal ion is a key feature of these compounds. In the oxygen-dependent (aerobic) cobalamin biosynthetic pathway, cobalt is inserted into a ring-contracted tetrapyrrole called hydrogenobyrinic acid a,c-diamide (HBAD) by a cobaltochelatase that is constituted by three subunits, CobN, CobS and CobT, with molecular masses of 137, 37 and 71kDa, respectively. Based on the similarities with magnesium chelatase, cobaltochelatase has been suggested to belong to the AAA(+) superfamily of proteins. In this paper we present the cloning of the Brucella melitensis cobN, cobS and cobT, the purification of the encoded protein products, and a single-particle reconstruction of the macromolecular assembly formed between CobS and CobT from negatively stained electron microscopy images of the complex. The results show for the first time that subunits CobS and CobT form a chaperone-like complex, characteristic for the AAA(+) class of proteins. The molecules are arranged in a two-tiered ring structure with the six subunits in each ring organized as a trimer of dimers. The similarity between this structure and that of magnesium chelatase, as well as analysis of the amino acid sequences confirms the suggested evolutionary relationship between the two enzymes.

  16. Characterization of the binding specificity of Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA) in comparison to Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I).

    PubMed

    Baldus, S E; Thiele, J; Park, Y O; Hanisch, F G; Bara, J; Fischer, R

    1996-08-01

    Using immunochemical and immunohistochemical methods, the binding site of Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA) was characterized and compared with the related fucose-specific lectin from Ulex europaeus (UEA-I). In solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassays, the two lectins recognized Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta-HSA. AAA additionally cross-reacted with neoglycolipids bearing lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I [H type 1] and II [Le(a)] and lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) as glycan moieties. UEA-I, on the other hand, bound to a LDFT-derived neoglycolipid but not to the other neoglycolipids tested. Binding of AAA to gastric mucin was competitively neutralized by Le(a)-specific monoclonal antibodies. UEA-I binding, on the other hand, was reduced after co-incubation with H type 2- and Le(y)-specific monoclonal antibodies. According to our results, AAA reacts with fucosylated type 1 chain antigens, whereas UEA-I binds only to the alpha 1-2-fucosylated LDFT-derived neoglycolipid. In immunohistochemical studies, the reactivity of AAA and UEA-I in normal pyloric mucosa from individuals with known Lewis and secretor status was analysed. AAA showed a broad reaction in the superficial pyloric mucosa from secretors and non-secretors, but AAA reactivity was more pronounced in Le(a+b-) individuals. On the other hand, UEA-I stained the superficial pyloric mucosa only from secretor individuals. A staining of deep mucous glands by the lectins was found in all specimens. Both reacted with most human carcinomas of different origin. Slight differences in their binding pattern were observed and may be explained by the different fine-specificities of the lectins.

  17. SU-E-T-199: Comparison Between Acuros XB and AAA in Homogeneous Phantoms for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J-Y; Huang, B-T; Zhang, J-Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the differences among Acuros XB (AXB) with dose-to-water report mode (AXBw), AXB with dose-to-medium report mode (AXBm) and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), in homogeneous phantoms and for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: Nineteen clinically applied VMAT plans were transplanted to a Delta4 phantom and an I’mRT phantom to generate phantom plans, respectively. Each plan was calculated using AXBw, AXBm and AAA, respectively, utilizing the distributed calculation framework (DCF), and the calculation times were recorded. Each plan was delivered by the TrueBeam linear accelerator and measured using the Delta4 phantom and ionization chamber, respectively. The 3D gamma pass rates and point dose deviations were compared among AXBw, AXBm and AAA. Results: In terms of the gamma pass rates with both the criteria of 3 mm/3% (3 mm distance-to-agreement, 3% dose difference) and 2 mm/2%, AXBm demonstrated the significantly worst results, and no significant difference was found between AXBw and AAA. In terms of the point dose, AXBw was slightly closer to the measured dose compared with AAA, and AXBm demonstrated the maximum dose deviation from the measured dose. Moreover, AXB calculation consumed comparable time when the DCF was not busy, and consumed significantly less time when the DCF was busy. Conclusion: In the homogeneous phantoms and for the VMAT plans, AXBw has the best dose accuracy, and AAA is comparable to or slightly worse than AXBw, wheras AXBm has the worst dose accuracy. Furthermore, AXB has higher calculation efficiency than AAA.

  18. Morphological State as a Predictor for Reintervention and Mortality After EVAR for AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrlander, Tomas; Dencker, Magnus; Acosta, Stefan

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess aorto-iliac morphological characteristics in relation to reintervention and all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard EVAR for infrarenal AAA. Methods: Patients treated with EVAR (Zenith{sup Registered-Sign} Stentgrafts, Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database where comorbidities and preoperative aneurysm morphology were entered. Reinterventions and mortality were checked until December 1, 2010. Median follow-up time was 68 months. Results: A total of 304 patients were included, of which 86% were men. Median age was 74 years. The reintervention rate was 23.4% (71/304). A greater diameter of the common iliac artery (p = 0.037; hazard ratio (HR) 1.037 [1.002-1.073]) was an independent factor for an increased number of reinterventions. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.0% (9/304). Aneurysm-related deaths due to AAA occurred in 4.9% (15/304). Five patients died due to a concomitant ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. The mortality until end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61.6%. The severity of angulation of the iliac arteries (p = 0.014; HR 1.018 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.033]) and anemia (p = 0.044; HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.029-7.556]) remained as independent factors associated with all-cause long-term mortality. The crude reintervention-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 84.5%, 64.8%, and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The initial aorto-iliac morphological state in patients scheduled for standard EVAR for AAA seems to be strongly related to the need for reinterventions and long-term mortality.

  19. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  20. A higher plant mitochondrial homologue of the yeast m-AAA protease. Molecular cloning, localization, and putative function.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczak, Marta; Kolaczkowska, Anna; Szczesny, Bartosz; Urantowka, Adam; Knorpp, Carina; Kieleczawa, Jan; Janska, Hanna

    2002-11-15

    Mitochondrial AAA metalloproteases play a fundamental role in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. They have been identified in yeast and animals but not yet in plants. This work describes the isolation and sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA from the pea (Pisum sativum) with significant homology to the yeast matrix AAA (m-AAA) protease. The product of this clone was imported into isolated pea mitochondria where it was processed to its mature form (PsFtsH). We have shown that the central region of PsFtsH containing the chaperone domain is exposed to the matrix space. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the pea protease can complement respiration deficiency in the yta10 and/or yta12 null yeast mutants, indicating that the plant protein can compensate for the loss of at least some of the important m-AAA functions in yeast. Based on biochemical experiments using isolated pea mitochondria, we propose that PsFtsH-like m-AAA is involved in the accumulation of the subunit 9 of the ATP synthase in the mitochondrial membrane.

  1. The m-AAA protease processes cytochrome c peroxidase preferentially at the inner boundary membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Suppanz, Ida E; Wurm, Christian A; Wenzel, Dirk; Jakobs, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The m-AAA protease is a conserved hetero-oligomeric complex in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Recent evidence suggests a compartmentalization of the contiguous mitochondrial inner membrane into an inner boundary membrane (IBM) and a cristae membrane (CM). However, little is known about the functional differences of these subdomains. We have analyzed the localizations of the m-AAA protease and its substrate cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) within yeast mitochondria using live cell fluorescence microscopy and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy. We find that the m-AAA protease is preferentially localized in the IBM. Likewise, the membrane-anchored precursor form of Ccp1 accumulates in the IBM of mitochondria lacking a functional m-AAA protease. Only upon proteolytic cleavage the mature form mCcp1 moves into the cristae space. These findings suggest that protein quality control and proteolytic activation exerted by the m-AAA protease take place preferentially in the IBM pointing to significant functional differences between the IBM and the CM.

  2. Synthesis of orthogonally protected (2S)-2-amino-adipic acid (α-AAA) and (2S,4R)-2-amino-4-hydroxyadipic acid (Ahad).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Saroj; Taylor, Carol M

    2013-06-07

    (2S,4R)-2-amino-4-hydroxyadipic acid (Ahad) building block 45 was synthesized in 11 steps and 6.5% overall yield from commercially available materials. Key steps in stereocontrol were an asymmetric conjugate addition employing a proline-based catalyst and a syn-selective intramolecular-conjugate addition of an oxygen nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated ester. To enable incorporation of α-amino-adipic acid (α-AAA) and Ahad into peptides, a truly orthogonal protecting group scheme was developed, encompassing an allyloxycarbonyl (Alloc) carbamate for Nα, a tert-butyl ester for the δ-COOH, an acetol ester for the α-COOH, and a tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether for the γ-hydroxy group of Ahad.

  3. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Kehua; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation. PMID:22291848

  4. Structural Basis of Protein Translocation by the Vps4-Vta1 AAA ATPase.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Shen, Peter S; Sundquist, Wesley I; Hill, Christopher P

    2017-04-05

    Many important cellular membrane fission reactions are driven by ESCRT pathways, which culminate in disassembly of ESCRT-III polymers by the AAA ATPase Vps4. We report a 4.3 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the active Vps4 hexamer with its cofactor Vta1, ADP•BeFx, and an ESCRT-III substrate peptide. Four Vps4 subunits form a helix whose interfaces are consistent with ATP-binding, is stabilized by Vta1, and binds the substrate peptide. The fifth subunit approximately continues this helix but appears to be dissociating. The final Vps4 subunit completes a notched-washer configuration as if transitioning between the ends of the helix. We propose that ATP binding propagates growth at one end of the helix while hydrolysis promotes disassembly at the other end, so that Vps4 'walks' along ESCRT-III until it encounters the ordered N-terminal domain to destabilize the ESCRT-III lattice. This model may be generally applicable to other protein-translocating AAA ATPases.

  5. Structural Characterization of the ATPase Reaction Cycle of Endosomal AAA Protein Vps4

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Junyu; Xia, Hengchuan; Yoshino-Koh, Kae; Zhou, Jiahai; Xu, Zhaohui

    2008-12-12

    The multivesicular body (MVB) pathway functions in multiple cellular processes including cell surface receptor down-regulation and viral budding from host cells. An important step in the MVB pathway is the correct sorting of cargo molecules, which requires the assembly and disassembly of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) on the endosomal membrane. Disassembly of the ESCRTs is catalyzed by ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA) protein Vps4. Vps4 contains a single AAA domain and undergoes ATP-dependent quaternary structural change to disassemble the ESCRTs. Structural and biochemical analyses of the Vps4 ATPase reaction cycle are reported here. Crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vps4 in both the nucleotide-free form and the ADP-bound form provide the first structural view illustrating how nucleotide binding might induce conformational changes within Vps4 that lead to oligomerization and binding to its substrate ESCRT-III subunits. In contrast to previous models, characterization of the Vps4 structure now supports a model where the ground state of Vps4 in the ATPase reaction cycle is predominantly a monomer and the activated state is a dodecamer. Comparison with a previously reported human VPS4B structure suggests that Vps4 functions in the MVB pathway via a highly conserved mechanism supported by similar protein-protein interactions during its ATPase reaction cycle.

  6. Time-resolved neutron scattering provides new insight into protein substrate processing by a AAA+ unfoldase

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ziad; Martel, Anne; Moulin, Martine; Kim, Henry S.; Härtlein, Michael; Franzetti, Bruno; Gabel, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We present a combination of small-angle neutron scattering, deuterium labelling and contrast variation, temperature activation and fluorescence spectroscopy as a novel approach to obtain time-resolved, structural data individually from macromolecular complexes and their substrates during active biochemical reactions. The approach allowed us to monitor the mechanical unfolding of a green fluorescent protein model substrate by the archaeal AAA+ PAN unfoldase on the sub-minute time scale. Concomitant with the unfolding of its substrate, the PAN complex underwent an energy-dependent transition from a relaxed to a contracted conformation, followed by a slower expansion to its initial state at the end of the reaction. The results support a model in which AAA ATPases unfold their substrates in a reversible power stroke mechanism involving several subunits and demonstrate the general utility of this time-resolved approach for studying the structural molecular kinetics of multiple protein remodelling complexes and their substrates on the sub-minute time scale. PMID:28102317

  7. The role of AAA+ proteases in mitochondrial protein biogenesis, homeostasis and activity control.

    PubMed

    Voos, Wolfgang; Ward, Linda A; Truscott, Kaye N

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are specialised organelles that are structurally and functionally integrated into cells in the vast majority of eukaryotes. They are the site of numerous enzymatic reactions, some of which are essential for life. The double lipid membrane of the mitochondrion, that spatially defines the organelle and is necessary for some functions, also creates a physical but semi-permeable barrier to the rest of the cell. Thus to ensure the biogenesis, regulation and maintenance of a functional population of proteins, an autonomous protein handling network within mitochondria is required. This includes resident mitochondrial protein translocation machinery, processing peptidases, molecular chaperones and proteases. This review highlights the contribution of proteases of the AAA+ superfamily to protein quality and activity control within the mitochondrion. Here they are responsible for the degradation of unfolded, unassembled and oxidatively damaged proteins as well as the activity control of some enzymes. Since most knowledge about these proteases has been gained from studies in the eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, much of the discussion here centres on their role in this organism. However, reference is made to mitochondrial AAA+ proteases in other organisms, particularly in cases where they play a unique role such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. As these proteases influence mitochondrial function in both health and disease in humans, an understanding of their regulation and diverse activities is necessary.

  8. Heterogeneous nucleotide occupancy stimulates functionality of phage shock protein F, an AAA+ transcriptional activator.

    PubMed

    Joly, Nicolas; Schumacher, Jörg; Buck, Martin

    2006-11-17

    The catalytic AAA+ domain (PspF1-275) of an enhancer-binding protein is necessary and sufficient to contact sigma54-RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Esigma54), remodel it, and in so doing catalyze open promoter complex formation. Whether ATP binding and hydrolysis is coordinated between subunits of PspF and the precise nature of the nucleotide(s) bound to the oligomeric forms responsible for substrate remodeling are unknown. We demonstrate that ADP stimulates the intrinsic ATPase activity of PspF1-275 and propose that this heterogeneous nucleotide occupancy in a PspF1-275 hexamer is functionally important for specific activity. Binding of ADP and ATP triggers the formation of functional PspF1-275 hexamers as shown by a gain of specific activity. Furthermore, ATP concentrations congruent with stoichiometric ATP binding to PspF1-275 inhibit ATP hydrolysis and Esigma54-promoter open complex formation. Demonstration of a heterogeneous nucleotide-bound state of a functional PspF1-275.Esigma54 complex provides clear biochemical evidence for heterogeneous nucleotide occupancy in this AAA+ protein. Based on our data, we propose a stochastic nucleotide binding and a coordinated hydrolysis mechanism in PspF1-275 hexamers.

  9. Changes in the wall shear stresses (WSS) during the enlargement of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven R.; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2004-11-01

    The changes in the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution of the WSS and gradients of WSS at different stages of the enlargement of AAAs are important to understand the etiology and progression of this vascular disease, since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. PIV measurements were performed in aneurysm models, while changing systematically their geometric parameters. We show that, even at very early stages of the disease (dilatation > 30%), the flow separates from the wall and the formation of a large vortex ring followed by internal shear layers leads to the generation of WSS that drastically differ from the healthy vessel. Inside the AAA, the mean WSS decreases to zero and the magnitude of the WSS can be as low as 26% of the value in a healthy vessel. Two regions with distinct patterns of WSS were identified. The region of flow detachment, with oscillatory WSS of very low mean, and the region of flow reattachment, located distally, where large, negative WSS and sustained gradients of WSS are produced as a result of the impact of the vortex ring on the wall.

  10. OGLE16aaa - a signature of a hungry supermassive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Zieliński, M.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Hamanowicz, A.; Jonker, P. G.; Arcavi, I.; Guillochon, J.; Brown, P. J.; Kozłowski, S.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K. A.; Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Bolmer, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Maguire, K.; Smith, K.

    2017-02-01

    We present the discovery and first three months of follow-up observations of a currently on-going unusual transient detected by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) survey, located in the centre of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.1655. The long rise to absolute magnitude of -20.5 mag, slow decline, very broad He and H spectral features make OGLE16aaa similar to other optical/UV tidal disruption events (TDEs). Weak narrow emission lines in the spectrum and archival photometric observations suggest the host galaxy is a weak-line active galactic nucleus, which has been accreting at higher rate in the past. OGLE16aaa, along with SDSS J0748, seems to form a sub-class of TDEs by weakly or recently active supermassive black holes (SMBHs). This class might bridge the TDEs by quiescent SMBHs and flares observed as `changing-look quasars', if we interpret the latter as TDEs. If this picture is true, the previously applied requirement for identifying a flare as a TDE that it had to come from an inactive nucleus, could be leading to observational bias in TDE selection, thus affecting TDE-rate estimations.

  11. Sequencing protocols to genotype mdx, mdx(4cv), and mdx(5cv) mice.

    PubMed

    Banks, Glen B; Combs, Ariana C; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2010-08-01

    Currently available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping methods for point mutations in the mouse dystrophin gene can lead to false positives and result in wasted time and money due to breeding or treating the wrong mice. Here we describe a simple and accurate method for sequencing the point mutations in mdx, mdx(4cv), and mdx(5cv) mice. This method clearly distinguishes between wildtype, heterozygous, and mutant transcripts, and thereby time and money can be saved by avoiding false positives.

  12. Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine: PHiD-CV.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin

    2009-11-01

    At the beginning of a new century, we have gained significant achievements against pneumococcal infections by using conjugated pneumococcal vaccines. In January 2009, the EMEA issued a positive opinion about, and recommended the approval of, GlaxoSmithKline's pediatric pneumococcal candidate vaccine, which is indicated for active immunization against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children from 6 weeks up to 2 years of age. The approved 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) contains all serotypes in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) plus serotypes 1, 5 and 7F. Protein D from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is the carrier protein for eight serotypes, while tetanus and diphtheria toxins are in the carrier proteins for the remaining two serotypes. It has also been proved that PHiD-CV is immunogenic, safe and well-tolerated in children. This vaccine can be coadministered with routinely used pediatric vaccines. Noninferiority criteria of PHiD-CV compared with PCV-7 were established in shared serotypes, except for serotypes 6B and 23F, and PHiD-CV is immunogenic for additional serotypes as assessed by the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations. PHiD-CV is also immunogenic for ten serotypes as assessed by post-primary and post-booster dose opsonophagocytic activity responses. Vaccine efficacy against IPD and other conditions should be monitored for shared serotypes and also additional serotypes during the postmarketing period. Optimal scheduling, safety and immunogenicity data in children with different risk factors for IPD, or whether it will provide herd immunity, are the questions waiting for answers in the postmarketing period. Further studies are needed to assess the potential advantages of protein D as a carrier and the potential efficacy of this new vaccine against H. influenzae. The potential public health efficacy of PHiD-CV in low-income countries

  13. ATPase site architecture is required for self-assembly and remodeling activity of a hexameric AAA+ transcriptional activator.

    PubMed

    Joly, Nicolas; Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

    2012-08-10

    AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) are oligomeric ATPases that use ATP hydrolysis to remodel their substrates. By similarity with GTPases, a dynamic organization of the nucleotide-binding pockets between ATPase protomers is proposed to regulate functionality. Using the transcription activator PspF as an AAA+ model, we investigated contributions of conserved residues for roles in ATP hydrolysis and intersubunit communication. We determined the R-finger residue and revealed that it resides in a conserved "R-hand" motif (R(x)D(xxx)R) needed for its "trans-acting" activity. Further, a divergent Walker A glutamic acid residue acts synergistically with a tyrosine residue to function in ADP-dependent subunit-subunit coordination, forming the "ADP-switch" motif. Another glutamic acid controls hexamer formation in the presence of nucleotides. Together, these results lead to a "residue-nucleotide" interaction map upon which to base AAA+ core regulation.

  14. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  15. Effects of the Transient Blood Flow-Wall Interaction on the Wall Stress Distribution in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Geindreau, Christian; Lasheras, Juan

    2006-11-01

    Our static finite element analysis (FEA) of both idealized and real clinical models has shown that the maximum diameter and asymmetry have substantial influence on the AAA wall stress distribution. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to reduce the magnitude of the wall stresses. To achieve a better understanding of the wall stress distribution in real AAAs, a dynamic FEA was also performed. We considered models, both symmetric and non-symmetric, in which the aorta is assumed isotropic with nonlinear material properties. For the limiting case of rigid walls, the evolution of the flow pattern and the wall shear stresses due to fluid flow at different stages of cardiac cycle predicted by our simulations are compared with experimental results obtained in in-vitro models. A good agreement is found between both results. Finally, we have extended the analysis to the physiologically correct case of deformable walls and characterized the transient effects on the wall stresses.

  16. Upregulation of MicroRNA-15a Contributes to Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) by Modulating the Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B).

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Si, Jiyuan; Yang, Bin; Yu, Jixiang

    2017-02-18

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to identify the association between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B, and their roles in regulating the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the miRNA database online (www.mirdb.org) and used a luciferase reporter assay system to study the regulatory relationship between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B. We also conducted real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of CDKN2B among different patient groups (participants with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and normal controls) or cells treated with scramble control, miR-15a-5p mimics, CDKN2B siRNA, and miR-15a-5p inhibitors. RESULTS We found that CDKN2B was a virtual target of miR-15a-5p with potential binding sites in the 3'UTR of CDKN2B (77-83 bp). We also showed that miR-15a-5p could bind to the CDKN2B 3'UTR, resulting in a significant decrease in luciferase activity compared with the scramble control. Furthermore, we found that the cells isolated from AAA participants showed an over-expression of miR-15a-5p compared to the normal controls, while the CDKN2B mRNA and protein expression level of the AAA group were much lower than the normal control group. Additionally, the expression of CDKN2B mRNA and the protein of the cells transfected with miR-15a-5p mimics and CDKN2B siRNA was downregulated, while the cells showed upregulated expression subsequent to transfection with miR-15a-5p inhibitors compared to the scramble control. CONCLUSIONS The data revealed a negative regulatory role of miR-15a-5p in the apoptosis of smooth muscle cells via targeting CDKN2B, and showed that miR-15a-5p could be a novel therapeutic target of AAA.

  17. Upregulation of MicroRNA-15a Contributes to Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) by Modulating the Expression of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Si, Jiyuan; Yang, Bin; Yu, Jixiang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to identify the association between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B, and their roles in regulating the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Material/Methods We searched the miRNA database online (www.mirdb.org) and used a luciferase reporter assay system to study the regulatory relationship between miR-15a-5p and CDKN2B. We also conducted real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of CDKN2B among different patient groups (participants with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and normal controls) or cells treated with scramble control, miR-15a-5p mimics, CDKN2B siRNA, and miR-15a-5p inhibitors. Results We found that CDKN2B was a virtual target of miR-15a-5p with potential binding sites in the 3′UTR of CDKN2B (77–83 bp). We also showed that miR-15a-5p could bind to the CDKN2B 3′UTR, resulting in a significant decrease in luciferase activity compared with the scramble control. Furthermore, we found that the cells isolated from AAA participants showed an over-expression of miR-15a-5p compared to the normal controls, while the CDKN2B mRNA and protein expression level of the AAA group were much lower than the normal control group. Additionally, the expression of CDKN2B mRNA and the protein of the cells transfected with miR-15a-5p mimics and CDKN2B siRNA was downregulated, while the cells showed upregulated expression subsequent to transfection with miR-15a-5p inhibitors compared to the scramble control. Conclusions The data revealed a negative regulatory role of miR-15a-5p in the apoptosis of smooth muscle cells via targeting CDKN2B, and showed that miR-15a-5p could be a novel therapeutic target of AAA. PMID:28214350

  18. 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Final 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown Hurlburt Field , Florida...SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 5-YEAR UPDATE CV-22 BEDDOWN HURLBURT FIELD , FL Agencies: The United States Air Force (USAF) and the United States Navy (Navy...the CV-22 Osprey at Hurlburt Field , Florida. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to: • Conduct IOT&E by testing the operation of the CV-22 in as

  19. Analysis of positional candidate genes in the AAA1 susceptibility locus for abdominal aortic aneurysms on chromosome 19

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder with multiple genetic risk factors. Using affected relative pair linkage analysis, we previously identified an AAA susceptibility locus on chromosome 19q13. This locus has been designated as the AAA1 susceptibility locus in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. Methods Nine candidate genes were selected from the AAA1 locus based on their function, as well as mRNA expression levels in the aorta. A sample of 394 cases and 419 controls was genotyped for 41 SNPs located in or around the selected nine candidate genes using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Single marker and haplotype analyses were performed. Three genes (CEBPG, PEPD and CD22) were selected for DNA sequencing based on the association study results, and exonic regions were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining of aortic tissue sections from AAA and control individuals was carried out for the CD22 and PEPD proteins with specific antibodies. Results Several SNPs were nominally associated with AAA (p < 0.05). The SNPs with most significant p-values were located near the CCAAT enhancer binding protein (CEBPG), peptidase D (PEPD), and CD22. Haplotype analysis found a nominally associated 5-SNP haplotype in the CEBPG/PEPD locus, as well as a nominally associated 2-SNP haplotype in the CD22 locus. DNA sequencing of the coding regions revealed no variation in CEBPG. Seven sequence variants were identified in PEPD, including three not present in the NCBI SNP (dbSNP) database. Sequencing of all 14 exons of CD22 identified 20 sequence variants, five of which were in the coding region and six were in the 3'-untranslated region. Five variants were not present in dbSNP. Immunohistochemical staining for CD22 revealed protein expression in lymphocytes present in the aneurysmal aortic wall only and no detectable expression in control aorta. PEPD protein was expressed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the media-adventitia border in both

  20. Faint CV Monitoring at CBA Pretoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monard, L. A. G. B.

    2006-05-01

    The regular monitoring of faint cataclysmic variables (CV) is one of five observing programs that are run at CBA Pretoria. It started off in 2002 with about 120 CVs and related objects in the program. The intention was to observe those targets as often as possible with unfiltered CCD. There were continuous additions of more CVs by digging deeper in the CV atlas, new finds, and reclassified stars while some were taken off the list. At the end of 2004 the number of CVs in the observing program exceeded 200. With only one telescope and one observer and so many other things to observe, the actual number of snapshot CV observations have been much less than hoped. Despite this, the program has shown to be very successful. Publications have been referring to reported findings from this program while even more publications resulted from observing campaigns (time resolved photometry) dedicated to CVs that were found in outburst by observations at CBA Pretoria. In most cases they were the first real-time outburst detection of that CV. The present paper will not deal with those published or alerted finds but will show observing results of other CVs from the list just to give an indication of the broader meaningfulness of such a program. A selection of fifteen light curves obtained after three years of monitoring will be shown and discussed. The choice of the 15 stars was based on their possible interest and the fact that they have been positively observed on most occasions, since they were mostly brighter than magnitude 18 CR (unfiltered with red zero-point).

  1. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  2. Chemical C-V Measurements on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabig, Sarah Jane; Farlow, Gary

    2008-10-01

    When metal/semiconductor schotky barriers are not practical, an electrolyte/semiconductor interface can be used to make capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The physics of such electrochemical C-V measurements will be described. Electrical properties of ZnO were measured by electrochemical C-V techniques and photovoltage spectroscopy using an Accent 4400 Electrochemical CV system. Specifically, the electrical behavior of a 0.1 M ZnCl2 electrolyte-ZnO interface has been investigated with attention to the electrolyte-ZnO interface's C-V dependence on carrier frequency.

  3. Structure of a AAA+ unfoldase in the process of unfolding substrate.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Zev A; Huang, Rui; Augustyniak, Rafal; Kay, Lewis E; Rubinstein, John L

    2017-04-08

    AAA+ unfoldases are thought to unfold substrate through the central pore of their hexameric structures, but how this process occurs is not known. VAT, the Thermoplasma acidophilum homologue of eukaryotic CDC48/p97, works in conjunction with the proteasome to degrade misfolded or damaged proteins. We show that in the presence of ATP, VAT with its regulatory N-terminal domains removed unfolds other VAT complexes as substrate. We captured images of this transient process by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) to reveal the structure of the substrate-bound intermediate. Substrate binding breaks the six-fold symmetry of the complex, allowing five of the six VAT subunits to constrict into a tight helix that grips an ~80 Å stretch of unfolded protein. The structure suggests a processive hand-over-hand unfolding mechanism, where each VAT subunit releases the substrate in turn before re-engaging further along the target protein, thereby unfolding it.

  4. Mutations in the Human AAA+ Chaperone p97 and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wai Kwan; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    A number of neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to mutations in the human protein p97, an abundant cytosolic AAA+ (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) ATPase, that functions in a large number of cellular pathways. With the assistance of a variety of cofactors and adaptor proteins, p97 couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to conformational changes that are necessary for its function. Disease-linked mutations, which are found at the interface between two main domains of p97, have been shown to alter the function of the protein, although the pathogenic mutations do not appear to alter the structure of individual subunit of p97 or the formation of the hexameric biological unit. While exactly how pathogenic mutations alter the cellular function of p97 remains unknown, functional, biochemical and structural differences between wild-type and pathogenic mutants of p97 are being identified. Here, we summarize recent progress in the study of p97 pathogenic mutants. PMID:27990419

  5. Distinct quaternary structures of the AAA+ Lon protease control substrate degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vieux, Ellen F.; Wohlever, Matthew L.; Chen, James Z.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

    2013-01-01

    Lon is an ATPase associated with cellular activities (AAA+) protease that controls cell division in response to stress and also degrades misfolded and damaged proteins. Subunits of Lon are known to assemble into ring-shaped homohexamers that enclose an internal degradation chamber. Here, we demonstrate that hexamers of Escherichia coli Lon also interact to form a dodecamer at physiological protein concentrations. Electron microscopy of this dodecamer reveals a prolate structure with the protease chambers at the distal ends and a matrix of N domains forming an equatorial hexamer–hexamer interface, with portals of ∼45 Å providing access to the enzyme lumen. Compared with hexamers, Lon dodecamers are much less active in degrading large substrates but equally active in degrading small substrates. Our results support a unique gating mechanism that allows the repertoire of Lon substrates to be tuned by its assembly state. PMID:23674680

  6. Triple A syndrome with a novel indel mutation in the AAAS gene and delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Bustanji, Haidar; Sahar, Bashar; Huebner, Angela; Ajlouni, Kamel; Landgraf, Dana; Hamamy, Hanan; Koehler, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Triple A syndrome, formerly known as Allgrove syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, achalasia, and neurological abnormalities. We report a 17-year-old boy presented to the endocrine clinic with delayed puberty and a 4-year's history of fatigue and muscle weakness. He had achalasia, alacrima, and skin and mucosal hyperpigmentation. Hormonal assessment revealed isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of triple A syndrome was confirmed by sequencing the entire coding region including exon-intron boundaries of the AAAS gene. Analysis revealed a homozygous novel indel mutation encompassing intron 7 to intron 10 of the gene (g.16166_17813delinsTGAGGCCTGCTG; NG_016775). This is the first report of triple A syndrome in Jordan with a novel indel mutation and presenting with delayed puberty.

  7. Deciphering the roles of multi-component recognition signals by the AAA+ unfoldase, ClpX

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Lorraine; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Sauer, Robert T.; Rice, Phoebe A.; Baker, Tania A.

    2015-01-01

    ATP-dependent protein remodeling and unfolding enzymes are key participants in protein metabolism in all cells. How these often-destructive enzymes specifically recognize target protein complexes is poorly understood. Here, we use the well-studied AAA+ unfoldase-substrate pair, E. coli ClpX and MuA transposase, to address how these powerful enzymes recognize target protein complexes. We demonstrate that the final transposition product, which is a DNA-bound tetramer of MuA, is preferentially recognized over the monomeric apo-protein through its multivalent display of ClpX recognition tags. The important peptide tags include one at the C-terminus (“C-tag”) that binds the ClpX pore and a second (enhancement or “E-tag”) that binds the ClpX N-terminal domain. We construct a chimeric protein to interrogate subunit-specific contributions of these tags. Efficient remodeling of MuA tetramers requires ClpX to contact a minimum of three tags (one C-tag and two or more E-tags), and that these tags are contributed by different subunits within the tetramer. The individual recognition peptides bind ClpX weakly (KD>70μM), but when combined in the MuA tetramer, impart a high-affinity interaction (KD~1.0 μM). When the weak C-tag signal is replaced with a stronger recognition tag, the E-tags become unnecessary and ClpX’s preference for the complex over MuA monomers is eliminated. Additionally, because the spatial orientation of the tags is predicted to change during the final step of transposition, this recognition strategy suggests how AAA+ unfoldases specifically distinguish the completed “end-stage” form of a particular complex for the ideal biological outcome. PMID:25797169

  8. Caveolin-1 controls mitochondrial function through regulation of m-AAA mitochondrial protease

    PubMed Central

    Volonte, Daniela; Liu, Zhongmin; Shiva, Sruti; Galbiati, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteases ensure mitochondrial integrity and function after oxidative stress by providing mitochondrial protein quality control. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this basic biological function in eukaryotic cells remain largely unknown. Caveolin-1 is a scaffolding protein involved in signal transduction. We find that AFG3L2, a m-AAA type of mitochondrial protease, is a novel caveolin-1-interacting protein in vitro. We show that oxidative stress promotes the translocation of both caveolin-1 and AFG3L2 to mitochondria, enhances the interaction of caveolin-1 with AFG3L2 in mitochondria and stimulates mitochondrial protease activity in wild-type fibroblasts. Localization of AFG3L2 to mitochondria after oxidative stress is inhibited in fibroblasts lacking caveolin-1, which results in impaired mitochondrial protein quality control, an oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis switch and reduced ATP production. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that a lack of caveolin-1 does not alter either mitochondrial number or morphology but leads to the cytoplasmic and proteasome-dependent degradation of complexes I, III, IV and V upon oxidant stimulation. Restoration of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in caveolin-1 null fibroblasts reverts the enhanced glycolysis observed in these cells. Expression of a mutant form of AFG3L2, which has reduced affinity for caveolin-1, fails to localize to mitochondria and promotes degradation of complex IV after oxidative stress. Thus, caveolin-1 maintains mitochondrial integrity and function when cells are challenged with free radicals by promoting the mitochondrial localization of m-AAA protease and its quality control functions. PMID:27705926

  9. Levels of H-ras codon 61 CAA to AAA mutation: response to 4-ABP-treatment and Pms2-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Barbara L; Delongchamp, Robert R; Beland, Frederick A; Heflich, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiencies result in increased frequencies of spontaneous mutation and tumor formation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a chemically-induced mutational response would be greater in a mouse with an MMR-deficiency than in the MMR-proficient mouse models commonly used to assay for chemical carcinogenicity. To accomplish this, the induction of H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation was examined in Pms2 knockout mice (Pms2-/-, C57BL/6 background) and sibling wild-type mice (Pms2+/+). Groups of five or six neonatal male mice were treated with 0.3 micromol 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) or the vehicle control, dimethylsulfoxide. Eight months after treatment, liver DNAs were isolated and analysed for levels of H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation using allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR. In Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice, 4-ABP treatment caused an increase in mutant fraction (MF) from 1.65x10(-5) to 2.91x10(-5) and from 3.40x10(-5) to 4.70x10(-5), respectively. Pooling data from 4-ABP-treated and control mice, the approximately 2-fold increase in MF observed in Pms2-deficient as compared with Pms2-proficient mice was statistically significant (P=0.0207) and consistent with what has been reported previously in terms of induction of G:C-->T:A mutation in a Pms2-deficient background. Pooling data from both genotypes, the increase in H-ras MF in 4-ABP-treated mice, as compared with control mice, did not reach the 95% confidence level of statistical significance (P=0.0606). The 4-ABP treatment caused a 1.76-fold and 1.38-fold increase in average H-ras MF in Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of induced mutation in Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice were nearly identical (1.26x10(-5) and 1.30x10(-5), respectively). We conclude that Pms2-deficiency does not result in an amplification of the H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutational response induced by 4-ABP.

  10. Student-Athlete Perceptions of a Summer Pre-Enrollment Experience at an NCAA Division I-AAA Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Michael Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine student-athlete perceptions of the role of summer pre-enrollment in their adjustment and transition to college. The study focused on student-athletes who received athletically-related financial aid at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AAA institution. The…

  11. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, R. O.; Karlsson, A.; Behrens, C. F.

    2010-08-01

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  12. Monte Carlo evaluation of the AAA treatment planning algorithm in a heterogeneous multilayer phantom and IMRT clinical treatments for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sterpin, E.; Tomsej, M.; Smedt, B. de; Reynaert, N.; Vynckier, S.

    2007-05-15

    The Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is a new pencil beam convolution/superposition algorithm proposed by Varian for photon dose calculations. The configuration of AAA depends on linear accelerator design and specifications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of AAA for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator for small fields and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments in inhomogeneous media. The accuracy of AAA was evaluated in two studies. First, AAA was compared both with Monte Carlo (MC) and the measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom simulating lung equivalent tissues and bone ribs. The algorithm was tested under lateral electronic disequilibrium conditions, using small fields (2x2 cm{sup 2}). Good agreement was generally achieved for depth dose and profiles, with deviations generally below 3% in lung inhomogeneities and below 5% at interfaces. However, the effects of attenuation and scattering close to the bone ribs were not fully taken into account by AAA, and small inhomogeneities may lead to planning errors. Second, AAA and MC were compared for IMRT plans in clinical conditions, i.e., dose calculations in a computed tomography scan of a patient. One ethmoid tumor, one orophaxynx and two lung tumors are presented in this paper. Small differences were found between the dose volume histograms. For instance, a 1.7% difference for the mean planning target volume dose was obtained for the ethmoid case. Since better agreement was achieved for the same plans but in homogeneous conditions, these differences must be attributed to the handling of inhomogeneities by AAA. Therefore, inherent assumptions of the algorithm, principally the assumption of independent depth and lateral directions in the scaling of the kernels, were slightly influencing AAA's validity in inhomogeneities. However, AAA showed a good accuracy overall and a great ability to handle small fields in inhomogeneous media compared to other pencil beam convolution

  13. Monte carlo evaluation of the AAA treatment planning algorithm in a heterogeneous multilayer phantom and IMRT clinical treatments for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Sterpin, E; Tomsej, M; De Smedt, B; Reynaert, N; Vynckier, S

    2007-05-01

    The Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is a new pencil beam convolution/superposition algorithm proposed by Varian for photon dose calculations. The configuration of AAA depends on linear accelerator design and specifications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of AAA for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator for small fields and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments in inhomogeneous media. The accuracy of AAA was evaluated in two studies. First, AAA was compared both with Monte Carlo (MC) and the measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom simulating lung equivalent tissues and bone ribs. The algorithm was tested under lateral electronic disequilibrium conditions, using small fields (2 x 2 cm(2)). Good agreement was generally achieved for depth dose and profiles, with deviations generally below 3% in lung inhomogeneities and below 5% at interfaces. However, the effects of attenuation and scattering close to the bone ribs were not fully taken into account by AAA, and small inhomogeneities may lead to planning errors. Second, AAA and MC were compared for IMRT plans in clinical conditions, i.e., dose calculations in a computed tomography scan of a patient. One ethmoid tumor, one orophaxynx and two lung tumors are presented in this paper. Small differences were found between the dose volume histograms. For instance, a 1.7% difference for the mean planning target volume dose was obtained for the ethmoid case. Since better agreement was achieved for the same plans but in homogeneous conditions, these differences must be attributed to the handling of inhomogeneities by AAA. Therefore, inherent assumptions of the algorithm, principally the assumption of independent depth and lateral directions in the scaling of the kernels, were slightly influencing AAA's validity in inhomogeneities. However, AAA showed a good accuracy overall and a great ability to handle small fields in inhomogeneous media compared to other pencil beam convolution

  14. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  15. SU-E-T-122: Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) Vs. Acuros XB (AXB) in Stereotactic Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Mynampati, D; Scripes, P Godoy; Kuo, H; Yaparpalvi, R; Tome, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric differences between superposition beam model (AAA) and determinant photon transport solver (AXB) in lung SBRT and Cranial SRS dose computations. Methods: Ten Cranial SRS and ten Lung SBRT plans using Varian, AAA -11.0 were re-planned using Acuros -XB-11.0 with fixed MU. 6MV photon Beam model with HD120-MLC used for dose calculations. Four non-coplanar conformal arcs used to deliver 21Gy or 18Gy to SRS targets (0.4 to 6.2cc). 54Gy (3Fractions) or 50Gy (5Fractions) was planned for SBRT targets (7.3 to 13.9cc) using two VAMT non-coplanar arcs. Plan comparison parameters were dose to 1% PTV volume (D1), dose to 99% PTV volume( D99), Target mean (Dmean), Conformity index (ratio of prescription isodose volume to PTV), Homogeneity Index [ (D2%-D98%)/Dmean] and R50 (ratio of 50% of prescription isodose volume to PTV). OAR parameters were Brain volume receiving 12Gy dose (V12Gy) and maximum dose (D0.03) to Brainstem for SRS. For lung SBRT, maximum dose to Heart and Cord, Mean lung dose (MLD) and volume of lung receiving 20Gy (V20Gy) were computed. PTV parameters compared by percentage difference between AXB and AAA parameters. OAR parameters and HI compared by absolute difference between two calculations. For analysis, paired t-test performed over the parameters. Results: Compared to AAA, AXB SRS plans have on average 3.2% lower D99, 6.5% lower CI and 3cc less Brain-V12. However, AXB SBRT plans have higher D1, R50 and Dmean by 3.15%, 1.63% and 2.5%. For SRS and SBRT, AXB plans have average HI 2 % and 4.4% higher than AAA plans. In both techniques, all other parameters vary within 1% or 1Gy. In both sets only two parameters have P>0.05. Conclusion: Even though t-test results signify difference between AXB and AAA plans, dose differences in dose estimations by both algorithms are clinically insignificant.

  16. ATP-induced conformational dynamics in the AAA+ motor unit of magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Joakim; Elmlund, Hans; Wulff, Ragna Peterson; Berglund, Lisa; Elmlund, Dominika; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; Hebert, Hans; Willows, Robert D; Hansson, Mats; Lindahl, Martin; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2010-03-10

    Mg-chelatase catalyzes the first committed step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway, the ATP-dependent insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Here we report the reconstruction using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of the complex between subunits BchD and BchI of Rhodobacter capsulatus Mg-chelatase in the presence of ADP, the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog AMPPNP, and ATP at 7.5 A, 14 A, and 13 A resolution, respectively. We show that the two AAA+ modules of the subunits form a unique complex of 3 dimers related by a three-fold axis. The reconstructions demonstrate substantial differences between the conformations of the complex in the presence of ATP and ADP, and suggest that the C-terminal integrin-I domains of the BchD subunits play a central role in transmitting conformational changes of BchI to BchD. Based on these data a model for the function of magnesium chelatase is proposed.

  17. Simulation of bifurcated stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, J.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper a method is introduced, to visualize bifurcated stent grafts in CT-Data. The aim is to improve therapy planning for minimal invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Due to precise measurement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and exact simulation of the bifurcated stent graft, physicians are supported in choosing a suitable stent prior to an intervention. The presented method can be used to measure the dimensions of the abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as simulate a bifurcated stent graft. Both of these procedures are based on a preceding segmentation and skeletonization of the aortic, right and left iliac. Using these centerlines (aortic, right and left iliac) a bifurcated initial stent is constructed. Through the implementation of an ACM method the initial stent is fit iteratively to the vessel walls - due to the influence of external forces (distance- as well as balloonforce). Following the fitting process, the crucial values for choosing a bifurcated stent graft are measured, e.g. aortic diameter, right and left common iliac diameter, minimum diameter of distal neck. The selected stent is then simulated to the CT-Data - starting with the initial stent. It hereby becomes apparent if the dimensions of the bifurcated stent graft are exact, i.e. the fitting to the arteries was done properly and no ostium was covered.

  18. CODAS syndrome is associated with mutations of LONP1, encoding mitochondrial AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Jinks, Robert N; Puffenberger, Erik G; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Singh, Kamalendra; Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Thilagavathi, Jayapalraja; Lee, Jae; Sarafianos, Stefan; Benkert, Abigail; Koehler, Alanna; Zhu, Anni; Trovillion, Victoria; McGlincy, Madeleine; Morlet, Thierry; Deardorff, Matthew; Innes, A Micheil; Prasad, Chitra; Chudley, Albert E; Lee, Irene Nga Wing; Suzuki, Carolyn K

    2015-01-08

    CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA(+) domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease.

  19. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  20. EM single particle analysis of the ATP-dependent BchI complex of magnesium chelatase: an AAA+ hexamer.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Hansson, A; Birch, D; Al-Karadaghi, S; Hansson, M

    2004-01-01

    BchI, belonging to the AAA+ -protein family, forms the enzyme magnesium chelatase together with BchD and BchH. This enzyme catalyses the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX upon ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have indicated that BchI forms ATP-dependent complexes and it is a member of the AAA+ -protein family (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and it was suggested based on structural homology that the BchI formed hexameric complexes. AAA+ -proteins are Mg2+ -dependent ATPases that normally form oligomeric ring complexes in the presence of ATP. Single particle analysis of fully formed ring complexes of BchI observed by negative staining EM indicate that the BchI has strong 6- and 2-fold rotational symmetries and a weaker 4-fold rotational symmetry which are reminiscent of DNA helicase. A 2D average of the fully formed BchI-ATP ring complex is presented here from images of the complex obtained from negative staining EM. Other complexes are also observed in the EM micrographs and the class averages of these are indicative of the fragility and dynamic nature of the BchI complex which has been reported and they are suggestive of partially circular complexes with six or less protomers per particle. The resolution of the average circular complex is estimated at approximately 30A and it is similar in shape and size to an atomic resolution hexameric model of BchI rendered at 30A.

  1. Spectroscopic and molecular docking study on the interaction between salicylic acid and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya H.; Dai, Kang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Yun H.; Wang, Chun T.; Liu, Xue Q.; Liu, Xin Q.

    2017-02-01

    The interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 in rice was studied using spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy demonstrated an interaction between OsAAA1 protein and SA. Spectroscopy showed that this interaction was a dynamic quenching process. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) further revealed that this interaction caused changes in the microenvironment of tyrosine and tryptophan and that the interaction site was closer to the tryptophan residue. The structural model of protein OsAAA1 was determined by homology modeling method, and the molecular docking simulation diagram of OsAAA1 with SA was obtained. These models, in combination with a Ramachandran plot analysis, showed amino acid residues ranging from position 240 to position 420 as the possible site interacting with SA. Among them, Gly389, Lys257 and Glu425 might be three key amino acids that can form hydrogen bonds with SA.

  2. Spectroscopic and molecular docking study on the interaction between salicylic acid and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 of rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya H; Dai, Kang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Yun H; Wang, Chun T; Liu, Xue Q; Liu, Xin Q

    2017-02-15

    The interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 in rice was studied using spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy demonstrated an interaction between OsAAA1 protein and SA. Spectroscopy showed that this interaction was a dynamic quenching process. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) further revealed that this interaction caused changes in the microenvironment of tyrosine and tryptophan and that the interaction site was closer to the tryptophan residue. The structural model of protein OsAAA1 was determined by homology modeling method, and the molecular docking simulation diagram of OsAAA1 with SA was obtained. These models, in combination with a Ramachandran plot analysis, showed amino acid residues ranging from position 240 to position 420 as the possible site interacting with SA. Among them, Gly389, Lys257 and Glu425 might be three key amino acids that can form hydrogen bonds with SA.

  3. Dilatation of the bile and pancreatic ducts due to compression by an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA): a case ameliorated by an endovascular stent grafting.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshiro; Suzuki, Ryo; Sakaguchi, Yutaku; Shibatani, Nobuyuki; Hachimine, Daisaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Seki, Toshihito; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to abdominal discomfort. Imaging modalities showed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) compressing the duodenum, the distal common bile duct and the head of the pancreas concurrent with distension of the proximal bile and main pancreatic ducts in the body and tail of the pancreas. After admission, the patient underwent endovascular stent grafting to treat the AAA. The size of the aneurysm decreased and the dilatation of the bile and pancreatic ducts became less prominent. AAA should therefore be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with findings of dilatation of the bile ducts in the absence of stones or tumors in the pancreaticobiliary system. This is the first reported case of a patient treated for both AAA and dilatation of the bile and pancreatic ducts with endovascular stent grafting via the femoral artery.

  4. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  5. Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group).

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Tiappi, Florian Mathias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Richel, Aurore; Jacques, Philippe; Thonart, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82 ± 3.51 and 49.78 ± 1.39%w/w WCLB dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56 ± 1.33%w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47 ± 0.00%w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70 ± 0.71%w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2%w/w of the LF DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210 °C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerization, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors, such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210, were the highest (41 and 21 µg ml(-1), respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments.

  6. Catalytic turnover triggers exchange of subunits of the magnesium chelatase AAA+ motor unit.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Joakim; Braumann, Ilka; Kurowska, Marzena; Müller, André H; Hansson, Mats

    2013-08-16

    The ATP-dependent insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX is the first committed step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The reaction is catalyzed by magnesium chelatase, which consists of three gene products: BchI, BchD, and BchH. The BchI and BchD subunits belong to the family of AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and form a two-ring complex with six BchI subunits in one layer and six BchD subunits in the other layer. This BchID complex is a two-layered trimer of dimers with the ATP binding site located at the interface between two neighboring BchI subunits. ATP hydrolysis by the BchID motor unit fuels the insertion of Mg(2+) into the porphyrin by the BchH subunit. In the present study, we explored mutations that were originally identified in semidominant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants. The resulting recombinant BchI proteins have marginal ATPase activity and cannot contribute to magnesium chelatase activity although they apparently form structurally correct complexes with BchD. Mixing experiments with modified and wild-type BchI in various combinations showed that an exchange of BchI subunits in magnesium chelatase occurs during the catalytic cycle, which indicates that dissociation of the complex may be part of the reaction mechanism related to product release. Mixing experiments also showed that more than three functional interfaces in the BchI ring structure are required for magnesium chelatase activity.

  7. AAA+ proteases and their role in distinct stages along the Vibrio cholerae lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Katharina; Vorkapic, Dina; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Malli, Gerald; Barilich, Benjamin P; Cakar, Fatih; Zingl, Franz G; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae has to adapt to different environmental conditions along its lifecycle by means of transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation. This study provides a first comprehensive analysis regarding the contribution of the cytoplasmic AAA+ proteases Lon, ClpP and HslV to distinct features of V. cholerae behaviour, including biofilm formation, motility, cholera toxin expression and colonization fitness in the mouse model. While absence of HslV did not yield to any altered phenotype compared to wildtype, absence of Lon or ClpP resulted in significantly reduced colonization in vivo. In addition, a Δlon deletion mutant showed altered biofilm formation and increased motility, which could be correlated with higher expression of V. cholerae flagella gene class IV. Concordantly, we could show by immunoblot analysis, that Lon is the main protease responsible for proteolytic control of FliA, which is required for class IV flagella gene transcription, but also downregulates virulence gene expression. FliA becomes highly sensitive to proteolytic degradation in absence of its anti-sigma factor FlgM, a scenario reported to occur during mucosal penetration due to FlgM secretion through the broken flagellum. Our results confirm that the high stability of FliA in the absence of Lon results in less cholera toxin and toxin corgulated pilus production under virulence gene inducing conditions and in the presence of a damaged flagellum. Thus, the data presented herein provide a molecular explanation on how V. cholerae can achieve full expression of virulence genes during early stages of colonization, despite FliA getting liberated from the anti-sigma factor FlgM.

  8. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  9. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-04

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  10. Barium sulphate in a Saharan CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, R. D.

    1994-07-01

    Acfer 086 (CV3) was recovered from the Sahara in 1989. A thin section was studied for weathering products. During routine microprobe analysis a phase was found containing Ba and S in approximate 1:1 atomic ratio. The only other element detected at more than trace level was Fe (less than 2%), possibly from surrounding Fe-rich phases. It is concluded that the only likely mineral with this chemistry is barytes, BaSO4. The barytes occurs as isolated, 1-10-micron, irregularly shaped grains. It is present exclusively in inclusions, both metal/C-rich and chondrules and chondrule fragments. None were observed in the matrix. At its highest the barytes density reached greater than 50 grains in an area measuring 300 x 200 microns. At present, whether the barytes is terrestrial or meteoritic remains unclear. Reasons for both cases are given and discussed. While it is an intriguing possibility that the barytes in Acfer 086 may be a primary meteoritic mineral, and considerable evidence would support this view, it must be treated with great caution. Although texturally it is unlike a secondary phase and there are difficulties with the introduction of barytes by groundwater, this cannot be dismissed. The high and variable Ba contents of the Acfer/El Djouf Saharan CR chondrites are strong evidence for the formation of secondary barytes during residence on the desert floor. If terrestrial, the presence and distribution pattern of barytes in Acfer 086 has potentially important consequences for chemical and isotopic analyses of many elements in both bulk and inclusions of meteorite finds from the deserts of the world.

  11. Dichotic and monotic masking of CV's by CV second formants with different transition starting values.

    PubMed

    Porter, R J; Whittaker, R G

    1980-05-01

    Listeners were asked to identify ambiguous and unambiguous stop-vowel targets placed in monotic and dichotic competition with second formants (bleats) from voiced consonant-vowel (CV) syllables lying along a place-of-articulation continuum. Target performance varied with bleat-continuum position as well as bleat intensities. In cases where target errors occurred, either dichotically or monotically, they reflected predominantly the place cue of the bleat. This result, like that of previous studies, suggests the dominance of target or bleat reflects the relative "salience" of the two signals' cues. Differences were seen between monotic and dichotic conditions in the rate of change in performance with bleat intensity and continuum position. The rate of monotic performance change was a more precipitous (higher slope) function of these variables than was dichotic performance. This difference was interpreted as suggesting that monotic interference includes a peripheral masking component which is sensitive to the relative spectral energies of target and bleat. Dichotic effects, in contrast, seem to primarily reflect the operation of (central) processes which grant different perceptual weights to signals' cues depending on their intensity-dependent saliences. The observation that ambiguity, per se, of the targets (or the CV's from which the bleats were extracted) played little role in predicting results, was interpreted as reflecting a primarily prephonetic (i.e., auditory) locus for both monotic and dichotic interactions.

  12. A randomized study of the immunogenicity and safety of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in comparison with SA14-14-2 vaccine in children in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Soo; Houillon, Guy; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Cha, Sung-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han; Lee, Jin; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Ji Hong; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hee Soo; Bang, Joon; Naimi, Zulaikha; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Boaz, Mark; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A new live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) has been developed based on innovative technology to give protection against JE with an improved immunogenicity and safety profile. In this phase 3, observer-blind study, 274 children aged 12-24 months were randomized 1:1 to receive one dose of JE-CV (Group JE-CV) or the SA14-14-2 vaccine currently used to vaccinate against JE in the Republic of Korea (Group SA14-14-2). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50 before and 28 days after vaccination. The primary endpoint of non-inferiority of seroconversion rates on D28 was demonstrated in the Per Protocol analysis set as the difference between Group JE-CV and Group SA14-14-2 was 0.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.35; 4.68), which was above the required -10%. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates 28 days after administration of a single vaccine dose were 100% in Group JE-CV and 99.1% in Group SA14-14-2; all children except one (Group SA14-14-2) were seroprotected. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) increased in both groups from D0 to D28; GM of titer ratios were slightly higher in Group JE-CV (182 [95% CI: 131; 251]) than Group SA14-14-2 (116 [95% CI: 85.5, 157]). A single dose of JE-CV was well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. In conclusion, a single dose of JE-CV or SA14-14-2 vaccine elicited a comparable immune response with a good safety profile. Results obtained in healthy Korean children aged 12-24 months vaccinated with JE-CV are consistent with those obtained in previous studies conducted with JE-CV in toddlers.

  13. A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1 cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1 mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46 mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC.

  14. A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC.

  15. Interplay between an AAA module and an integrin I domain may regulate the function of magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Fodje, M N; Hansson, A; Hansson, M; Olsen, J G; Gough, S; Willows, R D; Al-Karadaghi, S

    2001-08-03

    In chlorophyll biosynthesis, insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX is catalysed in an ATP-dependent reaction by a three-subunit (BchI, BchD and BchH) enzyme magnesium chelatase. In this work we present the three-dimensional structure of the ATP-binding subunit BchI. The structure has been solved by the multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion method and refined at 2.1 A resolution to the crystallographic R-factor of 22.2 % (R(free)=24.5 %). It belongs to the chaperone-like "ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities" (AAA) family of ATPases, with a novel arrangement of domains: the C-terminal helical domain is located behind the nucleotide-binding site, while in other known AAA module structures it is located on the top. Examination by electron microscopy of BchI solutions in the presence of ATP demonstrated that BchI, like other AAA proteins, forms oligomeric ring structures. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of subunit BchD revealed an AAA module at the N-terminal portion of the sequence and an integrin I domain at the C terminus. An acidic, proline-rich region linking these two domains is suggested to contribute to the association of BchI and BchD by binding to a positively charged cleft at the surface of the nucleotide-binding domain of BchI. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of BchI and BchH revealed integrin I domain-binding sequence motifs. These are proposed to bind the integrin I domain of BchD during the functional cycle of magnesium chelatase, linking porphyrin metallation by BchH to ATP hydrolysis by BchI. An integrin I domain and an acidic and proline-rich region have been identified in subunit CobT of cobalt chelatase, clearly demonstrating its homology to BchD. These findings, for the first time, provide an insight into the subunit organisation of magnesium chelatase and the homologous colbalt chelatase.

  16. Sequence comparisons of A/AA/6/60 influenza viruses: mutations which may contribute to attenuation.

    PubMed

    Herlocher, M L; Clavo, A C; Maassab, H F

    1996-06-01

    Influenza virus infection is a worldwide public health threat. Cold-adaptation was used to develop a vaccine line (ca A/AA/6/60 H2N2) which promised to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza and to serve as a model for other live virus vaccines. This study establishes that two distinct lines of wt A/AA/6/60 viruses exist with different phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The two virus lines have the same parent but different passage histories. The first line is both temperature sensitive (ts) and attenuated in ferrets and the second line (after multiple passages in chick kidney cells, eggs and mice) is non-ts and virulent in ferrets. Both lines of viruses have been further differentiated by sequence analysis. We have identified point mutations common to all virulent viruses but absent from the attenuated viruses. This was accomplished by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the six internal genes in three different attenuated passages of A/AA/6/60 with those of five different virulent passages of the same virus. The corresponding nucleotides of the attenuated viruses, therefore, represent candidate attenuating lesions: 6 in the basic polymerase genes (5 in PB1, 1 in PB2), 2 in the acidic polymerase gene (PA), 1 in the matrix (M) gene, 2 in the non-structural (NS) gene, and none in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Two of the 5 attenuating lesions in PB1 are silent; 1/2 in PA is silent; and 1/2 in NS is silent. Further changes which might be identified by comparing nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the A/AA/6/60 viruses with those of other influenza viruses may also contribute to the attenuation of the ca virus. Our study identifies nucleotides which more precisely define virulence for this virus and suggests that growth of the virus at low temperature may have preserved a non-virulent virus population rather than attenuating a virulent one.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Rosanna E; Muñoz, Alma E; Levine, Myron M; Lepetic, Alejandro; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Schuerman, Lode

    2011-05-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™) were assessed in 240 healthy Chilean children randomized to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV (PHiD-CV group) or hepatitis A vaccine (HAV control group) at 2-4-6 months of age. All were offered 1 HAV dose at 12 months (outside study). The PHiD-CV group received a second HAV dose at 18-21 months and PHiD-CV booster at 20-23 months. The HAV control group received 2 PHiD-CV catch-up doses at 18-21 and 20-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and pneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured. Both PHiD-CV vaccination schedules were well tolerated and immunogenic against the pneumococcal vaccine serotypes and protein D. The reactogenicity of PHiD-CV primary, booster and catch-up doses was in line with previous PHiD-CV studies, although generally higher than with HAV. For each vaccine serotype, the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/ml (GSK's 22F-inhibition ELISA) was at least 93.2% following 3 PHiD-CV primary doses and at least 97.4% post-booster; percentages with OPA titers ≥8 were at least 91.7% post-booster. After 2-dose catch-up, at least 94.3% of children had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/ml against each serotype except 6B (84.3%); at least 95.2% had OPA titers ≥8 except against serotypes 1, 5 and 6B. In conclusion, the safety profiles of 2 PHiD-CV vaccination schedules (3-dose primary plus booster and 2-dose catch-up) were in line with previous studies and PHiD-CV was immunogenic for all 10 vaccine serotypes and protein D.

  18. Unfolding the mechanism of the AAA+ unfoldase VAT by a combined cryo-EM, solution NMR study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Ripstein, Zev A.; Augustyniak, Rafal; Lazniewski, Michal; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Kay, Lewis E.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded. PMID:27402735

  19. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W; Gonzalez, Raul C; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. We show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.

  20. The AAA+ ATPase ATAD3A Controls Mitochondrial Dynamics at the Interface of the Inner and Outer Membranes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gilquin, Benoît; Taillebourg, Emmanuel; Cherradi, Nadia; Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Gay, Olivia; Merle, Nicolas; Assard, Nicole; Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Tomohiro, Shiho; Kuge, Osamu; Baudier, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between components of the outer (OM) and inner (IM) membranes control a number of critical mitochondrial functions such as channeling of metabolites and coordinated fission and fusion. We identify here the mitochondrial AAA+ ATPase protein ATAD3A specific to multicellular eukaryotes as a participant in these interactions. The N-terminal domain interacts with the OM. A central transmembrane segment (TMS) anchors the protein in the IM and positions the C-terminal AAA+ ATPase domain in the matrix. Invalidation studies in Drosophila and in a human steroidogenic cell line showed that ATAD3A is required for normal cell growth and cholesterol channeling at contact sites. Using dominant-negative mutants, including a defective ATP-binding mutant and a truncated 50-amino-acid N-terminus mutant, we showed that ATAD3A regulates dynamic interactions between the mitochondrial OM and IM sensed by the cell fission machinery. The capacity of ATAD3A to impact essential mitochondrial functions and organization suggests that it possesses unique properties in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and cellular functions in multicellular organisms. PMID:20154147

  1. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Pedro M.; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A.; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10–12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models. PMID:25988184

  2. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Matias, Pedro M; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10-12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models.

  3. Heavily metamorphosed clasts from the CV chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2012-12-01

    Abstract- Metamorphosed clasts in the CV carbonaceous chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009 (Y-86009) are coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks composed of Ca-bearing (up to 0.6 wt% CaO) ferroan olivine (Fa34-39), ferroan Al-diopside (Fs9-13Wo47-50, approximately 2-7 wt% Al2O3), plagioclase (An37-84Ab63-17), Cr-spinel (Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.19-0.45, Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.60-0.79), nepheline, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, Ca-phosphate, and rare grains of Ni-rich taenite; low-Ca pyroxene is absent. Most clasts have triple junctions between silicate grains, indicative of prolonged thermal annealing. Based on the olivine-spinel and pyroxene thermometry, the estimated metamorphic temperature recorded by the clasts is approximately 1100 K. Few clasts experienced thermal metamorphism to a lower degree and preserved chondrule-like textures. The Mokoia and Y-86009 clasts are mineralogically unique and different from metamorphosed chondrites of known groups (H, L, LL, R, EH, EL, CO, CK) and primitive achondrites (acapulcoites, brachinites, lodranites). On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, compositions of olivine in the clasts plot along carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral line and the Allende mass-fractionation line, and overlap with those of the CV chondrule olivines; the Δ17O values of the clasts range from about -4.3‰ to -3.0‰. We suggest that the clasts represent fragments of the CV-like material that experienced metasomatic alteration, high-temperature metamorphism, and possibly melting in the interior of the CV parent asteroid. The lack of low-Ca pyroxene in the clasts could be due to its replacement by ferroan olivine during iron-alkali metasomatic alteration or by high-Ca ferroan pyroxene during melting under oxidizing conditions.

  4. SU-E-T-137: Dosimetric Validation for Pinnacle, Acuros, AAA, and Brainlab Algorithms with Induced Inhomogenieties

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P; Tambasco, M; LaFontaine, R; Burns, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Eclipse 11.0 Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution, and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms using measurement as the gold standard. Methods: Ion chamber and diode measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a phantom made up of slab densities corresponding to solid water, lung, and bone. The phantom was setup at source-to-surface distance of 100 cm, and the field sizes were 3.0 × 3.0, 5.0 × 5.0, and 10.0 × 10.0 cm2. Data from the planning systems were computed along the central axis of the beam. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber and edge diode for interface regions. Results: The best agreement between data from the algorithms and our measurements occurs away from the slab interfaces. For the 6 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 1.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 10 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 PB performs the best with 2.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 18 MV beam, Acuros performs the best with 2.0% absolute average percent difference from measurement. It is interesting to note that the steepest drop in dose occurred the at lung heterogeneity-solid water interface of the18 MV, 3.0 × 3.0 cm2 field size setup. In this situation, Acuros and AAA performed best with an average percent difference within −1.1% of measurement, followed by iPlan 4.1 MC, which was within 4.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that all of the algorithms perform reasonably well in computing dose in a heterogeneous slab phantom. Moreover, Acuros and AAA perform particularly well at the lung-solid water interfaces for higher energy beams and small field sizes.

  5. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  6. Engagement in elderly persons with dementia attending animal-assisted group activity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-09-02

    The need for meaningful activities that enhance engagement is very important among persons with dementia (PWDs), both for PWDs still living at home, as well as for PWDs admitted to a nursing home (NH). In this study, we systematically registered behaviours related to engagement in a group animal-assisted activity (AAA) intervention for 21 PWDs in NHs and among 28 home-dwelling PWDs attending a day care centre. The participants interacted with a dog and its handler for 30 minutes, twice a week for 12 weeks. Video-recordings were carried out early (week 2) and late (week 10) during the intervention period and behaviours were categorized by the use of an ethogram. AAA seems to create engagement in PWDs, and might be a suitable and health promoting intervention for both NH residents and participants of a day care centre. Degree of dementia should be considered when planning individual or group based AAA.

  7. The Pex1/Pex6 complex is a heterohexameric AAA+ motor with alternating and highly coordinated subunits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Brooke M; Chowdhury, Saikat; Lander, Gabriel C; Martin, Andreas

    2015-03-27

    Pex1 and Pex6 are Type-2 AAA+ ATPases required for the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes. Mutations in Pex1 and Pex6 account for the majority of the most severe forms of peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Here, we show that the ATP-dependent complex of Pex1 and Pex6 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a heterohexamer with alternating subunits. Within the Pex1/Pex6 complex, only the D2 ATPase ring hydrolyzes ATP, while nucleotide binding in the D1 ring promotes complex assembly. ATP hydrolysis by Pex1 is highly coordinated with that of Pex6. Furthermore, Pex15, the membrane anchor required for Pex1/Pex6 recruitment to peroxisomes, inhibits the ATP-hydrolysis activity of Pex1/Pex6.

  8. Early and Late Endograft Limb Proximal Migration with Resulting Type 1b Endoleak following an EVAR for Ruptured AAA

    PubMed Central

    Adrahtas, Demetri; Monastiriotis, Spyridon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Seal zone failure after EVAR leads to type 1 endoleaks and increases the risk of delayed aortic rupture. Type 1b endoleaks, although rare, represent a true risk to the repair. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 65-year-old female who underwent emergent endovascular repair for a ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and developed bilateral type 1b endoleaks following proximal migration of both endograft limbs. The right-side failure was diagnosed within 48 hours from the initial repair and the left side at the 1-year follow-up. Both sides were successfully treated with endovascular techniques. A review of the literature with an analysis of potential risk factors is also reported. Conclusion. For patients undergoing EVAR for ruptured AAA and with noncalcified iliac arteries, more aggressive oversizing of the iliac limbs is recommended to prevents distal seal zone failures. PMID:28255495

  9. Three semidominant barley mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the smallest magnesium chelatase subunit form defective AAA+ hexamers.

    PubMed

    Hansson, A; Willows, R D; Roberts, T H; Hansson, M

    2002-10-15

    Many enzymes of the bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathways have been conserved throughout evolution, but the molecular mechanisms of the key steps remain unclear. The magnesium chelatase reaction is one of these steps, and it requires the proteins BchI, BchD, and BchH to catalyze the insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX upon ATP hydrolysis. Structural analyses have shown that BchI forms hexamers and belongs to the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA(+)) family of proteins. AAA(+) proteins are Mg(2+)-dependent ATPases that normally form oligomeric ring structures in the presence of ATP. By using ATPase-deficient BchI subunits, we demonstrate that binding of ATP is sufficient to form BchI oligomers. Further, ATPase-deficient BchI proteins can form mixed oligomers with WT BchI. The formation of BchI oligomers is not sufficient for magnesium chelatase activity when combined with BchD and BchH. Combining WT BchI with ATPase-deficient BchI in an assay disrupts the chelatase reaction, but the presence of deficient BchI does not inhibit ATPase activity of the WT BchI. Thus, the ATPase of every WT segment of the hexamer is autonomous, but all segments of the hexamer must be capable of ATP hydrolysis for magnesium chelatase activity. We suggest that ATP hydrolysis of each BchI within the hexamer causes a conformational change of the hexamer as a whole. However, hexamers containing ATPase-deficient BchI are unable to perform this ATP-dependent conformational change, and the magnesium chelatase reaction is stalled in an early stage.

  10. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; ...

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locusmore » include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.« less

  11. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.

  12. REE Abundances in Matrix of Allende (CV) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Nakamura, N.; Kimura, M.

    1996-03-01

    In order to examine trace element distributions in matrix material of primitive chondrites, four interchondrule matrix specimens (sample weight ~100 micrograms) were carefully excavated using a microdrill from the petrographically characterized areas of the published sections of Allende (CV) chondrite and were precisely analyzed for REE, Ba, Sr, Rb, K, Ca and Mg by direct loading isotope dilution method (DL-IDMS).

  13. Opaque minerals in CAIs, and classification of the Axtell (CV3) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Simon, S. B.

    1994-07-01

    Axtell is a new CV3 chondrite from Texas. Preliminary studies of its Ca-Al rich Inclusions (CAIs) were reported. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of opaque minerals in four Axtell CAIs are distinct from their analogs in other inclusions from CV3 chondrites. Metallic NiFe (awaruite) is the dominant phase in opaque assemblages from Axtell inclusions, and occurs as well-rounded particles of sizes between about 1 and 20 microns. Their compositions (in atom %) are N63-67Fe31-33Co2-3 in AX-4, AX-7, and AX-9, and Ni74Fe23Co2 in AX-5. None of the awaruite grains contains measurable amounts (greater than 200 ppm by weight) of the platinum-group elements analyzed for Ru, W, Mo, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. With very few exceptions, the awaruite particles studied are surrounded by or intergrown with V-free magnetite (detection limit = 400 ppm). In contrast with Allende, the dominant sulfide phase in Axtell inclusions is troilite (Ni less than or = 0.02-0.3%, by weight); pentlandite is scarce, occurring only sporadically as small grains associated with metallic FeNi (just a few particles of 5-15 microns were found in AX-5, AX-4, and AX-7, and none in AX-9). Also, an isolated 10-microns grain of millerite (NiS; Fe = 0.6 wt%) has been identified in AX-5. Unlike Allende inclusions, Axtell CAIs do not contain sulfide veins. Two remarkably large PGE-rich sulfide grains have been recognized: one spherical 12-microns particle in AX-4 (AX-4A, in melilite, close to the edge of the inclusion) and another irregularly shaped 25-microns grain in AX-9 (AX-9A, in melilite inside a spinel palisade). Study of the elemental distribution by wavelength-dispersive X-ray mapping and analysis and backscattered electron imaging suggests that these are single minerals and not multiphase assemblages. Microprobe analyses of chondrule olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes yield average Fa and Fs contents of 6.7 and 1.0 mol% respectively. These compositions suggest that Axtell is more similar to the CV3 chondrites

  14. Ultrastructural changes in shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) treated with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa

    2008-04-15

    In the present research, structure and ultrastructure of shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) under salinity conditions were investigated. The experiments were conducted in five groups (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) under greenhouse conditions. Sampling of apical meristem and TEM tissue preparation procedure were carried out. Semithin and ultrathin sections were prepared and viewed in light and electron microscopy, respectively. The results included reduction of meristem size, disorders in meristem structure. Also formation of autophagic vacuoles was observed that is probably one of the plant responses to salt stress for more water storage in these vacuoles and decreasing of cell water requirements.

  15. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  16. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  17. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  18. Werner syndrome protein directly binds to the AAA ATPase p97/VCP in an ATP-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Indig, Fred Eliezer; Partridge, Juneth Joaquin; von Kobbe, Cayetano; Aladjem, Mirit I; Latterich, Martin; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Werner syndrome helicase, WRNp, a member of the RecQ helicase family, forms a tight molecular complex with the p97/Valosin containing protein (VCP), a member of the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family of proteins. This interaction is disrupted by chemical agents that confer DNA damage, suggesting that VCP plays an important role in the signal-dependent release of WRNp from its nucleolar sequestration site. Here, we characterized the structural requirements for interactions between WRNp and VCP and for the nuclear localization of VCP. We discovered that VCP directly binds to the RQC (RecQ conserved) domain of WRNp, which is a highly conserved motif common to the RecQ helicase family. This interaction is ATP-dependent, suggesting that VCP plays a mechanistic role in releasing WRNp from the nucleolus. Immunohistochemical analysis of various VCP domains and mutated proteins expressed in vitro demonstrated that VCP may contain several hierarchical cellular localization motifs within its domain structure.

  19. Spatial distribution of nematodes in three banana ( Musa AAA) root parts considering two root thickness in three farm management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; De Waele, D.

    2004-10-01

    The spatial location of the banana ( Musa AAA) root parasitic nematodes within three root parts considering two root thickness was determined in three commercial farm management systems, which differ in weed and nematode management. Roots in each farm management system were classified in thick (>5 mm-d) and thin (1 ≤ 5 mm-d) roots. From each root type, the epidermis, the cortical parenchyma (CP) and the vascular cylinder (VC) were separated by fingernail, and nematodes were extracted by maceration of each root part. Independent of the farm management system, and for either root thickness, highest numbers of Radopholus similis per gram of root was found in the CP, followed by the epidermis and VC. The highest number of Helicotylencus spp., Pratylenchus spp. and the total nematode population per gram of root was found in the epidermis. Considering the number of nematodes per root part, the highest number of R. similis and total nematodes was located in the CP, while Helicotylenchus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were concentrated in the epidermis. These patterns were approximately reproduced in the two root thickness and in the three farm management systems. This behavior suggests that injection of systemic nematicides into the plant pseudostem to replace the granular applications on surface soil might be promissory.

  20. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA

    PubMed Central

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W. S.; Houry, Walid A.; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  1. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interacting Protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase Is a Novel Mitotic Checkpoint-silencing Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C.; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K.; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31comet. Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31comet-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development. PMID:25012665

  2. Disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes by the joint action of the AAA-ATPase TRIP13 and p31comet

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Esther; Wang, Kexi; Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Kaisari, Sharon; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao; Hershko, Avram

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint system delays anaphase until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle. When the checkpoint is active, a Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC) assembles and inhibits the ubiquitin ligase Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). MCC is composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3 associated with the APC/C activator Cdc20. When the checkpoint signal is turned off, MCC is disassembled and the checkpoint is inactivated. The mechanisms of the disassembly of MCC are not sufficiently understood. We have previously observed that ATP hydrolysis is required for the action of the Mad2-binding protein p31comet to disassemble MCC. We now show that HeLa cell extracts contain a factor that promotes ATP- and p31comet-dependent disassembly of a Cdc20–Mad2 subcomplex and identify it as Thyroid Receptor Interacting Protein 13 (TRIP13), an AAA-ATPase known to interact with p31comet. The joint action of TRIP13 and p31comet also promotes the release of Mad2 from MCC, participates in the complete disassembly of MCC and abrogates checkpoint inhibition of APC/C. We propose that TRIP13 plays centrally important roles in the sequence of events leading to MCC disassembly and checkpoint inactivation. PMID:25092294

  3. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    PubMed Central

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  4. The AAA+ FtsH Protease Degrades an ssrA-Tagged Model Protein in the Inner Membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sanjay B; Sauer, Robert T

    2016-10-11

    In eubacteria, the tmRNA system frees ribosomes that stall during protein synthesis and adds an ssrA tag to the incompletely translated polypeptide to target it for degradation. The AAA+ ClpXP protease degrades most ssrA-tagged proteins in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and was recently shown to degrade an ssrA-tagged protein in the inner membrane. However, we find that tmRNA-mediated tagging of E. coli ProW1-182, a different inner-membrane protein, results in degradation by the membrane-tethered AAA+ FtsH protease. ClpXP played no role in the degradation of ProW1-182 in vivo. These studies suggest that a complex distribution of proteolytic labor maintains protein quality control in the inner membrane.

  5. Molecular and biological changes in the cold-adapted "master strain" A/AA/6/60 (H2N2) influenza virus.

    PubMed Central

    Herlocher, M L; Maassab, H F; Webster, R G

    1993-01-01

    The live cold-adapted (ca) A/AA/6/60 influenza vaccine is being commercially developed for worldwide use in children and is being used as a model for other live vaccines. Although it has been proven safe and immunogenic, the molecular basis of cold adaptation has never been determined. To identify sequence changes responsible for cold adaptation, we have compared the sequence of the master ca vaccine strain to its progenitor wild-type virus, wt A/AA/6/60 E2 (wt2). Only 4 nt differences encoding 2 aa differences were found in three gene segments. Computer-predicted RNA folds project different secondary structures between the ca and wt2 molecules based on the two silent differences between them. Genes coding for the acidic polymerase, matrix, and nonstructural proteins are identical between the two viruses. The few differences found in the ca A/AA/6/60 virus after its long stepwise passage at 25 degrees C in primary chicken kidney cells suggest that cold adaptation resulted in greater genetic stability for the highly variable RNA genome. PMID:8327480

  6. Mechanism of action of the Escherichia coli phage shock protein PspA in repression of the AAA family transcription factor PspF.

    PubMed

    Elderkin, Sarah; Jones, Susan; Schumacher, Jörg; Studholme, David; Buck, Martin

    2002-06-28

    The PspA protein, a negative regulator of the Escherichia coli phage shock psp operon, is produced when virulence factors are exported through secretins in many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and its homologue in plants, VIPP1, plays a critical role in thylakoid biogenesis, essential for photosynthesis. Activation of transcription by the enhancer-dependent bacterial sigma(54) containing RNA polymerase occurs through ATP hydrolysis-driven protein conformational changes enabled by activator proteins that belong to the large AAA(+) mechanochemical protein family. We show that PspA directly and specifically acts upon and binds to the AAA(+) domain of the PspF transcription activator. Interactions involving PspF and nucleotide are changed by the action of PspA. These changes and the complexes that form between PspF and PspA can explain how PspA exerts its negative effects upon transcription activated by PspF, and are of significance when considering how activities of other AAA(+) proteins might be controlled.

  7. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  8. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  9. A randomized study of the immunogenicity and safety of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) in comparison with SA14-14-2 Vaccine in children in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Soo; Houillon, Guy; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Cha, Sung-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han; Lee, Jin; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Ji Hong; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hee Soo; Bang, Joon; Naimi, Zulaikha; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Boaz, Mark; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A new live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) has been developed based on innovative technology to give protection against JE with an improved immunogenicity and safety profile. In this phase 3, observer-blind study, 274 children aged 12−24 months were randomized 1:1 to receive one dose of JE-CV (Group JE-CV) or the SA14–14–2 vaccine currently used to vaccinate against JE in the Republic of Korea (Group SA14–14–2). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50 before and 28 days after vaccination. The primary endpoint of non-inferiority of seroconversion rates on D28 was demonstrated in the Per Protocol analysis set as the difference between Group JE-CV and Group SA14–14–2 was 0.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.35; 4.68), which was above the required −10%. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates 28 days after administration of a single vaccine dose were 100% in Group JE-CV and 99.1% in Group SA14–14–2; all children except one (Group SA14–14–2) were seroprotected. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) increased in both groups from D0 to D28; GM of titer ratios were slightly higher in Group JE-CV (182 [95% CI: 131; 251]) than Group SA14–14–2 (116 [95% CI: 85.5, 157]). A single dose of JE-CV was well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. In conclusion, a single dose of JE-CV or SA14–14–2 vaccine elicited a comparable immune response with a good safety profile. Results obtained in healthy Korean children aged 12−24 months vaccinated with JE-CV are consistent with those obtained in previous studies conducted with JE-CV in toddlers. PMID:25483480

  10. The Vps4p AAA ATPase regulates membrane association of a Vps protein complex required for normal endosome function.

    PubMed Central

    Babst, M; Wendland, B; Estepa, E J; Emr, S D

    1998-01-01

    Vps4p is an AAA-type ATPase required for efficient transport of biosynthetic and endocytic cargo from an endosome to the lysosome-like vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vps4p mutants that do not bind ATP or are defective in ATP hydrolysis were characterized both in vivo and in vitro. The nucleotide-free or ADP-bound form of Vps4p existed as a dimer, whereas in the ATP-locked state, Vps4p dimers assembled into a decameric complex. This suggests that ATP hydrolysis drives a cycle of association and dissociation of Vps4p dimers/decamers. Nucleotide binding also regulated the association of Vps4p with an endosomal compartment in vivo. This membrane association required the N-terminal coiled-coil motif of Vps4p, but deletion of the coiled-coil domain did not affect ATPase activity or oligomeric assembly of the protein. Membrane association of two previously uncharacterized class E Vps proteins, Vps24p and Vps32p/Snf7p, was also affected by mutations in VPS4. Upon inactivation of a temperature-conditional vps4 mutant, Vps24p and Vps32p/Snf7p rapidly accumulated in a large membrane-bound complex. Immunofluorescence indicated that both proteins function with Vps4p at a common endosomal compartment. Together, the data suggest that the Vps4 ATPase catalyzes the release (uncoating) of an endosomal membrane-associated class E protein complex(es) required for normal morphology and sorting activity of the endosome. PMID:9606181

  11. Experimental verification of the Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation adjacent to heterogeneous media for IMRT and RapidArc of nasopharygeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Monica W. K.; Leung, Lucullus H. T.; So, Ronald W. K.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the doses calculated by the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) with experimentally measured data adjacent to and within heterogeneous medium using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc{sup Registered-Sign} (RA) volumetric arc therapy plans for nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Two-dimensional dose distribution immediately adjacent to both air and bone inserts of a rectangular tissue equivalent phantom irradiated using IMRT and RA plans for NPC cases were measured with GafChromic{sup Registered-Sign} EBT3 films. Doses near and within the nasopharygeal (NP) region of an anthropomorphic phantom containing heterogeneous medium were also measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and EBT3 films. The measured data were then compared with the data calculated by AAA and AXB. For AXB, dose calculations were performed using both dose-to-medium (AXB{sub Dm}) and dose-to-water (AXB{sub Dw}) options. Furthermore, target dose differences between AAA and AXB were analyzed for the corresponding real patients. The comparison of real patient plans was performed by stratifying the targets into components of different densities, including tissue, bone, and air. Results: For the verification of planar dose distribution adjacent to air and bone using the rectangular phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the {+-} 3%/3mm criteria were 98.7%, 99.5%, and 97.7% on the axial plane for AAA, AXB{sub Dm}, and AXB{sub Dw}, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans, while they were 97.6%, 98.2%, and 97.7%, respectively, on the coronal plane. For the verification of planar dose distribution within the NP region of the anthropomorphic phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the {+-} 3%/3mm criteria were 95.1%, 91.3%, and 99.0% for AAA, AXB{sub Dm}, and AXB{sub Dw}, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans. Within the NP region where

  12. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  13. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 μT magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  14. Opaque Mineral Assemblages at Chondrule Boundaries in the Vigarano CV Chondrite: Evidence for Gas-Solid Reactions Following Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of opaque minerals in primitive ordinary chondrites suggest that metal grains exposed at chondrule boundaries were corroded when volatile elements recondensed after the transient heating event responsible for chondrule formation. Metal grains at chondrule boundaries in the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite are rimmed by troilite and fayalite. If these layers formed by gas solid reaction, then the composition of the corrosion products can provide information on the chondrule formation environment. Given the broad similarities among chondrules from different chondrite groups, similar scale layers should occur on chondrules in other primitive meteorite groups. Here I report on metal grains at chondrule boundaries in Vigarano (CV3).

  15. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... US) : Ultrasound is a highly accurate way to measure the size of an aneurysm. A physician may also use a special technique called Doppler ultrasound to examine blood flow through the aorta. Occasionally the aorta may not ...

  16. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  17. Noncanonical role for the host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT protein in the formation of Tomato bushy stunt virus replicase.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Daniel; Martín, Isabel Fernández de Castro; Pogany, Judit; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs) consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+)RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE) from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+)RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation.

  18. Noncanonical Role for the Host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT Protein in the Formation of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Judit; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs) consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+)RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE) from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+)RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation. PMID:24763736

  19. Inhibitory effects of the dopamine agonists quinagolide (CV 205-502) and bromocriptine on prolactin secretion and growth of SMtTW pituitary tumors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Trouillas, J; Chevallier, P; Claustrat, B; Hooghe-Peters, E; Dubray, C; Rousset, B; Girod, C

    1994-01-01

    The SMtTW tumor, a spontaneous PRL-secreting transplantable tumor, is the only available animal model sensitive to dopamine agonists. This model has been used to compare the long term in vivo effects of CV 205-502 (CV) and bromocriptine (BR) on PRL secretion and tumor growth. These two drugs were given for 2 months to female Wistar-Furth rats bearing either small or large tumors 4 and 6 months after the graft. Untreated grafted rats served as control. In all rats treated with 5 or 10 mg/kg.day BR or 0.3 mg/kg.day CV, a normalization of plasma PRL levels was observed whatever the pretreatment levels (plasma PRL or CV or BR-treated rats, < 15 ng/ml vs. 28253 ng/ml in control rats 8 months after graft). An inhibition of tumor growth was found for both small and large tumors, but the tumors never disappeared completely (mean tumor weights at autopsy, 440 and 660 mg in BR and CV groups vs. 5270 mg in control group 8 months after graft). Experiments performed with increasing doses of BR (0.15-5 mg/kg.day) or CV (0.03-0.6 mg/kg.day) indicated that CV is effective at doses 5-10 times lower than those of BR. A shrinkage under treatment and a regrowth after drug withdrawal were demonstrated for large tumors by in vivo ultrasonographic measurements of tumor size. Histological and ultrastructural effects were similar for the two drugs: decrease in hemorrhage, reduction of the cell size and secretory activity, increase in immunoreactive PRL cellular content, and inhibition of exocytosis. There was no difference in the PRL mRNA content of treated and untreated tumors, as assessed by in situ hybridization. In conclusion, CV and BR exhibit similar inhibitory effects on tumor growth and PRL secretion. These effects are rapidly and fully reversible after drug withdrawal. The present results give a complete account of the actions of the two dopamine agonists under conditions comparable to those used in the treatment of human prolactinomas.

  20. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  1. Selection of assessment methods for evaluating banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA).

    PubMed

    Gold, C S; Ragama, P E; Coe, R; Rukazambuga, N D T M

    2005-04-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is an important pest on bananas and plantains. Population build-up is slow and damage becomes increasingly important in successive crop cycles (ratoons). Yield loss results from plant loss, mat disappearance and reduced bunch size. Damage assessment requires destructive sampling and is most often done on corms of recently harvested plants. A wide range of damage assessment methods exist and there are no agreed protocols. It is critical to know what types of damage best reflect C. sordidus pest status through their relationships with yield loss. Multiple damage assessment parameters (i.e. for the corm periphery, cortex and central cylinder) were employed in two yield loss trials and a cultivar-screening trial in Uganda. Damage to the central cylinder had a greater effect on plant size and yield loss than damage to the cortex or corm periphery. In some cases, a combined assessment of damage to the central cylinder and cortex showed a better relationship with yield loss than an assessment of the central cylinder alone. Correlation, logistic and linear regression analyses showed weak to modest correlations between damage to the corm periphery and damage to the central cylinder. Thus, damage to the corm periphery is not a strong predictor of the more important damage to the central cylinder. Therefore, C. sordidus damage assessment should target the central cylinder and cortex.

  2. PspF-binding domain PspA1-144 and the PspA·F complex: New insights into the coiled-coil-dependent regulation of AAA+ proteins.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Hendrik; Schöpfel, Michael; Heidrich, Eyleen; Mehner, Denise; Lilie, Hauke; Parthier, Christoph; Risselada, H Jelger; Grubmüller, Helmut; Stubbs, Milton T; Brüser, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Phage shock protein A (PspA) belongs to the highy conserved PspA/IM30 family and is a key component of the stress inducible Psp system in Escherichia coli. One of its central roles is the regulatory interaction with the transcriptional activator of this system, the σ(54) enhancer-binding protein PspF, a member of the AAA+ protein family. The PspA/F regulatory system has been intensively studied and serves as a paradigm for AAA+ enzyme regulation by trans-acting factors. However, the molecular mechanism of how exactly PspA controls the activity of PspF and hence σ(54) -dependent expression of the psp genes is still unclear. To approach this question, we identified the minimal PspF-interacting domain of PspA, solved its structure, determined its affinity to PspF and the dissociation kinetics, identified residues that are potentially important for PspF regulation and analyzed effects of their mutation on PspF in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that several characteristics of AAA+ regulation in the PspA·F complex resemble those of the AAA+ unfoldase ClpB, with both proteins being regulated by a structurally highly conserved coiled-coil domain. The convergent evolution of both regulatory domains points to a general mechanism to control AAA+ activity for divergent physiologic tasks via coiled-coil domains.

  3. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  4. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments.

  5. Comparison of build-up region doses in oblique tangential 6 MV photon beams calculated by AAA and CCC algorithms in breast Rando phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunun, P.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Dumrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the build-up region doses on breast Rando phantom surface with the bolus covered, the doses in breast Rando phantom and also the doses in a lung that is the heterogeneous region by two algorithms. The AAA in Eclipse TPS and the collapsed cone convolution algorithm in Pinnacle treatment planning system were used to plan in tangential field technique with 6 MV photon beam at 200 cGy total doses in Breast Rando phantom with bolus covered (5 mm and 10 mm). TLDs were calibrated with Cobalt-60 and used to measure the doses in irradiation process. The results in treatment planning show that the doses in build-up region and the doses in breast phantom were closely matched in both algorithms which are less than 2% differences. However, overestimate of doses in a lung (L2) were found in AAA with 13.78% and 6.06% differences at 5 mm and 10 mm bolus thickness, respectively when compared with CCC algorithm. The TLD measurements show the underestimate in buildup region and in breast phantom but the doses in a lung (L2) were overestimated when compared with the doses in the two plannings at both thicknesses of the bolus.

  6. The Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs)-Localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 Inhibits Immunity and Cell Death Likely through Regulating MVBs-Mediated Vesicular Trafficking in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sihui; Liang, Ruihong; Zhou, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Jing; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Yuan, Can; Miyamoto, Koji; Ma, Bingtian; Wang, Jichun; Qin, Peng; Chen, Weilan; Wang, Yuping; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhu, Lihuang; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes-mediated vesicular trafficking may play key roles in plant immunity and cell death. However, the molecular regulation is poorly understood in rice. Here we report the identification and characterization of a MVBs-localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 in rice. Disruption of LRD6-6 leads to enhanced immunity and cell death in rice. The ATPase activity and homo-dimerization of LRD6-6 is essential for its regulation on plant immunity and cell death. An ATPase inactive mutation (LRD6-6E315Q) leads to dominant-negative inhibition in plants. The LRD6-6 protein co-localizes with the MVBs marker protein RabF1/ARA6 and interacts with ESCRT-III components OsSNF7 and OsVPS2. Further analysis reveals that LRD6-6 is required for MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking and inhibits the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Collectively, our study shows that the AAA ATPase LRD6-6 inhibits plant immunity and cell death most likely through modulating MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking in rice. PMID:27618555

  7. Phenotypic Variations in the Foliar Chemical Profile of Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Torres-Gurrola, Guadalupe; Meléndez-González, Claudio; Espinosa-García, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    The Hass avocado tree Persea americana cv. Hass was derived from a single hybrid tree of P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. guatemalensis, and it is propagated clonally by grafting. This cultivar is the most widely planted in the world but its profile of secondary metabolites has been studied rarely despite of its importance in plant protection. We illustrate the variability of the volatilome of mature leaves by describing the average chemical composition and the phenotypic variability found in 70 trees. Contrary to the uniformity expected in the Hass cultivar, high variability coefficients were found for most of the 36 detected foliar volatile compounds; furthermore we found six chemotypes grouping the foliar phenotypes of the sampled trees using hierarchical cluster analysis. About 48% of trees were grouped in one chemotype; five chemotypes grouped the remaining trees. The compounds that determined these chemotypes were: estragole, α-farnesene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, α-cubebene and eugenol. This striking variation in a cultivar propagated clonally is discussed in terms of somatic mutation.

  8. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase and the putative capsid protein of CoCV. A region similar to the origin of replication of other circoviruses was found: it encompasses a stem-loop structure with the nonamer 5'-TAGTATTAC, conserved in circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  9. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  10. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  11. A new immuno-, dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx(4Cv) mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arpke, Robert W; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-Lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A; Perlingeiro, Rita C R; Kyba, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice, we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx(4Cv) mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx(4Cv) mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx(4Cv) recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function and the utility of the NSG-mdx(4Cv) model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy.

  12. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  13. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  14. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  15. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  16. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves.

    PubMed

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  17. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  18. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  19. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  20. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  1. A mutation in the Proteosomal Regulatory Particle AAA-ATPase-3 in Arabidopsis impairs the light-specific hypocotyl elongation response elicited by a glutamate receptor agonist, BMAA.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eric D; Feinberg, Philip; Runko, Suzan; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2009-07-01

    BMAA is a cycad-derived glutamate receptor agonist that causes a two- to three-fold increase in hypocotyl elongation on Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the light. To probe the role of plant glutamate receptors and their downstream mediators, we utilized a previously described genetic screen to identify a novel, BMAA insensitive morphology (bim) mutant, bim409. The normal BMAA-induced hypocotyl elongation response observed on wild-type seedlings grown in the light is impaired in the bim409 mutant. This BMAA-induced phenotype is light-specific, as the bim409 mutant exhibits normal hypocotyl elongation in etiolated (dark grown) plants (+ or - BMAA). The mutation in bim409 was identified to be in a gene encoding the Proteosomal Regulatory Particle AAA-ATPase-3 (RPT3). Possible roles of the proteosome in Glu-mediated signaling in plants is discussed.

  2. The d'--d--d' vertical triad is less discriminating than the a'--a--a' vertical triad in the antiparallel coiled-coil dimer motif.

    PubMed

    Steinkruger, Jay D; Bartlett, Gail J; Hadley, Erik B; Fay, Lindsay; Woolfson, Derek N; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-02-08

    Elucidating relationships between the amino-acid sequences of proteins and their three-dimensional structures, and uncovering non-covalent interactions that underlie polypeptide folding, are major goals in protein science. One approach toward these goals is to study interactions between selected residues, or among constellations of residues, in small folding motifs. The α-helical coiled coil has served as a platform for such studies because this folding unit is relatively simple in terms of both sequence and structure. Amino acid side chains at the helix-helix interface of a coiled coil participate in so-called "knobs-into-holes" (KIH) packing whereby a side chain (the knob) on one helix inserts into a space (the hole) generated by four side chains on a partner helix. The vast majority of sequence-stability studies on coiled-coil dimers have focused on lateral interactions within these KIH arrangements, for example, between an a position on one helix and an a' position of the partner in a parallel coiled-coil dimer, or between a--d' pairs in an antiparallel dimer. More recently, it has been shown that vertical triads (specifically, a'--a--a' triads) in antiparallel dimers exert a significant impact on pairing preferences. This observation provides impetus for analysis of other complex networks of side-chain interactions at the helix-helix interface. Here, we describe a combination of experimental and bioinformatics studies that show that d'--d--d' triads have much less impact on pairing preference than do a'--a--a' triads in a small, designed antiparallel coiled-coil dimer. However, the influence of the d'--d--d' triad depends on the lateral a'--d interaction. Taken together, these results strengthen the emerging understanding that simple pairwise interactions are not sufficient to describe side-chain interactions and overall stability in antiparallel coiled-coil dimers; higher-order interactions must be considered as well.

  3. TU-C-BRE-05: Clinical Implications of AAA Commissioning Errors and Ability of Common Commissioning ' Credentialing Procedures to Detect Them

    SciTech Connect

    McVicker, A; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Adamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To test the ability of the TG-119 commissioning process and RPC credentialing to detect errors in the commissioning process for a commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS). Methods: We introduced commissioning errors into the commissioning process for the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) within the Eclipse TPS. We included errors in Dosimetric Leaf Gap (DLG), electron contamination, flattening filter material, and beam profile measurement with an inappropriately large farmer chamber (simulated using sliding window smoothing of profiles). We then evaluated the clinical impact of these errors on clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans (head and neck, low and intermediate risk prostate, mesothelioma, and scalp) by looking at PTV D99, and mean and max OAR dose. Finally, for errors with substantial clinical impact we determined sensitivity of the RPC IMRT film analysis at the midpoint between PTV and OAR using a 4mm distance to agreement metric, and of a 7% TLD dose comparison. We also determined sensitivity of the 3 dose planes of the TG-119 C-shape IMRT phantom using gamma criteria of 3% 3mm. Results: The largest clinical impact came from large changes in the DLG with a change of 1mm resulting in up to a 5% change in the primary PTV D99. This resulted in a discrepancy in the RPC TLDs in the PTVs and OARs of 7.1% and 13.6% respectively, which would have resulted in detection. While use of incorrect flattening filter caused only subtle errors (<1%) in clinical plans, the effect was most pronounced for the RPC TLDs in the OARs (>6%). Conclusion: The AAA commissioning process within the Eclipse TPS is surprisingly robust to user error. When errors do occur, the RPC and TG-119 commissioning credentialing criteria are effective at detecting them; however OAR TLDs are the most sensitive despite the RPC currently excluding them from analysis.

  4. Whole-exome sequencing identifies homozygous AFG3L2 mutations in a spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome linked to mitochondrial m-AAA proteases.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Tyler Mark; Adams, David; Bonn, Florian; Martinelli, Paola; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Teer, Jamie K; Hansen, Nancy F; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin For The Nisc Comparative Sequencing Program, James C; Blakesley, Robert W; Golas, Gretchen; Kwan, Justin; Sandler, Anthony; Fuentes Fajardo, Karin; Markello, Thomas; Tifft, Cynthia; Blackstone, Craig; Rugarli, Elena I; Langer, Thomas; Gahl, William A; Toro, Camilo

    2011-10-01

    We report an early onset spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in two brothers of a consanguineous family characterized clinically by lower extremity spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, cerebellar atrophy, and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1847G>A; p.Y616C) in AFG3L2, encoding a subunit of an m-AAA protease. m-AAA proteases reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are responsible for removal of damaged or misfolded proteins and proteolytic activation of essential mitochondrial proteins. AFG3L2 forms either a homo-oligomeric isoenzyme or a hetero-oligomeric complex with paraplegin, a homologous protein mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 7 (SPG7). Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AFG3L2 cause autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28), a disorder whose phenotype is strikingly different from that of our patients. As defined in yeast complementation assays, the AFG3L2(Y616C) gene product is a hypomorphic variant that exhibited oligomerization defects in yeast as well as in patient fibroblasts. Specifically, the formation of AFG3L2(Y616C) complexes was impaired, both with itself and to a greater extent with paraplegin. This produced an early-onset clinical syndrome that combines the severe phenotypes of SPG7 and SCA28, in additional to other "mitochondrial" features such as oculomotor apraxia, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and myoclonic epilepsy. These findings expand the phenotype associated with AFG3L2 mutations and suggest that AFG3L2-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic ataxias.

  5. Cr and O Isotope Systematics in CV/CK Chondrite Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defouilloy, C.; Sanborn, M. E.; Yamakawa, A.; Kita, N. T.; Ebel, D. S.; Yin, Q.-Z.

    2017-02-01

    Combined in-situ high-precision measurements of Cr and O isotopic ratios reveal heterogeneities of compositions and the diversity of reservoirs of origin of silicate grains in CV/CK chondrite chondrules.

  6. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity.

  7. Chamobtusin A, a novel skeleton diterpenoid alkaloid from Chamaecyparis obtusa cv. tetragon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lu, Yang; Chang, Ying; Jia, Rui-Rui

    2007-10-25

    The novel diterpenoid alkaloid chamobtusin A (1) was isolated from the branches and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa cv. tetragon. Its structure and relative stereochemistry were mainly determined by MS, 2D NMR, and X-ray methods. The methanol extracts, total alkaloids of C. obtusa cv. tetragon, and chamobtusin A were tested for their cytotoxicities against A549 and K562 human tumor cell lines.

  8. Cyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa

    PubMed Central

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Perse, Amanda; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Desmecht, Daniel; Mbunkah, Herbert Afegenwi; Daniel, Achukwi Mbunkah; Kingsley, Manchang Tanyi; de Mendonca Campos, Renata; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Randriamampionona, Njary; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. PMID:25518947

  9. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  10. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  11. [Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

    2008-11-01

    Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species.

  12. Academic Achievement Academy (AAA), 2011-12. Eye on Evaluation. D&A Report No. 13.03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Anisa

    2013-01-01

    Extending the school day through programs that will supplement core courses, such as offering intensive, after-school tutoring or small-group study sessions in reading and mathematics, is one method districts use to boost school performance and narrow educational achievement gaps between students of different racial and economic backgrounds (Redd…

  13. The CoxD protein, a novel AAA+ ATPase involved in metal cluster assembly: hydrolysis of nucleotide-triphosphates and oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Tobias; Joseph, Stephanie; Mielke, Thorsten; Bürger, Jörg; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Meyer, Ortwin

    2012-01-01

    CoxD of the α-proteobacterium Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a membrane protein which is involved in the posttranslational biosynthesis of the [CuSMoO₂] cluster in the active site of the enzyme CO dehydrogenase. The bacteria synthesize CoxD only in the presence of CO. Recombinant CoxD produced in E. coli K38 pGP1-2/pETMW2 appeared in inclusion bodies from where it was solubilized by urea and refolded by stepwise dilution. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the presence of secondary structural elements in refolded CoxD. CoxD is a P-loop ATPase of the AAA-protein family. Refolded CoxD catalyzed the hydrolysis of MgATP yielding MgADP and inorganic phosphate at a 1∶1∶1 molar ratio. The reaction was inhibited by the slow hydrolysable MgATP-γ-S. GTPase activity of CoxD did not exceed 2% of the ATPase activity. Employing different methods (non linear regression, Hanes and Woolf, Lineweaver-Burk), preparations of CoxD revealed a mean K(M) value of 0.69±0.14 mM ATP and an apparent V(max) value of 19.3±2.3 nmol ATP hydrolyzed min⁻¹ mg⁻¹. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and gel filtration showed that refolded CoxD can exist in various multimeric states (2-mer, 4-mer or 6-mer), preferentially as hexamer or dimer. Within weeks the hexamer dissociates into the dimer, a process which can be reversed by MgATP or MgATP-γ-S within hours. Only the hexamers and the dimers exhibited MgATPase activity. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained CoxD preparations revealed distinct particles within a size range of 10-16 nm, which further corroborates the oligomeric organization. The 3D structure of CoxD was modeled with the 3D structure of BchI from Rhodobacter capsulatus as template. It has the key elements of an AAA+ domain in the same arrangement and at same positions as in BchI and displays the characteristic inserts of the PS-II-insert clade. Possible functions of CoxD in [CuSMoO₂] cluster assembly are discussed.

  14. The CoxD Protein, a Novel AAA+ ATPase Involved in Metal Cluster Assembly: Hydrolysis of Nucleotide-Triphosphates and Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, Tobias; Joseph, Stephanie; Mielke, Thorsten; Bürger, Jörg; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Meyer, Ortwin

    2012-01-01

    CoxD of the α-proteobacterium Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a membrane protein which is involved in the posttranslational biosynthesis of the [CuSMoO2] cluster in the active site of the enzyme CO dehydrogenase. The bacteria synthesize CoxD only in the presence of CO. Recombinant CoxD produced in E. coli K38 pGP1-2/pETMW2 appeared in inclusion bodies from where it was solubilized by urea and refolded by stepwise dilution. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the presence of secondary structural elements in refolded CoxD. CoxD is a P-loop ATPase of the AAA-protein family. Refolded CoxD catalyzed the hydrolysis of MgATP yielding MgADP and inorganic phosphate at a 1∶1∶1 molar ratio. The reaction was inhibited by the slow hydrolysable MgATP-γ-S. GTPase activity of CoxD did not exceed 2% of the ATPase activity. Employing different methods (non linear regression, Hanes and Woolf, Lineweaver-Burk), preparations of CoxD revealed a mean KM value of 0.69±0.14 mM ATP and an apparent Vmax value of 19.3±2.3 nmol ATP hydrolyzed min−1 mg−1. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and gel filtration showed that refolded CoxD can exist in various multimeric states (2-mer, 4-mer or 6-mer), preferentially as hexamer or dimer. Within weeks the hexamer dissociates into the dimer, a process which can be reversed by MgATP or MgATP-γ-S within hours. Only the hexamers and the dimers exhibited MgATPase activity. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained CoxD preparations revealed distinct particles within a size range of 10–16 nm, which further corroborates the oligomeric organization. The 3D structure of CoxD was modeled with the 3D structure of BchI from Rhodobacter capsulatus as template. It has the key elements of an AAA+ domain in the same arrangement and at same positions as in BchI and displays the characteristic inserts of the PS-II-insert clade. Possible functions of CoxD in [CuSMoO2] cluster assembly are discussed. PMID:23077613

  15. 53Mn-53Cr chronology of Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2017-03-01

    High precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4) in the reduced CV3 chondrites Vigarano and Efremovka yield well resolved 53Cr excesses that correlate with 55Mn/52Cr, demonstrating in situ decay of the extinct short-lived radionuclide 53Mn. To ensure proper correction for relative sensitivities between 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, we synthesized kirschsteinite doped with Mn and Cr to measure the relative sensitivity factor. The inferred initial ratio (53Mn/55Mn)0 in chondritic kirschsteinite is (3.71 ± 0.50) × 10-6. When anchored to 53Mn-53Cr relative and U-corrected 207Pb-206Pb absolute ages of the D'Orbigny angrite, this ratio corresponds to kirschsteinite formation 3.2-0.7+08 Ma after CV Ca-, Al-rich inclusions. The kirschsteinite data are consistent within error with the data for aqueously-formed fayalite from the Asuka 881317 CV3 chondrite as reported by Doyle et al. (2015), supporting the idea that Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites are cogenetic with fayalite (and magnetite) and formed during metasomatic alteration on the CV3 parent body. Concentrically-zoned crystals of kirschsteinite and hedenbergite indicate that they initially formed as near end-member compositions that became more Mg-rich with time, possibly as a result of an increase in temperature.

  16. Are Primo Vessels (PVs) on the Surface of Gastrointestine Involved in Regulation of Gastric Motility Induced by Stimulating Acupoints ST36 or CV12?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Hong; Shang, Hongyan; Su, Yangshuai; Xin, Juanjuan; He, Wei; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed primo vessels (PVs), which were referred to as Bonhan ducts (BHDs) and a part of circulatory system by Kim, located in different places of the body. The BHDs system was once considered as the anatomical basis of classical acupuncture meridian but not clearly identified by other investigators. In the present study, we tried to address the relationship between PVs and meridians through detecting the modulation of gastric motility by stimulating the PVs on the surface of stomach or intestine, as well as acupoints Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12). The results showed electric stimulation of the PVs had no effect on the gastric motility. While stimulating CV12 inhibited gastric motility significantly in PVs-intact and PVs-cut rats, there is no significant difference between the inhibition rate of the PVS-intact and the PVS-cut rats. Stimulating at ST36 increased gastric motility significantly in both the PVs-intact and the PVs-cut rats, yet there was no significant difference between the facilitation rate of the both groups. Taken together, the PVs on the surface of stomach or intestine did not mediate the regulation of gastric motility induced by stimulating at the acupoints ST36 or CV12. PMID:23091558

  17. In response to an open invitation for comments on AAAS project 2061's Benchmark books on science. Part 1: documentation of serious errors in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Project 2061 was founded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to improve secondary school science education. An in-depth study of ten 9 to 12th grade biology textbooks led to the verdict that none conveyed "Big Ideas" that would give coherence and meaning to the profusion of lavishly illustrated isolated details. However, neither the Project report itself nor the Benchmark books put out earlier by the Project carries what deserves the designation of "Big Ideas." Worse, in the two earliest-published Benchmark books, the basic unit of all life forms--the living cell--is described as a soup enclosed by a cell membrane, that determines what can enter or leave the cell. This is astonishing since extensive experimental evidence has unequivocally disproved this idea 60 years ago. A "new" version of the membrane theory brought in to replace the discredited (sieve) version is the pump model--currently taught as established truth in all high-school and college biology textbooks--was also unequivocally disproved 40 years ago. This comment is written partly in response to Bechmark's gracious open invitation for ideas to improve the books and through them, to improve US secondary school science education.

  18. A Fragment-Based Ligand Screen Against Part of a Large Protein Machine: The ND1 Domains of the AAA+ ATPase p97/VCP.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Michael S; Bulfer, Stacie L; Neitz, R Jeffrey; Renslo, Adam R; Jacobson, Matthew P; James, Thomas L; Arkin, Michelle R; Kelly, Mark J S

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitous AAA+ ATPase p97 functions as a dynamic molecular machine driving several cellular processes. It is essential in regulating protein homeostasis, and it represents a potential drug target for cancer, particularly when there is a greater reliance on the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to degrade an overabundance of secreted proteins. Here, we report a case study for using fragment-based ligand design approaches against this large and dynamic hexamer, which has multiple potential binding sites for small molecules. A screen of a fragment library was conducted by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and followed up by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), two complementary biophysical techniques. Virtual screening was also carried out to examine possible binding sites for the experimental hits and evaluate the potential utility of fragment docking for this target. Out of this effort, 13 fragments were discovered that showed reversible binding with affinities between 140 µM and 1 mM, binding stoichiometries of 1:1 or 2:1, and good ligand efficiencies. Structural data for fragment-protein interactions were obtained with residue-specific [U-(2)H] (13)CH3-methyl-labeling NMR strategies, and these data were compared to poses from docking. The combination of virtual screening, SPR, and NMR enabled us to find and validate a number of interesting fragment hits and allowed us to gain an understanding of the structural nature of fragment binding.

  19. Effects of the changes in the wall shear stresses (WSS) acting on endothelial cells (EC) during the enlargement of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2005-03-01

    The changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of the WSS and gradients of WSS during the enlargement of AAAs are important to understand the etiology and progression of this vascular disease, since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. PIV measurements were performed in aneurysm models, while changing systematically their size and geometry. Two regions with distinct patterns of WSS were identified. The region of flow detachment extends over the proximal half and is characterized by oscillatory WSS of very low mean. The region of flow reattachment, located distally, is dominated by large, negative WSS and sustained gradients of WSS that result from the impact of the vortex ring on the wall. Cultured EC were subjected to these two types of stimuli in vitro. The permeability of the endothelium was found to be largely increased in the flow detachment region. Endothelium cell-cell adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis were also affected by the high gradients of WSS.

  20. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  1. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e−07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

  2. Position Determination with LORAN-C Triplets and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California POSITION DETERMINATION WITH LORAN-C TRIPLETS AND THE HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by...HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT O GRANT NUMBER(*) Rex H. Shudd? 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Hyperbolic Fixing Programmable Calculator Loran-C Radio Positioning HP-41C Navigation Geodetics HP-41CV Position Determination Geodetic Distances

  3. Solution NMR structure of hypothetical protein CV_2116 encoded by a viral prophage element in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A; Cort, John R; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Kennedy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e(-07)) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and (13)C- and (15)N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum.

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children.

  5. Variation amongst protoplast-derived potato plants (Solatium tuberosum cv. 'Maris Bard').

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Bright, S W; Franklin, J; Lancaster, V A; Miflin, B J; Gibson, R

    1982-03-01

    Plants were obtained from protoplasts of shoot cultures of potato (Solarium tuberosum L. cv. 'Maris Bard') and from in situ calluses upon plants of cv. 'Majestic'. None of the protoplast-derived plants resembled each other in all of ten morphological characteristics scored and only one resembled the parental 'Maris Bard' type. As there were a number of plants regenerated from each of ten protoplast-derived calluses it is concluded that variation arose after protoplast isolation during the cell culture phase. Plants regenerated from in situ calluses of cv. 'Majestic' were quite uniform. Reported cases of variation and uniformity from cultured potato tissues are discussed. It is concluded that the variation is not a consequence of using protoplasts and that the expression or induction of variation is controllable.

  6. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  7. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  8. Group B streptococcus mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thawait, Shrey K; Akay, Aylin; Jhirad, Ronen H; El-Daher, Nayef

    2012-03-01

    Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is an uncommon condition, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is exceedingly rare in this setting. We present the first reported case of a GBS-infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in North America. Key clinical and imaging findings and pathologic correlation are highlighted. A relevant review of the literature is discussed, which will bring the reader up to date with this specific disease entity.

  9. Quantifying the CV: Adapting an Impact Assessment Model to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohémier, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    We present the process and results of applying the Becker Model to the curriculum vitae of a Yale University astronomy professor. As background, in July 2013, the Becker Medical Library at Washington Univ. in St. Louis held a workshop for librarians on the Becker Model, a framework developed by research assessment librarians for quantifying medical researchers' individual and group outputs. Following the workshop, the model was analyzed for content to adapt it to the physical sciences.

  10. A Comparison of the Highest Precision Commonly Available Time Transfer Methods: TWSTT and GPS CV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    A COMPARISON OF THE HIGHEST PRECISION COMMONLY AVAILABLE TIME TRANSFER METHODS: TWSTT AND GPS CV James A. DeYoung, Francine Vannicola, and Angela...D. McKinley U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392, USA dey@herschel.usno.navy.mil, hv...view (CY) and the ’Auo-Way SoteUite Time Transfer (TWSTT) method. The GPS CV time transfer data are jonned from shict 13- minute common-view tracks

  11. Differences in outcomes between GOLD groups in patients with COPD in the TIOSPIR® trial

    PubMed Central

    Dusser, Daniel; Wise, Robert A; Dahl, Ronald; Anzueto, Antonio; Carter, Kerstine; Fowler, Andy; Calverley, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification could predict mortality risk factors and whether baseline treatment intensity would relate to mortality within each group, using data from TIOSPIR®, the largest randomized clinical trial in COPD performed to date. Methods A total of 17,135 patients from TIOSPIR® were pooled and grouped by GOLD grading (A–D) according to baseline Medical Research Council breathlessness score, exacerbation history, and spirometry. All-cause mortality and adjudicated cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality were assessed. Results Of the 16,326 patients classified, 1,248 died on treatment. Group B patients received proportionally more CV treatment at baseline. CV mortality risk, but not all-cause mortality risk, was significantly higher in Group B than Group C patients (CV mortality – hazard ratio [HR] =1.74, P=0.004; all-cause mortality – HR =1.18, P=0.11). Group D patients had a higher incidence of all-cause mortality than Group B patients (10.9% vs 6.6%). Similar trends were observed regardless of respiratory or CV medication at baseline. In contrast, respiratory deaths increased consistently from Groups A–D (0.3%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively). Conclusion The data obtained from the TIOSPIR® trial, supporting earlier studies, suggest that proportionally more CV medication and CV deaths occur in GOLD Group B COPD patients, although deaths attributed to respiratory causes are more prevalent in Groups C and D. PMID:26855568

  12. Application of Five Light-Response Models in the Photosynthesis of Populus × Euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46' Leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lidong; Zhang, Shuyong; Zhang, Guangcan; Liu, Xia; Xia, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Songsong; Xing, Wei; Fang, Xiaochen

    2015-05-01

    The light-response curve of photosynthesis is an important tool used to study plant ecophysiology and can provide a scientific basis for the response of plant photosynthetic characteristics to environmental factors. At present, there are five common light-response models of photosynthesis. To gain deeper insight into the applicability of different light-response models of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Populus euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46', two typical light-response curves of photosynthesis in P. euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46' leaves, one under drought stress and the other under control conditions, were measured using a CIRAS-2 portable photosynthesis system. The light-response data were divided into two groups: one set of data was used to fit light-response curves, and the other set of data was used to test them. The accuracy of the fitting and the predictions of the different models were evaluated by mean square error and mean absolute error. The results showed that the light-response curves of P. euramericana cv. 'Zhonglin46' under drought stress matched the light-saturated inhibition type and that those under the control condition matched the approaching light-saturation type. The two new models (i.e., the modified rectangular hyperbola model and modified exponential model) fit the two light-response curves and their characteristic parameters well, and the fitting results of the two models were similar. Conversely, the three traditional models (i.e., the rectangular hyperbola model, nonrectangular hyperbola model, and exponential model) did not fit the two light-response curves well; in particular, they overestimated the maximum net photosynthetic rate, underestimated the light saturation point (LSP), and did not fit the net photosynthetic rate during the light-saturated stage. The LSP calculated by the "linear method" combined with the traditional models was significantly lower than the measured values; additionally, the

  13. Phosphorylation of human TFAM in mitochondria impairs DNA binding and promotes degradation by the AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Lee, Jae; Nie, Xiaobo; Li, Min; Morozov, Yaroslav I; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Bogenhagen, Daniel F; Temiakov, Dmitry; Suzuki, Carolyn K

    2013-01-10

    Human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a high-mobility group (HMG) protein at the nexus of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, transcription, and inheritance. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying its posttranslational regulation. Here, we demonstrate that TFAM is phosphorylated within its HMG box 1 (HMG1) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mitochondria. HMG1 phosphorylation impairs the ability of TFAM to bind DNA and to activate transcription. We show that only DNA-free TFAM is degraded by the Lon protease, which is inhibited by the anticancer drug bortezomib. In cells with normal mtDNA levels, HMG1-phosphorylated TFAM is degraded by Lon. However, in cells with severe mtDNA deficits, nonphosphorylated TFAM is also degraded, as it is DNA free. Depleting Lon in these cells increases levels of TFAM and upregulates mtDNA content, albeit transiently. Phosphorylation and proteolysis thus provide mechanisms for rapid fine-tuning of TFAM function and abundance in mitochondria, which are crucial for maintaining and expressing mtDNA.

  14. Insulator polarization effect in quasi-static and high-frequency C(V) curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tüttő, P.; Balázs, J.

    1982-01-01

    A new method is given to evaluate quasi-static and high frequency C(V) curves. Surface state density distribution and insulator polarization can be obtained simultaneously without the need of other measurements. Measurements of MNOS structures indicate that there are "free" charge carriers in the Si 3N 4 layer which move in a rather inhomogeneous electric field.

  15. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.

  16. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  17. Study of Catalytic Reaction at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces by a CV-XAFS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Shogo; Matsumura, Daiju; Asazawa, Koichiro; Kishi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A method combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) with x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, viz. CV-XAFS, has been developed to enable in situ real-time investigation of atomic and electronic structures related to electrochemical reactions. We use this method to study the reaction of a Pt/C cathode catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline electrolyte, using x-ray energies near the Pt LIII edge for XAFS measurements. It was found that the current induced by the ORR was first observed at approximately 0.08 V versus Hg/HgO, although the Pt valence, which is reflected in the oxidation states, remained almost unchanged. The electronic structure of the catalytic surface in the ORR was observed to be different in the negative and positive scan directions of CV measurements. Hydrogen adsorption is also discussed on the basis of the observation of this spectral change. We have demonstrated that CV-XAFS provides dynamical structural and electronic information related to electrochemical reactions and can be used for in situ real-time measurements of a catalyst.

  18. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  19. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  20. Microscopic C-V measurements of SOI wafers by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, T.; Yoshida, H.; Kishino, S.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been applied to microscopic characterization of electrical properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. Two kinds of capacitance-voltage (C-V) methods have been proposed for separately characterizing the electrical properties of a gate oxide, an SOI layer, a buried oxide (BOX) layer, a Si substrate, and their interfaces: (i) a front-gate C-V method whereby the electrical properties of the gate oxide and front SOI (the gate oxide/SOI) interface can be characterized, and (ii) a back-gate C-V method for the characterization of the electrical properties of the BOX layer, back SOI (the BOX/SOI) interface, and the BOX/Si substrate interface. Furthermore, SCM images of the sampled SOI wafer have been obtained for visualizing the microscopic spatial distribution of electrical properties of SOI wafers by using the proposed C-V methods. These SCM images revealed the fluctuation in the oxide charges and interface traps. SCM has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for microscopic electrical characterization of SOI wafers.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  2. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  3. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  5. The CoxD protein of Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a predicted AAA+ ATPase chaperone involved in the biogenesis of the CO dehydrogenase [CuSMoO2] cluster.

    PubMed

    Pelzmann, Astrid; Ferner, Marion; Gnida, Manuel; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Maisel, Tobias; Meyer, Ortwin

    2009-04-03

    CO dehydrogenase from the Gram-negative chemolithoautotrophic eubacterium Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 is a structurally characterized molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoenzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H(2)O --> CO(2) + 2e(-) + 2H(+)). It accommodates in its active site a unique bimetallic [CuSMoO(2)] cluster, which is subject to post-translational maturation. Insertional mutagenesis of coxD has established its requirement for the assembly of the [CuSMoO(2)] cluster. Disruption of coxD led to a phenotype of the corresponding mutant OM5 D::km with the following characteristics: (i) It was impaired in the utilization of CO, whereas the utilization of H(2) plus CO(2) was not affected; (ii) Under appropriate induction conditions bacteria synthesized a fully assembled apo-CO dehydrogenase, which could not oxidize CO; (iii) Apo-CO dehydrogenase contained a [MoO(3)] site in place of the [CuSMoO(2)] cluster; and (iv) Employing sodium sulfide first and then the Cu(I)-(thiourea)(3) complex, the non-catalytic [MoO(3)] site could be reconstituted in vitro to a [CuSMoO(2)] cluster capable of oxidizing CO. Sequence information suggests that CoxD is a MoxR-like AAA+ ATPase chaperone related to the hexameric, ring-shaped BchI component of Mg(2+)-chelatases. Recombinant CoxD, which appeared in Escherichia coli in inclusion bodies, occurs exclusively in cytoplasmic membranes of O. carboxidovorans grown in the presence of CO, and its occurrence coincided with GTPase activity upon sucrose density gradient centrifugation of cell extracts. The presumed function of CoxD is the partial unfolding of apo-CO dehydrogenase to assist in the stepwise introduction of sulfur and copper in the [MoO(3)] center of the enzyme.

  6. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagahama, Masami

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  7. Mode of interaction of TRIP13 AAA-ATPase with the Mad2-binding protein p31comet and with mitotic checkpoint complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Kaisari, Sharon; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Hershko, Avram

    2015-01-01

    The AAA-ATPase thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13), jointly with the Mad2-binding protein p31comet, promotes the inactivation of the mitotic (spindle assembly) checkpoint by disassembling the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). This checkpoint system ensures the accuracy of chromosome segregation by delaying anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromatids to the mitotic spindle is achieved. MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets for degradation securin, an inhibitor of anaphase initiation. MCC is composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3, in association with the APC/C activator Cdc20. The assembly of MCC in active checkpoint is initiated by the conversion of Mad2 from an open (O-Mad2) to a closed (C-Mad2) conformation, which then binds tightly to Cdc20. Conversely, the disassembly of MCC that takes place when the checkpoint is turned off involves the conversion of C-Mad2 back to O-Mad2. Previously, we found that the latter process is mediated by TRIP13 together with p31comet, but the mode of their interaction remained unknown. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of TRIP13 binds both p31comet and MCC. Furthermore, p31comet and checkpoint complexes mutually promote the binding of each other to oligomeric TRIP13. We propose that p31comet bound to C-Mad2–containing checkpoint complex is the substrate for the ATPase and that the substrate-binding site of TRIP13 is composed of subsites specific for p31comet and C-Mad2–containing complex. The simultaneous occupancy of both subsites is required for high-affinity binding to TRIP13. PMID:26324890

  8. The Arabidopsis AAA ATPase SKD1 is involved in multivesicular endosome function and interacts with its positive regulator LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN5.

    PubMed

    Haas, Thomas J; Sliwinski, Marek K; Martínez, Dana E; Preuss, Mary; Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi; Nielsen, Erik; Odorizzi, Greg; Otegui, Marisa S

    2007-04-01

    In yeast and mammals, the AAA ATPase Vps4p/SKD1 (for Vacuolar protein sorting 4/SUPPRESSOR OF K(+) TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) is required for the endosomal sorting of secretory and endocytic cargo. We identified a VPS4/SKD1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, which localizes to the cytoplasm and to multivesicular endosomes. In addition, green fluorescent protein-SKD1 colocalizes on multivesicular bodies with fluorescent fusion protein endosomal Rab GTPases, such as ARA6/RabF1, RHA1/RabF2a, and ARA7/RabF2b, and with the endocytic marker FM4-64. The expression of SKD1(E232Q), an ATPase-deficient version of SKD1, induces alterations in the endosomal system of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow 2 cells and ultimately leads to cell death. The inducible expression of SKD1(E232Q) in Arabidopsis resulted in enlarged endosomes with a reduced number of internal vesicles. In a yeast two-hybrid screen using Arabidopsis SKD1 as bait, we isolated a putative homolog of mammalian LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN5 (LIP5)/SKD1 BINDING PROTEIN1 and yeast Vta1p (for Vps twenty associated 1 protein). Arabidopsis LIP5 acts as a positive regulator of SKD1 by increasing fourfold to fivefold its in vitro ATPase activity. We isolated a knockout homozygous Arabidopsis mutant line with a T-DNA insertion in LIP5. lip5 plants are viable and show no phenotypic alterations under normal growth conditions, suggesting that basal SKD1 ATPase activity is sufficient for plant development and growth.

  9. NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711) C-141 KAO, CV-990 (712) Galileo, T-38, YO-3A, Lear Jet, X-14, U-2, OH-6, CH-47, SH-3G, RSRA, AH-1G, XV-15, UH-1H

  10. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  11. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  12. Multilocus half-tetrad analysis and centromere mapping in citrus: evidence of SDR mechanism for 2n megagametophyte production and partial chiasma interference in mandarin cv 'Fortune'.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, J; Froelicher, Y; Aleza, P; Juárez, J; Navarro, L; Ollitrault, P

    2011-10-01

    The genetic structure of 2n gametes and, particularly, the parental heterozygosity restitution at each locus depends on the meiotic process by which they originated, with first-division restitution and second-division restitution (SDR) being the two major mechanisms. The origin of 2n gametes in citrus is still controversial, although sexual polyploidisation is widely used for triploid seedless cultivar development. In this study, we report the analysis of 2n gametes of mandarin cv 'Fortune' by genotyping 171 triploid hybrids with 35 simple sequence repeat markers. The microsatellite DNA allele counting-peak ratios method for allele-dosage evaluation proved highly efficient in segregating triploid progenies and allowed half-tetrad analysis (HTA) by inferring the 2n gamete allelic configuration. All 2n gametes arose from the female genitor. The observed maternal heterozygosity restitution varied between 10 and 82%, depending on the locus, thus SDR appears to be the mechanism underlying 2n gamete production in mandarin cv 'Fortune'. A new method to locate the centromere, based on the best fit between observed heterozygosity restitution within a linkage group and theoretical functions under either partial or no chiasmata interference hypotheses was successfully applied to linkage group II. The maximum value of heterozygosity restitution and the pattern of restitution along this linkage group would suggest there is partial chiasma interference. The implications of such a restitution mechanism for citrus breeding are discussed.

  13. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body

  14. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  15. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils.

  16. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  17. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  18. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Pedro R; Gil, Raúl A; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 microg L(-1) Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 microg L(-1)Hg.

  19. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  20. A model for the C-V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xue Jun

    2009-02-01

    A model is developed to describe the characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure based on the dipole switching theory (DST) and the silicon physics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. The ferroelectric dipole distribution function is used to simulate the history-dependent electric field effect of the ferroelectric layer. Using the model, the thickness effects of the ferroelectric and insulator layers on the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristic and the memory window were investigated for Pt/SBT/ZrO 2/Si and Pt/BLT/MgO/Si structures. All the simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for simulating the C-V characteristic and the memory window of MFIS structure. In addition, the mathematical description is simple and can be easily integrated into the electronic design automation (EDA) software for circuit simulation.

  1. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  2. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  3. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  4. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  5. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2-dose catch-up vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children in the second year of life: Results from an open study.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Alassane; Dicko, Yahia; Barry, Amadou; Sidibe, Youssoufa; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Santara, Gaoussou; Dolo, Amagana; Diallo, Aminata; Doumbo, Ogobara; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is still the leading cause of death among African children with pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 being dominant in the below 5 y of age group. The present study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children. This phase III, open-label study (NCT00985465) was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and July 2010. The study population consisted of PHiD-CV unprimed Malian children previously enrolled in the control group of study NCT00678301 receiving a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with PHiD-CV in the second year of life. Adverse events were recorded following each PHiD-CV dose. Antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured pre-vaccination and after the second PHiD-CV catch-up dose. Swelling and fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) were the most frequently reported solicited symptoms following either PHiD-CV dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms were reported. Large swelling reactions and serious adverse events were not reported. Post-catch-up vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 94.7% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.5%) and 23F (87.7%). At least 94.0% of subjects had OPA titres ≥ 8, except for serotype 19F (89.4%). The geometric mean concentration for antibodies against protein D was 839.3 (95% CI: 643.5-1094.6) EL.U/ml. Two-dose PHiD-CV catch-up regimen in the second year of life was well-tolerated and immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D when administered to Malian children.

  6. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2-dose catch-up vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children in the second year of life: Results from an open study

    PubMed Central

    Dicko, Alassane; Dicko, Yahia; Barry, Amadou; Sidibe, Youssoufa; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Santara, Gaoussou; Dolo, Amagana; Diallo, Aminata; Doumbo, Ogobara; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is still the leading cause of death among African children with pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 being dominant in the below 5 y of age group. The present study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children. This phase III, open-label study (NCT00985465) was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and July 2010. The study population consisted of PHiD-CV unprimed Malian children previously enrolled in the control group of study NCT00678301 receiving a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with PHiD-CV in the second year of life. Adverse events were recorded following each PHiD-CV dose. Antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured pre-vaccination and after the second PHiD-CV catch-up dose. Swelling and fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) were the most frequently reported solicited symptoms following either PHiD-CV dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms were reported. Large swelling reactions and serious adverse events were not reported. Post-catch-up vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 94.7% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.5%) and 23F (87.7%). At least 94.0% of subjects had OPA titres ≥ 8, except for serotype 19F (89.4%). The geometric mean concentration for antibodies against protein D was 839.3 (95% CI: 643.5-1094.6) EL.U/ml. Two-dose PHiD-CV catch-up regimen in the second year of life was well-tolerated and immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D when administered to Malian children PMID:26020101

  7. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    , 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n = 11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n = 11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  8. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  9. Real-time detecting and tracking ball with OpenCV and Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiecki, Tomasz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a way to detect and track ball with using the OpenCV and Kinect. Object and people recognition, tracking are more and more popular topics nowadays. Described solution makes it possible to detect ball based on the range, which is set by the user and capture information about ball position in three dimensions. It can be store in the computer and use for example to display trajectory of the ball.

  10. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (<300 °C), it largely avoided subsequent thermal metamorphism, and the 26Al-26Mg systematics of its chondrules appear to be undisturbed. All eight Kaba chondrules measured show 26Mg∗, corresponding to the initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (2.9 ± 1.7) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 2.7) × 10-6. If CV parent asteroid accreted rapidly after chondrule formation, the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 ratios in Kaba chondrules provide an upper limit on 26Al available in this asteroid at the time of its accretion. The estimated initial abundance of 26Al in the CV asteroid is too low to melt it and contradicts the existence of a molten core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  11. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  12. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Utsukihara, Takamitsu; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, C Akira

    2008-05-01

    The biotransformation of racemic 1-phenylethanol (30 mg) with plant cultured cells of basil (Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens, 5 g wet wt) by shaking 120 rpm at 25 degrees C for 7 days in the dark gave (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol and acetophenone in 34 and 24% yields, respectively. The biotransformation can be applied to other 1-arylethanols and basil cells oxidized the (S)-alcohols to the corresponding ketones remaining the (R)-alcohols in excellent ee.

  13. Nipple Reconstruction Using the C-V Flap Technique: Long-Term Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Lona; Lund, Jonathan; Kurup, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nipple creation using the C-V flap technique is often the final step in breast reconstruction. The aim of this study was to subjectively and objectively assess the cosmetic outcomes and satisfaction of patients undergoing C-V flap nipple reconstruction. METHODS Subjective assessments of patient satisfaction with the neo-nipple were recorded by visual analogue scoring (VAS; 0-10). Objective measurements were performed using a calliper to measure nipple projection relative to the native breast. Descriptive data analysis was performed with differences in projection assessed with the Mann-Whitney test and mean and median VAS scores (with inter-quartile ranges; IQR) calculated to describe satisfaction. RESULTS Thirty-three C-V flap nipple reconstructions were performed. 87.9% received latissimus dorsi (LD) reconstructions with implants and 12.1% had transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) reconstructions. The median projection of reconstructed nipples was 4.7 mm (range 4-10.2 mm) at 4.6 years mean follow-up, which was not significantly different from the contralateral nipple (p = 0.34). Patient satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10) with shape, 9 (IQR: 7.5-10) with projection, 5 (IQR: 2-9.6) with sensation, and 8.5 (IQR: 6-9.5) with symmetry. Median overall satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10). Three patients had complete nipple loss, of whom two had undergone nipple piercing post procedure and none had received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION C-V flap nipple reconstructions provide a simple and reliable method to reconstruct the nipple that enhances confidence and perception of body image. Satisfaction was high with long-term outcomes in terms of projection equivalent to the contralateral breast. PMID:28289616

  14. TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, G.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

  15. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  16. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  17. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  18. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  19. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  20. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  1. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  2. C-V Measurement of HfO2 Dielectric Layer Received by UV Stimulated Plasma Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibilashvili, Amiran; Kushitashvili, Zurab

    2016-10-01

    In this report we consider HfO2 dielectric layer received by UV stimulated plasma anodizing. This dielectric is distinguished by good electric parameters. For this purpose, it was used C-V characterization technic and calculate dielectric constant, flatband voltage, thrishold voltage, bulk potential, work function, oxide effective charge, charge concentration. The C-V measurement was carried out on Keithley Instrument - Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer 4200, oxide thickness was measured by reflectometer - MprobeVis System.

  3. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  4. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem

    PubMed Central

    Racovita, Radu C.; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33), primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28) and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid) were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35), 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35), and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28) were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes. PMID:27820857

  5. Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung extract inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung Ah; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung (SH) is a widely consumed anthocyanin-rich food and medicinal plant, which possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. The present study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of SH extract on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by the topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice. SH extract was orally administered to the DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice. The anti-AD effects of SH extract were examined by measuring symptom severity; ear thickness; scratching behavior; serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E; T-helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels in the spleen; mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; and tissue infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrated that SH extract inhibited the development of AD-like lesions, and reduced IgE levels and the production of cytokines. Furthermore, SH extract significantly suppressed the expression of AD-associated mRNAs in lesional skin. Histological alterations in the AD-like lesions were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining in the DNCB-treated group; the alterations were attenuated following SH treatment. In addition, thickening of the epidermis and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the DNCB-treated mice were suppressed by SH treatment. These results suggested that SH extract may suppress the development of AD symptoms through modulation of the Th1 and Th2 responses. PMID:27510042

  6. Response of different maturity stages of sapota (Manilkara achras Mill.) cv. Kallipatti to in-package ethylene absorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Wangdup; Pal, R K; Sen, Sangita; Jha, S K

    2011-12-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable due to their climacteric nature. The rapid softening of fruits is primarily due to high activity of many oxidative enzymes and liberation of ethylene. Harvest maturity plays a crucial role in deciding the marketability of climacteric fruits in general. Attempt has been made to evaluate the response of ethylene absorbent on variable maturity groups of harvested Sapota cv. Kallipatti with the objective to delay the ripening during transit and extend its marketability during storage at ambient condition (27-32 °C & 65-75% R.H.). Harvested fruits having three different degree of ripeness (as maturity indices viz. mature, half-ripe and ripe) were packed with or without ethylene absorbent sachets (Bioconservación, France) in 10 kg CFB boxes and transported from Dahnu to Delhi covering a distant of approximately 2500 KM by truck on road along with conventional packaging as control. The fruits were evaluated immediately on arrival at Delhi and subsequently during storage for various physical, physiological, biochemical and decay parameters. Mature fruits with ethylene absorbent exhibited maximum delay in ripening, low ethylene liberation, weight loss and high fruit firmness. The response of ethylene absorbent to extend the marketability of ripe fruit was not significant.

  7. Cotton gene expression profiles in resistant Gossypium hirsutum cv. Zhongzhimian KV1 responding to Verticillium dahliae strain V991 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Jian, Gui-Liang; Jiang, Teng-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Zheng; Qi, Fang-Jun; Xu, Shi-Chang

    2012-10-01

    Verticillium wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a widespread and destructive disease that is caused by the soil-borne fungus pathogen Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To study the molecular mechanism in wilt tolerance, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and dot blot techniques were used to identify the specifically expressed genes in a superior wilt-resistant cotton cultivar (G. hirsutum cv. Zhongzhimian KV1) after inoculation with pathogen. cDNAs from the root tissues of Zhongzhimian KV1 inoculated with V. dahliae strain V991 or water mock were used to construct the libraries that contain 4800 clones. Based on the results from dot blot analysis, 147 clones were clearly induced by V. dahliae and selected from the SSH libraries for sequencing. A total of 92 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated non-redundant expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were identified as disease responsive genes and classified into 9 functional groups. Two important clues regarding wilt-resistant G. hirsutum were obtained from this study. One was Bet v 1 family; the other was UbI gene family that may play an important role in the defense reaction against Verticillium wilt. The result from real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were activated quickly and transiently after inoculation with V. dahliae.

  8. Effect of organic matter additions on uptake of weathered DDT by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the impact of organic matter additions on plant uptake of DDT [2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] from weathered soil. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden pumpkins were grown in 100 g of DDT contaminated soil ([DDT] - 1100 ng/g) mixed with equal volumes of either clean soil, perlite, vermiculite, peat, potting soil, or granular activated carbon (GAC) to give total organic carbon contents of 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 11.5%, 12.2%, and 27.3%, respectively. As in other studies, root DDT concentrations were significantly lower in soils with high organic matter. Root bioaccumulation factors (BAF = [DDT]root/[DDT]soil) approximated this trend. Root concentrations correlated with organic matter concentrations and not with soil DDT concentrations. Conversely, shoot DDT concentrations, shoot BAFs and translocation factors (TLF = BAF(shoot)/BAF(root)) were not significantly different between treatment groups, except for plants grown in GAC/DDT soil. This suggests that amendments with a range of organic matter contents may be added to improve soil conditions at industrial sites without significant adverse effects on phytoextraction potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo.

  9. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  10. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  11. SU-E-T-196: Comparative Analysis of Surface Dose Measurements Using MOSFET Detector and Dose Predicted by Eclipse - AAA with Varying Dose Calculation Grid Size

    SciTech Connect

    Badkul, R; Nejaiman, S; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Kumar, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Skin dose can be the limiting factor and fairly common reason to interrupt the treatment, especially for treating head-and-neck with Intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy(IMRT) or Volumetrically-modulated - arc-therapy (VMAT) and breast with tangentially-directed-beams. Aim of this study was to investigate accuracy of near-surface dose predicted by Eclipse treatment-planning-system (TPS) using Anisotropic-Analytic Algorithm (AAA)with varying calculation grid-size and comparing with metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors(MOSFETs)measurements for a range of clinical-conditions (open-field,dynamic-wedge, physical-wedge, IMRT,VMAT). Methods: QUASAR™-Body-Phantom was used in this study with oval curved-surfaces to mimic breast, chest wall and head-and-neck sites.A CT-scan was obtained with five radio-opaque markers(ROM) placed on the surface of phantom to mimic the range of incident angles for measurements and dose prediction using 2mm slice thickness.At each ROM, small structure(1mmx2mm) were contoured to obtain mean-doses from TPS.Calculations were performed for open-field,dynamic-wedge,physical-wedge,IMRT and VMAT using Varian-21EX,6&15MV photons using twogrid-sizes:2.5mm and 1mm.Calibration checks were performed to ensure that MOSFETs response were within ±5%.Surface-doses were measured at five locations and compared with TPS calculations. Results: For 6MV: 2.5mm grid-size,mean calculated doses(MCD)were higher by 10%(±7.6),10%(±7.6),20%(±8.5),40%(±7.5),30%(±6.9) and for 1mm grid-size MCD were higher by 0%(±5.7),0%(±4.2),0%(±5.5),1.2%(±5.0),1.1% (±7.8) for open-field,dynamic-wedge,physical-wedge,IMRT,VMAT respectively.For 15MV: 2.5mm grid-size,MCD were higher by 30%(±14.6),30%(±14.6),30%(±14.0),40%(±11.0),30%(±3.5)and for 1mm grid-size MCD were higher by 10% (±10.6), 10%(±9.8),10%(±8.0),30%(±7.8),10%(±3.8) for open-field, dynamic-wedge, physical-wedge, IMRT, VMAT respectively.For 6MV, 86% and 56% of all measured values

  12. Exercise-induced improvement in endothelial dysfunction is not mediated by changes in CV risk factors: pooled analysis of diverse patient populations.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel J; Walsh, Jennifer H; Maiorana, Andrew; Best, Matthew J; Taylor, Roger R; O'Driscoll, J Gerard

    2003-12-01

    We have pooled data from a series of our exercise training studies undertaken in groups with a broad range of vascular (dys) function to the examine the hypothesis that exercise-induced improvements in the conduit and/or resistance vessel function are related to improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Endothelium-dependent and -independent conduit vessel function were assessed by using wall tracking of high-resolution ultrasound images of the brachial artery response to flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and glyceryl trinitrate. Resistance vessel function was assessed using intrabrachial administration of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside, and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine. Randomized cross-over studies of 8-wk exercise training were undertaken in untreated hypercholesterolemic (n = 11), treated hypercholesterolemic (n = 11), coronary artery disease (n = 10), chronic heart failure (n = 12), Type 2 diabetic (n = 15), and healthy control subjects (n = 16). Exercise training did not significantly alter plasma lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, waist-to-hip ratio, or body mass index values, despite significant improvement in both FMD and ACh responses. There were no correlations between changes in any risk factor variables and indexes of either resistance or conduit vessel function. We conclude that, in these subjects with antecedent vascular dysfunction, the beneficial effects of relatively short-term exercise training on vascular function are not solely mediated by the effects of exercise on CV risk factors.

  13. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  14. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  15. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  16. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  17. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  18. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  19. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  20. Low-lift-to-drag-ratio approach and landing studies using a CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kock, B. M.; Fulton, F. L.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a flight-test program utilizing a CV-990 airplane, flow in low-lift-to-drag-ratio (L/D) configurations, to simulate terminal area operation, approach, and landing of large unpowered vehicles. The results indicate that unpowered approaches and landings are practical with vehicles of the size and performance characteristics of the proposed shuttle vehicle. Low L/D landings provided touchdown dispersion patterns acceptable for operation on runways of reasonable length. The dispersion pattern was reduced when guidance was used during the final approach. High levels of pilot proficiency were not required for acceptable performance.

  1. Group Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  2. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm presentation, repair, and mortality in the Vascular Study Group of New England

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark; Adams, Julie E.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior studies of gender differences in AAA repair suggest there may be differences in presentation, suitability for EVAR, and outcomes between men and women. Methods We used the Vascular Study Group of New England database to identify all patients undergoing EVAR or open AAA repair (OAR). We analyzed demographics, comorbidities, and procedural, and perioperative data. Results were compared using Fisher’s exact test and student’s t-test. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to identify predictors of mortality. Results We identified 4,026 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 54% EVAR). Women were less likely than men to undergo EVAR for intact aneurysms (50% vs. 60% of intact AAA repairs of, P<.001) but not for ruptured aneurysms (26% vs. 20%, P=.23). Women were older (median age 75 vs. 72 years for intact, P<.001; 78 vs. 73 years for rupture, P<.001) with smaller aortic diameters (57 vs. 59mm for elective, P<.001; 71 vs. 79mm for rupture, P<.001). Arterial injury was more common in women (5.4% vs. 2.7%, P=0.013) among patients undergoing EVAR for intact aneurysms and women stayed in the hospital longer (4.3 vs. 2.7 days, P=.018) and had a lower odds of being discharged home, even after adjusting for age.. Among patients undergoing open repair for intact aneurysms, women more frequently experienced leg ischemia/emboli (4% vs. 1%, P=.001) and bowel ischemia (5% vs. 3%, P=.044). Women had higher 30-day mortality after OAR for both intact (4% vs. 2%, P=.03) and rupture (48% vs. 34%, P=.03) repairs. However, 30-day mortality after EVAR was similar for both intact (1% in men vs. 1% in women, P=.57) and rupture (29% in men vs. 27% in women, P=1.00) repairs. Late survival was worse in women than men only for patients undergoing open repair of ruptured aneurysms (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, P=.04). After controlling for age, type of repair, urgency at presentation (i.e. elective/intact vs. ruptured

  3. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine.

  4. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  5. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  6. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp.

  7. Ophthalmic results in patients with macroprolactinomas treated with a new prolactin inhibitor CV 205-502.

    PubMed Central

    Grochowicki, M; Khalfallah, Y; Vighetto, A; Berquet, S; Sassolas, G

    1993-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are pituitary tumours which have been effectively treated medically since the introduction of bromocriptine. The visual function of 13 patients treated with a new prolactin (PRL) inhibitor CV 205-502 (Sandoz Basle), a potent and selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist, was evaluated. This is the first detailed ophthalmic report of the use of this drug in macroprolactinomas. Patients were enrolled from June 1988 to July 1990 (mean follow up 30 months). Visual function including visual acuity, ocular pressure, and visual fields was regularly controlled. Visual fields (VF) were tested with Goldmann and automatic static perimetry (Vision Monitor). Treatment was globally effective. No modifications of the visual function were observed in nine patients (six normal, three previous VF losses after surgery). In four other patients, visual function dramatically improved (regression of a III paresis, one case; disappearance of a chiasmatic syndrome, three cases). A pituitary necrosis was observed in one case and successfully cured. CV 205-502 seems to be an effective and well tolerated treatment of macroprolactinomas. Images PMID:7906538

  8. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step.

  9. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A.; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dimitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step. PMID:21827737

  10. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  11. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine. PMID:28377754

  12. Mechanisms of HIV-1 subtype C resistance to GRFT, CV-N and SVN

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Kabamba B.; Moore, Penny L.; Nonyane, Molati; Gray, Elin S.; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng; Chakauya, Ereck; McMahon, James B.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Chikwamba, Rachel; Morris, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of HIV-1 subtype C to develop resistance to the inhibitory lectins, griffithsin (GRFT), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and scytovirin (SVN), which bind multiple mannose-rich glycans on gp120. Four primary HIV-1 strains cultured under escalating concentrations of these lectins became increasingly resistant tolerating 2 to 12 times their 50% inhibitory concentrations. Sequence analysis of gp120 showed that most had deletions of 1 to 5 mannose-rich glycans. Glycosylation sites at positions 230, 234, 241, 289 located in the C2 region and 339, 392 and 448 in the C3-C4 region were affected. Furthermore, deletions and insertions of up to 5 amino acids in the V4 region were observed in 3 of the 4 isolates. These data suggest that loss of glycosylation sites on gp120 as well as rearrangement of glycans in V4 are mechanisms involved in HIV-1 subtype C escape from GRFT, CV-N and SVN. PMID:24074568

  13. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.

  14. New constraints on the magnetic history of the CV parent body and the solar nebula from the Kaba meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, Jérôme; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of Allende CV chondrite as well as thermal modeling suggest the existence of partially differentiated asteroids with outer unmelted and variably metamorphosed crusts overlying differentiated interiors. To further constrain the magnetic history of the CV parent body, we report here paleomagnetic results on Kaba CV chondrite. This meteorite contains 11 wt% pseudo-single domain magnetite, making it a rock with an excellent paleomagnetic recording capacity. Kaba appears to carry a stable natural remanent magnetization acquired on its parent body upon cooling in an internally generated magnetic field of about 3 μT from temperatures below 150 °C during thermal metamorphism about 10 to several tens of Myr after solar system formation. This strengthens the case for the existence of a molten advecting core in the CV parent body. Furthermore, we show that no significant magnetic field (i.e. lower than ∼ 0.3 μT) was present when aqueous alteration took place on the Kaba parent body around 4 to 6 Myr after solar system formation, suggesting a delay in the onset of the dynamo in the CV parent body and confirming that nebular fields had already decayed at that time.

  15. Analysis of constituents of metal elements and amino acids in new cultivar Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangtao; Yuan, Ke; Si, Jinping

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to establish a new kind of simple and rapid method to determine amino acids and metal elements in Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit. The high-performance liquid chromatography pre-column derivation method was used to test the contents of amino acids found in the cv. fruit. The results showed that there were 17 kinds of amino acids in the fruits of two different mature periods. They could be separated easily within 30 min. The correlation coefficients between the peak area of amino acid and the content of the amino acid were above 0.99. The sample-added recovery rate of amino acids was between 96.0% and 102.4%. Meanwhile, the microwave-aided dissolving procedure was adopted for dissolving of the cv. fruit to determine the 15 metal elements in the cv. fruit under the best conditions of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that there were high contents of trace elements and amino acids in the fruit of two different ripening periods. The correlation coefficients between the peak areas of amino acids and the concentration of the elements are satisfactory. These results may provide us with the scientific evidence for further studies and the exploitation of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan.

  16. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  17. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  18. Determination of replacement of some inorganic elements in pulvinus of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) at chilling temperature by the WDXRF spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Demir, Faruk; Budak, Gokhan; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Kadi, Nuray; Karakurt, Halil; Erdal, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) were exposed to chilling temperatures until leaves are wrinkled (9 day), that is, showed nyctinastic movement. Pulvinus were subsequently were cut from the leaves. Concentrations of inorganic elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu) in the pulvinus were measured by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry. Results indicated that concentration change (%) was not significant for Ca (0.82) but it was significant for K, P, Cl, S, and especially Cu concentrations (5.4%, 12.8%, 40.2%, 43.7%, 365%, respectively) in pulvinus of plants exposed to chilling temperature compared with control group. We hypothesize here the presence of association between nyctinasti movement brought about by pulvinus at chilling temperature in bean and changes of K, P, Cl, S and especially Cu concentrations measured by WDXRF analysis method.

  19. Changes in alpha band activity associated with application of the compression of fourth ventricular (CV-4) osteopathic procedure: a qEEG pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miana, Luiz; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Almeida, Laís; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Dionis; King, Hollis; Silva, Julio Guilherme

    2013-07-01

    The compression of the fourth ventricle (CV-4) is one of the more well known procedures in the cranial manipulation curriculum and practice. Cranial manipulation has received criticism because of the subtle, difficult to learn techniques, controversy over whether or not cranial bone structures move, and what if any clinical effects have been shown. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of CV-4 in 10 healthy subjects through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), specifically in alpha band. Participants were randomly distributed in control, sham-CV4 and CV4 conditions using a cross-over design. qEEG activity was recorded for each of the 10 subjects in each of the 3 conditions. There was a significant increase in the alpha absolute power between pre and post in the CV-4 condition. There appears to be potential for understanding the effect of the CV-4 if these finding are replicated in further clinical trials.

  20. Structural insight into amino group-carrier protein-mediated lysine biosynthesis: crystal structure of the LysZ·LysW complex from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Tomita, Takeo; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-02

    In the biosynthesis of lysine by Thermus thermophilus, the metabolite α-ketoglutarate is converted to the intermediate α-aminoadipate (AAA), which is protected by the 54-amino acid acidic protein LysW. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of LysZ from T. thermophilus (TtLysZ), an amino acid kinase that catalyzes the second step in the AAA to lysine conversion, which was in a complex with LysW at a resolution of 1.85 Å. A crystal analysis coupled with isothermal titration calorimetry of the TtLysZ mutants for TtLysW revealed tight interactions between LysZ and the globular and C-terminal extension domains of the LysW protein, which were mainly attributed to electrostatic forces. These results provided structural evidence for LysW acting as a protecting molecule for the α-amino group of AAA and also as a carrier protein to guarantee better recognition by biosynthetic enzymes for the efficient biosynthesis of lysine.

  1. Distinct transcriptional changes in non-small cell lung cancer patients associated with multi-antigenic RNActive® CV9201 immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Henoch S.; Koch, Sven D.; Scheel, Birgit; Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike; Schröder, Andreas; Kallen, Karl-Josef; Wiegand, Volker; Backert, Linus; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Hoerr, Ingmar; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently completed a phase I/IIa trial of RNActive® CV9201, a novel mRNA-based therapeutic vaccine targeting five tumor-associated antigens in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of the study presented here was to comprehensively analyze changes in peripheral blood during the vaccination period and to generate hypotheses facilitating the identification of potential biomarkers correlating with differential clinical outcomes post RNActive® immunotherapy. We performed whole-genome expression profiling in a subgroup of 22 stage IV NSCLC patients before and after initiation of treatment with CV9201. Utilizing an analytic approach based on blood transcriptional modules (BTMs), a previously described, sensitive tool for blood transcriptome data analysis, patients segregated into two major clusters based on transcriptional changes post RNActive® treatment. The first group of patients was characterized by the upregulation of an expression signature associated with myeloid cells and inflammation, whereas the other group exhibited an expression signature associated with T and NK cells. Patients with an enrichment of T and NK cell modules after treatment compared to baseline exhibited significantly longer progression-free and overall survival compared to patients with an upregulation of myeloid cell and inflammatory modules. Notably, these gene expression signatures were mutually exclusive and inversely correlated. Furthermore, our findings correlated with phenotypic data derived by flow cytometry as well as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Our study thus demonstrates non-overlapping, distinct transcriptional profiles correlating with survival warranting further validation for the development of biomarker candidates for mRNA-based immunotherapy. PMID:28123889

  2. The Arabidopsis SERK1 protein interacts with the AAA-ATPase AtCDC48, the 14-3-3 protein GF14lambda and the PP2C phosphatase KAPP.

    PubMed

    Rienties, Ingrid M; Vink, Josefien; Borst, Jan Willem; Russinova, Eugenia; de Vries, Sacco C

    2005-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are important components of plant signal transduction. The Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 (AtSERK1) is an LRR-RLK proposed to participate in a signal transduction cascade involved in embryo development. By yeast two-hybrid screening we identified AtCDC48, a homologue of the mammalian AAA-ATPase p97 and GF14lambda, a member of the Arabidopsis family of 14-3-3 proteins as AtSERK1 interactors. In vitro, the AtSERK1 kinase domain is able to transphosphorylate and bind both AtCDC48 and GF14lambda. In yeast, AtCDC48 interacts with GF14lambda and with the PP2C phosphatase KAPP. In plant protoplasts AtSERK1 interacts with GF14lambda.

  3. Sub-ns time transfer consistency: a direct comparison between GPS CV and T2L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, P.; Samain, E.; Courde, C.; Aimar, M.; Torre, J. M.; Rovera, G. D.; Abgrall, M.; Uhrich, P.; Sherwood, R.; Herold, G.; Schreiber, U.; Guillemot, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a direct comparison between two satellite time transfer techniques: common-view (CV) of satellites from the global positioning system (GPS) constellation, and time transfer by laser link (T2L2) through the low orbiting satellite Jason-2. We describe briefly both techniques, together with two independent relative calibration campaigns of the links involving four European laboratories. Between the same remote time scale reference points, the mean values of the calibrated differences between GPS CV and T2L2 are below 240 ps, with standard deviations below 500 ps, mostly due to GPS CV. Almost all sample deviations from 0 ns are within the combined uncertainty estimates. Despite the relatively small number of common points obtained, due to the fact that T2L2 is weather dependent, these results provide an unprecedented sub-ns consistency between two independently calibrated microwave and optical satellite time transfer techniques.

  4. Molar Heat Capacity (Cv) for Saturated and Compressed Liquid and Vapor Nitrogen from 65 to 300 K at Pressures to 35 MPa

    PubMed Central

    Magee, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molar heat capacities at constant volume (Cv,) for nitrogen have been measured with an automated adiabatic calorimeter. The temperatures ranged from 65 to 300 K, while pressures were as high as 35 MPa. Calorimetric data were obtained for a total of 276 state conditions on 14 isochores. Extensive results which were obtained in the saturated liquid region (Cv(2) and Cσ) demonstrate the internal consistency of the Cv (ρ,T) data and also show satisfactory agreement with published heat capacity data. The overall uncertainty of the Cv values ranges from 2% in the vapor to 0.5% in the liquid. PMID:28184144

  5. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300°C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475°C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 μT for ALH 84028 and 14-45 μT for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body

  6. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  7. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  8. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  9. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  10. Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

    2008-01-01

    The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits.

  11. Purification and characterisation of multiple forms of polygalacturonase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari) fruit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poorinima; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2008-11-15

    Three multiple forms of polygalacturonase (PG) namely PGI, PGII and PGIII were isolated, purified and characterized from ripe mango (Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari) fruit. Native molecular weights of PGI, PGII and PGIII were found to be 120, 105 and 65kDa, respectively. On SDS-PAGE analysis, PGI was found to be a homodimer of subunit size 60kDa each while those of PGII and PGIII were found to be heterodimers of 70, 35 and 38, 27kDa subunit size each, respectively. Three isoforms of PG differed with respect to the effect of pH, metals, reducing agents and their susceptibility towards heat. PG isoforms also differed with respect to the effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity. PGI and PGIII exhibited inhibition at high substrate concentration while PGII did not. Km for polygalacturonic acid was found to be 0.02% for PGI.

  12. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  13. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations.

  14. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  15. Radical-scavenging activities of new hydroxylated ursane triterpenes from cv. Annurca apples.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Monaco, Pietro; Pacifico, Severina

    2005-07-01

    Two new ursolic acid triterpene derivatives, compounds 2 and 3, have been isolated from cv. Annurca apple fruit, a high-quality apple variety widely cultivated in southern Italy, together with the known 2-oxopomolic acid (1). The new compounds were identified by means of different spectroscopic techniques as 3-epi-2-oxopomolic acid (= (3alpha)-3,19-dihydroxy-2-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid; 2) and (1alpha)-1-hydroxy-3-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 were tested for their radical-scavenging activities with the aid of a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (Fig. 2). All three constituents showed activities similar to that of the reference antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

  16. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation.

  17. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  18. Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.

    PubMed

    De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

    2006-02-17

    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better.

  19. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  20. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development.

  1. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    PubMed

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  2. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  3. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  4. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  5. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  6. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  7. Confirmation By QTL mapping Of The Malus Robusta (Cv. Robusta 5) derived powdery mildew resistance gene Pl1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has made extensive use of Malus robusta cv. Robusta 5 as a source of resistance to fire blight. Robusta 5 has also been used as the source of powdery mildew resistance by other breeding programs and a single locus Pl1 has been associated with this resist...

  8. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  9. Experimental determination of the boundary layer at air-sample inlet positions on the NASA CV 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, S. W.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    Full-scale, in-flight measurements of the boundary-layer thickness, velocity profile, and flow angle have been made at several sample collection stations on the fuselage of the NASA CV 990. These results are given as functions of Mach number, Reynolds number, yaw, and angle of attack.

  10. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  11. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  12. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  13. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  14. The compositional classification of chondrites. V - The Karoonda (CK) group of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallemeyn, G. W.; Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    1991-03-01

    In the Karoonda, or 'CK' group of carbonaceous chondrites, all normal members are metamorphosed and, while some contain shock veins, all exhibit various degrees of blackening due to fine sulfide and magnetite particle dispersions in silicates. The elemental abundance patterns in CK chondrites are similar to those in CO chondrites, and rather more similar to those in CV chondrites; CK refractory siderophile abundances are intermediate between CV and CO levels. The exceptional abundance of CK chondrites in Antarctica is accounted for in light of the fragmentation of the CK parent objects, which produced a greater proportion of small micrometeoroids.

  15. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  16. Evidence for Oxygen-Isotope Exchange in Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions During Fluid-Rock Interaction on the CV Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-08-01

    Plagioclase in chondrules, CAIs and AOAs from the carbonaceous chondrite Kaba (CV3.1) experienced oxygen-isotope exchange with a metasomatic fluid responsible for the formation of magnetite, fayalite and Ca,Fe-rich silicates on the CV parent body.

  17. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  18. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  19. [Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-10-01

    The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  20. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of βp = -52° ± 6° and βs = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  1. Effect of postharvest ultraviolet irradiation on resveratrol and other phenolics of cv. Napoleon table grapes.

    PubMed

    Cantos, E; García-Viguera, C; de Pascual-Teresa, S; Tomás-Barberán, F A

    2000-10-01

    In the skin of cv. Napoleon table grapes, the anthocyanins malvidin 3-glucoside (and its acetyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives), cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-glucoside were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS. In addition, quercetin 3-glucoside and 3-glucuronide, caffeoyltartaric, piceid, and resveratrol were also detected. The content of most phenolics remained quite constant during postharvest refrigerated storage (10 days at 0 degrees C) while the resveratrol derivatives increased 2-fold. Postharvest treatments of grapes with UVC and UVB light induced a large increase in resveratrol derivatives (3- and 2-fold, respectively). This means that a serving of mature Napoleon grapes (200 g) provides approximately 1 mg of resveratrol, which is in the range of the amount supplied by a glass of red wine. This can be increased to 2 or 3 mg of resveratrol per serving in grapes that have been irradiated with UVB or UVC, respectively. These results show that refrigerated storage and UV irradiation of table grapes can be beneficial in terms of increasing the content of potentially health-promoting phenolics.

  2. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    PubMed

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  3. Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. cv Ciherang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya

    2015-09-01

    The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. cv Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.

  4. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  5. The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in CV Velorum

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-20

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.

  6. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  7. Culture treatments for enhancing post-thaw recovery of cryopreserved suspension cells of potato cv. Desiree.

    PubMed

    Sadia, Bushra; Anthony, Paul; Lowe, Kenneth C; Power, J Brian; Davey, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for the cryopreservation of cell suspension cultures of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. An evaluation was made of the effectiveness of different pre-culture and post-thaw treatments on cell growth, as measured by changes in biomass. Cell suspensions were cultured in UM medium supplemented with 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.75 or 1.0 M sucrose prior to cryopreservation. Sucrose-treated cells were harvested from suspension and 0.75 ml packed cell volumes placed in 2 ml capacity polypropylene vials with 0.5 ml of chilled cryoprotectant (glycerol 46.0 g 1(-1), dimethylsulphoxide 39.0 g 1(-1), sucrose 342.0 g 1(-1) proline 5.0 g 1(-1); pH 5.8). Cells were frozen at -0.5 degrees C min(-1) from 0 to -35 degrees C, held at -35 degrees C for 35 min and stored, for 10 days, in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). The most effective pre-treatment, in terms of subsequent post-thaw cell viability as assessed by fluorescein diacetate uptake or triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction, was culture with 0.75 M sucrose. For this treatment, the mean absorbance (490 nm) following triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction was 88% greater (p < 0.05) than control and 59% greater (p < 0.05) for thawed cells also cultured on supporting filter paper discs.

  8. Regulation of Cytokinin Oxidase Activity in Callus Tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern 1

    PubMed Central

    Chatfield, J. Mark; Armstrong, Donald J.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of cytokinin oxidase activity in callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern has been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine-8-14C (i6 Ade-8-14C) to adenine. Solutions of exogenous cytokinins applied directly to the surface of the callus tissues induced relatively rapid increases in cytokinin oxidase activity. The increase in activity was detectable after 1 hour and continued for about 8 hours, reaching values two- to three-fold higher than the controls. The cytokinin-induced increase in cytokinin oxidase activity was inhibited in tissues pretreated with cordycepin or cycloheximide, suggesting that RNA and protein synthesis may be required for the response. Rifampicin and chloramphenicol, at concentrations that inhibited the growth of Great Northern callus tissues, were ineffective in inhibiting the increase in activity. All cytokinin-active compounds tested, including both substrates and nonsubstrates of cytokinin oxidase, were effective in inducing elevated levels of the enzyme in Great Northern callus tissue. The cytokinin-active urea derivative, Thidiazuron, was as effective as any adenine derivative in inducing this response. The addition of Thidiazuron to the reaction volumes used to assay cytokinin oxidase activity resulted in a marked inhibition of the degradation of the labeled i6 Ade-8-14C substrate. On the basis of this result, it is possible that Thidiazuron may serve as a substrate for cytokinin oxidase, but other mechanisms of inhibition have not yet been excluded. PMID:16664650

  9. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax.

  10. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  11. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  12. Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster cv. basilisk.

    PubMed

    Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha cv. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming.

  13. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  14. G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and CV fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua

    2015-09-18

    G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (CV). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson-Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome.

  15. Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum cv

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum cv. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.

  16. Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip cv. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi

    2007-02-01

    The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.

  17. Zinc biofortification improves phytochemicals and amino-acidic profile in Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco.

    PubMed

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Blasco, Begoña; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Ruiz, Juan M

    2017-05-01

    Zn deficiency is currently listed as a major risk factor for human health. Recently, a complimentary solution to mineral malnutrition termed 'biofortification' has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of a Zn-biofortification program on Zn levels, amino acidic profile and the phytochemicals content in an edible leafy vegetable, such as Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. Our results indicate that supplementation of 80-100μM Zn is optimal for maintaining the normal growth of plants and to promote the major Zn concentration in the edible part of B. oleracea. Any further increase of Zn supply induced an accumulation of total amino acids, and increased the enzymatic activities involved in sulfur assimilation and synthesis of phenols, finally resulting in a foliar accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. Thus, it could be proposed that the growth of B. oleracea under 80-100μM Zn may increase the intake of this micronutrient and other beneficial compunds for the human health.

  18. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel

    PubMed Central

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  19. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  20. Copper-mediated oxidative burst in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Raeymaekers, T; Potters, G; Asard, H; Guisez, Y; Horemans, N

    2003-05-01

    In cell suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) a rapid and concentration-dependent accumulation of H(2)O(2) is induced by excess concentrations of copper (up to 100 microM). This specific and early response towards copper stress was shown to be extracellular. Addition of 300 U of catalase per ml decreased the level of H(2)O(2). Superoxide dismutase (5 U/ml) induced an increase in H(2)O(2) production by 22.2%. This indicates that at least part of the H(2)O(2) is produced by dismutation of superoxide. Pretreatment of the cell cultures with the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (2 and 10 microM) and quinacrine (1 and 5 mM) prevented the generation of H(2)O(2) under copper stress for 90%. The influence of the pH on the H(2)O(2) production revealed the possible involvement of cell-wall-dependent peroxidases in the generation of reactive oxygen species after copper stress.

  1. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Guo, Yanping; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-02-15

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  2. Hidden secrets of deformation: Impact-induced compaction within a CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, L. V.; Bland, P. A.; Timms, N. E.; Collins, G. S.; Davison, T. M.; Ciesla, F. J.; Benedix, G. K.; Daly, L.; Trimby, P. W.; Yang, L.; Ringer, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    The CV3 Allende is one of the most extensively studied meteorites in worldwide collections. It is currently classified as S1-essentially unshocked-using the classification scheme of Stöffler et al. (1991), however recent modelling suggests the low porosity observed in Allende indicates the body should have undergone compaction-related deformation. In this study, we detail previously undetected evidence of impact through use of Electron Backscatter Diffraction mapping to identify deformation microstructures in chondrules, AOAs and matrix grains. Our results demonstrate that forsterite-rich chondrules commonly preserve crystal-plastic microstructures (particularly at their margins); that low-angle boundaries in deformed matrix grains of olivine have a preferred orientation; and that disparities in deformation occur between chondrules, surrounding and non-adjacent matrix grains. We find heterogeneous compaction effects present throughout the matrix, consistent with a highly porous initial material. Given the spatial distribution of these crystal-plastic deformation microstructures, we suggest that this is evidence that Allende has undergone impact-induced compaction from an initially heterogeneous and porous parent body. We suggest that current shock classifications (Stöffler et al., 1991) relying upon data from chondrule interiors do not constrain the complete shock history of a sample.

  3. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  4. Molecular properties and activities of tuber proteins from starch potato cv. Kuras.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Malene; Bauw, Guy; Welinder, Karen G

    2006-12-13

    Potato starch production leaves behind a huge amount of juice. This juice is rich in protein, which might be exploited for food, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical applications. In northern Europe cv. Kuras is dominant for industrial starch production, and juice protein of freshly harvested mature tubers was fractionated by Superdex 200 gel filtration. The fractions were subjected to selected activity assays (patatin, peroxidase, glyoxalases I and II, alpha-mannosidase, inhibition of trypsin, Fusarium protease, and alcalase) and protein subunit size determination by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Proteins present in SDS-PAGE bands were identified by tryptic peptide mass fingerprinting. Protein complexes such as ribosomes and proteasomes eluted with the void volume of the gel filtration. Large proteins were enzymes of starch synthesis dominated by starch phosphorylase L-1 (ca. 4% of total protein). Five identified dimeric patatin variants (25%) coeluted with four monomeric lipoxygenase variants (10%) at 97 kDa. Protease inhibitor I variants (4%) at 46 kDa (hexamer) inhibited alcalase. Fourteen Kunitz protease inhibitor variants (30%) at 19 kDa inhibited trypsin and Fusarium protease. Carboxypeptidase inhibitor variants (5%) and defensins (5%) coeluted with phenolics. The native sizes and molecular properties were determined for 43 different potato tuber proteins, several for the first time.

  5. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume III. Dynamic analysis of the cv-3600. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the results of a thorough analysis of the CV-3600 dynamic model that was discussed in Volume II. The purpose of this effort was to determine general engineering details and specifications for coal-fired propulsion systems based on a detailed analysis of a specific propulsion system design. The basis for these specifications included the sensitivity of ship propulsion system response to component parameter and control variations such as grate travel speed and controls, spreader and distributor feed and controls, fan speed and damper controls, steam dump (sizing, control valve characteristics and controls), feedwater pump controls (drum level controls), throttle control, and desuperheater steam attemperation controls. To develop greater insight into the effects of these variations, both open-loop (without control) and closed-loop (with control) versions of the propulsion system were studied. The open and closed-loop responses were further analyzed through the use of linear models and eigenvalue analyses. Specific conclusions regarding desirable trends in component specification are provided as part of the conclusions in this volume.

  6. Cloning, characterization and localization of CHS gene from blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xu; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, a full-length DNA of CHS gene (named as CsCHS-bo) was cloned from the blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby. The gene was 1,512 bp in size containing an open reading frame (1,176 bp) encoding 391 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced protein of CsCHS-bo was highly homologous to CHS from other plant species. The protein of CsCHS-bo had four CHS-specific conserved motifs and a CHS-family signature sequence GFGPG. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein of CsCHS-bo was in a subgroup with CHS of Ruta Palmatum. The CsCHS-bo was localized to the chromosomes 2p, 4p and 6p by an improved fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, indicating that at least three copies of CsCHS-bo were present in the genome.

  7. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  8. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.

  9. I-Xe measurements of CAIs and chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2004-08-01

    I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of CAIs in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.

  10. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.

  11. Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape cv. 'Cardinal'.

    PubMed

    Topalović, Ana; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Knezević, Mirko; Veberic, Robert

    2011-09-28

    The foliar fertilization has been used as an important agrotechnical measure to avoid deficiencies and to improve quality. During the two consecutive years, a study has been performed on Vitis vinifera L. (cv. 'Cardinal') to examine whether a grape berry quality has been affected by the foliar application of PK fertilizer. A liquid mineral fertilizer containing 15% P2O5, 20% K2O with 0.1% B, 0.1% Mn and 0.01% Mo (% w/w) has been sprayed three times at rate of 8 L ha(-1) every 14-15 days starting at about 15 days before veraison. The sugars, organic acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) have been analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography in the grape berries. The foliar fertilization of grapevine can accelerate the accumulation of sugars and anthocyanins, whereas climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence the content of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in general. The effect of fertilizer spraying on flavonols and flavan-3-ols has not been found.

  12. Using MOST to reveal the secrets of the mischievous Wolf-Rayet binary CV Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David-Uraz, Alexandre; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Chené, André-Nicolas; Rowe, Jason F.; Lange, Nicholas; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2012-11-01

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary CV Serpentis (= WR113, WC8d + O8-9IV) has been a source of mystery since it was shown that its atmospheric eclipses change with time over decades, in addition to its sporadic dust production. The first high-precision time-dependent photometric observations obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) space telescope in 2009 show two consecutive eclipses over the 29-d orbit, with varying depths. A subsequent MOST run in 2010 showed a seemingly asymmetric eclipse profile. In order to help make sense of these observations, parallel optical spectroscopy was obtained from the Mont Megantic Observatory (2009, 2010) and from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (2009). Assuming these depth variations are entirely due to electron scattering in a β-law wind, an unprecedented 62 per cent increase in M⊙ is observed over one orbital period. Alternatively, no change in mass-loss rate would be required if a relatively small fraction of the carbon ions in the wind globally recombined and coaggulated to form carbon dust grains. However, it remains a mystery as to how this could occur. There also seems to be evidence for the presence of corotating interaction regions (CIR) in the WR wind: a CIR-like signature is found in the light curves, implying a potential rotation period for the WR star of 1.6 d. Finally, a new circular orbit is derived, along with constraints for the wind collision.

  13. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  14. Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba).

    PubMed

    Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way.

  15. CvL, a lectin from the marine sponge Cliona varians: Isolation, characterization and its effects on pathogenic bacteria and Leishmania promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Fook, Jacy M S L L; Dias, Anny S F; Monteiro, Norberto K V; Ribeiro, Jannisson K C; Moura, Gioconda E D D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Santos, Elizeu A; Sales, Maurício P

    2006-12-01

    CvL, a lectin from the marine sponge Cliona varians was purified by acetone fractionation followed by Sepharose CL 4B affinity chromatography. CvL agglutinated papainized treated human erythrocytes with preference for type A erythrocytes. The lectin was strongly inhibited by monosaccharide d-galactose and disaccharide sucrose. CvL is a tetrameric glycoprotein of 28 kDa subunits linked by disulphide bridges with a molecular mass of 106 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 114 kDa by Sephacryl S300 gel filtration. The lectin was Ca2+ dependent, stable up to 60 degrees C for 60 min, with optimum pH of 7.5. CvL displays a cytotoxic effect on gram positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. However, CvL did not affect gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Leishmania chagasi promastigotes were agglutinated by CvL up to 2(8) titer. These findings are indicative of the physiological defense roles of CvL and its possible use in the antibiosis of bacteria and protozoa pathogenic.

  16. The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the inclusion and meteorite matrices in the Allende CV3 chondrite are described, and the physical and chemical parameters of the conventional equilibrium condensation model of the origin of chondrite meteorites are evaluated. An alternative model of the origin of the mafic constituent of Allende inclusions is presented, on the basis of a new model of chondrule petrogenesis and the physical evolution of the primitive solar nebula. The model shows that the mineral chemistry of the olivine matrix in Allende CV3 seems to preserve a good record of nebular and planetary processes, including: (1) vapor-to-solid condensation under relatively oxidizing nonequilibrium conditions; (2) Fe/Mg equilibration in the meteorite parent body; and (3) recrystallization and incipient melting in the solar nebula.

  17. VibroCV: a computer vision-based vibroarthrography platform with possible application to Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew D; Prahalad, Sampath; Inan, Omer T

    2016-08-01

    Vibroarthrography, a method for interpreting the sounds emitted by a knee during movement, has been studied for several joint disorders since 1902. However, to our knowledge, the usefulness of this method for management of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has not been investigated. To study joint sounds as a possible new biomarker for pediatric cases of JIA we designed and built VibroCV, a platform to capture vibroarthrograms from four accelerometers; electromyograms (EMG) and inertial measurements from four wireless EMG modules; and joint angles from two Sony Eye cameras and six light-emitting diodes with commercially-available off-the-shelf parts and computer vision via OpenCV. This article explains the design of this turn-key platform in detail, and provides a sample recording captured from a pediatric subject.

  18. Split CV mobility at low temperature operation of Ge pFinFETs fabricated with STI first and last processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. V.; Simoen, E.; Agopian, P. G. D.; Martino, J. A.; Mitard, J.; Witters, L.; Langer, R.; Collaert, N.; Thean, A.; Claeys, C.

    2016-11-01

    The effective hole mobility of long strained Ge pFinFETs, fabricated with shallow trench isolation (STI) first and last approaches, is systematically evaluated from room temperature down to 77 K, from planar-like (100 nm) to narrow (20 nm) devices. The goal is to identify the dominant scattering mechanism. Here, the split capacitance-voltage (CV) technique has been applied, based on combined current-voltage (I-V) and CV measurements. It is shown that even at 77 K, the phonon scattering mechanism dominates the STI last process, while the Coulomb scattering strongly affects the STI first approach. On the other hand, the latter shows slightly higher hole mobility compared to the STI last counterpart.

  19. Essential oil composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and their lemon hybrids.

    PubMed

    Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Zappalá, Mario; Condurso, Cettina; Cotroneo, Antonella

    2005-06-15

    In this paper we report the volatile fraction composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and two new lemon hybrids obtained by cross-breeding them with the tetraploid Citrus limon Burm. cv. Cavone. Both parent and hybrid oils were laboratory-extracted from the peel fruits and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Sixty-three components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards. The average composition as single components for all the oils analyzed is reported. Moreover, the data obtained were statistically analyzed. Since limonene is by far the main component of all the essential oils examined, analysis of variance and multivariate analysis gave interesting information on the similarities and differences between the oils analyzed. The new hybrid oils analyzed have potential commercial value because they could be an acceptable alternative to the valuable lemon oil.

  20. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  1. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  2. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  3. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  4. Maniwamycins: new quorum-sensing inhibitors against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 were isolated from Streptomyces sp. TOHO-M025.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Atsushi; Murakami, Chikana; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio

    2016-05-01

    Quorum sensing is an important microbial signaling system that controls the expression of many virulence genes. Maniwamycins C-F, new compounds and quorum-sensing inhibitors, were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. TOHO-M025 using a silica gel column and preparative HPLC. The structures of maniwamycins were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including NMR. The compounds each have an azoxy moiety. All maniwamycins inhibited violacein synthesis, which is controlled by quorum sensing, in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026.

  5. Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is a natural component of sunlight, which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. The nature of the response to UV-B is dependent on fluence rate, dose, duration and wavelength of the UV-B treatment. Some reports have analyzed the changes in gene expression caused by UV-B light on several plant species using microarray technology. However, there is no information on the transcriptome response triggered by UV-B in grapevine. In this paper we investigate the gene expression responses of leaves from in vitro cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants subjected to the same dose of biologically effective UV-B radiation (4.75 kJ m-2 d-1) administered at two different fluence rates (16 h at ≅ 8.25 μW cm-2, 4 h at ≅ 33 μW cm-2) using a new custom made GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip®. Results The number of genes modulated by high fluence rate UV-B doubled the number of genes modulated by low fluence UV-B. Their functional analyses revealed several functional categories commonly regulated by both UV-B treatments as well as categories more specifically modulated depending on UV-B fluence rate. General protective responses, namely the induction of pathways regulating synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds such as the Phenylpropanoid pathway, the induction of different antioxidant defense systems and the activation of pathways commonly associated with pathogen defense and abiotic stress responses seem to play critical roles in grapevine responses against UV-B radiation. Furthermore, high fluence rate UV-B seemed to specifically modulate additional pathways and processes in order to protect grapevine plantlets against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, stop the cell cycle progression, and control protein degradation. On the other hand, low fluence rate UV-B regulated the expression of specific responses in the metabolism of auxin and abscisic acid as well as in the modification of cell walls that could be involved

  6. Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska 12

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (∥) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (⊥), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ∥-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, α-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458

  7. Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1990-04-01

    Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

  8. Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

  9. Radical scavenging activity and phenolic compounds in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan).

    PubMed

    Chen, X N; Fan, J F; Yue, X; Wu, X R; Li, L T

    2008-01-01

    The Mopan persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) is the major cultivar of astringent persimmon in northern China. This study investigates the radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radical, and the content of total and individual phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) with apple, grape, and tomato as controls. The radical scavenging activities against ABTS and DPPH radicals of the Mopan persimmon are 23.575 and 22.597 microm trolox eq/g f.w., respectively. These findings suggest that the Mopan persimmon's antioxidant activity is significantly (P < 0.05) stronger than that of reference materials. The Mopan persimmon showed the highest content of total phenolics among the 4 materials tested. Significant correlations (R(2)= 0.993, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.980, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) are found between the total phenolics and the radical scavenging activities. The total content of these 6 kinds of phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) is significantly correlated (R(2)= 0.831, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.745, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) with the individual radical scavenging activity of the 4 materials, although the total content of the 6 phenolics accounts for no more than 20% of the total phenolics in the Mopan persimmon. Gallic acid exhibits the strongest antioxidant activity in all 6 kinds of phenolics and its content is the largest in the Mopan persimmon, presumably being responsible for its much higher antioxidant activity as compared to apple, grape, and tomato.

  10. Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2010-04-01

    alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing.

  11. Study on powdery mildew resistance transfer from S. cereale L.cv. Weiling rye into wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai Yu; Ren, Zheng Long

    2007-02-01

    Weiling rye (S. cereale L.cv.), a Chinese dwarf rye, confers high powdery mildew (Erysiphe gramininis f.sp.tritici) in China. My8443, a wheat cultivars infecting seriously powdery mildew disease, was used as the female parent and Weiling rye was used as the donor of powdery mildew resistance in the study. A new wheat-rye translocation line,named No.147,was developed from BC2F6 progenies of wheat cultivars My8443 and Weiling rye to transfer the resistance from Weiling rye to common wheat. The powdery mildew resistance of No.147 and its parents were investigated in seedling and adult stages by artificially inoculating the mixture of advanced pathogenic races in room and field and the single pathogenic race in room. Improved Giemsa C-banding technique and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH,Genomic in situ hybridization) were used to identify wheat and rye chromosomes. Acid polyacylamide gel electrophoresis(APAGE) separation of endosperm gliadin and simple sequence repeat(SSR) PCR amplification of 11 SCM-Secale cereale markers also were employed for 1RS confirmation in the study. The results showed that No.147 was a new 1BL/1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocation with high powdery mildew resistance derived from Weiling rye. The reason on the formation of the new wheat-rye chromosome translocation was analyzed. The utilizations of resistance gene resource derived from Chinese Weiling rye and the new 1BL/1RS translocation line in wheat genetics and breeding improvement were discussed in the paper.

  12. Establishment of regeneration and transformation system in Egyptian sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cv Sohag 1.

    PubMed

    Al-Shafeay, Amal F; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Nesiem, Mohamed R; Tawfik, Mohamed S

    2011-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oil crop in many tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, yet has received little attention in applying modern biotechnology in its improvement due to regeneration and transformation difficulties. Here within, we report the successful production of transgenic fertile plants of sesame (cv Sohag 1), after screening several cultivars. Agrobacterium tumefaciens- carrying the pBI121 plasmid {neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPTII) and a β-glucuronidase gene (GUS)} was used in all experiments. Recovery of transgenic sesame shoots was achieved using shoot induction medium (Murashige and Skoog MS basal salt mixture + Gamborg's B5 vitamins + 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 + 30.0 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l agar + 200 mg/l cefotaxime and 25 mg/l kanamycin) and shoots were rooted on MS medium + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 10.0 g/l sucrose and 7.0 g/l agar. Rooted shoots were transplanted into soil and grown to maturity in greenhouse. Incorporation and expression of the GUS gene into T0 sesame plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and GUS histochemical assay. Several factors were found to be important for regeneration and transformation in sesame. The most effective were plant genotype and the addition of AgNO3 for successful recovery of sesame shoots. Co-cultivation time and optical density of the Agrobacterium were also critical for sesame transformation. This work is an attempt to open the door for further genetic improvement of sesame using important agronomic traits.

  13. Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (CV3).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Morris, M. A.; Rai, A.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Johnston, J.; Borkowski, L.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth's atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (CV3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.

  14. Absolute Properties of the Spotted Eclipsing Binary Star CV Boötis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Guillermo; Vaz, Luiz Paulo R.; Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.

    2008-11-01

    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84 day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system, CV Boo. These data, along with other observations from the literature, are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability that we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M A = 1.032 ± 0.013 M sun and R A = 1.262 ± 0.023 R sun for the hotter, larger, and more-massive primary (star A), and M B = 0.968 ± 0.012 M sun and R B = 1.173 ± 0.023 R sun for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 ± 150 K and 5670 ± 150 K, respectively. The intrinsic variability with a period ~1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulation by spots on one or both components. This implies that the spotted star(s) must be rotating faster than the synchronous rate, which disagrees with predictions from current tidal evolution models according to which both stars should be synchronized. We also find that the radius of the secondary is larger than expected from stellar evolution calculations by ~10%, a discrepancy also seen in other (mostly lower-mass and active) eclipsing binaries. We estimate the age of the system to be approximately 9 Gyr. Both components are near the end of their main-sequence phase, and the primary may have started the shell hydrogen-burning stage.

  15. How will climate change influence grapevine cv. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?

    PubMed

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín

    2015-05-01

    While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions.

  16. Structural and functional characterization of proteinase inhibitors from seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118).

    PubMed

    Swathi, Marri; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Kannan, Monica; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2014-10-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (C11PI) from mature dry seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118) were purified by chromatography which resulted in 87-fold purification and 7.9% yield. SDS-PAGE, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrum and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis together resolved that C11PI possessed molecular mass of 8385.682 Da and existed as isoinhibitors. However, several of these isoinhibitors exhibited self association tendency to form small oligomers. All the isoinhibitors resolved in Native-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis showed inhibitory activity against bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as Achaea janata midgut trypsin-like proteases (AjPs), a devastating pest of castor plant. Partial sequences of isoinhibitor (pI 6.0) obtained from MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and N-terminal sequencing showed 100% homology to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs) of leguminous plants. C11PI showed non-competitive inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin. A marginal loss (<15%) in C11PI activity against trypsin at 80 (°)C and basic pH (12.0) was associated with concurrent changes in its far-UV CD spectra. Further, in vitro assays demonstrated that C11PI possessed significant inhibitory potential (IC50 of 78 ng) against AjPs. On the other hand, in vivo leaf coating assays demonstrated that C11PI caused significant mortality rate with concomitant reduction in body weight of both larvae and pupae, prolonged the duration of transition from larva to pupa along with formation of abnormal larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates. Being smaller peptides, it is possible to express C11PI in castor to protect them against its devastating pest A. janata.

  17. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  18. Bioinformatic and expression analysis of the OMT gene family in Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Xiong, Y; Li, D H; Cheng, J; Cao, Y P; Yan, C C; Jin, Q; Sun, N; Cai, Y P; Lin, Y

    2016-09-02

    With high nutritional value in its fruits, Dangshan Su pear has been widely cultivated in China. The stone cell content in fruits is a key factor affecting fruit quality in pear, and the formation of stone cells has been associated with lignin biosynthesis. O-Methyltransferase (OMT) is a key enzyme involved in lignin metabolism within the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we screened 26 OMT genes from the Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su genome using the DNATOOLs software. To characterize the OMT gene family in pear, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and conserved motifs of PbOMTs were analyzed. PbOMTs were divided into two categories, type I (designated PbCCOMTs) and type II (designated PbCOMTs), indicating the differentiation of function during evolution. Based on the analysis of multiple sequence alignment, cis-element prediction, and phylogenetic relationships, two candidate genes, PbCCOMT1 and PbCCOMT3, were selected for the analysis of temporal and spatial gene expression in pear. The promoter regions of both PbCCOMT1 and PbCCOMT3 contain regulatory motifs for lignin synthesis. Moreover, the two genes show high similarity and close phylogenetic relationships with CCOMTs in other species. Expression analysis showed that transcript levels of two PbCCOMTs were positively associated with the contents of both stone cells and lignin during the development of pear fruit. These results suggest that PbCCOMT1 and PbCCOMT3 are closely associated with lignin biosynthesis. These findings will help clarify the function of PbOMTs in lignin metabolism and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying stone cell formation in pear.

  19. Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Prasertsincharoen, Noppadol; Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey; Elliman, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. cv Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. cv Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404

  1. Improved Maturity and Ripeness Classifications of Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis Mangoes through Sensor Fusion of an Electronic Nose and Acoustic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Saad, Fathinul Syahir Ahmad; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of reported studies on the use of non-destructive techniques to evaluate and determine mango maturity and ripeness levels. However, most of these reported works were conducted using single-modality sensing systems, either using an electronic nose, acoustics or other non-destructive measurements. This paper presents the work on the classification of mangoes (Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis) maturity and ripeness levels using fusion of the data of an electronic nose and an acoustic sensor. Three groups of samples each from two different harvesting times (week 7 and week 8) were evaluated by the e-nose and then followed by the acoustic sensor. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to discriminate the mango harvested at week 7 and week 8 based solely on the aroma and volatile gases released from the mangoes. However, when six different groups of different maturity and ripeness levels were combined in one classification analysis, both PCA and LDA were unable to discriminate the age difference of the Harumanis mangoes. Instead of six different groups, only four were observed using the LDA, while PCA showed only two distinct groups. By applying a low level data fusion technique on the e-nose and acoustic data, the classification for maturity and ripeness levels using LDA was improved. However, no significant improvement was observed using PCA with data fusion technique. Further work using a hybrid LDA-Competitive Learning Neural Network was performed to validate the fusion technique and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA-CLNN was also improved significantly when data fusion was applied. PMID:22778629

  2. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV 26.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV26.

  3. Transmission infrared spectra (2-25 μm) of carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, CV-CK, CR, C2 ungrouped): Mineralogy, water, and asteroidal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Garenne, A.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Moynier, F.; Schmitt, B.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, infrared transmission spectra (2-25 μm range, 5000-400 cm-1) of 40 carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed (21 CMs, 5 CVs, 6 CRs, 3 CKs, 3 C2s and 2 CIs). All these meteorite groups are known to have experienced significant aqueous alteration (except the CKs). These IR measurements provide information about the parent body processes experienced, as well as spectra for comparison with observations of Solar System small bodies and possibly with astronomical observations of accretion and debris disks. This study reveals that each meteorite group appears to have specific signatures in the measured IR spectral range. In the case of the CI and CM groups, results show a variability in the shape of the silicate features that can be related to the evolution of the mineralogy with increasing extent of aqueous alteration extent as described by several authors with other techniques. This evolution of the silicate feature can be seen in the variation in the relative intensities of olivine and phyllosilicate IR features. The variability in the silicate features is correlated with the intensity of an -OH related absorption at 3-μm, which can be used for the classification of the meteorites according to the level of hydration. Interestingly, in the case of CM chondrites, for which the mineralogy is expected to be dominated by phyllosilicates (serpentine mostly), the shape of the silicate absorption resembles that of an amorphous silicate, with a broad and symmetric 10-μm band, unlike terrestrial phyllosilicates. The CV and CK groups have IR spectra that are dominated by olivine absorption. From this feature, it is possible to determine average Mg numbers for the olivine. For the CVs, the olivine Mg numbers appear to decrease in the order Kaba-Grosnaja-Vigarano-Mokoia-Allende. This trend is likely related to the long duration of metamorphism experienced by these samples and the chemical re-equilibration between chondritic components. In the case of CK chondrites, the

  4. Construction of a subgenomic CV-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models.

  5. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (cv. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform

    PubMed Central

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-01-01

    Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of cv. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in “Cell part” 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin

  7. Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV)Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation

  8. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  9. Moxibustion Therapy at CV4 Prevents Postoperative Dysuria after Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xue-Mei; Lv, Ling; Lin, Wan-Bing; Liang, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the intervention methods of the patients with dysuria after performing the procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH). Methods. 100 cases with hemorrhoids were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The control group received routine nursing care. As comparison, the experimental group, on the basis of conventional care, was treated with moxa roll moxibustion 1 hour after the operation for 30 minutes. The autonomous urination within 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h after operation and the catheterization rate 8 h after operation of two groups of patients were observed. Results. The median time of autonomous urination of control group (8 h) was significantly greater than that of the experimental group (6 h) (P < 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that the moxibustion therapy was positively correlated with automatic micturition in the patients after PPH. The probability of automatic micturition in the experimental group was 2.032 times that in the control group (RR = 2.032, 95% CI: 1.278~3.230). The catheterization rate of control group (38%) was significantly higher than that of the experimental group (10%) (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The Guanyuan acupoint moxibustion can prevent dysuria after PPH and reduce the urethral catheterization. PMID:24386005

  10. First results of a physicochemical survey of CV3 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions: The refractory trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, J.M.; Jochum, K.P.; Ebel, D.S.

    2005-02-04

    We have physically, mineralogically, and chemically characterized 20 CV3 CAIs. We investigate the Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and their relationships with other refractory trace elements within our suite of CAIs and among the minerals contained in them. Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) offer glimpses into the earliest chemical and physical processes during solar system formation. We have begun a study of the trace element distribution(s) within CV3 CAIs and their constituent minerals to help constrain the chemical environment(s) of their formation and evolution. We have physically, mineralogically, and chemically characterized 20 individual CAIs in thick sections of 3 different CV3 chondrites using 3D tomography, qualitative x-ray mapping, quantitative electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) techniques. The combination of these techniques on individual CAIs will expand our knowledge of the physical and chemical formation conditions of these enigmatic objects. For our initial report, we will focus on the content(s) of the refractory trace elements Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Previous investigations of suites of these elements in bulk Allende refractory inclusions have shown that while there seems to be little Zr/Hf variation from the currently accepted chondritic value of {approx}35, there exist considerable Nb/Ta variations within the same samples. As a whole, this variation is consistent with condensation within in a small temperature range, because Nb oxides are predicted to condense at temperatures very similar (14-40 C) to Tb oxides: suggested that the effect can be explained by efficient condensation of Ta atoms from a gas leaving it enriched in Nb atoms. Here, we investigate the distribution(s) of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and their relationships with other refractory trace elements within our suite of 20 CAIs and among the minerals contained in them.

  11. Melatonin improves muscle function of the dystrophic mdx5Cv mouse, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hibaoui, Youssef; Reutenauer-Patte, Julie; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Ruegg, Urs T; Dorchies, Olivier M

    2011-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked muscle-wasting disease caused by the absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. In addition to abnormal calcium handling, numerous studies point to a crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease. Considering the impressive results provided by antioxidants on dystrophic muscle structure and function, we investigated whether melatonin can protect the mdx(5Cv) mouse, an animal model for DMD. Male mdx(5Cv) mouse pups were treated with melatonin by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (30 mg/kg body weight) or by subcutaneous (s.c.) implant(s) (18 or 54 mg melatonin as Melovine® implants) from 17/18 to 28/29 days of age. Isometric force of the triceps surae was recorded at the end of the treatment. The i.p. treatment increased the phasic twitch tension of mdx(5Cv) mice. The maximal tetanic tension was ameliorated by 18 mg s.c. and 30 mg/kg i.p. treatments. Melatonin caused the dystrophic muscle to contract and relax faster. The force-frequency relationship of melatonin-treated dystrophic mice was shifted to the right. In accordance with improved muscle function, melatonin decreased plasma creatine kinase activity, a marker for muscle injury. Melatonin treatment increased total glutathione content and lowered the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, indicating a better redox status of the muscle. In light of the present investigation, the therapeutic potential of melatonin should be further considered for patients with DMD.

  12. Isolation and structure elucidation of tetrameric procyanidins from unripe apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shohei; Oda, Chihiro; Masuda, Susumu; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2012-11-01

    Procyanidins are plant secondary metabolites widely consumed and known to have various physiological functions, but their bioavailability and mechanism of action are still unclear especially for larger oligomers. One of the reasons is scarce information about the detailed structure of oligomeric procyanidins. As for apple, structures of procyanidin components larger than trimers are scarcely known. In this study, 11 tetrameric procyanidins including two known compounds were isolated from unripe apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) and identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis and phloroglucinol degradation. As a result, the detailed structural diversity of tetrameric procyanidins in apple was established.

  13. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  14. Extremely Na- and Cl-rich chondrule from the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Aléon, J.; Ramon, E. C.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Brearley, A. J.

    2011-09-01

    We report on a study of Al3509, a large Na- and Cl-rich, radially-zoned object from the oxidized CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende. Al3509 consists of fine-grained ferroan olivine, ferroan Al-diopside, nepheline, sodalite, and andradite, and is crosscut by numerous veins of nepheline, sodalite, and ferroan Al-diopside. Some poorly-characterized phases of fine-grained material are also present; these phases contain no significant H 2O. The minerals listed above are commonly found in Allende CAIs and chondrules and are attributed to late-stage iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration of primary high-temperature minerals. Textural observations indicate that Al3509 is an igneous object. However, no residual crystals that might be relicts of pre-existing CAI or chondrule minerals were identified. To establish the levels of 26Al and 36Cl originally present, 26Al- 26Mg and 36Cl- 36S isotopic systematics in sodalite were investigated. Al3509 shows no evidence of radiogenic 26Mg ∗, establishing an upper limit of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio of 3 × 10 -6. All sodalite grains measured show large but variable excesses of 36S, which, however, do not correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratio. If these excesses are due to decay of 36Cl, local redistribution of radiogenic 36S ∗ after 36Cl had decayed is required. The oxygen-isotope pattern in Al3509 is the same as found in secondary minerals resulting from iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration of Allende CAIs and chondrules and in melilite and anorthite of most CAIs in Allende. The oxygen-isotope data suggest that the secondary minerals precipitated from or equilibrated with a fluid of similar oxygen-isotope composition. These observations suggest that the formation of Al3509 and alteration products in CAIs and chondrules in Allende requires a very similar fluid phase, greatly enriched in volatiles (e.g., Na and Cl) and with Δ 17O ˜ -3‰. We infer that internal heating of planetesimals by 26Al would efficiently transfer

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Gogu valley) protein as a novel antimicrobial agent in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Yang, Y X; Choi, J Y; Shinde, P L; Yoon, S Y; Hahn, T-W; Lim, H T; Park, Y; Hahm, K-S; Joo, J W; Chae, B J

    2008-07-01

    A total of 280 weaned pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) were used in a 28-d growth study to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of potato proteins on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune response, small intestinal morphology, and bacterial populations in feces and large intestine. Pigs (initially 6.42 +/- 0.74 kg of BW and 23 +/- 3 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW, each treatment composed of 4 pens, each pen having 14 pigs. Dietary treatments included positive control (PC; basal diet + 150 mg/kg apramycin and 10 mg/ kg colistin sulfate); and potato protein (PP), consisting of the basal diet with 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75% of potato protein. Diets were fed in 2 phases: phase I (d 0 to 14 postweaning) and phase 2 (d 14 to 28 postweaning). Potato protein was extracted from a value-added type of the new potato variety, Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Gogu valley, and was shown to have a minimum inhibitory concentration of 300 to 500 mug/mL. Performance of PC was compared with 0.25 to 0.75% PP, whereas linear and quadratic trends of increasing PP (0 to 0.75% PP) were tested. Over the 28-d trial, pigs fed the PC diets showed improved overall ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P = 0.090) compared with pigs fed PP, whereas increasing levels of PP linearly improved ADG (P < 0.05), ADFI (P = 0.052), and G:F (P = 0.098). The digestibility of DM and CP in both the phases was greater in PC than PP, and feeding of PP linearly improved the DM digestibility (P < 0.05) in phase II. The bacterial populations in the feces of pigs fed PC and PP were comparable, except for total bacteria and coliform bacteria in the feces at d 14 and 28, which were decreased in PC; and feeding of PP was effective in linearly reducing the populations of microbes in feces and contents of cecum, colon, and rectum. There was linear increase (P < 0.10) in skin-fold thickness in response to phytohemagglutinin with an increase in PP levels. Haemagglutinin titers on

  16. Petrology, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of aluminum-rich chondrules from CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Hsu, Weibiao; Li, Xianhua; Li, Qiuli; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Bulk major element composition, petrography, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of twenty Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) from five CV3 chondrites (Northwest Africa [NWA] 989, NWA 2086, NWA 2140, NWA 2697, NWA 3118) and the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite were studied and compared with those of ferromagnesian chondrules and refractory inclusions. Most ARCs are marginally Al-richer than ferromagnesian chondrules with bulk Al2O3 of 10-15 wt%. ARCs are texturally similar to ferromagnesian chondrules, composed primarily of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, spinel, Al-rich glass, and metallic phases. Minerals in ARCs have intermediate compositions. Low-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.6-8.8Wo0.7-9.3) has much higher Al2O3 and TiO2 contents (up to 12.5 and 2.3 wt%, respectively) than that in ferromagnesian chondrules. High-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.3-2.0Wo33-54) contains less Al2O3 and TiO2 than that in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Plagioclase (An77-99Ab1-23) is much more sodic than that in CAIs. Spinel is enriched in moderately volatile element Cr (up to 6.7 wt%) compared to that in CAIs. Al-rich enstatite coexists with anorthite and spinel in a glass-free chondrule, implying that the formation of Al-enstatite was not due to kinetic reasons but is likely due to the high Al2O3/CaO ratio (7.4) of the bulk chondrule. Three ARCs contain relict CAIs. Oxygen isotope compositions of ARCs are also intermediate between those of ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs. They vary from -39.4‰ to 13.9‰ in δ18O and yield a best fit line (slope = 0.88) close to the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line. Chondrules with 5-10 wt% bulk Al2O3 have a slightly more narrow range in δ18O (-32.5 to 5.9‰) along the CCAM line. Except for the ARCs with relict phases, however, most ARCs have oxygen isotope compositions (>-20‰ in δ18O) similar to those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules. ARCs are genetically related to both ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs, but the relationship between ARCs and

  17. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  18. Acute radiation syndrome after endovascular AAA repair.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Saum A; Coyle, Brian W; Vogel, Todd R; Haser, Paul B; Graham, Alan M

    2011-02-01

    Acute radiation syndrome or radiation sickness is a serious illness that occurs after the body receives a high dose of radiation, typically over a short period of time. This condition may be underrecognized by interventionalists and must be considered whenever performing complex endovascular procedures.

  19. Spirit and Reason Reunite at the AAAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A historic session on Native science at the 2003 conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science included discussions about the Indigenous approach to science, the Tribal Environmental and Natural Resources Management program at Northwest Indian College, the need to connect the spiritual element in Indigenous knowledge with…

  20. AAAS Presidential Lecture: Voices from the Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widnall, Sheila E.

    1988-09-01

    The number of white males of college age, who have been the dominant participants in the fields of science and engineering, is predicted to drop significantly in the future. Rapid increases in the participation of women offer some hope of filling anticipated vacancies in the ranks of scientifically trained personnel, although this rapid growth has reached a plateau in many fields. Most studies show that women enter graduate school at about the same rate as men; the dropoff in women's participation occurs sometime before the attainment of the Ph.D. Recent surveys of graduate students indicate that men and women respond differently to the pressures of graduate school and often have a different image of themselves and of their advisers' perceptions of them as graduate students. Some clues from these results may show how the environment can be made more supportive for all students, and for women and minority students in particular.

  1. Evaluating Agent Architectures: Cougaar, Aglets and AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Haack, Jereme N.; Mcgee, David R.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Thomson, Judi R.; Carlos Lucena Alessandro Garcia Alexander Romanovsky, et al

    2003-05-03

    Research and development organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies in order to implement the next generation of advanced applications. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, agent technologies are perceived as an approach that can provide a competitive advantage in the construction of highly sophisticated software systems in a range of application areas. To determine the sophistication, utility, performance, and other critical aspects of such systems, a project was instigated to evaluate three candidate agent toolkits. This paper reports on the outcomes of this evaluation, the knowledge accumulated from carrying out this project, and provides insights into the capabilities of the agent technologies evaluated.

  2. Introducing diagnosis-related groups: is the information system ready?

    PubMed

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG grouping performance. The data was grouped on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and CV for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system.

  3. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  4. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  5. Description of Gas-Phase Ion/Neutral Interactions in Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry: CV Prediction Using Calibration Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, David; Aspenleiter, Julia; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2014-09-01

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled to mass spectrometry is increasingly used in both quantitative analyses of biological samples and as a means of removing background interferences for enhanced selectivity and improved quality of mass spectra. However, DMS separation efficiency using dry inert gases often lacks the required selectivity to achieve baseline separation. Polar gas-phase modifiers such as alcohols are therefore frequently employed to improve selectivity via clustering/declustering processes. The choice of an optimal modifier currently relies on trial and error experiments, making method development a tedious activity. It was the goal of this study to establish a means of CV prediction for compounds using a homologous series of alcohols as gas-phase modifiers. This prediction was based on linear regression of compensation voltages of two calibration runs for the alcohols with the lowest and the highest molecular weights and readily available descriptors such as proton affinity and gas phase acidity of the modifier molecules. All experiments were performed on a commercial quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a DMS device between electrospray ionization source and entrance quadrupole lens. We evaluated our approach using a homologous series of 4-alkylbenzoic acids and a selection of 23 small molecules of high chemical diversity. Predicted CV values typically deviated from the experimentally determined values by less than 0.5 V. Several test compounds changed their ion mobility behavior for the investigated gas phase modifiers (e.g., from type B to type A) and thus could thus not be evaluated.

  6. HS 1023+3900 - a magnetic CV in the period gap with a distinct cyclotron emission line spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, D.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hopp, U.

    1999-03-01

    We report on the discovery by the Hamburg Quasar Survey of a magnetic CV with a pure cyclotron emission line spectrum. With a photometric and spectroscopic period of 167.6 min it is located in the CV period gap. From 91 spectra taken over 1.2 orbital periods we identify the n = 2 and 3 cyclotron harmonics of the main accretion pole with 60 MG as well as the n = 2 and 3 modes of the secondary pole with 68 MG. HS 1023+3900 has not been seen as an X-ray source by ROSAT. The estimated accretion rate is with dot {M} < 3 * 10(-13) Msunyr(-1) at least two orders of magnitude lower than normally observed in polars. The observations of a pure cyclotron spectrum together with a low specific accretion rate (< 10(-3} g cm({-2)) s(-1) ) are consistent with theoretical computations of cyclotron spectra of magnetic white dwarfs based on the so called ``bombardment solution'' by Rousseau et al. ( te{Rou96}) which predict just such behaviour. The location in the period gap is also consistent with an extremely low accretion rate according to standard scenarios for the evolution of CVs. Based on observations at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, Spain and at the Wendelstein Observatory

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Huitao; Lin, Qiang; Ding, Feng; Zhuo, Guoyin; Hu, Songnian; Liu, Dongcheng; Yang, Wenlong; Zhan, Kehui; Zhang, Aimin; Yu, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  8. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils.

  9. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Calinda; Lui, Yan; Whitehouse, Paul; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) completed its system-level space simulation testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered to the next level of integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE), to form OTIS (OTE + ISIM), after concluding a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. During these tests, the complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration following mechanical environmental tests (vibration and acoustics). From one test to the next, shortcomings of the facility were uncovered and associated improvements in operational capabilities and reliability of the facility were required to enable the project to verify system-level requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  11. Interpretation of F106B and CV580 in-flight lightning data and form factor determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T.; Horembala, J.; Eriksen, F. J.; Weigel, H. S.; Elliott, J. R.; Parker, S. L.; Perala, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Two topics of in-flight aircraft/lightning interaction are addressed. The first is the analysis of measured data from the NASA F106B Thunderstorm Research Aircraft and the CV580 research program run by the FAA and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The CV580 data was investigated in a mostly qualitative sense, while the F106B data was subjected to both statistical and quantitative analysis using linear triggered lightning finite difference models. The second main topic is the analysis of field mill data and the calibration of the field mill systems. The calibration of the F106B field mill system was investigated using an improved finite difference model of the aircraft having a spatial resolution of one-quarter meter. The calibration was applied to measured field mill data acquired during the 1985 thunderstorm season. The experimental determination of form factors useful for field mill calibration was also investigated both experimentally and analytically. The experimental effort involved the use of conducting scale models and an electrolytic tank. An analytic technique was developed to aid in the understanding of the experimental results.

  12. Mn-Cr ages and formation conditions of fayalite in CV3 carbonaceous chondrites: Constraints on the accretion ages of chondritic asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, Kaori; Nakamura, Tomoki; Ito, Motoo; Wakita, Shigeru; Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.; Messenger, Scott R.

    2017-02-01

    Chondritic planetesimals are among the first planetary bodies that accreted inside and outside water snow line in the protoplanetary disk. CV3 carbonaceous chondrite parent body accreted relatively small amount of water ice, probably near the snow line, and experienced water-assisted metasomatic alteration that resulted in formation of diverse secondary minerals, including fayalite (Fa80-100). Chemical compositions of the CV3 fayalite and its Mn-Cr isotope systematics indicate that it formed at different temperature (10-300 °C) and fluid pressure (3-300 bars) but within a relatively short period of time. Thermal modeling of the CV3 parent body suggests that it accreted ∼3.2-3.3 Ma after CV3 CAIs formation and had a radius of >110-150 km. The inferred formation age of the CV3 parent body is similar to that of the CM2 chondrite parent body that probably accreted beyond the snow line, but appears to have postdated accretion of the CO and ordinary chondrite parent bodies that most likely formed inside the snow line. The inferred differences in the accretion ages of chondrite parent bodies that formed inside and outside snow line are consistent with planetesimal formation by gravitational/streaming instability.

  13. Magnetite in the unequilibrated CK chondrites: Implications for metamorphism and new insights into the relationship between the CV and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tasha L.; Gross, Juliane; Ivanova, Marina A.; Runyon, Simone E.; Bruck, Andrea M.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk isotopic and elemental compositions of CV and CK chondrites have led to the suggestion that both originate from the same asteroid. It has been argued that magnetite compositions also support this model; however, magnetite has been studied almost exclusively in the equilibrated (type 4-6) CKs. Magnetite in seven unequilibrated CKs analyzed here is enriched in MgO, TiO2, and Al2O3 relative to the equilibrated CKs, suggesting that magnetite compositions are affected by metamorphism. Magnetite in CKs is compositionally distinct from CVs, particularly in abundances of Cr2O3, NiO, and TiO2. Although there are minor similarities between CV and equilibrated CK chondrite magnetite, this is contrary to what we would expect if the CVs and CKs represent a single metamorphic sequence. CV magnetite should resemble CK3 magnetite, as both were metamorphosed to type 3 conditions. Oxygen fugacities and temperatures of CVox and CK chondrites are also difficult to reconcile using existing CV-CK parent body models. Mineral chemistries, which eliminate issues of bulk sample heterogeneity, provide a reliable alternative to techniques that involve a small amount of sample material. CV and CK chondrite magnetite has distinct compositional differences that cannot be explained by metamorphism.

  14. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-01-01

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance. PMID:27775654

  15. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  16. Trace Element Distribution in an Al-rich Chondrule from the Mokoia CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.; Schilk, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied an Al-rich chondrule from Mokoia. SIMS analyses of plagioclase and pyroxene show that the bulk chondrule REE pattern was originally like group II CAIs. The chondrule must have had precursor material that was a condensation product. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Constructing Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents guidelines for constructing group learning activities, describes group learning methods (discussion, gaming, role play, simulation, projects), and provides tips for facilitating group activities. (SK)

  18. Anomalous components of supercooled water expansivity, compressibility, and heat capacity (Cp and Cv) from binary formamide+water solution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguni, M.; Angell, C. A.

    1983-06-01

    Recently reported heat capacity studies of N2H4+H2O and H2O2+H2O solutions, from which an anomalous component of the pure water behavior could be extracted by extrapolation, have been extended to a system NH2CHO+H2O which has the chemical stability needed to permit expansivity and compressibility measurements as well. Data accurate to ±2% for each of these properties as well as for the heat capacity are reported. The expansivity data support almost quantitatively an earlier speculative separation of the bulk and supercooled water expansivity into a ``normal'' (or ``background'') part and an ``anomalous'' part, the latter part fitting a critical law αanom=A(T/Ts-1)-γ with exponent γ=1.0. According to the present analysis, the anomalous part of the expansivity which is always negative, yields Ts in the range 225-228, γ in the range 1.28-1.0, depending on the choice of background extrapolation function. The normal contribution to the heat capacity obtained from the present work is intermediate in character to that from the previous two systems and leads to similar equation parameters. The normal contribution to the compressibility on the other hand is very different from that speculated earlier by Kanno and Angell and approximately verified by Conde et al. for ethanol-water solutions. The background component from the present analysis is ˜50% larger, with the result that the anomalous component, at least when values above 0 °C are included in the analysis, cannot be sensibly fitted to the critical point equation. The possible origin and interest content of these differences is discussed. Combination of the new thermodynamic data permit estimation of Cv values for the solution, and by extrapolation, a normal Cv component for water. The anomalous component of Cv for pure water obtained by difference has the form of a Shottky anomaly in contrast with the corresponding Cp component which diverges.

  19. High precision Al-Mg systematics of forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs from CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Bullock, E. S.; Tenner, T. J.; Nakashima, D.; Kita, N. T.; Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.; Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to further elucidate possible temporal relationships between different varieties of calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we measured the aluminum-magnesium isotopic systematics of seven examples of the rare type known as forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) inclusions from four different CV3 carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Efremovka, NWA 3118, and Vigarano. The primary phases (forsterite, Al-Ti-rich diopside, spinel, melilite, and anorthite) in each inclusion were analyzed in situ using high-precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS). In all cases, minerals with low Al/Mg ratios (all except anorthite) yield well-defined internal Al-Mg isochrons, with a range of initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (5.30 ± 0.22) × 10-5 down to (4.17 ± 0.43) × 10-5. Anorthite in all cases is significantly disturbed relative to the isochrons defined by the other phases in the same CAIs, and in several cases contains no resolved excesses of radiogenic 26Mg (δ26Mg∗) even at 27Al/24Mg ratios greater than 1000. The fact that some FoBs preserve (26Al/27Al)0 of ∼5.2 × 10-5, close to the canonical value of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from bulk magnesium-isotope measurements of CV CAIs (B. Jacobsen et al., 2008), demonstrates that FoBs began forming very early, contemporaneous with other more-refractory CAIs. The range of (26Al/27Al)0 values further shows that FoBs continued to be reprocessed over ∼200,000 years of nebular history, consistent with results obtained for other types of igneous CAIs in CV chondrites. The absence of any correlation between of CAI + FoB formation or reprocessing times with bulk composition or CAI type means that there is no temporal evolutionary sequence between the diverse CAI types. The initial δ26Mg∗ value in the most primitive FoB (SJ101) is significantly lower than the canonical solar system value of -0.040 ± 0.029‰.

  20. Transactivation of progestin- and estrogen-responsive promoters by 19-nor progestins in African Green Monkey Kidney CV1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pasapera, A M; Gutiérrez-Sagal, R; García-Becerra, R; Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Savouret, J F

    2001-12-01

    New and more potent progestins and antiprogestins suitable for reproductive therapy and contraception are currently the target of intensive research. The design of such drugs has been hampered by the complex technology required for screening these compounds at the molecular level. To solve this problem, we developed an in vitro cell system that allows detection of the progestagenic effects of a given compound using a PRE2-TATA-CAT reporter vector transiently introduced in a cell line stably transfected with the rabbit progesterone receptor (PR). The African Green Monkey Kidney CV1 (AGMK-CV1) cell line was chosen because these cells do not express endogenous steroid receptors; the selected clone stably expressing the rabbit PR has been maintained in our laboratory for more than 2 yr without detectable losses in PR content and progestagenic response. The presence and function of the PR were assessed by immunohistochemical and saturation analyses as well as by monitoring transactivation of the PRE2-TATA-CAT reporter gene. In this cell line, the PR is expressed at a concentration of 0.170 fmol/mg of protein, and the receptor is localized within the cell nucleus in either the presence or absence of the potent synthetic progestin R5020. This PR-expressing cell system allowed study of the in vitro progestational activity of several 19-nor progestins. The antiprogestin RU486 inhibited CAT activity induced by R5020; norethisterone (NET), levonorgestrel (LNG), and gestodene (GSD) induced PRE2-TATA-CAT activity at concentrations similar to those of R5020, whereas NET A-ring-reduced metabolites induced CAT activity at an extent lower than (5alpha-NET) or similar (3beta,5alpha-NET) to that of the precursor compound. The PRE2-TATA-CAT induction by 17beta-estradiol was also analyzed and no crossreactivity was detected. However, when the ERE-VitA2-TK-CAT (estrogen-responsive element-vitellogenin A2-thymidine kinase promoter-CAT) reporter vector and the estradiol receptor alpha or

  1. Isolation, identification and sequence analysis of a thioredoxin h gene, a member of subgroup III of h-type Trxs from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Askari).

    PubMed

    Japelaghi, Reza Heidari; Haddad, Raheem; Garoosi, Ghasem-Ali

    2012-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous proteins which play a regulatory role in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to other organisms, plants have a great number of Trx types, consisting of six well-defined groups: f, m, x, and y in chloroplasts, o in mitochondria, and h mainly in cytosol. A full-length cDNA, designated VvCxxS2, encoding Trx h polypeptide was isolated and cloned from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Askari) berries organ by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA was 381 bp nucleotides in length with a deduced amino acid of 126 residues, possessing a WCIPS active site, which belongs to the subgroup III of h-type Trxs based on phylogenetic analysis. The calculated molecular mass and the predicted isoelectric point of the deduced polypeptide are 14.25 kDa and 4.68, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic DNA fragment of VvCxxS2 gene revealed that this gene possesses two introns at positions identical to the previously sequenced Trx h genes. A modeling analysis indicated that VvCxxS2 shares a common structure with other Trxs, and is preferably reduced by Grx rather than NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR). The deduced protein sequence showed a high similarity to Trx h from other plants, in particular from castor bean (Ricinus communis), Betula pendula and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that the transcripts of VvCxxS2 gene are present in all plant organs and different developmental stages. In addition, the higher expression of the VvCxxS2 gene was observed in berry organ as compared to the other organs.

  2. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  3. Canine Circovirus 1 (CaCV-1) and Canine Parvovirus 2 (CPV-2): Recurrent Dual Infections in a Papillon Breeding Colony.

    PubMed

    Thaiwong, T; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of sudden death and bloody diarrhea were reported in March 2013 and February 2014 in a breeding colony of Papillon dogs. During the first outbreak, 1 adult dog and 2 eight-month-old puppies died. During the second outbreak, 2 ten-week-old puppies died. One puppy from the first outbreak and 2 puppies from the second outbreak were examined at necropsy. Histologically, all 3 puppies had severe segmental crypt necrosis of the small intestine and marked lymphoid follicle depletion in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated abundant canine parvovirus (CPV-2) DNA (Ct<15) in the affected small intestine, and immunohistochemistry detected large amounts of CPV-2 antigen in intestinal crypt epithelium and Kupffer cells but few positive macrophages in lymphoid organs. All puppies had marked sinusoidal histiocytosis and multifocal granulomatous inflammation in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, prompting additional RT-PCR testing for canine circovirus 1 (CaCV-1). Very high levels of CaCV-1 DNA (Ct<13) were detected in small intestine, lymph nodes, and spleen. In situ hybridization for CaCV-1 detected rare positive nuclei of regenerating crypt epithelium but abundant amounts of CaCV-1 nucleic acid in the cytoplasm and nuclei of histiocytes in all lymphoid tissues, including granulomatous inflammatory foci and hepatic Kupffer cells. Significant levels of CaCV-1 DNA were detected in blood and serum (Ct as low as 13) but not feces from 3 surviving dogs at 2 months or 1 year after the outbreak, respectively. We hypothesize that CPV-2 infection predisposed dogs to CaCV-1 infection and ultimately resulted in more severe clinical disease.

  4. Petrography and classification of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a detailed, systematic petrographic survey of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite are reported, and a new classification system based on clearly defined and readily applied petrographic criteria is presented. Most Allende inclusions are aggregates containing one or more of three distinct constituents: (1) rimmed concentric objects enriched in Al- and Ti-rich oxide minerals and various amounts of Ca-rich silicates; (2) porous, 'fine-grained' chaotic material enriched in Ca-rich silicates, especially clinopyroxenes and garnets; and (3) porous, 'fine-grained', mafic inclusion matrix, enriched in olivine, pyroxene, and feldspathoids. Two texturally distinct varieties of inclusions consist primarily of inclusion matrix: unrimmed olivine aggregates and rimmed olivine aggregates. Ca, Al-rich inclusions are classified on the basis of the size and abundance of their constituent concentric objects. Some fundamental relationships among Allende inclusions that previusly have not been emphasized are discussed.

  5. Complete genome sequence of a strain of Actinidia virus X detected in Ribes nigrum cv. Baldwin showing unusual symptoms.

    PubMed

    James, Delano; Phelan, James

    2016-02-01

    A Ribes-infecting strain of the potexvirus Actinidia virus X (AVX-RV3124) was isolated from black currant plants (Ribes nigrum cv. Baldwin, accession 3124-03D1) showing symptoms of leaf chlorosis and deformity. This is the first description of the complete genome sequence of an isolate of this virus and the first detection of a potexvirus in Ribes. The genome of AVX-RV3124 consists of 6,888 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly(A) tail at the 3' terminus. When AVX-RV3124 was compared to the available sequence of the AVX isolate in GenBank (accession no. KC568202), two large indel events (72 nt and 33 nt) were identified in the replicase coding region of RV3124. Evidence of recombination was detected upstream of the 3' terminus of the replicase gene of both virus isolates, providing further evidence of a common origin.

  6. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.

    1987-01-01

    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  7. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  8. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism.

  9. Effects of elicitors on the production of resveratrol and viniferins in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Italia.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; Mulinacci, Nadia; Valletta, Alessio; Innocenti, Marzia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2011-09-14

    Methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid and chitosan were tested as elicitors on cell suspension cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cv Italia to investigate their effect on stilbene production. Stilbene accumulation in the callus, grown under nonelicited conditions, was also investigated. Calli and cell suspensions were obtained in a B5 culture medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA and 1 mg L(-1) KIN. Stilbene determination was achieved by HPLC/DAD/MS. Whereas callus biosynthesized only piceid, cell suspensions elicited with jasmonates produced several stilbenes, mainly viniferins. In suspended cells, methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid were the most effective in stimulating stilbene biosynthesis, whereas chitosan was less effective; in fact, the amount of stilbenes obtained with this elicitor was not significantly different from that obtained for the control cells. The maximum production of total stilbenes was at day 20 of culture with 0.970 and 1.023 mg g(-1) DW for MeJA and JA, respectively.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain cv. Nendran in India.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R

    2012-02-01

    The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain cv. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate.

  11. Monitoring melatonin and its isomer in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by UHPLC-MS/MS from grape to bottle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, María Fernanda

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown the presence of melatonin and related compounds in grapes and wines. The latter provides evidence of the possibility to enhance the nutraceutical properties of premium wines. However, there are many external factors that can influence the levels of this indolamine in grape and wines. In this study, the monitoring of melatonin and its tentatively identified isomer was carried out during the entire winemaking process in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Laboratory and pilot studies were carried out to elucidate the role of grape, yeasts, and tryptophan in the evolution of the indolamines during the fermentation process. Melatonin was detected in grape extract within the range 120-160 ng/g while its isomer was found in musts and finished wines. Our results demonstrate that Saccaromyces cervisiae plays a decisive role in contributing to the content of melatonin and its isomer in wine.

  12. Physiological and biochemical responses resulting from nitrite accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1).

    PubMed

    Ezzine, Monia; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

    2006-10-01

    The sensitivity of hydroponically cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1) submitted to nitrite treatments (0.25-10mM KNO(2)) for 7d was studied. Increasing nitrite levels in the culture medium led to several disruptions of tomato plants, reflected by reductions of both dry matter per plant, chlorophyll concentrations and the appearance of chlorosis symptoms at the leaf surface. This behaviour was accompanied by stimulation of nitrite, nitrate and ammonia ion accumulation, mainly in roots and old leaves. Higher proteolytic and gaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC. 1.11.1.7) activities and malonyldialdehyde content were also noted. Protein content of the different plant organs was decreased by nitrite treatment. These physiological and biochemical parameters were chosen as they are stress indicators. Taken together, our data partly explain the harmful effects of nitrite ions, when excessive in the culture medium.

  13. Reliable gate stack and substrate parameter extraction based on C-V measurements for 14 nm node FDSOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, B.; Leroux, C.; Rideau, D.; Haond, M.; Reimbold, G.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2017-02-01

    Effective work function and equivalent oxide thickness are fundamental parameters for technology optimization. In this work, a comprehensive study is done on a large set of FDSOI devices. The extraction of the gate stack parameters is carried out by fitting experimental CV characteristics to quantum simulation, based on self-consistent solution of one dimensional Poisson and Schrodinger equations. A reliable methodology for gate stack parameters is proposed and validated. This study identifies the process modules that impact directly the effective work function from those that only affect the device threshold voltage, due to the device architecture. Moreover, the relative impacts of various process modules on channel thickness and gate oxide thickness are evidenced.

  14. Role of ethrel in causation of floral malformation in mango cv. Amrapali: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2015-01-01

    Floral malformation is a main constraint to reduce fruit yield in mango plants. Recently, we report on the role of putrescine in normalizing the functional morphology of mango flower by reducing various adverse effects of ethylene. Here, ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound, was exogenously applied to mango plant cv Amrapali to evaluate the response of flower development under high level of ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that ethrel treated flowers were observed to progressively be deformed and remain unbloom. The flower buds were not distinguishable and flower parts such as petals, sepals, anther and stigma were not properly developed. The stamen showed fused anther lobes and carpel depicted curved style with pointed stigma. The findings of present study suggest the involvement of ethylene to abort the functional morphology of flower and thereby development of malformation. PMID:25751309

  15. Carotenoid profile, antioxidant capacity, and chromoplasts of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. ´Criolla´) during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Garbanzo, Carolina; Gleichenhagen, Maike; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2017-03-16

    Pigments of pericarp and pulp of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. ´Criolla´) were investigated to elucidate the profile and the accumulation of main carotenoids during four stages of fruit ripening by using HPLC-DAD and APCI-MS/MS analysis. Seventeen carotenoids were identified and changes in their profile during fruit ripening were observed. The carotenoids all-trans-β-carotene, 15-cis-lycopene, and all-trans-lycopene were present in all ripening stages, but all-trans-lycopene was found to be predominant (from 63 % to 92 % of total carotenoids) and responsible for the high lipophilic antioxidant capacity determined by spectrophotometric assays. By using light- and transmission electron microscopy, the development of chromoplasts in pericarp and pulp could be demonstrated. The accumulation of all-trans-lycopene and all-trans-β-carotene coincided with the development of large crystals; the chromoplasts of pink guava belong, therefore, to the crystalline type.

  16. Quality and enhancement of bioactive phenolics in cv. Napoleon table grapes exposed to different postharvest gaseous treatments.

    PubMed

    Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-08-27

    Ten different gaseous treatments were evaluated for their efficacy in the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during 38 days of storage at 0 degrees C followed by 6 days of shelf life at 15 degrees C in air. These storage methods included modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with and without SO(2) or natural fungicides (hexanal and hexenal), two controlled atmospheres (CA), and intermittent and continuous applications of O(3). As a control, air atmosphere during cold storage was used. Most of the treatments applied kept the postharvest quality of the grapes, although the best results were obtained by the use of a MAP with 5 kPa of O(2) plus 15 kPa of CO(2) plus 80 kPa of N(2). The total anthocyanin content at harvest was 170 +/- 19 microg/g of fresh weight (fw) of grapes, which declined in most of the treatments applied and was reflected in the loss of red color. Peonidin 3-glucoside was detected at all sampling times as the major anthocyanin (always >50% from the total content). Treatments applied kept or decreased the total flavonol content from that measured at harvest (17 +/- 1.4 microg/g of fw of berries). However, an increase of up to 2-fold in total stilbenoid content after shelf life for CA and O(3) treatments was observed. At all sampling times for almost every treatment piceid concentration remained unaltered or slightly changed, whereas large increases were observed after shelf life for resveratrol (1.2 +/- 0.6 microg/g of fw of grapes sampled at harvest), even up to 3- and 4-fold for O(3)-treated grapes and 2-fold for CA-treated ones. Therefore, improved techniques for the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during long-term storage seem to maintain or enhance their antioxidant compound content.

  17. Evidence for impact induced pressure gradients on the Allende CV3 parent body: Consequences for fluid and volatile transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Srinivasan, Poorna; Simon, Justin I.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites, such as those associated with the Vigarano (CV) parent body, exhibit a diverse range of oxidative/reduced alteration mineralogy (McSween, 1977). Although fluids are often cited as the medium by which this occurs (Rubin, 2012), a mechanism to explain how this fluid migrates, and why some meteorite subtypes from the same planetary body are more oxidized than others remains elusive. In our study we examined a slab of the well-known Allende (CV3OxA) meteorite. Using several petrological techniques (e.g., Fry's and Flinn) and Computerized Tomography (CT) we discover it exhibits a strong penetrative planar fabric, resulting from strain partitioning among its major components: Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) (64.5%CT) > matrix (21.5%Fry) > chondrules (17.6%CT). In addition to the planar fabric, we found a strong lineation defined by the alignment of the maximum elongation of flattened particles interpreted to have developed by an impact event. The existence of a lineation could either be non-coaxial deformation, or the result of a mechanically heterogeneous target material. In the later case it could have formed due to discontinuous patches of sub-surface ice and/or fabrics developed through prior impact compaction (MacPherson and Krot, 2014), which would have encouraged preferential flow within the target material immediately following the impact, compacting pore spaces. We suggest that structurally controlled movement of alteration fluids in the asteroid parent body along pressure gradients contributed to the formation of secondary minerals, which may have ultimately lead to the different oxidized subtypes.

  18. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas)

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2015-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L−1) and NAA (2 mg L−1) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5–1.5 mg L−1), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L−1 of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L−1), Kin (1.5 mg L−1), NAA (0.5 mg L−1) and TDZ (0.5 mg L−1) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots. PMID:26858569

  19. CvManGO, a method for leveraging computational predictions to improve literature-based Gene Ontology annotations.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Costanzo, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Rama; Cherry, J Michael; Hong, Eurie L

    2012-01-01

    The set of annotations at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) that classifies the cellular function of S. cerevisiae gene products using Gene Ontology (GO) terms has become an important resource for facilitating experimental analysis. In addition to capturing and summarizing experimental results, the structured nature of GO annotations allows for functional comparison across organisms as well as propagation of functional predictions between related gene products. Due to their relevance to many areas of research, ensuring the accuracy and quality of these annotations is a priority at SGD. GO annotations are assigned either manually, by biocurators extracting experimental evidence from the scientific literature, or through automated methods that leverage computational algorithms to predict functional information. Here, we discuss the relationship between literature-based and computationally predicted GO annotations in SGD and extend a strategy whereby comparison of these two types of annotation identifies genes whose annotations need review. Our method, CvManGO (Computational versus Manual GO annotations), pairs literature-based GO annotations with computational GO predictions and evaluates the relationship of the two terms within GO, looking for instances of discrepancy. We found that this method will identify genes that require annotation updates, taking an important step towards finding ways to prioritize literature review. Additionally, we explored factors that may influence the effectiveness of CvManGO in identifying relevant gene targets to find in particular those genes that are missing literature-supported annotations, but our survey found that there are no immediately identifiable criteria by which one could enrich for these under-annotated genes. Finally, we discuss possible ways to improve this strategy, and the applicability of this method to other projects that use the GO for curation. DATABASE URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org.

  20. Growth, fecundity and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene.

    PubMed

    Godfree, Robert C; Woods, Matthew J; Young, Andrew G; Burdon, Jeremy J; Higgins, T J V

    2004-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is an important step in the production and commercialisation of transgenic plants. To date, however, most risk assessment studies have been performed on crop plants, and few have considered the ecological consequences associated with genetic modification of pasture species. In this study we compared the growth, yield, population dynamics and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura (subclover) expressing a nutritive sunflower seed albumin (ssa) gene with the equivalent non-transgenic commercial line in a glasshouse competition trial. Plants were grown in low-fertility soil typical of unimproved native southeastern Australian grasslands. We measured survivorship, seed production rate, seed germination rate, seed weight, dry weight yield and the intrinsic rate of population increase (lambda) of plants grown in mixtures and monocultures over a range of densities (250 to 2000 plants m(-2)), and also determined intragenotypic and intergenotypic competition coefficients for each line. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic plants in any of the measured variables except survivorship; transgenic plants had a significantly lower survival rate than non-transgenic plants when grown at high densities (p<0.01). However, density-dependent effects were observed for all measured variables, and in all models plant density affected the response variables more than the presence of the transgene. Based on these results, we conclude that the ssa gene construct appears to confer no advantage to transgenic T. s. subterraneum cv. Leura growing in mixed or pure swards under the fertility and density regimes examined in the trial. Our data also suggest that transgenic subterranean clover expressing the ssa gene is unlikely to exhibit a competitive advantage over associated non-transgenic commercial cultivars when grown in dense swards in low-fertility pastures.

  1. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  2. Can Groups Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Abram, Percy L.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the work of sixth grade students' creative problem-solving groups, proposing that providing students with specific guidelines about what makes an exemplary group product would improve the character of the discussion and quality of the group product. Student groups did learn as a result of their discussions and creation of group products.…

  3. Small Groups in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suessmuth, Patrick

    1974-01-01

    Small groups can sometimes be difficult to set up and work with properly. A number of tips for small group instruction are divided into seven areas: (1) presenting tasks; (2) group seating; (3) task time; (4) answering questions; (5) teacher's role in observing groups; (6) group noise level patterns; and (7) serial take-ups. (BP)

  4. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  5. Group Time: Building Language at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    This article features energizing and surprising activities for children at group time. In the drawing activity, children are asked to give instructions on how to draw a picture using vocabulary and descriptive language. In the mailbox activity, children will be surprised to discover that they have mail at group time. Mailboxes can be used for…

  6. First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American perennial black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) is an important nursery crop, prized by gardeners and landscapers for its persistent bloom and ease of cultivation. In September 2013 disease symptoms characteristic of downy mildew were observed from multiple plants a...

  7. USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (CV) DISEASE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse CV consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...

  8. Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2012-10-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain.

  9. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  10. FLOYDS Classification of ASASSN-17cu/AT 2017bgp as a Young Type Ia Supernova and ASASSN-17cv/AT 2017bgt as an AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.

    2017-02-01

    We obtained spectra of ASASSN-17cu/AT 2017bgp and ASASSN-17cv/AT 2017bgt (ATel #10113) on 2017 February 23.4 and 23.6 UT, respectively, with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the Las Cumbres Observatory 2-meter telescope on Haleakala, Hawai'i.

  11. Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...

  12. A Modeling Study of the Effects of Vocal Tract Movement Duration and Magnitude on the F2 Trajectory in CV Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Kimberly D.; Bunton, Kate; Story, Brad H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a computational vocal tract model to investigate the relationship of diphthong duration and vocal tract movement magnitude to measures of the F2 trajectory in CV words. Method: Three words ("bough," "boy," and "buy") were simulated on the basis of an adult female vocal tract model, in which…

  13. High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...

  14. Do DEAD-box proteins promote group II intron splicing without unwinding RNA?

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Mark; Tijerina, Pilar; Bhaskaran, Hari; Mohr, Sabine; Yang, Quansheng; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Russell, Rick; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2007-10-12

    The DEAD-box protein Mss116p promotes group II intron splicing in vivo and in vitro. Here we explore two hypotheses for how Mss116p promotes group II intron splicing: by using its RNA unwinding activity to act as an RNA chaperone or by stabilizing RNA folding intermediates. We show that an Mss116p mutant in helicase motif III (SAT/AAA), which was reported to stimulate splicing without unwinding RNA, retains ATP-dependent unwinding activity and promotes unfolding of a structured RNA. Its unwinding activity increases sharply with decreasing duplex length and correlates with group II intron splicing activity in quantitative assays. Additionally, we show that Mss116p can promote ATP-independent RNA unwinding, presumably via single-strand capture, also potentially contributing to DEAD-box protein RNA chaperone activity. Our findings favor the hypothesis that DEAD-box proteins function in group II intron splicing as in other processes by using their unwinding activity to act as RNA chaperones.

  15. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions OverviewWhat is group B strep?Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a ... can develop an infection of the lungs (called pneumonia), bloodstream (called sepsis), or the fluid around the ...

  16. Deep transcriptome-sequencing and proteome analysis of the hydrothermal vent annelid Alvinella pompejana identifies the CvP-bias as a robust measure of eukaryotic thermostability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alvinella pompejana is an annelid worm that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean. Living at a depth of approximately 2500 meters, these worms experience extreme environmental conditions, including high temperature and pressure as well as high levels of sulfide and heavy metals. A. pompejana is one of the most thermotolerant metazoans, making this animal a subject of great interest for studies of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Results In order to complement existing EST resources we performed deep sequencing of the A. pompejana transcriptome. We identified several thousand novel protein-coding transcripts, nearly doubling the sequence data for this annelid. We then performed an extensive survey of previously established prokaryotic thermoadaptation measures to search for global signals of thermoadaptation in A. pompejana in comparison with mesophilic eukaryotes. In an orthologous set of 457 proteins, we found that the best indicator of thermoadaptation was the difference in frequency of charged versus polar residues (CvP-bias), which was highest in A. pompejana. CvP-bias robustly distinguished prokaryotic thermophiles from prokaryotic mesophiles, as well as the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum from mesophilic eukaryotes. Experimental values for thermophilic proteins supported higher CvP-bias as a measure of thermal stability when compared to their mesophilic orthologs. Proteome-wide mean CvP-bias also correlated with the body temperatures of homeothermic birds and mammals. Conclusions Our work extends the transcriptome resources for A. pompejana and identifies the CvP-bias as a robust and widely applicable measure of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Reviewer This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, L. Aravind and Anthony M. Poole. PMID:23324115

  17. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

  18. Comparative Studies of Antioxidant Activities and Nutritional Constituents of Persimmon Juice (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Gapjubaekmok)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Bok; Seo, Woo Duck; Kang, Su Tae; Lim, Jong Woo; Cho, Kye Man

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate antioxidant activities and nutritional components, including phenolic acid, catechin, organic acid, sugar, and amino acid, of persimmon juice from persimmons grown in different regions around Korea. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) exhibits potent antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS, reducing power, and FRAP methods of analysis. The levels of nutritional constituents showed significant differences among all the samples. In particular, tartaric acid, glucose, gallic acid, epicatechin gallate and aspartic acid were observed to be the predominant component for each of their general chemical groups, with total average contents of 1876.51 mg/kg, 62.69 g/kg, 12.73 mg/kg, 208.99 mg/kg, and 31.84 mg/100 g, respectively. Interestingly, persimmons from the Hadong region presented the highest sugar (130.60 g/kg), phenolic acid (42.27 mg/kg), and catechin (527.97 mg/kg) contents in comparison with other regional samples. Moreover, this location exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity with highest total phenolic (298.01 mg GAE/kg) and flavonoid (32.11 mg/kg RE) contents. Our results suggest that strong antioxidant activities of persimmons correlate with high phenolic acid and catechin contents, particularly gallic acid and epicatechin gallate. Additionally, these two compounds may be key factors when considering the useful ingredients of persimmon. PMID:24471076

  19. Comparative Studies of Antioxidant Activities and Nutritional Constituents of Persimmon Juice (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Gapjubaekmok).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Bok; Seo, Woo Duck; Kang, Su Tae; Lim, Jong Woo; Cho, Kye Man

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate antioxidant activities and nutritional components, including phenolic acid, catechin, organic acid, sugar, and amino acid, of persimmon juice from persimmons grown in different regions around Korea. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) exhibits potent antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS, reducing power, and FRAP methods of analysis. The levels of nutritional constituents showed significant differences among all the samples. In particular, tartaric acid, glucose, gallic acid, epicatechin gallate and aspartic acid were observed to be the predominant component for each of their general chemical groups, with total average contents of 1876.51 mg/kg, 62.69 g/kg, 12.73 mg/kg, 208.99 mg/kg, and 31.84 mg/100 g, respectively. Interestingly, persimmons from the Hadong region presented the highest sugar (130.60 g/kg), phenolic acid (42.27 mg/kg), and catechin (527.97 mg/kg) contents in comparison with other regional samples. Moreover, this location exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity with highest total phenolic (298.01 mg GAE/kg) and flavonoid (32.11 mg/kg RE) contents. Our results suggest that strong antioxidant activities of persimmons correlate with high phenolic acid and catechin contents, particularly gallic acid and epicatechin gallate. Additionally, these two compounds may be key factors when considering the useful ingredients of persimmon.

  20. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more