This study examined the effectiveness of secondary school tutoring services in the Chicago Public Schools, Illinois. During school year 2001-2002, researchers surveyed 4,211 students from four Latino plurality high schools. Survey questions addressed tutoring services. Five student focus groups were held at one school. Results indicated that many…
Jaasma, Marjorie A.; Center-Anthony, Linda S.
Analyzes tutoring and other educational programs offered for Southeast Asian refugees at a social service site. Data gathered by observers show the importance of the supportive climate and the teaching occurring during tutoring, English-as-a-Second-Language classes, and informal play. (SLD)
Johnson, Marcia Veal
This study examines the use of student learning polls as indicators of student perceptions for tutoring services for the purpose of continuous improvement planning. As an integral part of the educational reform known as No Child Left Behind, continuous improvement plans must be developed by leadership teams when schools fail to make adequate…
This paper describes a community service learning (CSL) project that helped sixteen Latino/a teacher trainees in the areas of caring, social justice, bias reduction, teaching experience, personal growth, joy, and collaboration. The project was significant because the participants and the children they tutored were all Latinos who had shared…
Grainger, Michael J.
Under the mandates of No Child Left Behind, supplemental educational services (SES) in the form of tutoring are provided to eligible students who attend schools in the 3rd year of program improvement status. A local suburban school district in the southern California currently uses a 3rd party tutoring model to provide tutoring services in both…
Polansky, Susan G.; Andrianoff, Timothy; Bernard, Jaclyn B.; Flores, Ana; Gardocki, Isabel A.; Handerhan, Ryan J.; Park, Jihea; Young, Lisa
This article examines the role of narrative in the learning process of language tutors in a university service-learning course involving collaboration between an institution of higher learning and public high schools in an urban setting. The tutors' personal narrative reflections offer multiple perspectives on interactions of tutors with high…
Chien, Chih-Feng; Liao, Ching-Jung; Walters, Brent G.; Lee, Ching-Yieh
As education has turned towards technology to provide academic support, the incidence of e-tutoring has grown due to decreasing educational budgets and as a potential remedy for the generational digital divide. However, many service-learning e-tutoring studies have focused on tutees' academic achievement and tutors' cognitive development rather…
Olivares-Urueta, Mayra; Williamson, Jon W
Pre-admission factors tend to serve as indicators of student success in health professions educational programs, but less is known about the effects that academic assistance programs have on student success. This study sought to determine whether specific pre-admission factors could help to identify students who may require academic support during their health professions education. This retrospective analysis aimed to identify differences in pre-admission variables between those students requiring tutoring and a matched sample of students who did not require tutoring. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences for dependent variables-age, cumulative GPA (cGPA), science GPA (sGPA), verbal graduate record examination (GRE) score, quantitative GRE score, analytical GRE score and combined GRE score, community college hours, average credit hours per semester, and highest semester credit hour load-across three groups of students who received no tutoring (NT 0 hrs), some tutoring (ST <8 hrs), and more tutoring (MT >8 hrs). Total GRE and average semester hours differentiated NT from ST from MT (p<0.05). A linear regression model with these pre-admission factors found only four of the independent variables to be significant (r2=0.41; p<0.05) in predicting hours of tutoring: quantitative GRE, sGPA, cGPA and average semester hours taken. The combination of lower GRE scores and lighter average semester course load were most predictive of the need for academic assistance as defined by hours of tutoring. While the value of the GRE in admissions processes is generally accepted, the average semester hour load in college can also provide important information regarding academic preparation and the need for tutoring services. PMID:23752233
Morrison, Julie Q.; English, Sarah Baker
This article describes a multiagency initiative to evaluate academic tutoring services by focusing on the processes that contribute to effective program implementation. Community-based tutoring service providers serving students in the Cincinnati Public Schools (OH) partnered to initiate a "Seal of Approval" process for promoting evidence-based…
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Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid
A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…
Bjerke, Annette Hessen; Eriksen, Elisabeta
This article reports on the use of Rasch modelling to develop and validate an instrument measuring self-efficacy in tutoring children in primary mathematics (SETcPM). In response to the literature on teacher efficacy, the 20-item instrument aims to inform teacher educators, and is designed for novice pre-service teachers (nPSTs) preparing to teach…
Mumford, Thomas J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their
Hoff, David J.
This article describes one community-based nonprofit group that provides free tutoring to poor children under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law. Unlike most other tutoring sessions under the law, the one at Erie Neighborhood House, a social-services agency in Chicago, is not happening in a school building or at a corporate tutoring outlet. Those…
Kim, Mikyong Minsun
This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…
Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Bratt, Sharon E.
E-tutoring refers to individualized learning support mediated by Internet technology. While increased demand for tutors has led to a surge in commercial e-tutoring services, volunteer e-tutoring programs for children are rare. To test the viability of volunteer e-tutoring for elementary school students, 10 undergraduate students enrolled in a…
Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Woloshyn, Vera E.; Elliott, Anne
Teacher candidates were tracked to monitor whether their former tutoring experience influenced their experiences as teacher candidates. Through interviews, email and group discussions, participants reflected on their teacher preparation experiences and their orientations to effective reading and writing instruction. At times, teacher candidates…
Deese-Roberts, Susan; Keating, Kathleen
Describes a pilot project at the University of New Mexico library that offered peer tutoring services through the undergraduate learning center to teach students library skills and strategies for successful research. Discusses tutors assisting during other library instruction and future plans for tutors to provide electronic resource assistance in…
The study examined the ODL learners' perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University's (ZOU) Bachelor of Education (Educational Management) research students' experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the…
For nine semesters approximately 100 third through fifth graders have come by bus from their urban impact schools (Anyon, 2005) only a few city blocks away, to the campus of an historic Black university for tutoring. Pairs of university student tutors--typically freshmen, sophomores and juniors from multiple disciplines across campus--accept…
Avner, R. A.
The information in this memo allows the advanced TUTOR author to predict the effect or outcome of any TUTOR statement in a given situation. Each TUTOR lesson consists of an ordered list of TUTOR statements. During use of the lesson, the computer is required to examine portions of this list and to perform operations specified by some or all of the…
Leach-López, Maria A.
Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…
No Child Left Behind has been a boon to entrepreneurial supplemental educational service (SES) providers. Struggling schools must provide supplemental services to students in an effort to boost their achievement. Federal funds pay for much of this extra instruction; states may pick up some of the tab, as well. School systems may purchase…
NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.
Alqadoumi, Omar Mohamed
Previous studies in the field of e-tutoring dealt either with asynchronous tutoring or synchronous conferencing as modes for providing e-tutoring services to English learners. This qualitative research study reports the experiences of Arab ESL tutees with both asynchronous tutoring and synchronous conferencing. It also reports the experiences of…
Sawyers, Darryl Lavell
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and describe the implementation practices being used by school districts to notify and enroll parents into Supplemental Educational Services under No Child Left Behind. Parents participating in choice programs in the school districts of Savannah, Atlanta and Detroit participated in a survey…
Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Liao, Chen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Chen-Feng
To well prepare pre-service teachers for their future teaching, researchers and teacher-educators have been employing information and communication technology to improve pre-service teachers' learning of subject-matter knowledge, pedagogies, classroom-management skills, and so on. This study illustrates a service-learning project we conducted to…
Diskin, Karin S.
Little academic information exists regarding how private for-fee tutors view the business of tutoring and how they serve the needs of their clients. This study examined whether tutors view the provision of education as a fungible commodity driven by a business model or as a value-laden educational service. Using the concepts of globalization and…
Colver, Mitchell; Fry, Trevor
The present study examined undergraduate peer tutoring in three phases. Phase I qualitatively surveyed students' perceptions about the effectiveness of tutoring. Phase II examined the usefulness of promoting regular use of services through a tutoring contract. Phase III utilized an archival, quasi-experimental approach to estimate the effect of…
Herrmann, Beth Ann, Ed.
Intended for volunteers in community literacy programs, one-on-one tutors, or parents who want to support classroom learning, this book presents tutoring ideas, teaching activities, and evaluation suggestions. The book guides tutors as they teach students to become independent learners and shows tutors how to provide support but not "do" the work…
Wood, Charles L.; Mackiewicz, Sara M.; Van Norman, Renee K.; Cooke, Nancy L.
Peer tutoring is an evidence-based strategy used across a wide range of age groups and settings. Teachers may find it challenging to successfully pair students for tutoring because the tutor must be able to evaluate the tutee's response as correct or incorrect. This article describes four examples of electronic devices that prompt tutors to…
Lim, Cher Ping; Cheah, Poh Teen
Provides an account of the perceptions and experiences of preservice teachers on the roles of their tutors in online discussions, based on a study at the National Institute of Education (Singapore). Reports results of a questionnaire survey, focus group interviews, and analyses of the discussion records. (Author/LRW)
This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…
Maximizing student potential requires explicit (yet flexible) guidelines for tutors and advisors. Many tutors enhance student potential by utilizing an effective process known as the "The Tutoring Cycle," which promotes content knowledge and facilitates independent success (MacDonald, 2000). Similarly, when students attend advising sessions in…
Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao
Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)
Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie
The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…
Ventura, Alexandre; Jang, Sunhwa
The private tutoring industry has come forward as the third great sector of education. The common sense representation about private tutoring is changing. The growing search for supplementary educational support services and the technological innovation have created a new paradigm. This paper focuses on one of the most interesting faces of this…
Avner, R. A.; Tenczar, Paul
The TUTOR logic-building language to be used with the PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations) system is explained in this manual. TUTOR is designed to transcend the difficulties of FORTRAN for a computer-based educational system utilizing graphical screen displays. The language consists of about seventy words or "commands" which…
Cone, Richard; And Others
Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…
The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…
Anderson, John R.; Boyle, C. Franklin; Reiser, Brian J.
Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.
Rosberg, Merilee A.
As a direct result of the passage of the America Reads Challenge Act in 1997, Mt. Mercy College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has developed a reading tutor program. The program includes a college credit course and on-site visits by college faculty supervising student tutors. This article includes the rationale for development of a credit course for reading…
Johnson, David L.
After decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive psychology, a number of companies have emerged that offer intelligent tutor system (ITS) soft ware to schools. These systems try to mimic the help that a human tutor would provide to an individual student, something nearly impossible for teachers to accomplish in the…
Anderson, John R.; And Others
Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)
Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)
Anderson, J.R.; Boyle, C.F.; Reiser, B.J.
Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. 19 references, 2 figures.
Anderson, J R; Boyle, C F; Reiser, B J
Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. PMID:17746875
Armstrong, C. J.; Large, J. A.
Describes a microcomputer-based software package, Online Search Tutor (OST), which is designed to teach users online bibliographic searching. Modeled on software previously developed for the European Space Agency Information Retrieval Services (ESA-IRS), OST includes a database of 600 bibliographic records which will simulate actual search…
Ward, Wayne; Cole, Ron; Bolaños, Daniel; Buchenroth-Martin, Cindy; Svirsky, Edward; Weston, Tim
My Science Tutor (MyST) is an intelligent tutoring system designed to improve science learning by elementary school students through conversational dialogs with a virtual science tutor in an interactive multimedia environment. Marni, a lifelike 3-D character, engages individual students in spoken dialogs following classroom investigations using…
While tutoring as a whole has been demonstrated to improve student learning across a variety of subjects and age groups, there is little published evidence for the effectiveness of drop-in tutoring at the undergraduate level. This type of tutoring can be derided as homework help; however, it is clear from this study that students who made use of…
Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Zedadra, Amina
In e-learning systems, tutors have a significant impact on learners' life to increase their knowledge level and to make the learning process more effective. They are characterized by different features. Therefore, identifying tutoring styles is a critical step in understanding the preference of tutors on how to organize and help the learners. In…
Muchanje, Peter N.; Njuguna, Felicita W.; Kalai, Jeremiah M.; Bironga, Sophia M.
The study sought to determine the influence of gender, Teachers Service Commission (TSC) adherence to career progression policy guidelines and tutors' exposure to professional development on career progression of tutors in primary teachers training colleges in Kenya. This study was a descriptive survey with 264 tutors randomly sampled from eight…
Anderson, Linda Brown
Tutoring has long been recognized as superior to group instruction, especially for students with special needs. Tutors can adapt instruction to the learner's pace, learning style and level of understanding. Feedback and correction are immediate. Basic misunderstandings can be quickly identified and corrected. Tutoring also has emotional benefits:…
Hartman, Hope J.
Analyzes factors internal to the tutor and tutee (i.e., cognition, metacognition, and affect) and external to them (e.g., teacher/tutor background knowledge, educational environment, content to be learned, socioeconomic status, family background, and cultural forces) that influence the tutoring process. Suggests a theoretical framework for…
Goodlad, Sinclair, Ed.
This book provides an international, current account of the developments of mentoring and tutoring by students in tertiary and secondary education. Included are research reviews, case studies of mature projects, and ideas for new uses of student tutoring and mentoring. Chapter titles are as follows: "Students as Tutors and Mentors" (Sinclair…
Boswell, James, Jr.
Wisconsin writer Marshal Cook's article, "Training Your Muse: Seven Steps to Creativity," (1986) provides a basis for creative activities which help students in a three-credit tutor training course understand both tutoring and the writing process. In the first activity student tutors are asked to bring in a picture that symbolizes a good tutoring…
Feldman, Robert S.
This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…
Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2013 International Pre-Conference (Lexington, Kentucky, November 3-5, 2013)
Commission for International Adult Education, 2013
The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…
Bailey, Geoffrey K.
Peer tutoring at the postsecondary level has been studied extensively, particularly over the last twenty years. Peer tutoring programs are common across institutional type and size in the United States (Boylan, Bonham, Bliss, & Saxon, 1995; Maxwell, 2001) given students' preferences for tutors who share age and status similarity (Cohen, 1986;…
Siljander, Raymond P.; Reina, Jacqueline A.; Siljander, Roger A.
This book investigates the depth of the illiteracy problem in the United States and the rationale and administration of a literacy-learning program. Based on some of the latest reading research, the authors provide a comprehensive up-to-date look at literacy tutoring. Following an introduction to the illiteracy problem, the book focuses on…
Discusses intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), one application of artificial intelligence to computers used in education. Basic designs of ITSs are described; examples are given including PROUST, GREATERP, and the use of simulation with ITSs; protocol analysis is discussed; and 38 prototype ITSs are listed. (LRW)
Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
The Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) support creation of a novel type of tutors called example-tracing tutors. Unlike other types of ITSs (e.g., model-tracing tutors, constraint-based tutors), example-tracing tutors evaluate student behavior by flexibly comparing it against generalized examples of problem-solving behavior. Example-tracing…
Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean
Presents three tutors' contributions to writing center theory. Shows how writing center theory can be enriched by including tutor voices and perspectives. Discusses the importance of including tutors in the construction of writing center theory. (SG)
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…
Tutoring services often restrict their data collection and analysis practices to publicizing session counts and tutee GPAs. This study suggests that programs that offer writing consultation may enhance their sessions' epistemic power by researching their tutoring staff's instructional choices. After explaining why and describing how a…
ChanLin, Lih-Juan; Lin, Hong-Yen; Lu, Tze-Han
To bridge the digital divide and learning gap among children in remote areas, an online tutoring service has been initiated for after-school learning in remote schools. College students were recruited for the role of teaching and supporting remote learners through online tutoring. This research aimed to study college students' involvement in…
Leddo, John; Kolodziej, James
A Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation (DIITS) has been developed to train Army Infantry squad and fire team leaders skills to perform military operations cooperatively in urban terrain. It integrates distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and thus capitalizes on the strengths of both:…
Peer tutoring is essentially peers teaching each other. Many teachers already incorporate this idea into their classrooms in other curricular areas and appreciate the benefits that come from this type of teaching. Teachers can implement peer tutoring by teaching a small group of students a subject, or using a group that already understands the…
Baker, Ryan S.
The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…
Anderson, John R.; And Others
Research on intelligent tutoring seeks to develop systems for automating education and to explore epistemological issues concerning the nature of the knowledge presented by tutors and how that knowledge can be learned. The ACT theory of skill acquisition and its successor (PUPS--PenUltimate Production System) provides production-system models of…
One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…
Barzilay, Amos; Pople, Harry E., Jr.
SPIRIT is an Intelligent Tutoring System for tutoring probability theory which has evolved through a continuous process of experimentation and tuning. The system manages a unique flexible tutoring style. On one hand, the system may behave as a tutor who mostly observes the student without interference, intervening only when things are really going…
Lundell, Kerth T.; Brown, William E.
A peer tutoring model is described and suggestions for implementing peer tutoring programs are provided. The seven steps in the development of a peer tutoring program are: establishing a need, considering curriculum, assessing, selecting learners, selecting tutors, monitoring, and coordinating. (PHR)
Reiser, Brian J.
The pedagogical strategies of human tutors in problem solving domains are described and the possibility of incorporating these techniques into computerized tutors is examined. GIL (Graphical Instruction in LISP), an intelligent tutoring system for LISP programming, is compared to human tutors teaching the same material in order to identify how the…
Parker, Ellen M.
Two years ago Dr. Sherrie Gott of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory described an avionics troubleshooting tutor being developed under the Basic Job Skills Research Program. The tutor, known as Sherlock, is directed at teaching the diagnostic procedures necessary to investigate complex test equipment used to maintain F-15 fighter aircraft. Since Dr. Gott's presentation in 1987, the tutor has undergone field testing at two Air Force F-15 flying wings. The results of the field test showed that after an average of 20 hours on the tutor, the 16 airmen in the experimental group (who average 28 months of experience) showed significant performance gains when compared to a control group (having a mean experience level of 37 months) who continued participating in the existing on-the-job training program. Troubleshooting performance of the tutored group approached the level of proficiency of highly experienced airmen (averaging approximately 114 months of experience), and these performance gains were confirmed in delayed testing six months following the intervention. The tutor is currently undergoing a hardware and software conversion form a Xerox Lisp environment to a PC-based environment using an object-oriented programming language. Summarized here are the results of the successful field test. The focus is on: (1) the instructional features that contributed to Sherlock's success; and (2) the implementation of these features in the PC-based version of the avionics troubleshooting tutor.
Velasco, Jonathan B.; Stains, Marilyne
It has been established that both tutors and tutees gain from tutoring sessions. However, tutors' benefits may be enhanced or limited depending on the type of behaviours they perform during the tutoring sessions. Although behaviours enhancing both tutor and tutee learning can be promoted by training, generalized tutor training models that are…
Braine, Mary E; Parnell, Jean
There are a variety of arrangements to support pre-registration nursing students whilst they engage with the theoretical and practical elements of their course; these includes academic supervisor and a personal tutor. The personal tutor system is recognized as an effective method of ensuring that each student has access to a wide range of support services and that the individual's academic progress and personal development are monitored by a skilled member of academic staff (Harrison, 1990). However, there is a dearth of studies relating to the role of the personal tutor in nurse education from the students' perspective. This study set out to explore the pre-registration students nurse's experience of personal tutoring at one School of Nursing and Midwifery in a Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the UK. Focus groups and a semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect data from pre-registration nursing participants. Data analysed revealed both positive and negative experiences; most rated their advice and support good with many positive aspects to their personal tutoring expressed however many felt the need for more contact time, more support academically and whilst on clinical placements, and more structured support with their personal development planning. This paper also describes how the study was conducted, the importance that students place on the role, and the need for further research and areas for improvement.
Carnwell, Ros; Baker, Sally-Ann; Bellis, Mike; Murray, Ruth
Educating pre-registration nurses in clinical practice is a global issue. Within different countries problems exist in educating and supervising students in clinical practice and various models of clinical education are employed. In Wales, United Kingdom, this responsibility is divided between mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors. This paper reports on the third phase of a three-phase study in Wales to explore differences between mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors, and how they work together to assist students to integrate theory and practice. Four focus group interviews of National Health Service managers and Higher Education managers (n=22) were conducted. Qualitative content analysis revealed four themes: role characteristics and competencies, role differences, role conflict, and future options. The findings suggest a theory-practice continuum along which mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors occupy different positions. The article explores these different positions and offers suggestions for future role development.
Al kharusi, Dhafra
This paper attempts to provide an answer to the question: What positive impacts does peer tutoring have upon the peer tutors at SQU? It is conducted in the LC Tutorial Centre at Sultan Qaboos University where senior English language students are hired to tutor their peers who are struggling with the language. It sheds light on the peer tutors'…
Matsuda, Noboru; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
SimStudent is a machine-learning agent initially developed to help novice authors to create cognitive tutors without heavy programming. Integrated into an existing suite of software tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT), SimStudent helps authors to create an expert model for a cognitive tutor by tutoring SimStudent on how to solve…
Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; van Velsen, Martin; Popescu, Octav; Demi, Sandra; Ringenberg, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
In 2009, we reported on a new Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) technology, example-tracing tutors, that can be built without programming using the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT). Creating example-tracing tutors was shown to be 4-8 times as cost-effective as estimates for ITS development from the literature. Since 2009, CTAT and its…
Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen
AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…
Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jorg; Nuckles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander
Tutors often have difficulty with accurately assessing a tutee's understanding. However, little is known about whether the professional expertise of tutors influences their assessment accuracy. In this study, the authors examined the accuracy with which 21 teacher tutors and 25 student tutors assessed a tutee's understanding of the human…
Woolf, Beverly; McDonald, David D.
Description of several computerized tutoring systems is organized around types of knowledge any tutor must possess--subject area, student's information, and how to teach and communicate. Data and control structures of Meno-tutor are described to illustrate use of artificial intelligence to model the student, a domain, and teaching strategies. (MBR)
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai
"Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…
Woolf, Beverly Park; Poli, Corrado; Grosse, Ian; Day, Roberta
We have built several multimedia tutors for science and engineering education. This paper discusses Design for Manufacturing tutors and an electronic homework systems used by over 2000 students daily. The engineering tutors instruct students on efficient procedures for designing parts for manufacture. The goal is to support a deeper understanding…
Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis
The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.
Pieters, Jules M., Ed.
This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative ITS" (Kanselaar,…
This guide reports on a project that demonstrated family-based English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) tutoring delivered by volunteer literacy tutors, many of whom were parents with young children. Group members worked together to define the project in terms of the individuals involved in it. Tutors were trained in the context of the project with…
Massaro, Dominic W.; Bosseler, Alexis; Stone, Patrick S.; Connors, Pamela
We have developed computer-assisted speech and language tutors for deaf, hard of hearing, and autistic children. Our language-training program utilizes our computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as the conversational agent, who guides students through a variety of exercises designed to teach vocabulary and grammer, to improve speech articulation, and to develop linguistic and phonological awareness. Baldi is an accurate three-dimensional animated talking head appropriately aligned with either synthesized or natural speech. Baldi has a tongue and palate, which can be displayed by making his skin transparent. Two specific language-training programs have been evaluated to determine if they improve word learning and speech articulation. The results indicate that the programs are effective in teaching receptive and productive language. Advantages of utilizing a computer-animated agent as a language tutor are the popularity of computers and embodied conversational agents with autistic kids, the perpetual availability of the program, and individualized instruction. Students enjoy working with Baldi because he offers extreme patience, he doesn't become angry, tired, or bored, and he is in effect a perpetual teaching machine. The results indicate that the psychology and technology of Baldi holds great promise in language learning and speech therapy. [Work supported by NSF Grant Nos. CDA-9726363 and BCS-9905176 and Public Health Service Grant No. PHS R01 DC00236.
Early in 1984, Logica started an ICAI research contract with MoD (Procurement Executive), which was to be undertaken in collaboration with the technical authority at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern. A prototype system, which has become known as TUTOR, was scheduled for delivery to the client later in 1985. Initially, and for…
Schleyer, G. K.; Langdon, G. S.; James, S.
A peer tutoring scheme has been introduced into the Department of Engineering at the University of Liverpool to help 2nd year undergraduate students tackle conceptual design problems. Conceptual design is an iterative process consisting of a series of generative and evaluative stages, which gradually converge on a preferred conceptual solution.…
Melton, T. R.
A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…
Gardner, L D; Lane, H
In this paper, my personal student Hannah and I narrate an account of aspects of our tutor/student relationship, features of which we consider to have wider relevance to others who occupy similar roles. The decision that we should write about our experience as personal tutor and student was one that emerged rather than was deliberately taken, and that we should write it as an autoethnography similarly became apparent. We had things to say, and wanted to present them in a style that mirrored the multifaceted relationship that developed, and which we continue to cultivate as evidenced by the writing of this piece. We suggest that the roles and relationships explored here extend beyond tutor and student boundaries, and have relevance to nurse and service-user encounters which we demonstrate through the use of particular frameworks for the analysis of our autoethnographic account. We explore these narratives of our relationship by utilizing concepts such as, 'boundaries', 'learning', 'supervision' and 'therapy'. In doing so, a shape of personal tutoring emerges which in turn may serve as a valuable teaching technique within mental health nurse education. PMID:20529185
Gardner, L D; Lane, H
In this paper, my personal student Hannah and I narrate an account of aspects of our tutor/student relationship, features of which we consider to have wider relevance to others who occupy similar roles. The decision that we should write about our experience as personal tutor and student was one that emerged rather than was deliberately taken, and that we should write it as an autoethnography similarly became apparent. We had things to say, and wanted to present them in a style that mirrored the multifaceted relationship that developed, and which we continue to cultivate as evidenced by the writing of this piece. We suggest that the roles and relationships explored here extend beyond tutor and student boundaries, and have relevance to nurse and service-user encounters which we demonstrate through the use of particular frameworks for the analysis of our autoethnographic account. We explore these narratives of our relationship by utilizing concepts such as, 'boundaries', 'learning', 'supervision' and 'therapy'. In doing so, a shape of personal tutoring emerges which in turn may serve as a valuable teaching technique within mental health nurse education.
Person, Natalie; Erkel, Mary; Graesser, Arthur C.
In this study, the Bystander Turing Test (BTT) paradigm is used to determine whether participants rate particular dialog moves in tutoring transcripts to be generated by a computer tutor, AutoTutor, or by a skilled human tutor. Currently, AutoTutor initiates a conversation with the learner by posing a question or presenting a problem for the…
Graesser, Arthur C.
AutoTutor helps students learn by holding a conversation in natural language. AutoTutor is adaptive to the learners' actions, verbal contributions, and in some systems their emotions. Many of AutoTutor's conversation patterns simulate human tutoring, but other patterns implement ideal pedagogies that open the door to computer tutors eclipsing…
One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In
DeFeo, Dayna Jean; Caparas, Fawn
Much scholarship about writing centers addresses benefits to students; this article instead explores the gains inherent in tutoring for the tutors themselves. Using a phenomenological methodology, this study analyzes reflective narratives from eight former writing center tutors in order to identify commonalities in their experiences. Although they…
Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo
The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…
Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…
Berghmans, Inneke; Neckebroeck, Fanny; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien
Peer tutors' behaviour has been stated to have the power to create and increase learning opportunities within peer tutoring programs. However, previous studies have shown that peer tutors struggle to adopt facilitative and constructivist-oriented strategies, as they lean more towards directive and knowledge-telling strategies. This study aims…
... requirements in § 2522.910. (b) Identify the strategies or tools it will use to assess student progress and measure student outcomes; (c) Certify that the tutoring curriculum and pre-service and in-service...
... requirements in § 2522.910. (b) Identify the strategies or tools it will use to assess student progress and measure student outcomes; (c) Certify that the tutoring curriculum and pre-service and in-service...
Combining URRD and other funding sources, the program provides an interstate and interdistrict tutoring service, usually outside of regular school hours, to children of migrant and seasonal farm worker families. The tutoring is done by adult paraprofessionals, many of whom are parents or relatives of the children served. Parents also participate…
Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Heinrich, Carolyn
There is considerable variation in how providers of digital education describe what they do, their services, how students access services, and what is delivered, complicating efforts to accurately assess its impact. We examine program characteristics of digital tutoring providers using rich, longitudinal observational and interview data and then…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
A protocol study investigated whether computer tutors (programs that interactively guide writers while they freewrite with a word processing program) promote or hinder a richer understanding of the composing process. The analysis focused on writers' attitudes toward computer tutors in the invention process. Data were collected by tape recording a…
Blessing, Stephen B.; Gilbert, Stephen B.; Ourada, Stephen; Ritter, Steven
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that employ a model-tracing methodology have consistently shown their effectiveness. However, what evidently makes these tutors effective, the cognitive model embedded within them, has traditionally been difficult to create, requiring great expertise and time, both of which come at a cost. Furthermore, an…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
Harmon, Janis M.; Keehn, Susan; Kenney, Michelle S.
This study examined a reading tutoring program for struggling adolescent readers. The major objectives of the tutoring program were to help struggling adolescent readers develop an understanding of the strategic nature of reading and to encourage these reluctant readers to take control of their reading. The results of the study hold implications…
Chen, Ya-Ting; Chou, Yung-Hsin; Cowan, John
With considerable input from the student voice, the paper centres on a detailed account of the experiences of Western academic, tutoring Eastern students online to develop their critical thinking skills. From their online experiences together as tutor and students, the writers present a considered case for the main emphasis in facilitative online…
Scandura, Joseph M.
Discussion of instructional theory and the teaching-learning process focuses on implementation of the Structural Learning Theory. Topics discussed include learner models and approaches to intelligent tutoring; control mechanisms in information processing systems; human cognition; assessing individual knowledge; and designing intelligent tutors.…
"An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…
Research in the area of knowledge-based tutoring systems (KBTS) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) has great implications for computer applications in education and training. In a KBTS, course material is represented independently of teacher procedures, so that problems and remedial comments can be generated differently for each student. Such…
Haag, Sally B. P.
This two-part handbook is based on 5 years of experience with distance education teaching and learning courses at the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada). The first section, "ABC's for Tutors," looks at the tutor's responsibilities from three viewpoints: the academic duties, the administrative details, and the counselling support needed by…
Hamer, John; Purchase, Helen; Luxton-Reilly, Andrew; Denny, Paul
We report on a study comparing peer feedback with feedback written by tutors on a large, undergraduate software engineering programming class. Feedback generated by peers is generally held to be of lower quality to feedback from experienced tutors, and this study sought to explore the extent and nature of this difference. We looked at how…
Stewart, Jim; And Others
Describes an intelligent tutoring system named MENDEL, including problem GENERATOR, TUTOR, student MODELER, ADVISOR, hypothesis CHECKER, and problem SOLVER. This software may be used by high school or university biology students as a tool for learning concepts and problem-solving strategies in transmission genetics. (YP)
Stenhoff, Donald M.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin
Researchers reviewed 20 articles on peer tutoring research in secondary settings and addressed demographics of tutors and tutees, content areas in which peer tutors were employed, tutor training required for implementing effective tutoring programs, and the effects of peer tutoring on tutee performance. Generally, peer tutoring in secondary…
Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha
CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…
Latham, Annabel; Crockett, Keeley; McLean, David; Edmonds, Bruce
This paper proposes a generic methodology and architecture for developing a novel conversational intelligent tutoring system (CITS) called Oscar that leads a tutoring conversation and dynamically predicts and adapts to a student's learning style. Oscar aims to mimic a human tutor by implicitly modelling the learning style during tutoring, and…
Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt
The authors investigated whether some advantages of tutoring over other instructional methods are due to microadaptation, or, tutors basing their actions on assessments of tutees they develop during tutoring. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, independent variables were shared experience (tutors either worked with the same or a different…
Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos
This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…
Johanek, Cindy; Rickly, Rebecca
Provides examples of four Daedalus Interchange transcripts from writing center staff meetings at Ball State University. Discusses goals for tutor training and rationale and benefits for choosing synchronous conferencing as a tutor-training technique. Presents survey results from tutors who participated in online tutor training, suggesting a…
Hsiao, Ya Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor--tutee pairs of fourth-year secondary school students were created and assigned to one of the two treatments.…
De Smet, M.; Van Keer, H.; Valcke, M.
Cross-age tutors were randomly assigned to one of the three tutor training conditions distinguished for the current study: (1) the labelling experimental condition, characterized by requirements to label their tutor interventions, based on the e-moderating model of Salmon; (2) the non-labelling experimental condition, focusing on tutor's acting…
In this article, the author talks about tutoring and learning. He first discusses the analytical and technical questions about the why, what, when, and how of tutoring. He begins by saying a little bit about why he is involved, interested, and fascinated by the very complex human activity people call tutoring. He argues that tutoring is an…
Swigger, Kathleen; Loveland, Harry
An intelligent tutoring system for the space domain is described. This system was developed on a Xerox 1108 using LOOPS and provides an environment for discovering principles of ground tracks as a direct function of the orbital elements. Some of the more practical design and implementation issues associated with the development of intelligent tutoring systems are examined. Some solutions to the problems and some suggestions for future research are offered.
Gravani, Maria N.; John, Peter D.
The research reported in this paper compares the experiences of twentytwo secondary teachers and twelve university tutors as they embark on a course of a "new" in-service professional development programme in Greece, in relation to adult learning. It harnesses a qualitative methodology and draws upon a set of ideas that cohere under the rubric…
Corrigan, Julie A.
While technology use is becoming ever more ubiquitous in society, there are times when even the most useful of technologies faces non-adoption for a variety of contextual reasons. Educational institutions are increasingly relying on online academic support services such as e-tutoring to balance rising demands for public accountability over…
Sriprakash, Arathi; Proctor, Helen; Hu, Betty
This article explores parents' use of private tutoring services for their primary school children in Sydney, Australia's largest city. Using Bernstein's theories of invisible and visible pedagogies, we look, through the eyes of a small group of middle-class Chinese-background interviewees, at the tensions between certain pedagogic forms associated…
Martens, A.; Bernauer, J.; Illmann, T.; Seitz, A.
Since the beginning of the year 2000 medical students of the University of Ulm are working in their curriculum with the web-based and case-oriented tutoring system "Docs 'n Drugs - The Virtual Polyclinic". The system consists of different subsystems and services. One subsystem is the Training System. It is based on three models: the Tutoring Process Model, the Case Knowledge Model and the Medical Knowledge Model. They describe the tutoring process as a series of nodes and steps, depict the structure of the medical cases, and provide the medical knowledge respectively. Case knowledge and medical knowledge form the expert knowledge of the medical domain. Together with the tutoring process, they build the basis for automatic intelligent tutoring. After giving a deeper insight into the system architecture and the training case structure, an informal evaluation shows a first feedback of the learners. PMID:11825225
Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin
International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…
Katz, Sandra; Albacete, Patricia L.
For some time, it has been clear that students who are tutored generally learn more than students who experience classroom instruction (e.g., Bloom, 1984). Much research has been devoted to identifying features of tutorial dialogue that can explain its effectiveness, so that these features can be simulated in natural-language tutoring systems. One…
Tutor development is an essential part of academic staff development, yet is comparatively under-researched. This article examines what tutors value as most and least important in a program. Using data from more than 300 participants in three years, and using the dimensions or worth, merit and success as an analytical framework, the article…
Nye, Benjamin D.; Morrison, Donald M.; Samei, Borhan
Archived transcripts from tens of millions of online human tutoring sessions potentially contain important knowledge about how online tutors help, or fail to help, students learn. However, without ways of automatically analyzing these large corpora, any knowledge in this data will remain buried. One way to approach this issue is to train an…
Rae, John; Baillie, Aubrey
"Peer tutoring" refers to a variety of ways in which learning takes place through interaction with peers. This paper describes the development of a module (called Peer Assisted Learning and the Study of Psychology) through which third-year psychology undergraduates participate as peer tutors in a foundation-level module on study skills for…
Much research has been conducted in the area of teacher professional identity in the past decades. Nonetheless, very little attention has been paid to the professional identity of tutors in distance education. Using interviews, this study set out to investigate distance tutors' claimed and assigned professional identities, their actual, ought and…
Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Joao, Pedro F. N.; Vaidya, Binod
Intelligent tutoring systems are any computer systems encompassing interactive applications with some intelligence that support and facilitate the teaching-learning process. The intelligence of these systems is the ability to adapt to each student throughout his/her learning process. This paper presents an intelligent tutoring system, called…
Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European…
Moreale, Emanuela; Vargas-Vera, Maria
This paper outlines an e-Learning services architecture offering semantic-based services to students and tutors, in particular ways to browse and obtain information through web services. Services could include registration, authentication, tutoring systems, smart question answering for students' queries, automated marking systems and a student…
Sottilare, Robert A.; Proctor, Michael
It has been long recognized that successful human tutors are capable of adapting instruction to mitigate barriers (e.g., withdrawal or frustration) to learning during the one-to-one tutoring process. A significant part of the success of human tutors is based on their perception of student affect (e.g., mood or emotions). To at least match the…
This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…
Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle
In this study, we quantitatively analyze the discourse of experienced writing center tutors in 10 highly satisfactory conferences. Specifically, we analyze tutors' instruction, cognitive scaffolding, and motivational scaffolding, all tutoring strategies identified in prior research from other disciplines as educationally effective. We find…
This paper discusses the benefits of mentoring and tutoring for prospective teachers. Section 1 examines the general benefits of mentoring and tutoring for the mentors and tutors. The benefits include greater tolerance and empathy for individuals and groups in society, greater social awareness, better communication skills, greater self-confidence,…
Over the past 3 years, a variety of studies in intelligent tutoring system (ITS) effectiveness have been conducted. A summary is provided of the research into the use of POSIT, MALM, and the Mobile Subscriber Remote-Telephone Terminal (MSRT) Tutor. POSIT is an ITS for the tutoring of whole-number subtraction. It assumes that the learning of a…
Twenty primary-aged students with learning disabilities were tutored by nondisabled students in grades 3-6. Tutored students' performance on single-digit addition facts improved compared to a no-treatment control group. There were no significant differences between two tutoring procedures: a counting-on approach and a rote-memorization approach.…
Vick, Nicholas; Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Kite, Valerie
Tutoring is an important form of academic support for developmental education students. A comparison study was conducted to investigate the benefits of tutoring on the final grades for developmental English students who participated in tutoring versus those students who did not. The final grades for three consecutive semesters were analyzed to…
Wu, Hang; Miller, L. Keith
We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring…
The Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS) was designed and developed to support the growing trend of Java programming around the world. JITS is an advanced web-based personalized tutoring system that is unique in several ways. Most programming Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS,…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"ClassWide Peer Tutoring" ("CWPT") is a peer-assisted instructional strategy designed to be integrated with most existing reading curricula. This approach provides students with increased opportunities to practice reading skills by asking questions and receiving immediate feedback from a peer tutor. Pairs of students take turns tutoring each other…
... secondary schools. (c) Work experience. (1) Work experience shall be conducted consistent with the... services as counseling, mentoring, or tutoring. (f) Classroom training. Classroom training provided...
Hughes, Carolyn; And Others
This curriculum is designed for a high school course in which nondisabled students receive training and act as peer tutors and role models for peers with special needs for one class period each day. An introductory course description covers peer tutor qualifications and requirements, examples of activities with peers, and benefits to peer tutors.…
Marieswari, M.; Prema, N.
The peer who teaches to their mates is peer tutoring. It is a common instructional strategy used in classrooms. The aim of this study is to know whether there is any improvement in achievement marks of tutors and tutees after the process of peer tutoring. Class VIII students were selected as the sample for the present experimental study. The…
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
In the present study cross-age peer tutoring was implemented in a higher education context. Fourth-year students (N=39) operated as online tutors to support freshmen in discussing cases and solving authentic problems. This study contributes to a better understanding of the supportive interventions of tutors in asynchronous discussion groups. Peer…
MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.
Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…
Robertson, S J; Dereus, D M; Drabman, R S
Eighteen second-grade children initially received feedback in the form of nonredeemable tokens for reducing their disruptive classroom behavior. Four types of tutoring were then introduced in a Latin Square Design: noncontingent tutoring from fifth-grade peers, contingent peer tutoring, noncontingent college tutoring, and contingent college tutoring. No significant difference was found in the level of disruptive behavior of those children tutored by fifth-grade peers or college students, but contingent tutoring was significantly effective in reducing disruptive classroom behavior.
Myneni, Lakshman Sundeep
Students in middle school science classes have difficulty mastering physics concepts such as energy and work, taught in the context of simple machines. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics often remain unchanged after completing a science class. To address this problem, I developed an intelligent tutoring system, called the Virtual Physics System (ViPS), which coaches students through problem solving with one class of simple machines, pulley systems. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching simple machines, and includes innovations in three areas. (1) It employs a teaching strategy that focuses on highlighting links among concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by students. (2) Concepts are taught through a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting) and simulations. (3) For each student, the system identifies which misconceptions he or she has, from a common set of student misconceptions gathered from domain experts, and tailors tutoring to match the correct line of scientific reasoning regarding the misconceptions. ViPS was implemented as a platform on which students can design and simulate pulley system experiments, integrated with a constraint-based tutor that intervenes when students make errors during problem solving to teach them and to help them. ViPS has a web-based client-server architecture, and has been implemented using Java technologies. ViPS is different from existing physics simulations and tutoring systems due to several original features. (1). It is the first system to integrate a simulation based virtual experimentation platform with an intelligent tutoring component. (2) It uses a novel approach, based on Bayesian networks, to help students construct correct pulley systems for experimental simulation. (3) It identifies student misconceptions based on a novel decision tree applied to student pretest scores, and tailors tutoring to
Natanovich, Gloria; Eden, Dov
Students who supervised other students who tutored grade-school pupils in a university-based outreach program were randomly assigned to Pygmalion and control conditions. Experimental supervisors were told that their tutors were ideally qualified for their tutoring role; control supervisors were told nothing about their tutors' qualifications. A manipulation check revealed that the experimental supervisors expected more of their tutors. Analysis of variance of tutorial success measures confirmed the Pygmalion effect among supervisors of both sexes. No main effect or interaction involving either supervisor sex or tutor sex was significant. As predicted, the experimental supervisors also provided better leadership and the experimental tutors increased their self-efficacy. This was the first demonstration of the Pygmalion effect among women leading men. Pygmalion effects may be produced without regard for sex. PMID:19025254
Natanovich, Gloria; Eden, Dov
Students who supervised other students who tutored grade-school pupils in a university-based outreach program were randomly assigned to Pygmalion and control conditions. Experimental supervisors were told that their tutors were ideally qualified for their tutoring role; control supervisors were told nothing about their tutors' qualifications. A manipulation check revealed that the experimental supervisors expected more of their tutors. Analysis of variance of tutorial success measures confirmed the Pygmalion effect among supervisors of both sexes. No main effect or interaction involving either supervisor sex or tutor sex was significant. As predicted, the experimental supervisors also provided better leadership and the experimental tutors increased their self-efficacy. This was the first demonstration of the Pygmalion effect among women leading men. Pygmalion effects may be produced without regard for sex.
The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System (CLIPSITS) is designed to be used to learn CLIPS, the C-language Integrated Production System expert system shell developed by the Software Technology Branch at Johnson Space Center. The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. This version of CLIPSITS is compatible with the Version 4.2 and 4.3 CLIPS User's Guide. However, the program does not cover any new features of CLIPS v4.3 that were added since the release of v4.2. The chapter numbers in the CLIPS User's Guide correspond directly with the lesson numbers in CLIPSITS. Each lesson in the program contains anywhere from 1 to 10 problems. Most of these have multiple parts. The student is given a subset of these problems from each lesson to work. The actual number of problems presented depends on how well the student masters the previous problem(s). The progression through these lessons is maintained in a personalized file under the student's name. As with most computer languages, there is usually more than one way to solve a problem. CLIPSITS attempts to be as flexible as possible and to allow as many correct solutions as possible. CLIPSITS gives the student the option of setting his/her own colors for the screen interface and the option of redefining special keystroke combinations used within the program. CLIPSITS requires an IBM PC compatible with 640K RAM and optional 2 or 3 button mouse. A 286- or 386-based machine is preferable. Performance will be somewhat slower on an XT class machine. The program must be installed on a hard disk with 825 KB space available. The program was developed in 1989. The standard distribution media is three 5.25" IBM PC DOS format
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; De Wever, Bram; Valcke, Martin
This study was conducted in an authentic university setting with fourth-year Educational Sciences' students operating as online peer tutors to facilitate freshman tutees' online collaboration and knowledge construction in a blended "Instructional Sciences" course. Taking into account prior research uncovering weaknesses in online peer tutor…
Green, Sarah Elizabeth; Smith, Thomas
The goal of the overall study was to evaluate the potential of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout, one-to-one tutoring program, to increase mathematics achievement among low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap by enabling them to achieve at the level of their higher-performing peers in the regular mathematics…
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; McGavock, K.; Conlin, N.
Background: Large-scale randomised controlled trials are relatively rare in education. The present study approximates to, but is not exactly, a randomised controlled trial. It was an attempt to scale up previous small peer tutoring projects, while investing only modestly in continuing professional development for teachers. Purpose: A two-year…
Baudendistel, Stephen; Hua, Grace
The interface between an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and the person being tutored is critical to the success of the learning process. If the interface to the ITS is confusing or non-supportive of the tutored domain, the effectiveness of the instruction will be diminished or lost entirely. Consequently, the interface to an ITS should be highly integrated with the domain to provide a robust and semantically rich learning environment. In building an ITS for ZetaLISP on a LISP Machine, a Desktop Interface was designed to support a programming learning environment. Using the bitmapped display, windows, and mouse, three desktops were designed to support self-study and tutoring of ZetaLISP. Through organization, well-defined boundaries, and domain support facilities, the desktops provide substantial flexibility and power for the student and facilitate learning ZetaLISP programming while screening the student from the complex LISP Machine environment. The student can concentrate on learning ZetaLISP programming and not on how to operate the interface or a LISP Machine.
Describes a visual tutoring system for programming distributive-memory multiprocessor networks. Highlights include difficulties of parallel programming, and three instructional modes in the system, including a hypertext-like lecture, a question-answer mode, and an expert aid mode. (Author/LRW)
Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle
Writing center tutors know that improving writing skills requires sustained effort over a long period of time. They also know that motivation--the drive to actively invest in sustained effort toward a goal--is essential for writing improvement. Because motivation can direct attention toward particular tasks and increase both effort and…
Lewandowski, Lawrence; Begeny, John; Rogers, Cynthia
The effects of tutor- or computer-assisted word recognition were assessed in a sample of third grade children. At pre-test, students' reading accuracy and fluency were evaluated on a training word list, generalization word list, and reading passages. Students were then randomly assigned to one of three group conditions--control (students practiced…
Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary
The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…
A review of BioTutor which is software to accompany the third edition of Neil Campbell's textbook, "Biology," is provided. The review includes a brief description of the software and a discussion of good and bad features of the software. In the closing words, the reviewer expresses a considerable amount of concern regarding the quality of this…
Hooper, Helen; Walker, Margaret
A survey of 23 establishments found 16 were still very active in using the Makaton peer tutoring method and reported that the method had not only contributed to an increase in communication and the effectiveness of interactions, but had also resulted in increased self-esteem, confidence, and assertiveness. (Contains references.) (CR)
Zaidin, M. Arifin
The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between aspects of tutor and the students' basic writing outcomes of the Elementary School Teacher Education at the Distance Learning Program Unit, Open University of Palu. This is ex post facto correlation with the population research of 387 people and the total sample of 100 people. This…
This document is a copy of a talk regularly given to new volunteers of English in Action, a community-based organization that provides conversation practice to non-native English speakers. The volunteer tutors typically have no formal English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) training. This packet is designed to help these volunteers be effective ESL…
With assistance from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, a new breed of ITS for technical training and complex problem-solving has hit the market to provide students and trainees with the decision-making skills necessary to succeed to the next level. The Task Tutor Toolkit (T3), developed by Stottler Henke Associates, Inc., of San Mateo, California, is a generic tutoring system shell and scenario authoring tool that emulates expert instructors and lowers the cost and difficulty of creating scenario-based ITS for technical training. The functionality of Stottler Henke Associates T3 far exceeds that of traditional computer-based training systems, which test factual recall and narrow skills by prompting students to answer multiple-choice or fill-inthe- blank questions. The T3, on the contrary, lets students assess situations, generate solutions, make decisions, and carry out actions in realistically complex scenarios.At the beginning of each scenario, the T3 tutoring system presents a briefing that describes the situation and the goals the students should pursue. Each scenario contains a solution template that specifies a partially-ordered sequence of action patterns that match correct sequences of student actions. During each scenario, the built-in simulator notifies the tutoring system of each student action. The T3 uses this information to evaluate the student action by comparing it with the scenario s solution template and with error rules that detect incorrect actions.
Stump, Sheryl L.
An undergraduate seminar was designed to help preservice teachers focus on students' learning. Preservice teachers planned and conducted weekly tutoring sessions with fourth graders and discussed their experiences in weekly discussions. The author investigated what preservice teachers learned about teaching mathematics from their focus on…
Franceschetti, Donald R.
AutoTutor is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in which students can learn a variety of subjects through conversation in natural language with a software agent. The agent appears as a face on the screen, with a synthesized voice, and responds to typed input from the student. Student understanding is modeled from student responses, which are matched to high quality essay responses and known misconceptions and bad answers using one of several computational linguistic techniques. With ONR and NSF support a version of AutoTutor covering Newtonian dynamics at the level of Hewitt's Conceptual Physics has been developed and extensively tested. As a byproduct of this work, several thousand student responses to a small number of conceptual physics questions have been collated and mined for misconceptions. Recent work has allowed a comparison of latent semantic analysis and inverse word frequency measures of text match with expert answers. Some results from this process will be presented along with a demonstration of AutoTutor-Physics at work.
Kopp, Kristopher J.; Britt, M. Anne; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.
The current studies investigated the efficient use of dialogue in intelligent tutoring systems that use natural language interaction. Such dialogues can be relatively time-consuming. This work addresses the question of how much dialogue is needed to produce significant learning gains. In Experiment 1, a full dialogue condition and a read-only…
Schmoelz, Alexander; Swertz, Christian; Forstner, Alexandra; Barberi, Alessandro
This contribution looks at the Intelligent Tutoring Interface for Technology Enhanced Learning, which integrates multistage-learning and inquiry-based learning in an adaptive e-learning system. Based on a common pedagogical ontology, adaptive e-learning systems can be enabled to recommend learning objects and activities, which follow inquiry-based…
In an attempt to respond to confusion about--or resistance to--the tutoring requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, the U.S. Department of Education issued guidance outlining what it expects states and school districts to do in supplying the help to needy children. This nonregulatory guidance clarifies the roles of states and school…
Greenwood, C R; Dinwiddie, G; Bailey, V; Carta, J J; Dorsey, D; Kohler, F W; Nelson, C; Rotholz, D; Schulte, D
We conducted a large-scale field replication study of classwide peer tutoring applied to spelling instruction (Greenwood, Delquadri, & Hall, 1984). Two hundred and eleven inner-city students in four schools participated during their first- and second-grade school years. The effects of classwide peer tutoring were compared to teacher instructional procedures and pretest probes using a group replication design (Barlow, Hayes, & Nelson, 1984). Analysis of group and individual results indicated that (a) both teacher instructional procedures and classwide peer tutoring were effective in increasing spelling performance above pretest levels, (b) peer tutoring produced statistically greater gains relative to the teachers' procedures for both low and high student groups formed on pretest levels, (c) these outcomes were representative of groups, classes, individuals, and years during the project, and (d) participant satisfaction with the program was generally high. A separate analysis of the social importance of treatment outcome revealed differential findings for low and high groups related to pretest levels. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:3610894
Dvorak, Johanna; Roessger, Kevin
This study investigated the attitudes of peer tutors who received web conferencing training in preparation for synchronous online tutoring. A quasi-experimental design was employed to evaluate changes in peer tutors' attitudes toward distance learning following participation in an online tutor training program. Peer tutors were found to have: (a)…
A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…
Private tutoring is a phenomenon that has escaped the attention of researchers, educational planners, and decision makers. Very little is known about its scope, scale, and effects on pupils' achievement and equality of opportunities. Because of its size in a number of countries, and due to it nature--that of a private service oriented at improving…
This study was designed to describe the main changes in the role and work of nurse tutors brought about by Project 2000 initiatives, with a view to exploring what the work of nurse tutors would be in the future. It was centred upon two demonstration Project 2000 districts, chosen to provide contrasts. Data were collected over a 15-month period from a range of stake-holders, but with the priority on nurse tutors themselves, using semi-structured individual and group interviews. The results showed that, in future, the role and work of nurse tutors would adapt to reflect the integration into a higher educational environment. The main changes expected include: alternative approaches to teaching and learning, for example student-centred teaching and open modes of study; greater subject specialization; more teaching across 'schools'; larger class involvement; more effective educational organization and management; closer liaison with the service provider units; and more effective time management. The study found that nurse tutors would be required to diversify their work through new initiatives, to undertake consultancy and research and to compete more for resources--developments which were not universally welcomed. PMID:8708256
Luckhardt-Redfield, Carol A.
Artificial Intelligence has been used in many space applications. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have only recently been developed for assisting training of space operations and skills. An ITS at Southwest Research Institute is described as an example of an ITS application for space operations, specifically, training console operations at mission control. A distinction is made between critical skills and knowledge versus routine skills. Other ITSs for space are also discussed and future training requirements and potential ITS solutions are described.
Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.
Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual
Good, Annalee G.; Burch, Patricia Ellen; Stewart, Mary S.; Acosta, Rudy; Heinrich, Carolyn
Background/Context: Under supplemental educational services ("supplemental services"), a parental choice provision of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), schools that have not made adequate yearly progress in increasing student achievement are required to offer low-income families free, afterschool tutoring. Existing research shows low…
Garcia, Juanita C.
The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…
Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat
The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Suraweera, Pramuditha
Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and…
As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…
Private supplementary tutoring has long been a major phenomenon in parts of East Asia, including Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. In recent times it has grown dramatically in other parts of Asia and in Africa, Europe and North America. The factors underlying the growth of private tutoring vary, but in all settings it has major…
Ostrow, Korinn S.
My research is rooted in improving K-12 educational practice using motivational facets made possible through adaptive tutoring systems. In an attempt to isolate best practices within the science of learning, I conduct randomized controlled trials within ASSISTments, an online adaptive tutoring system that provides assistance and assessment to…
Intended for the experienced TUTOR author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for some of the restrictions on commands, this summary does not discuss the fine details of the TUTOR language. Brief descriptions of the purpose and the tag are provided for each command. The commands are grouped in nine categories: calculating (C),…
Intended for the experienced TUTOR author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for some of the restrictions on commands, this summary does not discuss the fine details of the TUTOR language. Brief descriptions of the purpose and the tag are provided for each command. The commands are grouped in nine categories: calculating (C),…
This summary presents features of the uTUTOR programming language. Intended for the experienced author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for some of the restrictions on commands, it does not discuss fine details of the uTUTOR language. Topics covered are: (1) calculating, including operations and symbols, system functions,…
This article reports on a study of the perspectives of new tutors teaching traditional vocational trades who recently commenced teaching in the Institutes of Technologies and Polytechnics (ITPs) sector in New Zealand. The perspectives are collated from questionnaires and interviews of 13 tutors, from five ITPs, who have been teaching full-time for…
Topping, K. J.; Miller, D.; Murray, P.; Henderson, S.; Fortuna, C.; Conlin, N.
Background: Large-scale randomised controlled trials (RCT) are relatively rare in education. The present study was an attempt to scale up previous small peer tutoring projects, while investing only modestly in continuing professional development for teachers. Purpose: A two-year RCT of peer tutoring in mathematics was undertaken in one local…
Stankov, Slavomir; Rosic, Marko; Zitko, Branko; Grubisic, Ani
Special classes of asynchronous e-learning systems are the intelligent tutoring systems which represent an advanced learning and teaching environment adaptable to individual student's characteristics. Authoring shells have an environment that enables development of the intelligent tutoring systems. In this paper we present, in entirety, for the…
Bromme, Rainer; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Jucks, Regina
Tutors often fail to address learners' misconceptions. Although this may indicate a failure to grasp these misconceptions, it may simply be due to a wish to be polite and save the learner's face. In this study we examined whether instructing tutors about the pitfalls of politeness could increase the clarity and precision of their tutorial…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan
SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…
Sutherland, Kathryn A.
University students often serve as tutors who supplement the lecture-based teaching of permanent academic staff. However, potential issues arise when student tutors are employed with similar expectations of expertise and experience as the industry professionals and permanent staff they teach alongside. Arguably, successful and sustainable…
Iserbyt, Peter; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel
This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17-19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and…
Gijselaers, Wim H.; Nuy, Herman
This study, which took place in Maastricht (Netherlands), examined whether motivation affects the reliability of students' ratings about tutor behavior and whether different types of students have different expectations about tutor behavior. Four types of motivation were measured: intrinsic, extrinsic, and achievement motivation, and fear of…
Wolz, Ursula; And Others
Discusses tutoring and consulting functions in interactive computer environments. Tutoring strategies are considered, the expert model and the user model are described, and GENIE (Generated Informative Explanations)--an answer generating system for the Berkeley Unix Mail system--is explained as an example of an automated consulting system. (33…
Whetstone, Patti; Clark, Amy; Flake, Mari Wheeler
This study explores elementary teacher perceptions related to the implementation of an online tutoring program. Teachers were surveyed regarding factors that affected use of the online tutoring program as a supplement to mathematics instruction. Results indicated that teachers overwhelmingly reported positive views of the training and support…
Nelson-Royes, Andrea M.
In this article the author suggests that tutoring has helped students to become more organized, self-assured, and proficient at identifying relationships between ideas. Successful tutoring requires: (1) at least one attentive adult who has the time to speak with students about academic matters, personal problems, and the importance of performing…
Minnesota Literacy Council, St. Paul.
This manual was designed to help prepare volunteer tutors to teach English as a Second Language (ESL). An introductory section outlines the role and responsibilities of the volunteer tutor and provides information on tax deductions for volunteers. Subsequent sections provide practical information on varied aspects of ESL instruction, including:…
Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.
Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…
McAllister, Elizabeth A.
A study investigated the efficacy of using the neurological impress method in peer tutoring during reading instruction. The neurological impress reading method is a unison reading procedure in which the student and teacher or tutor read aloud simultaneously and quickly, with the student placed slightly in front of the teacher so that the teacher's…
Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili
A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…
This commentary reconsiders the description and assessment of the design and implementation of "German Tutor," an Intelligent Language Tutoring System (ILTS) for learners of German as a foreign language, published in 2001. Based on our experience over the past 15 years with the design and real classroom use of an ILTS, we address a…
Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the…
This paper reports on a student-created and facilitated peer-tutoring activity to assist first-year students in preparing for their final exam in an introductory information technology course. Tutors at the CIS Sandbox, a collaborative learning lab at an American university, offered a series of "Crunch Sessions" to their peers. This…
Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu
Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…
Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.
This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…
Kupzyk, Sara S.
This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…
The Learning Resource Center at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, provides tutoring laboratories that are required for developmental reading, writing, and math courses. This article reviews the processes used to plan and determine the effectiveness of the tutoring laboratories, including logic models, student learning outcomes, and the results of…
Pon-Barry, Heather; Clark, Brady; Schultz, Karl; Bratt, Elizabeth Owen; Peters, Stanley; Haley, David
In this paper we describe the ways that SCoT, a Spoken Conversational Tutor, uses flexible and adaptive planning as well as multimodal task modeling to support the contextualization of learning in reflective dialogues. Past research on human tutoring has shown reflective discussions (discussions occurring after problem-solving) to be effective in…
Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993 for analysis, this paper finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for both primary students and lower secondary students, and the trend to…
Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa
The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…
Petto, Christine M.
A European history professor who was once a discipline-specific writing tutor finds that she is now more actively involved in "teaching" writing to non-majors and majors. Her responsibilities as a discipline-specific tutor entailed some possible steps: upon beginning a tutorial session, she might only brainstorm with the student various ways to…
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Sussex, Roland; Khan, Asaduzzaman
Private tutoring in English (PT-E), a special and important subclass of private tutoring (PT), is a common phenomenon in ESL/EFL education in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, it has received little attention in TESOL, applied linguistics, or language education research. This article investigates the nature and practice of PT-E in a…
Buhagiar, Michael A.
A group of students studying to become mathematics teachers were asked to comment on the tutor feedback they received during teaching practice (TP) and to offer suggestions aimed at improving this feedback. Analysis of the written data--which was collected through emails--suggests the need for: (i) all TP tutors to provide good quality feedback;…
This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Peer Tutoring and Response Groups" aims to improve the language and achievement of English language learners by pairing or grouping students to work on a task. The students may be grouped by age or ability (English-only, bilingual, or limited English proficient) or the groups may be mixed. Both peer tutoring pairs and peer response groups…
Vavreck, Sarah; Esposito, Judy
The focus of this paper is on responses from fifth grade peer tutors who were trained to use child-centered play therapy language during tutoring sessions with kindergarteners. The focus of this project was to identify academic and social/emotional benefits of participating in the program. Results indicated that participation in the program…
Morgan, M. C.
This paper presents 10 techniques for tutoring college-level writing students on word processors. Good teaching and tutoring techniques enable writers rather than simply demand compliance. A good technique: must not rely on a fancy word processing program; will take advantage of the basic word processing functions; will ask that the writer do…
Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.
Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…
Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Jucks, Regina
Although tutoring is very effective, tutors often neglect certain strategies such as direct negative feedback. This might be because they want to avoid threatening their tutee's face. The concept of face derives from politeness theory and refers to the aspects of autonomy and social appreciation people claim for themselves and strive to negotiate…
This article presents three related evaluation studies looking at the effectiveness on achievement and motivation of Reading Together, a cross-age peer-tutoring reading program. The effects on tutees, tutors, teachers, and parents were monitored. The advantages of Reading Together began to accrue during the second and third phases of the program.…
Lassegard, James P.
International students often require extracurricular assistance upon arrival in the host country. Many universities operate programs pairing international and domestic students for academic and adjustment assistance. The tutor system operating at Japanese national universities has similar objectives. Although the literature has highlighted several…
Rabow, Jerome; Chin, Tiffani; Fahimian, Nima
This manual encourages students to act as volunteer tutors. Chapter 1, "Attitudes, Anxieties, and Expectations," discusses normal fears and anxieties and unconditional acceptance. Chapter 2, "Building Relationships," looks at making connections, building trust, motivating students to learn, going beyond academics, and establishing boundaries.…
Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…
Casey, Laura Baylot; Williamson, Robert
We trained parents to tutor their child through implementing a repeated reading procedure designed to increase oral reading fluency. Our study was conducted over a two-week winter break at the homes of the parent and child. Baseline data for each child were collected using curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to determine an instructional reading…
Miller, John C.
Addressed to adults working in a tutorial capacity with young people engaged in the process of vocational preparation, this manual offers ideas, poses issues, and describes skills and tasks that will help tutors to develop their work with students--either on their own or through staff development programs. The aims of vocational preparation,…
Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina; Segara, Reuben
Effective self-reflection is a key component of excellent teaching. We describe the types of self-reflection identified in tutors' reflective statements following a peer observation of teaching exercise. We used an adapted version of the categories developed by Grushka, McLeod and Reynolds in 2005 to code text from 20 written statements as…
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
This study explores cross-age peers' tutoring behavior to support freshmen collaborating online. The study fits in with the need to inquire into the process of peer facilitation in CSCL-environments and focuses on types of peer support and on the evolution over time. The study was conducted with 19 pairs of fourth-year students, each tutoring one…
Kohn, Liberty L.
Writing centers can be staffed wholly or partially by tutors with little training in science writing. This article suggests that an emphasis on scientific rhetoric, not content, may be most useful for training tutors and developing handouts and checklists to aid novice science writers in invention and revision. The article also suggests that a…
Xu, Wei; Zhao, Ke; Li, Yatao; Yi, Zhenzhen
Determining how to provide good tutoring functions is an important research direction of intelligent tutoring systems. In this study, the authors develop an intelligent tutoring system with good tutoring functions, called "FUDAOWANG." The research domain that FUDAOWANG treats is junior middle school mathematics, which belongs to the objective…
Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Schatschneider, Christopher; Silverman, Eden
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of a tutoring intervention provided by community tutors to kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties. The 73 students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) tutoring 4 days a week, (b) tutoring 2 days a week, or (c) a control condition that provided…
Roll, Ido; Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
The present research investigated whether immediate metacognitive feedback on students' help-seeking errors can help students acquire better help-seeking skills. The Help Tutor, an intelligent tutor agent for help seeking, was integrated into a commercial tutoring system for geometry, the Geometry Cognitive Tutor. Study 1, with 58 students, found…
Mitchell, Rebekkah J.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Feinauer, Erika; Wilcox, Brad; Black, Sharon
A quasi-experimental study examined some effects of cross-age tutoring on fourth grade tutors' and second grade tutees' ability to spell accurately and correct errors on their own rough drafts. Half of the participating tutors were trained in tutoring skills; half were not. All participants were given pre- and post-assessments. On dictated writing…
Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng
Newtonian mechanics is a core module in technology courses, but is difficult for many students to learn. Computerized tutoring can assist the teachers to provide individualized instruction. This article presents the application of decision theory to develop a tutoring system, "iTutor", to select optimal tutoring actions under uncertainty of…
Thot, Iris Dolores
The author of this article describes the various aspects of her job as the Modern Language Tutor Coordinator at Santa Monica College. The author writes that, in general, her days consist of wearing a number of different hats each day, including that of budget and payroll administrator, grant writer, tutor screener, tutor trainer, tutor employer,…
Ragonis, Noa; Hazzan, Orit
This article presents a tutor-centered tutoring model that aims to develop and establish the pedagogical-disciplinary knowledge and skills of prospective teachers. The tutoring model and the research that accompanied its implementation are presented. The tutor-tutee pairs worked for two five-session cycles for two semesters, enabling prospective…
Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney K.; Craig, Scotty D.; Witherspoon, Amy; Sullins, Jeremiah; McDaniel, Bethany; Gholson, Barry
Relations between emotions (affect states) and learning have recently been explored in the context of AutoTutor. AutoTutor is a tutoring system on the Internet that helps learners construct answers to difficult questions by interacting with them in natural language. AutoTutor has an animated conversation agent and a dialog management facility that…
Kumar, Amruth N.
Researchers and educators have been developing tutors to help students learn by solving problems. The tutors vary in their ability to generate problems, generate answers, grade student answers, and provide feedback. At one end of the spectrum are tutors that depend on hand-coded problems, answers, and feedback. These tutors can be expected to be…
Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey
Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…
Green, Susan K.; Alderman, Gary; Liechty, Adam
This study examined the effect on at-risk second graders of twice weekly peer-tutoring: sessions with repeated readings combined with once per week tutoring by a college student. The college student addressed onsets and rimes appearing in errors made by the second graders during peer tutoring and noted by the peer tutors. The authors monitored…
Ellis, J S; Hobson, R S; Waterhouse, P J; Meechan, J G; Hogg, S D; Whitworth, J M; Thomason, J M
All Higher Education Institutions in the UK are now required to provide transcripts of student activity and outcomes of summative assessments. In addition, the student should be able to reflect on their learning and plan their own development. This article reports on the staff evaluation of the use of a reflective portfolio facilitating the production of highly individualised personal development plans within an existing tutor system. A number of significant issues are highlighted; tutor systems adopting this approach must maintain flexibility for managing student crises when they arise, the difference between appraisal and assessment needs clear definition for both students and tutors, training in basic mentoring skills should be provided for all tutors, tutors should be aware of the difficulties many students experience with reflection and also be alert to the over reflective learner. PMID:17038014
Robertson, S J; Dereus, D M; Drabman, R S
Eighteen second-grade children initially received feedback in the form of nonredeemable tokens for reducing their disruptive classroom behavior. Four types of tutoring were then introduced in a Latin Square Design: noncontingent tutoring from fifth-grade peers, contingent peer tutoring, noncontingent college tutoring, and contingent college tutoring. No significant difference was found in the level of disruptive behavior of those children tutored by fifth-grade peers or college students, but contingent tutoring was significantly effective in reducing disruptive classroom behavior. PMID:16795520
Fink, Pamela K.
Two intelligent tutoring systems were developed. These tutoring systems are being used to study the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems in training high performance tasks and the interrelationship of high performance and cognitive tasks. The two tutoring systems, referred to as the Console Operations Tutors, were built using the same basic approach to the design of an intelligent tutoring system. This design approach allowed researchers to more rapidly implement the cognitively based tutor, the OMS Leak Detect Tutor, by using the foundation of code generated in the development of the high performance based tutor, the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK). It is believed that the approach can be further generalized to develop a generic intelligent tutoring system implementation tool.
As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.
Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.; Buehlman, J. D.; Middlecamp, C. H.
The Peer Mentor Tutor (PMT) program in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Physics Department matches upper level undergraduate physics majors in small groups with students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with their gateway introductory non-calculus physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. The program enhances students'learning and confidence by providing an emphasis on problem solving, a supportive environment for asking questions, and opportunities for acquiring missing math skills. The students assisted include, among others, returning adults, students of color,students with English as a second language, and students who have never taken physics in high school. The tutors acquire teaching and leadership experience with ongoing training throughout the year. The Physics PMT program is run in collaboration with a similar program in Chemistry. The peer model is also being applied to other science courses at the University of Wisconsin. We will describe the structure of the Physics PMT program and our current efforts to expand the program into a broader Physics Learning Center that may serve multiple purposes and courses.
Background While Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) has long occurred informally in medical education, in the past ten years, there has been increasing international interest in formally organised PAL, with many benefits for both the students and institutions. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to establish why and how PAL has been implemented, focussing on the recruitment and training process for peer tutors, the benefits for peer tutors, and the competency of peer tutors. Method A literature search was conducted in three electronic databases. Selection of titles and abstracts were made based on pre-determined eligibility criteria. We utilized the ‘AMEE Peer assisted learning: a planning and implementation framework: AMEE Guide no. 30’ to assist us in establishing the review aims in a systematic review of the literature between 2002 and 2012. Six key questions were developed and used in our analysis of particular aspects of PAL programs within medical degree programs. Results We found nineteen articles that satisfied our inclusion criteria. The PAL activities fell into three broad categories of teacher training, peer teaching and peer assessment. Variability was found in the reporting of tutor recruitment and training processes, tutor outcomes, and tutor competencies. Conclusion Results from this review suggest that there are many perceived learning benefits for student tutors. However, there were mixed results regarding the accuracy of peer assessment and feedback, and no substantial evidence to conclude that participation as a peer tutor improves one’s own examination performance. Further research into PAL in medicine is required if we are to better understand the relative impact and benefits for student tutors. PMID:24912500
Gott, Sherrie P.
A series of intelligent tutoring systems, or intelligent maintenance simulators, is being developed based on expert and novice problem solving data. A graded series of authentic troubleshooting problems provides the curriculum, and adaptive instructional treatments foster active learning in trainees who engage in extensive fault isolation practice and thus in conditionalizing what they know. A proof of concept training study involving human tutoring was conducted as a precursor to the computer tutors to assess this integrated, problem based approach to task analysis and instruction. Statistically significant improvements in apprentice technicians' troubleshooting efficiency were achieved after approximately six hours of training.
Holmes, Willard M.
A special structure is examined for evolving a detached model of the user of an intelligent tutoring system. Tutoring is used in the context of education and training devices. A detached approach to populating the student model data structure is examined in the context of the need for time dependent reasoning about what the student knows about a particular concept in the domain of interest. This approach, to generating a data structure for the student model, allows an inference engine separate from the tutoring strategy determination to be used. This methodology has advantages in environments requiring real-time operation.
Tutoring services, known in the federal No Child Left Behind Act as "supplemental services," arguably represent the federal government's largest free-market experiment in education. In the rush to capture market share, more than 1,000 tutoring providers have signed up for the program. But market uncertainty, combined with differences in how school…
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Pickering, Brad
HyperCard is a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to databases and other applications, and CLIPS is a highly portable government-owned expert system shell. We developed HyperCLIPS in order to fill a gap in the U.S. Army's computer-based instruction tool set; it was conceived as a development environment for building adaptive practical exercises for subject-matter problem-solving, though it is not limited to this approach to tutoring. Once HyperCLIPS was developed, we set out to implement a practical exercise prototype using HyperCLIPS in order to demonstrate the following concepts: learning can be facilitated by doing; student performance evaluation can be done in real-time; and the problems in a practical exercise can be adapted to the individual student's knowledge.
Roper, L. David
Discusses the conduct of an introductory biophysics course with a personalized instruction by using tutors selected from the students themselves. Included are three tables of text contents, a sample of a terminal questionnaire, and a list of biophysics references. (CC)
Describes three tutoring centers--two in churches, one in an office building--where adults from the community provide voluntary after-school help to children from Chicago's disadvantaged Cabrini Green housing project. (SJL)
McDonald, James C.
Uses Frankenstein's monster as an analogy for understanding the relationship of student, teacher, and literary work in an academic community, and the difficult role of the tutor in helping to make the relationship work. (PRA)
Jones, Patricia M.
The design, implementation, and evaluation of an Operator Function Model intelligent tutoring system (OFMTutor) is presented. OFMTutor is intended to provide intelligent tutoring in the context of complex dynamic systems for which an operator function model (OFM) can be constructed. The human operator's role in such complex, dynamic, and highly automated systems is that of a supervisory controller whose primary responsibilities are routine monitoring and fine-tuning of system parameters and occasional compensation for system abnormalities. The automated systems must support the human operator. One potentially useful form of support is the use of intelligent tutoring systems to teach the operator about the system and how to function within that system. Previous research on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) is considered. The proposed design for OFMTutor is presented, and an experimental evaluation is described.
Adult education opportunities can be increased through cable television technology, which provides home-based instruction as an alternative to the strictures of the classroom or learning center. The 18-month Salem project used television for primary instruction together with the services of paraprofessional tutors as a personal contact for…
Moore, Tricia Susan
This case study, conducted from an interpretive paradigm, illuminates contextual factors related to the tutor experience when senior undergraduate dental hygiene students served as tutors for beginning undergraduate dental hygiene students, or sophomores, in a 1-semester, 2-hour long problem-based learning (PBL) course in a Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene (BDH) curriculum during the spring semester of 2008. Data were collected using various sources and methods. Six tutors and three administrators were interviewed, tutees completed an anonymous questionnaire, the tutorial process and tutor training sessions were observed, and related documents were examined. Data analysis included open and axial coding, creation of tutor profiles, and identification of patterns. Tutor behaviors varied with respect to the nature of intervention (e.g., telling, asking, clarifying, acknowledging), emphasis (process, content, social), and facilitation style (directive, suggestive, empowering). Patterns in tutor behavior and attitudes emerged related to comfort and growth, persistence and lenience, and compliance, resistance, and innovation. Differences in tutor understanding and perception of their role and the purpose of PBL influenced the role the tutor assumed. Other factors that influenced tutor behavior included tutor intentions, tutor training, and environmental factors such as the nature of problems, allotted time, and tutorial group characteristics. The influence of these factors can be understood by applying Fishbein's integrated model of behavior prediction (Fishbein, 2008). Tutor training included experiencing the PBL student role, attending class, and sharing experiences with other tutors in weekly seminar sessions facilitated by a tutor supervisor. Tutor's gained confidence, knowledge, skills, and friendship. They also had the opportunity to see things from a new perspective, that of a teacher encouraging self-direction rather than a student depending on others for direction
Deke, John; Gill, Brian; Dragoset, Lisa; Bogen, Karen
One of the modifications of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (known as the No Child Left Behind Act) gave parents of low-income students in low-performing schools a choice of Supplemental Educational Services (SEdS). SEdS include tutoring or other academic support services offered outside the regular school day, at no charge to students…
Beal, Carole R
Intelligent tutoring software (ITS) holds great promise for K-12 instruction. Yet it is difficult to obtain rich information about users that can be used in realistic educational delivery settings--public school classrooms--in which eye tracking and other user sensing technologies are not suitable. We are pursuing three "cheap and cheerful" strategies to meet this challenge in the context of an ITS for high school math instruction. First, we use detailed representations of student cognitive skills, including tasks to assess individual users' proficiency with abstract reasoning, proficiency with simple math facts and computational skill, and spatial ability. Second, we are using data mining and machine learning algorithms to identify instructional sequences that have been effective with previous students, and to use these patterns to make decisions about current students. Third, we are integrating a simple focus-of-attention tracking system into the software, using inexpensive, web cameras. This coarse-grained information can be used to time the display of multimedia hints, explanations, and examples when the user is actually looking at the screen, and to diagnose causes of problem-solving errors. The ultimate goal is to create non-intrusive software that can adapt the display of instructional information in real time to the user's cognitive strengths, motivation, and attention.
...; specialized therapy (occupational, speech, physical); special training and tutoring, including literacy... detoxification services; individual, family, and group therapy and counseling; remedial education and GED... 25. Special Services for Persons with Developmental or Physical Disabilities, or Persons with...
Shute, Valerie J.
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
... services as counseling, mentoring, or tutoring. (f) Classroom training. Classroom training provided under... ensure that there is a regular exchange of information relating to the progress, problems and needs...
This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…
Burke, Lisa S.
This independent training manual, which is intended for individuals preparing to become adult literacy tutors in Pennsylvania, provides an introduction to the basic principles and techniques of tutoring adult literacy students. Presented first are a preface, definition of literacy, and tutor awareness inventory. The following topics are examined:…
Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.
In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…
Orsmond, Paul; Merry, Stephen
Tutors' intentions when providing feedback may not be accurately perceived and acted on by students. In this study, 19 biological sciences students and six tutors were interviewed concerning the tutor's intentions when providing specific feedback and the students' perceptions and usage of that feedback. A phenomenological approach was used to…
Chi, Michelene T H; Roy, Marguerite; Hausmann, Robert G M
The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to four other instructional methods-one-on-one human tutoring, observing tutoring individually, collaborating without observing, and studying alone-the results showed that students learned to solve physics problems just as effectively from observing tutoring collaboratively as the tutees who were being tutored individually. We explain the effectiveness of this learning environment by postulating that such a situation encourages learners to become active and constructive observers through interactions with a peer. In essence, collaboratively observing combines the benefit of tutoring with the benefit of collaborating. The learning outcomes of the tutees and the collaborative observers, along with the tutoring dialogues, were used to further evaluate three hypotheses explaining why human tutoring is an effective learning method. Detailed analyses of the protocols at several grain sizes suggest that tutoring is effective when tutees are independently or jointly constructing knowledge: with the tutor, but not when the tutor independently conveys knowledge. PMID:21635338
Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…
This article presents a case study of e-tutoring teaching practice during a 20-week e-tutoring program aimed at improving the English proficiency of targeted students. The study revealed what and why certain online tools were used by e-tutors and investigated how different technological proficiency and face-to-face (f2f) teaching experience shaped…
Bae, Sanghoon; Oh, Hunseok; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Cheolwon; Oh, Beomho
The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of after-school programs in Korea's public schools is related to educational equality and private tutoring expenses. The analyzed data was from the Survey on the Status of Private Tutoring and the Study of the Policy Measures to Reduce Private Tutoring Expenses conducted by KEDI…
Van Norman, Renee K.; Wood, Charles L.
Six kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties were taught to tutor each other and provide accurate feedback with the use of a prerecorded sight word model. Students were taught the components of reciprocal peer tutoring and were asked to tutor each other on unknown, phonetically irregular sight words. An A-B-A-B reversal design…
Westenskow, Arla; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
This research study examined the perceptions of 24 parents of rising 5th-grade students with mathematics learning difficulties as part of a 10-week summer mathematics tutoring experience. During the summer tutoring program, parents observed their children participating in mathematics learning experiences during one-to-one tutoring sessions. At the…
Barker, Martin; Pinard, Michelle
We evaluate the case for using feedback iteratively, to improve student engagement and learning. In this model, students were invited to respond to tutor feedback with students' own responses. Among the three courses/modules (three tutors) studied, differences in feedback styles were evident from: (a) thematic analysis of tutor comments and,…
Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichiro
Summarizes research activities concerning FITS, a Framework for Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and discusses the major results obtained thus far. Topics include system architecture; domain independent framework; student model module; expertise module; tutoring strategies; and a model of tutor's decision making, including knowledge sources and…
Murray, Tom; And Others
This paper evaluates the strengths and limitations of a computer tutor designed to help students understand physics concepts. The tutor uses a teaching strategy called "bridging analogies" that previous research has demonstrated to be successful in one-to-one tutoring. The strategy is designed to remedy misconceptions by appealing to existing…
Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F; Sequeira, Reginald P
Purpose Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69) who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring) using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent). The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students’ questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000). Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. PMID:26793014
Trovato, Joseph; Bucher, Bradley
An operant-based corrective reading program was established to study effectiveness of peer tutoring for 69 reading deficient second- to fourth-grade students who were matched on measures of initial reading ability and level of reading retardation and randomly assigned to three groups (peer tutoring only, peer tutoring with home based…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent; Suraweera, Pramuditha; Zakharov, Konstantin; Milik, Nancy; Holland, Jay; McGuigan, Nicholas
Over the last decade, the Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group (ICTG) has implemented many successful constraint-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) in a variety of instructional domains. Our tutors have proven their effectiveness not only in controlled lab studies but also in real classrooms, and some of them have been commercialized.…
Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent
Our 1997 article in "IJAIED" reported on a study that showed that a new algebra curriculum with an embedded intelligent tutoring system (the Algebra Cognitive Tutor) dramatically enhanced high-school students' learning. The main motivation for the study was to demonstrate that intelligent tutors that have cognitive science research…
Mahler, Charles A.
A cross-age tutoring program designed to improve school performance of tutors (adolescents classified as emotionally disturbed) and tutees (children classified as educable mentally retarded) was replicated in an urban public school district. Results showed that both tutors and tutees improved on academic and social measures of school performance.…
Moore, Kathryn McDaniel
This study hypothesizes that social demographic distinctions figured importantly in the interactions of students and tutors. Answers are sought to these three questions: (1) Who were the college tutors? (2) Who were the students most often in conflict with tutors? (3) Based on questions one and two, are there any significant differences in the…
Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hughes, Cynthia; Berry, Laura; McGuire, Shannon
Researchers have documented the positive effects of classwide peer tutoring on academic performance, engagement, and other social behaviors of students with and without disabilities. Commonly, in classwide peer tutoring, students are paired and the class is divided in half. Points are awarded for tutoring behavior and academic responding during…
Després, Christophe; Jacoboni, Pierre; Py, Dominique; Lekira, Aina
In this paper, we study how to support a human tutor who regulates learners' activities, in a situation of mediated tutoring. Our goal is to provide the tutor with information about the effect of his/her interventions. To achieve this, we adopt an indicator-based approach and define the notion of meta-indicator. The distinguishing feature of…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan; Barrow, Devon K.
Tutoring technologies for supporting learning from errors via negative feedback are highly developed and have proven their worth in empirical evaluations. However, observations of empirical tutoring dialogs highlight the importance of positive feedback in the practice of expert tutoring. We hypothesize that positive feedback works by reducing…
Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Seridi, Hamid
In e-learning systems, the tutors play many roles and carry out several tasks that differ from one system to another. The activity of tutoring is influenced by many factors. One factor among them is the assignment of the appropriate profile to the tutor. For this reason, the authors propose a new approach for modeling and evaluating the function…
Courtney, Mark E.; Zinn, Andrew; Zielewski, Erica H.; Bess, Roseana J.; Malm, Karin E.; Stagner, Matthew; Pergamit, Michael
This report presents findings from a rigorous evaluation of the Early Start to Emancipation Preparation (ESTEP)-Tutoring Program in Los Angeles. ESTEP-Tutoring provides up to 50 hours of remedial one-on-one tutoring in reading and math to foster youths ages 14 to 15 who are one to three years behind grade level in either reading or math. The…
Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.
Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…
Mühlfelder, Manfred; Konermann, Tobias; Borchard, Linda-Marie
In this paper we describe a "Train the Tutor" programme (TtT) for developing the metacognitive skills, facilitator skills, and tutor skills of students in a problem based learning (PBL) context. The purpose of the programme was to train 2nd and 3rd year undergraduate students in psychology to become effective PBL tutors for…
Lavoue, Elise; George, Sebastien; Prevot, Patrick
In this article, we present a co-adaptive design approach named TE-Cap (Tutoring Experience Capitalisation) that we applied for the development of an assistance environment for tutors. Since tasks assigned to tutors in educational contexts are not well defined, we are developing an environment which responds to needs which are not precisely…
Rincon, Ramon; Zepeda, R. A.
Using Spanish and/or English according to each student's need, the Migrant Tutoring Program (MTP) provided 20 minutes of tutoring daily in oral language development, language arts, and reading to 238 migrant students (K-6) in 17 schools during the year. Questionnaires designed for principals, teachers, and tutors were used to obtain process…
The current study explored the effects of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' proficiency level on English-medium instruction (EMI) in an online tutoring project. Sixteen Taiwanese college students (tutees) collaborated with preservice teachers (tutors) in the United States in an EMI online tutorial project. The online tutor-tutee…
D'Mello, S. K.; Graesser, A.
We explored the possibility of predicting student emotions (boredom, flow/engagement, confusion, and frustration) by analyzing the text of student and tutor dialogues during interactions with an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) with conversational dialogues. After completing a learning session with the tutor, student emotions were judged by the…
Olson, Peter C.
This study attempted to determine whether giving lower performing tutors preferential instruction over their higher performing tutees before they engage in peer tutoring sessions may help increase the reading achievement for these lower performing tutors. The preferential instruction consisted of giving adult-delivered instruction in a targeted…
Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Cooke, Nancy L.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.
Reciprocal peer tutoring can be an effective supplement to teacher-led instruction, but students need to have the tutoring skills necessary to teach their peers successfully. Previous studies have addressed the challenge of providing essential information to a naive tutor, allowing for correct modeling and feedback. The present study compared…
Kersaint, Gladis; Dogbey, James; Barber, Jeff; Kephart, David
This study investigated outcomes (achievement, attitude, and retention) of college algebra students who had access to an online tutoring resource using a pre-posttest control group design. Students in the experimental groups were provided access to an online tutoring service unlike the students in the control group. Both groups had access to other…
Hull, Alison; du Boulay, Benedict
Motivation and metacognition are strongly intertwined, with learners high in self-efficacy more likely to use a variety of self-regulatory learning strategies, as well as to persist longer on challenging tasks. The aim of the research was to improve the learner's focus on the process and experience of problem-solving while using an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and including motivational and metacognitive feedback based on the learner's past states and experiences. An existing ITS, SQL-Tutor, was used with first-year undergraduates studying a database module. The study used two versions of SQL-Tutor: the Control group used a base version providing domain feedback and the Study group used an extended version that also provided motivational and metacognitive feedback. This paper summarises the pre- and post-process results. Comparisons between groups showed some differing trends both in learning outcomes and behaviour in favour of the Study group.
Grundstrom, Erika; Taylor, R. S.
Vast distances, such as those that pervade astronomy, are difficult concepts to grasp. We are all a part of the Earth-Moon system, however most people do not comprehend the sizes and distances involved. In a pilot study, the authors found that an intervention using both discussion and kinesthetic modeling resulted in students of all ages (children up through adults) acquiring a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. We have extended this research and are currently conducting a new study in which undergraduate students serve as "tutors" in a public observatory setting. One of our conjectures is that tutors' mental representations of the Earth-Moon system will be enhanced through their active participation in the cross-age peer tutoring activity. This work is supported in part by grants from the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL), the Vanderbilt University Learning Sciences Institute, and NSF Career grant AST-0349075.
Berlanga Fernández, Sofía; Solà Pola, M Montserrat; Fabrellas-Padrgs, Nuria; Berlanga Fernández, Francisco
Primary Health Care sets up an area influenced by the relationship between professionals and users, in which different disciplines, such as nursing, develop their learning procedures both in graduate and postgraduate training. In this context, students are tutored by professionals who have developed teaching skills. Along these lines, this manuscript aims to identifying the different types of nursing students and tutors who develop their teaching skills in Primary Health Centers. To this purpose, we invite the reader to know the historical and current milestones that characterize teaching systems and influence learning profiles of students and teachers.
Berlanga Fernández, Sofía; Solà Pola, M Montserrat; Fabrellas-Padrgs, Nuria; Berlanga Fernández, Francisco
Primary Health Care sets up an area influenced by the relationship between professionals and users, in which different disciplines, such as nursing, develop their learning procedures both in graduate and postgraduate training. In this context, students are tutored by professionals who have developed teaching skills. Along these lines, this manuscript aims to identifying the different types of nursing students and tutors who develop their teaching skills in Primary Health Centers. To this purpose, we invite the reader to know the historical and current milestones that characterize teaching systems and influence learning profiles of students and teachers. PMID:26738232
Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew
Conventional intelligent or adaptive tutoring online systems rely on domain-specific models of learner behavior based on rules, deep domain knowledge, and other resource-intensive methods. We have developed and studied a domain-independent methodology of adaptive tutoring based on domain-independent signal-processing approaches that obviate the need for the construction of explicit expert and student models. A key advantage of our method over conventional approaches is a lower barrier to entry for educators who want to develop adaptive online learning materials.
Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jörg; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander
In the course of tutoring, tutors have the opportunity to formatively assess a tutee's understanding. The information gathered by engaging in formative assessment can be used by tutors not only to adapt instruction in order to enhance learning but also to form a summative judgment in order to document a tutee's learning after tutoring.…
This paper describes practical procedures in mentoring/tutoring students through self-assessment (SA) to establish and maintain partnership in learning. High school teachers ("n"?=?10) allow their students ("N"?=?515: 359 males) to engage in activities that help them identify standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and…
Hewett, Beth L.; Lynn, Robert
Individualized conferencing, a situation where instructors and tutors work individually with students, is one traditional way in which students whose first language is not English (ESOL) can receive help as they learn and practice their English speaking and writing skills. This article is a demonstration of some of the practical strategies common…
Soloway, Elliot; And Others
This report examines the features and performance of the BUG-FINDing component of MENO-II, a computer-based tutor for beginning PASCAL programming students. A discussion of the use of artificial intelligence techniques is followed by a summary of the system status and objectives. The two main components of MENO-II are described, beginning with the…
Tutoring systems become complex and are offering varieties of pedagogical software as course modules, exercises, simulators, systems online or offline, for single user or multi-user. This complexity motivates new forms and approaches to the design and the modelling. Studies and research in this field introduce emergent concepts that allow the…
Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy
A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…
Suraweera, Pramuditha; Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are effective tools for education. However, developing them is a labour-intensive and time-consuming process. A major share of the effort is devoted to acquiring the domain knowledge that underlies the system's intelligence. The goal of this research is to reduce this knowledge acquisition bottleneck and better…
Retna, Kala S.; Chong, Eric; Cavana, Robert Y.
Students are considered to be the main "customers" in universities and polytechnics and increasingly they seek to have their needs met. This is one of the main reasons for persistent calls for the improvement of teaching in higher education. Tutors play an important role in the delivery of undergraduate education, although they are often perceived…
Maheady, Larry; Harper, Gregory F.; Mallette, Barbara; Karnes, Melinda
This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils' academic performance. Participants learned to use Juniper Gardens Children's Project's Class Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) program through a two-hour workshop and with in class…
San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.; de Baker, Ryan S. J.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
We investigate the relationship between students' affect and their frequency of careless errors while using an Intelligent Tutoring System for middle school mathematics. A student is said to have committed a careless error when the student's answer is wrong despite knowing the skill required to provide the correct answer. We…
This summary is intended for the experienced author who needs a quick reference for the form of a tag and for the restrictions on the TUTOR language commands. Each command includes a brief description of its purpose and a description of the tag. The commands are grouped into the following categories: (1) calculating, (2) data keeping, (3) judging,…
This document contains the full and short papers on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction) covering the following topics: a framework for Internet-based distributed learning; a fuzzy-based assessment for the Perl tutoring…
Shrestha, Prithvi; Coffin, Caroline
Supporting undergraduate students with their academic literacies has recently been a major focus in higher education in the UK. This paper explores the value of tutor mediation in the context of academic writing development among undergraduate business studies students in open and distance learning, following the dynamic assessment (DA) approach…
Stamper, John Carroll
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that adapt to an individual student's needs have shown significant improvement in achievement over non-adaptive instruction (Murray 1999). This improvement occurs due to the individualized instruction and feedback that an ITS provides. In order to achieve the benefits that ITSs provide, we must find a way to…
Longwill, Amy Wildman; Kleinert, Harold L.
Describes how high school peer tutoring programs can enhance educational outcomes, including increased academic performance, for students with and without moderate and severe disabilities. The role of such programs in educational restructuring is addressed, as is the way such programs can promote general education class participation and community…
Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice
Private tutoring is a growing industry that is being transformed by an evolution from "shadow education" provision into "learning center" franchises. Traditional shadow educators closely follow the school curriculum, offering short-term homework help and test preparation. Learning centers develop their own curricular and assessment tools, offer…
Topping, Keith; Miller, David; Thurston, Allan; McGavock, Karen; Conlin, Nora
A large-scale randomised-controlled trial of reading tutoring in 80 schools in Scotland used the Paired Reading (PR) technique. On long-term evaluation, cross-age PR was significantly better than regular teaching, but same-age was not. On short-term evaluation, PR pupils did significantly better than control pupils in both years, and cross-age and…
Bell, Diana Calhoun; Elledge, Sara Redington
In order to better understand the complex dynamic that often occurs during writing center sessions between native English speaking (L1) tutors and English language learners (ELL), this study investigates linguistic dominance through time-at-talk, turn-taking, agenda-setting, and content analysis. We conclude that, in keeping with theory and…
Clement, Benjamin; Roy, Didier; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Lopes, Manuel
We present an approach to Intelligent Tutoring Systems which adaptively personalizes sequences of learning activities to maximize skills acquired by students, taking into account the limited time and motivational resources. At a given point in time, the system proposes to the students the activity which makes them progress faster. We introduce two…
Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti
The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…
Gitomer, Drew H.; And Others
This paper lays out the rationale and implementation of student modeling and updating in the HYDRIVE intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for aircraft hydraulic systems. An epistemic level of modeling concerns the plans and goals students are using to guide their problem solving, as inferred from specific actions in specific contexts. These results…
Ma, Wenting; Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.; Liu, Qing
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are computer programs that model learners' psychological states to provide individualized instruction. They have been developed for diverse subject areas (e.g., algebra, medicine, law, reading) to help learners acquire domain-specific, cognitive and metacognitive knowledge. A meta-analysis was conducted on…
Sanchez, Rebecca Polley; Bartel, Chelsea M; Brown, Emily; DeRosier, Melissa
This study tested the acceptability and efficacy of an innovative intelligent tutoring system (ITS), "Adventures Aboard the S.S. GRIN," that translates the evidence-based in-person Social Skills Group Intervention (SSGRIN), into an interactive game-based social tutorial. This randomized controlled pilot trial tested the first half of the…
This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…
Rosen, Sidney; And Others
This field experiment on same-age peer tutoring was concerned with the differential effects on satisfaction and performance of assigned role and relative competence with junior high students. Satisfaction and performance were predicted to vary directly with prestige and with equity (status congruence) of role assignment. Same-sex, same-class,…
Sutherland, Kathryn A.; Gilbert, Amanda
In New Zealand, as in many other western societies, the higher education system has become an increasingly less secure place in which to work, and over 40 per cent of those teaching in New Zealand higher education are sessional staff of some kind. Our university in New Zealand has long relied on part-time paid tutors, many of whom are students…
Kelly, Kim; Heffernan, Neil
Intelligent tutoring systems have been developed to help students learn independently. However, students who are poor self-regulated learners often struggle to use these systems because they lack the skills necessary to learn independently. The field of psychology has extensively studied self-regulated learning and can provide strategies to…
This White Paper examines the components that determine effective instruction and tutoring in English spelling, based on current scientific research and experience gained in field testing while developing an innovative educational technology. Basis for the findings were repeated field studies conducted in small groups with students grade 3 and…
Rodriguez Buitrago, Carolina
Online and blended learning are of growing interest in the English language learning community. In Colombia, national initiatives and policies promote online educational programs and online English courses specifically. As a result, new online tutors are constantly needed for new programs and courses offered by institutions as well as by private…
Lee, Hee Seung; Anderson, John R.; Berman, Susan R.; Ferris-Glick, Jennifer; Joshi, Ambarish; Nixon, Tristan; Ritter, Steve
In designing learning environments that support student learning, there are many instructional design decisions. These include when and how to provide examples, verbal explanations, feedback, and other scaffolding features. In this paper, the authors investigate instructional guidance as it relates to Cognitive Tutor, an intelligent tutoring…
Rowe, Neil C.; Schiavo, Sandra
Describes an intelligent tutor incorporating a program using artificial-intelligence planning methods to generate realistic audit files reporting actions of simulated users and intruders of a UNIX system, and a program simulating the system afterwards that asks students to inspect the audit and fix problems. Experiments show that students using…
Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita
This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2016
"Cognitive Tutor"® is a secondary mathematics curriculum developed by Carnegie Learning that focuses on how students think about and learn mathematics. Teachers facilitate student learning as students acquire and apply new information and discuss their work. The curriculum can be implemented using a textbook, adaptive software, or…
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Meskill, Carla; Judson, Darlene; Gregory, Karen; Rogers, Patterson; Imperial, Christopher J.; Casler-Failing, Shelli
This study explores the "language repair strategies" (aimed at repairing communication problems) of two bilingual speakers during mathematics word problem tutoring sessions. Bilingual repair was shown to gradually shift from a linguistic to an epistemic focus during problem solving (i.e., communication became more conceptually focused…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2004
"Cognitive Tutor[R]", a full-year course, covers organizing single variable data, simplifying linear expressions, mathematical modeling, solving systems with linear equations, problem-solving using proportional reasoning, and powers and exponents. Students work at their own pace to develop problem-solving skills. The duration of each lesson can…
Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit, London (England).
This training package, which is designed for use by tutors teaching basic skills in a variety of adult education settings throughout the United Kingdom, consists of four booklets. The first two booklets explain how to use Microsoft Works word processing and spreadsheet software. Each contains instructions for using the Microsoft products in MS DOS…
Muldner, Kasia; Lam, Rachel; Chi, Michelene T. H.
A promising instructional approach corresponds to" learning by observing others learn" (i.e., by watching tutorial dialogue between a tutor and tutee). However, more work is needed to understand this approach's pedagogical utility. Thus, in 2 experiments we compared student learning from collaborative observation of dialogue with 2 other…
Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina
Peer observation partnerships can help teachers improve their teaching practice, transform their educational perspectives and develop collegiality (Bell 2005). This paper describes the peer observation model used in the tutor development program in the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Sydney, and reports on the effectiveness…
Hetzel, Carole J.; Laskey, Marcia L.; Hardt-Schultz, Roberta F.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the length of a weekly tutoring session and student GPA for the first two semesters of college. The study was conducted at a private, midsize university in the Midwest. The sample consisted of 124 students admitted with academic stipulations to the university, meaning that…
Zsiray, Stephen W., Jr.; Peterson, Holly
This paper summarizes an effective peer tutoring program used in both elementary and middle school programs in the Cache School District (North Logan, Utah). In year-round education programs, students have off-track time during the school year at four different intervals. This time is often utilized by school districts to give students additional…
Savvopoulos, Anastasios; Virvou, Maria
Purpose: The elderly are often unfamiliar with computer technology and can encounter great difficulties. Moreover, the terms used in such systems may prove to be a challenge for these users. The aim of this research is to tutor the elderly on using an adaptive e-shop system in order to buy products easily. Design/methodology/approach: In view of…
Many learning center administrators understand the need to evaluate the effectiveness of their tutoring programs, but they do not have much free time to design and conduct meaningful research. This article presents a method of evaluation that can be used to determine whether students were able to demonstrate understanding after a tutoring…
Seminole Community Coll., Sanford, FL.
This manual is designed for tutors who are helping to teach workplace literacy to job seekers or newly employed adults, especially former migrant farm workers in Florida. The manual is organized in five sections. The first section contains background material, including an overview of the program, and information about adult learners, migrant farm…
Khan, Masood Mehmood
Describes the implementation of an intelligent tutoring system that employs a game environment and object-oriented user interface for teaching and learning, based on a computer game developed for industrial training. Discusses adventure games, game environments in education, simulation support, and user interface design. (Author/LRW)
Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim
Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…
Discusses the use of online teaching assistants or "course wizards," employed at Mercy College (New York) not only to tutor students who are experiencing difficulty but also to facilitate discussion and to model the role of a successful student. Presents a discussion of the current crisis in higher education in America and of how online education…
This prison-based research is grounded upon "reflection-in-action", intertwining the accounts of a reflective prisoner and a reflective practitioner. Through use of ethnographic methods it seeks to make sense of the contradictions encountered while tutoring prisoners. The research story shows how meaning conflicts have been negotiated, not always…
Mueller, Stephen J.
A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. A prototype ITS for tutoring students in the use of CLIPS language: CLIPSIT (CLIPS Intelligent Tutor) was developed. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. While most ITSs have been developed on powerful workstations, CLIPSIT is designed for use on the IBM PC/XT/AT personal computer family (and their clones). There are many issues to consider when developing an ITS on a personal computer such as the teaching strategy, user interface, knowledge representation, and program design methodology. Based on experiences in developing CLIPSIT, results on how to address some of these issues are reported and approaches are suggested for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.
Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Bol-Arreba, Alfredo; Payo-Hernanz, René Jesús
Introduction: Recent investigations have emphasized the need for university teachers to develop tutorial programs for students at university. Many universities are committed to broadening research on university teaching that will sharpen academic performance and levels of student satisfaction. Tutoring programs improve the development of the…
Heron, Timothy E.; Villareal, Donna M.; Yao, Ma; Christianson, Rebecca J.; Heron, Kathleen M.
Peer-mediated approaches have been used for years to improve the academic behaviors of students, especially those with disabilities. The most systematized and well researched of the peer-mediated approaches relates to peer tutoring systems, which include specific elements of training, implementation, and evaluation. The purpose of this article is…
Mitchell, Christine M.; Govindaraj, T.
Discusses the use of intelligent tutoring systems as opposed to traditional on-the-job training for training operators of complex dynamic systems and describes the computer architecture for a system for operators of a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) satellite control system. An experimental evaluation with college students is…
Formalised peer-to-peer collaboration and the use of web-enhanced materials that are consistent with course objectives, graded assessments and learning outcomes is well known in educational practice. This study compared the academic gains of college students enrolled in Physics using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) with others using non-Reciprocal…
Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison
Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…
Aarnio, Matti; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Nieminen, Juha; Pyörälä, Eeva
Recent research on problem-based learning (PBL) has shown that students need support when dealing with conflicting ideas in PBL-tutorial discussions. In the present study, we examined tutor facilitation during tutorial discussions, and particularly how the facilitation helped students to collaboratively resolve conflicts on knowledge. The study involved four PBL-tutorial sessions that included altogether 33 first-year medical and dental students. The sessions were videotaped and analysed using qualitative interaction analysis. Our aim was to find out how the tutor interventions encouraged students to elaborate on conflicting ideas, and how the interventions differed between conflict and non-conflict situations. We also examined how the tutors intervened during conflicts about factual or conceptual knowledge. The tutorial discussions included 92 tutor intervention episodes and 43 conflict episodes. The tutors intervened during 24 of the conflict episodes and resolved 13 of these episodes. Generally, the tutors often intervened by confirming what the students had said or by giving explanations, but they rarely asked questions that would stimulate the elaboration of knowledge. During conflicts on knowledge the tutors gave more explanations, but did little to encourage the students to deal with conflicting ideas. The tutors more often resolved conflicts on factual knowledge than conceptual knowledge. The findings suggest that tutor training should focus on promoting tutors' understanding on when to give direct explanations, and when and how to encourage students to collaboratively elaborate on conflicting ideas.
This report details a case study of the Tutor-Mentor Connection (T/MC), an organization designed to build infrastructures to expand and improve after-school tutoring and mentoring opportunities for inner-city children in Chicago. The case study was conducted over a 3-month period in 1997 and was intended as a limited exploration of one model for…
Berghmans, Inneke; Michiels, Lotte; Salmon, Sara; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien
The present study aimed to shed light on students' appraisal and reported learning gains in two differently-tutored learning environments (i.e. directively and facilitatively tutored). In order to investigate this, a quasi-experimental study was set up in the context of a clinical skills learning environment. Not only were participating…
Trevors, Gregory; Duffy, Melissa; Azevedo, Roger
Hypermedia learning environments (HLE) unevenly present new challenges and opportunities to learning processes and outcomes depending on learner characteristics and instructional supports. In this experimental study, we examined how one such HLE--MetaTutor, an intelligent, multi-agent tutoring system designed to scaffold cognitive and…
Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Two educational uses of models and simulations: 1) Students create models and use simulations ; and 2) Researchers create models of learners to guide development of reliably effective materials. Cognitive tutors simulate and support tutoring - data is crucial to create effective model. Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center: Resources for modeling, authoring, experimentation. Repository of data and theory. Examples of advanced modeling efforts: SimStudent learns rule-based model. Help-seeking model: Tutors metacognition. Scooter uses machine learning detectors of student engagement.
Robinson, Erin; Niemer, Louise
Due to the difficult and rigorous nature of nursing education, student retention and attrition are major concerns for faculty. This article describes the implementation and outcomes of a peer-based mentor tutor program (PMTP) for at-risk students in a traditional baccalaureate program. Funding was obtained to provide scholarship incentives for student participants and cover costs of training and materials. Criteria were determined for the selection of student mentors-tutors and the identification of at-risk students. Interventions consisted of weekly PMTP sessions offered for the first four semesters of nursing courses. Course grades were used to determine outcome differences between control and intervention groups. Students in the intervention group were found to score significantly higher than the control group on both summative and final grades. PMID:21086865
Ames, Troy; Baker, Clifford
Hypermedia, hypertext and Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) applications to support all phases of mission operations are investigated. The application of hypermedia and ITS technology to improve system performance and safety in supervisory control is described - with an emphasis on modeling operator's intentions in the form of goals, plans, tasks, and actions. Review of hypermedia and ITS technology is presented as may be applied to the tutoring of command and control languages. Hypertext based ITS is developed to train flight operation teams and System Test and Operation Language (STOL). Specific hypermedia and ITS application areas are highlighted, including: computer aided instruction of flight operation teams (STOL ITS) and control center software development tools (CHIMES and STOL Certification Tool).
Elke, David R.; Seamster, Thomas L.; Truszkowski, Walter
The status of an ongoing project to explore the application of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) technology to NASA command and control languages is described. The primary objective of the current phase of the project is to develop a user interface for an ITS to assist NASA control center personnel in learning Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL). Although this ITS will be developed for Gamma Ray Observatory operators, it will be designed with sufficient flexibility so that its modules may serve as an ITS for other control languages such as the User Interface Language (UIL). The focus of this phase is to develop at least one other form of STOL representation to complement the operational STOL interface. Such an alternative representation would be adaptively employed during the tutoring session to facilitate the learning process. This is a key feature of this ITS which distinguishes it from a simulator that is only capable of representing the operational environment.
Nguyen, Tang-Hung; Khoo, I.-Hung
In engineering disciplines, students usually have hard time to visualize different aspects of engineering analysis and design, which inherently are too complex or abstract to fully understand without the aid of visual explanations or visualizations. As examples, when learning materials and sequences of construction process, students need to visualize how all components of a constructed facility are assembled? Such visualization can not be achieved in a textbook and a traditional lecturing environment. In this paper, the authors present the development of a computer tutoring software, in which different visualization tools including video clips, 3 dimensional models, drawings, pictures/photos together with complementary texts are used to assist students in deeply understanding and effectively mastering materials. The paper will also discuss the implementation and the effectiveness evaluation of the proposed tutoring software, which was used to teach a construction engineering management course offered at California State University, Long Beach.
Rhodes Eliot, C. III; Park Woolf, B.
This paper examines the problem of modeling multiple agents within an intelligent simulation-based tutor. Multiple agent and planning technology were used to enable the system to critique a human agent`s reasoning about multiple agents. This perspective arises naturally whenever a student must learn to lead and coordinate a team of people. The system dynamically selected teaching goals, instantiated plans and modeled the student and the domain as it monitored the student`s progress. The tutor provides one of the first complete integrations of a real-time simulation with knowledge-based reasoning. Other novel techniques of the system are reported, such as common-sense reasoning about plans, reasoning about protocol mechanisms, and using a real-time simulation for training.
Greenwood, C R; Terry, B; Arreaga-Mayer, C; Finney, R
We conducted a study designed to assess implementation of the classwide peer tutoring program and the relationship between implementation variation and student outcome. A clinical replication design was used. Five volunteer elementary teachers were trained to implement the program; their implementation was monitored for 19 consecutive weeks during 1 school year. Overall, the results indicated that specific variations in program implementation were associated with students' responses to treatment. It was also demonstrated that different teachers' applications of the program produced differential levels of student outcome. Implementation factors related to lower spelling achievement were (a) reduced opportunities to receive program sessions, (b) reduced probabilities of students' participation in program opportunities, (c) too many students assigned unchallenging spelling words, and (d) reduced rates of daily point earning reflecting lower levels of spelling practice during tutoring sessions. The implications of these findings and methods of preventing these implementation problems are discussed in the context of quality assurance and social validity. PMID:1582960
Cardiac auscultation is the difficult skill of listening to the human heart and using the sounds heard as clues in diagnosis. The CADI (Cardiac Auscultation Diagnosis Instruction) system is designed to tutor medical students and residents in both phases of auscultation: hearing the sounds and diagnosing illness based on what is heard. The system`s design draws on the case-based teaching architecture, which in turn is built on goal-based scenarios and case-based reasoning.
A project to design an interactive program to teach accounting techniques is described. The four major goals of the project are discussed and a review of the literature on teaching machines and computer-assisted-instruction is included. The system is implemented on the CTSS time sharing system at M.I.T. and uses an ARDS graphic display. The software design of the system is described in detail. A typical session with the tutor is also described. Appendices include complete system documentation.
Vadasy, P F; Jenkins, J R; Pool, K
This study examined the effectiveness of nonprofessional tutors in a phonologically based reading treatment similar to those in which successful reading outcomes have been demonstrated. Participants were 23 first graders at risk for learning disability who received intensive one-to-one tutoring from noncertified tutors for 30 minutes, 4 days a week, for one school year. Tutoring included instruction in phonological skills, letter-sound correspondence, explicit decoding, rime analysis, writing, spelling, and reading phonetically controlled text. At year end, tutored students significantly outperformed untutored control students on measures of reading, spelling, and decoding. Effect sizes ranged from .42 to 1.24. Treatment effects diminished at follow-up at the end of second grade, although tutored students continued to significantly outperform untutored students in decoding and spelling. Findings suggest that phonologically based reading instruction for first graders at risk for learning disability can be delivered by nonteacher tutors. Our discussion addresses the character of reading outcomes associated with tutoring, individual differences in response to treatment, and the infrastructure required for nonprofessional tutoring programs. PMID:15495399
Clark, Caroline T.
Examines the kinds of framing and positioning issues that arise in service sites aimed at literacy learning. Looks at interactions between college students and the middle school students they tutored in after-school programs. Discusses the possibilities that arise when those who teach also serve. Argues that engaging in service learning with…
Environmental Science and Technology, 1972
Alphabetical listing of companies which offer analytical sampling and testing services for pollution control and abatement; consultants that also manufacture and distribute products. List of book publishers included. (LK)
Fonsêca, Graciela Soares; Junqueira, Simone Rennó
In order to bring about positive changes in the education process of health professionals, the Ministries of Health and Education established the Education Program of Work for Health in 2008. The study aimed to achieve the consensus of a group of experts about the Program established at the University of São Paulo, Capital Campus, Brazil. The subjects of the study were the tutors who joined the program in 2010-2012. A qualitative approach was used based on the Delphi Technique. Among the data collected, tutors believe the program provides benefits to teaching practices and contributes to qualification of professionals involved in health services, and offers improvements for training in the health area. From the subjects' point of view, the tutors are the link between academia and the health services and the instructors are critical to ensure the effectiveness of activities. The staging of regular meetings and seminars help in the process. The main limitations are the lack of explicit commitment shown by some students and the high workload of undergraduate courses.
Sakai, Damon H; D'Eon, Marcel; Trinder, Krista; Kasuya, Richard T.
At the University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine, senior medical student volunteers are used as tutors for some problem-based learning groups in both the first and second years. Previous studies on the advantages and disadvantages of student tutors compared to faculty tutors have been equivocal. This study expected to answer the…
Bhatti, Abdul Jabbar; Jumani, Nabi Bux
This study explores the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different…
Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt
Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…
Chan, Claudia; Bray, Mark
Around the world, increasing numbers of students receive after-school private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring may be provided through informal channels or by companies, and it may be received one-to-one, in small groups or in large classes. The tutoring is commonly called shadow education since its content mimics that of regular schooling.…
De Rijdt, Catherine; van der Rijt, Janine; Dochy, Filip; van der Vleuten, Cees
We compared effects of tutoring by students and by staff. In four courses in each of two consecutive first years of an undergraduate problem-based law curriculum we examined the achievements and perceptions of tutors of students taught by student and staff tutors. Achievements were measured by the results on the regular end-of-course tests. After…
Olson, Peter Christopher
This study attempted to determine whether giving lower-performing tutors preferential treatment over their higher-performing tutees before they engaged in peer tutoring sessions may help increase the reading achievement for these lower-performing tutors. The preferential treatment consisted of giving teacher-delivered instruction in a targeted…
Blanch, Silvia; Duran, David; Valdebenito, Vanessa; Flores, Marta
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of an educational programme involving peer tutoring at school and family tutoring at home on child reading comprehension achievement in Catalunya, Spain. We drew upon a sample of 303 primary school students from 8 to 11 years old and 223 family tutors from home (61.5% mothers, 15% fathers,…
Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary; Benitez-Guerrero, Edgard Ivan
Tutoring systems are a common tool for delivering educational content and recent advances in this field include the detection of and reaction to learners' motivation. A data set derived from interactions in a tutoring system and its motivationally-aware variant provided opportunities to discover patterns of behavior in connection with motivational…
Rus, Vasile; Lintean, Mihai; Azevedo, Roger
This paper presents several methods to automatically detecting students' mental models in MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students self-regulatory processes during learning of complex science topics. In particular, we focus on detecting students' mental models based on student-generated paragraphs during prior knowledge…
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…
Kessler, Aaron M.; Stein, Mary Kay; Schunn, Christian D.
Model tracing tutors represent a technology designed to mimic key elements of one-on-one human tutoring. We examine the situations in which such supportive computer technologies may devolve into mindless student work with little conceptual understanding or student development. To analyze the support of student intellectual work in the model…
Haffling, Ann-Christin; Brorsson, Annika; Mattsson, Bengt; Wahlqvist, Mats
Objective. To explore experienced general practitioner (GP) tutor perceptions of a skilled GP tutor of medical students. Design. Interview study based on focus groups. Setting. Twenty GPs experienced in tutoring medical students at primary health care centres in two Swedish regions were interviewed. Method. Four focus-group interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Subjects. Twenty GP tutors, median age 50, specifically selected according to age, gender, and location participated in two focus groups in Gothenburg and Malmö, respectively. Main outcome measures. Meaning units in the texts were extracted, coded and condensed into categories and themes. Results. Three main themes emerged: “Professional as GP and ambassador to general practice”, “Committed and student-centred educator”, and “Coordinator of the learning environment”. Conclusion. Experienced GP tutors describe their skills as a clinical tutor as complex and diversified. A strong professional identity within general practice is vital and GP tutors describe themselves as ambassadors to general practice, essential to the process of recruiting a new generation of general practitioners. Leaders of clinical education and health care planners must understand the complexity in a clinical tutor's assignment and provide adequate support, time, and resources in order to facilitate a sustainable tutorship and a good learning environment, which could also improve the necessary recruitment of future GPs. PMID:26158585
Arco-Tirado, Jose L.; Fernandez-Martin, Francisco D.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel
The purposes of this study were, on one had, to determine the impact of a peer tutoring program on preventing academic failure and dropouts among first-year students (N = 100), from Civil Engineering, Economics, Pharmacy, and Chemical Engineering careers; while, on the other hand, to identify the potential benefits of such tutoring program on the…
Orey, Michael A.; Nelson, Wayne A.
Arguing that the evolution of intelligent tutoring systems better reflects the recent theoretical developments of cognitive science than traditional computer-based instruction (CBI), this paper describes a general model for an intelligent tutoring system and suggests ways to improve CBI using design principles derived from research in cognitive…
This study investigates how literacy was constructed at an adult literacy organization's volunteer tutor-training program. By drawing on qualitative analysis of training texts used during training, such as training evaluations, and data gathered from interviews with experienced tutors, it is possible to identify the assumptions about literacy…
Sosa, Alicia Salinas
In 1984 the Edgewood and South San Antonio Independent School Districts implemented the Valued Youth Partnership Program (VYP). VYP identifies Hispanic junior high and high school students at high risk of dropping out and gives them an opportunity to serve as tutors of younger children. As they tutor, the older students also learn basic skills,…
Engeldinger, Eugene A.; Love, Michael G.
Carthage College (Wisconsin) reports on the practical/philosophical consideration underlying a decision to tutor faculty in using new technologies. Applying lessons learned through student computer labs, the college initiated a faculty/staff tutoring program which used the faculty's own office desktop computers. By taking a very personalized…
Boyd, Pete; Bloxham, Sue
In the continuing concern about academic standards in the higher education sector a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality assurance procedures rather than on considering how university tutors learn to grade the quality of work produced by students. As part of a larger research project focused on how tutors grade student coursework,…
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Acosta, Rudy; Cheng, Huiping; Dillender, Marcus; Kirshbaum, Christi; Nisar, Hiren; Stewart, Mary
School districts are spending millions on tutoring outside regular school day hours for economically and academically disadvantaged students in need of extra academic assistance. Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), parents of children in persistently low-performing schools were allowed to choose their child's tutoring provider, and together…
Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Davis, Heather; Vannest, Kimberly; Williams, Lauren; Greenwood, Charles; Parker, Richard
Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that involves students helping each other learn content through repetition of key concepts. This meta-analysis examined effects of peer tutoring across 26 single-case research experiments for 938 students in Grades 1-12. The TauU effect size for 195 phase contrasts was 0.75 with a confidence interval of…
Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Cooper, Harris
This meta-analysis synthesizes research on the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) for college students. Thirty-five reports were found containing 39 studies assessing the effectiveness of 22 types of ITS in higher education settings. Most frequently studied were AutoTutor, Assessment and Learning in Knowledge Spaces, eXtended…
van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.
When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…
Mendes, Elise; Jordão de Carvalho, Claudinê; Gargiulo, Victor; da Mota Alves, João Bosco
This article aims at reporting on the process of tutors training for the planning of distance education at the undergraduate Administration course at the Federal University of Uberlandia-Brazil. It describes a participatory research training of tutors in the use of concept mapping (CM) and concept mapping software to encourage individual…
Reed, Stephen K.; Corbett, Albert; Hoffman, Bob; Wagner, Angela; MacLaren, Ben
Algebra students studied either static-table, static-graphics, or interactive-graphics instructional worked examples that alternated with Algebra Cognitive Tutor practice problems. A control group did not study worked examples but solved both the instructional and practice problems on the Cognitive Tutor (CT). Students in the control group…
Requiring a knowledge of the PLATO system and a command of the TUTOR language, this manual describes the format and the restrictions for the following TUTOR operations: (1) calculations; (2) data keeping; (3) judging responses; (4) presenting; (5) routing; and (6) sequencing. Within each section, relevant commands are defined, and restrictions are…
Peer tutoring is viewed as a valuable component of additional language learning due to the presence of a more knowledgeable interlocutor. Yet researchers and language program directors alike often ignore the linguistic and cultural differences that peer tutors possess, instead categorizing them homogeneously as "experts" or "native…
Spencer, Vicky G.
This article presents an updated research synthesis on the use of students with emotional or behavioral disorders as tutors and/or tutees. Thirty-eight studies from 1972 to 2002 were identified in which students with emotional or behavioral disorders served as tutors and/or tutees in order to teach their peers a variety of academic and social…
Isaacs, L. M.; Stennett, R. G.
The results of a pilot study of a reading tutor program that had as its focus the creation of a suitable reporting system for insuring adequate implementation of the program are discussed in this paper. The use of learning resource teachers (LRTs) to train tutors, select tutees, monitor implementation, and establish home-based reinforcement is…
Lingo, Amy Shearer
This study evaluated the effectiveness of high school tutors' implementation of "Great Leaps Reading" (Campbell, 1998), a reading fluency supplementary instructional program. The program consists of three sections: phonics, sight word phrases, and story passages. Daily 15-minute tutoring sessions involved repeated 1-minute timings of…
Müller, Bettina; Richter, Tobias; Križan, Ana; Hecht, Teresa; Ennemoser, Marco
Reading strategy interventions relying upon peer tutoring are a common way to foster poor readers' comprehension skills. Those interventions are based on the assumption that tutees benefit from the (higher) reading skills of their tutors. However, this interpersonal effect has not yet been tested explicitly because the effectiveness of peer…
Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina
Despite tutors' importance, they often encounter inadequate professional development and support. This study describes the impact of peer observation of teaching activities on tutors' professional development using multiple data-sets over a three-year period. The data was analysed according to three themes: situated learning, reflective…
Pavlik, Philip, Jr.; Toth, Joe
The plethora of different subfields in intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are often difficult to integrate theoretically when analyzing how to design an intelligent tutor. Important principles of design are claimed by many subfields, including but not limited to: design, human-computer interaction, perceptual psychology, cognitive psychology,…
Bonar, Jeffrey; And Others
This technical report describes a generic architecture for building intelligent tutoring systems which is developed around objects that represent the knowledge elements to be taught by the tutor. Each of these knowledge elements, called "bites," inherits both a knowledge organization describing the kind of knowledge represented and tutoring…
Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip
This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…
Olson, Peter C.
Acting as a tutor can increase a student's academic skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of two types of reading fluency building strategies--echo reading and error correction--for the fluency improvement of tutors. Forty lower performing readers were trained in echo reading and error correction. Then,…
Houge, Timothy T.; Peyton, David; Geier, Constance; Petrie, Bruce
The purpose of this research project was to examine the effectiveness of supervised literacy tutoring delivered by 25 secondary teacher candidates to middle and high school students via webcam technology and in person. The results stem from two semester-long studies of technology-delivered tutoring from a university to middle and high school…
Chi, Michelene T. H.; Roy, Marguerite; Hausmann, Robert G. M.
The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing…
Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt
Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…
Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.
Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…
Corbett, Albert; Kauffman, Linda; Maclaren, Ben; Wagner, Angela; Jones, Elizabeth
Genetics is a unifying theme of biology that poses a major challenge for students across a wide range of post-secondary institutions, because it entails complex problem solving. This article reports a new intelligent learning environment called the Genetics Cognitive Tutor, which supports genetics problem solving. The tutor presents complex,…
Panagiotis, Anastasiades; Chrysoula, Iliadou
Two-way communication between students and tutors is one of the two key factors contributing to the success of a Distance Learning programme, the other being the complete and well-designed educational package. Both elements are essential to guide students' learning. By means of this communication the tutor can facilitate the interaction of…
Chang, Sau Hou
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…
With a continuing emphasis on improving student reading achievement across the nation, many elementary educators are exploring the idea of initiating a volunteer reading tutoring program. Although individuals associated with tutoring programs may think about implementation issues, often the focus is on program location, the recruitment and…
Calma, Angelito; Eggins, Mark
This paper investigates how a peer-connected tutor training program can lead to quality enhancement by helping tutors to develop more effective teaching strategies and promoting better learning approaches among business students. It uses 2007-2010 evaluation data from 343 program participants from accounting, economics, finance and management and…
Legutko, Robert S.
Background: The idea for attempting a distance tutoring project between university tutors and elementary school students using Microsoft NetMeeting was conceived: (a) to provide a new experience mentoring children for university students pursuing a teaching certificate, (b) for university students to utilize technology in pedagogy, (c) as an…
Wolfe, Christopher; Widmer, Colin L.; Weil, Audrey M.; Cedillos-Whynott, Elizabeth M.
Students in an undergraduate psychology course on Learning and Cognition used SKO (formerly AutoTutor Lite), an Intelligent Tutoring System, to create interactive lessons in which a pedagogic agent (animated avatar) engages users in a tutorial dialogue. After briefly describing the technology and underlying psychological theory, data from an…
Chien, Tsai Chen; Md. Yunus, Aida Suraya; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Bakar, Ab. Rahim
In this experimental study, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) followed by use of an Intelligent Tutoring System (CAI+ITS) was compared to the use of CAI (CAI only) in tutoring students on the topic of Algebraic Expression. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group of 32 students studied algebraic expression in a CAI…
Merlo, Jarrad R.; Gruba, Paul A.
Despite an increased emphasis on form-focused instruction (FFI), the use of the computer as a grammar tutor has remained largely unexamined for nearly two decades. With new technologies at hand, there is a need to take a fresh look at online grammar tutors and link designs more strongly to contemporary second language acquisition (SLA) principles…
Kim, Stacey C.; Warren, Susan
This study examined the effects of professional development on strengthening the efficacy and civic engagement of college students tutoring diverse K-5th grade English Language Learners in an urban community. A mixed methods approach including pre-and post-surveys, focus groups, weekly reflections, and supervisor observations revealed tutors'…
Gordon, Edward E.; Morgan, Ronald R.; O'Malley, Charles J.; Ponticell, Judith
This book presents a comprehensive research-driven perspective on what we know and do not know about tutoring. The authors link theories, research, and practice together in a coherent, consistent manner to form a new foundation of specific recommendations and strategies to help improve tutoring across America. The book includes practical…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges faced by tutors who were providing remedial literacy support to New Zealand apprentices. Design/methodology/approach: As part of a wider, triangulated study of employers, tutors, apprentices, and industry training coordinators, the author undertook a qualitative analysis of ten…
Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.
We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…
Qi, Manfei; Ma, Ding; Wang, Wansen
Aiming at emotion deficiency in present Network tutoring system, a lot of negative effects is analyzed and corresponding countermeasures are proposed. The model of Personalized Network tutoring system based on Emotional-cognitive interaction is constructed in the paper. The key techniques of realizing the system such as constructing emotional model and adjusting teaching strategies are also introduced.
The present study employed a functional approach to assess the motivations of tutors volunteering at a non-profit tutoring program. Based on the work of Clary et al. (1998), the "Volunteer Functions Inventory" (VFI) was used to differentiate between six different functions or motivations; values, understanding, social, career, protective and…
Okoroma, Francisca N.
Peer tutoring plays a very significant role in teaching and learning, its gain is not limited to positive academic performance but extends to social life development. This work seeks to identify the impact peer tutoring has on librarians in training at the University of Ibadan, including the motives and strategies of the participants, the benefits…
Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine
Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…
Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Xiaohao
This paper analyzes the behavior of families in China regarding private tutoring, applying game theory to its discussion of their actions. It finds that families will definitely give their children private tutoring after school in order to obtain better educational opportunities in situations where the distribution of educational resources is…
State Univ. of New York, Brockport. Coll. at Brockport.
The worksheets and tutor tips included in this document were created to tutor the employees of the Faculty Student Association at the State University of New York College at Brockport. They contain general objectives for all workers as well as those related to their jobs in operating the dining rooms at the university. The materials list 39 job…
State Univ. of New York, Brockport. Coll. at Brockport.
The worksheets and tutor tips included in this document were created to tutor the physical plant employees at the State University of New York College at Brockport. They contain general objectives for all workers as well as those related to their jobs in maintenance of the buildings and grounds of the university. The materials list 44 job…
Winder, Linda; And Others
In an effort to assess the effectiveness of peer tutoring in reducing the frequency of disruptive behavior among students, a second grade class was taught with two alternating methods, direct instruction and peer tutoring. Nine types of disruptive behaviors were recorded during each of the two instructional treatments: out-of-seat behavior,…
Barton, James M.
Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…
De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Valcke, Martin
We aimed to investigate how metacognitive regulation is characterised during collaborative learning in a higher education reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) setting. Sixty-four Educational Sciences students participated in a semester-long RPT-intervention and tutored one another in small groups of six. All sessions of five randomly selected RPT-groups…
Brown, Barbara E.
Describes a study that identified and ranked the major competencies and attributes needed by beginning volunteer literacy tutors of English-speaking adults. Results implied that during the preservice training of tutors, emphasis should be placed on developing interpersonal skills and awareness. (NRJ)
Reinheimer, David; McKenzie, Kelly
A cohort of first-time, full-time, degree-seeking undeclared freshmen at a medium-sized university in Pennsylvania was used to study the relationship between tutoring and the retention rates and decision paths of undeclared students. Undeclared students who did and did not receive tutoring were tracked over four years to determine rate and…
Pantoja, Maria Veronica
Writing centers in American institutions of higher education have existed in one form or another since the late 1800s and early 1900s, providing individualized writing tutoring and support for students. As writing centers evolved, questions arose regarding the effects of writing tutoring on student writing. Some assessment studies on writing…
Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth; Phillips, Robert; Ingram, Amy; Ha, Eun Young; Wallis, Michael; Vouk, Mladen; Lester, James
Identifying effective tutorial dialogue strategies is a key issue for intelligent tutoring systems research. Human-human tutoring offers a valuable model for identifying effective tutorial strategies, but extracting them is a challenge because of the richness of human dialogue. This article addresses that challenge through a machine learning…
Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Che-Ching; Liang, Tyne
As more and more undergraduate students act as voluntary tutors to rural pupils after school, there is a growing need for a supporting environment to facilitate adaptive instruction. Among others, a teaching method retrieval system is intended to help tutors find relevant teaching methods for teaching a particular concept. However, teaching…
The face-to-face computer-supported collaborative learning has emerged as an important strategy to elementary students' learning. Few studies have explicitly incorporated the structured peer tutoring to the synchronous environment in mathematics. This study was aimed to explore the effects of the synchronous peer tutoring system on children's…
Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Renkl, Alexander; Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.
Recent studies have tested the addition of worked examples to tutored problem solving, a more effective instructional approach than the untutored problem solving used in prior worked example research. These studies involved Cognitive Tutors, software designed to support problem solving while minimizing extraneous cognitive load by providing…
Mondeik, Shelly L.
This mixed-methods study examined the impact of professional nursing tutors on National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) success. Thirty-eight nursing student success rates from Northcentral Technical College, a two year technical college in Wisconsin, were analyzed by using NCLEX pass rate information, professional tutoring logs, and a…
Previous studies show that attending private tutoring has become a necessity to many primary and secondary students in East Asia. Educational policies and their effective implementation are crucial to guarantee the healthy development of the private tutoring industry and thus protect the rights of students and their families. Under the framework…
Ragonis, Noa; Hazzan, Orit
This paper offers a tutoring model its objective is to develop and establish the pedagogical-disciplinary knowledge of prospective computer science teachers with respect to guiding learners in problem-solving processes. The paper presents the tutoring model and the research that accompanied its implementation. The research findings indicate that…
Court, Krista; Johnson, Helen
Strong arguments have been forwarded for embedding academic writing development into the UK higher education curriculum and for subject tutors to facilitate this development (Hyland, 2000; Lea & Street, 2006; Monroe, 2003; Wingate, 2006). This small-scale case study explores subject tutors' practices and beliefs with regard to the provision of…
Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.
Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the…
Tutors' and students' intentions to use emerging technologies (ETs) in e-learning systems in higher education institutions are a central concern of researchers, academicians, and practitioners. However, tutors' and students' intentions to use ETs in e-learning systems in distance learning are relatively low. The goal of the study, developed in…
Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…
Tyler Junior Coll., TX.
A project conducted at Tyler Junior College (Texas) developed a video and a handbook to train tutors and assist instructors to: employ learning strategies developed specifically for occupational students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit disorder (ADD); build affective skills on their advisory tutors/students; and strengthen the…
Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra
The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…
Maheady, Larry; Mallette, Barbara; Harper, Gregory F.
In this special issue, readers were introduced to three powerful, evidence-based instructional practices that hold great promise for ameliorating many of the reading difficulties encountered by pupils in 21st century classrooms. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and START tutoring have emerged from over…
Dufrene, Brad A.; Reisener, Carmen D.; Olmi, D. Joe; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly; McNutt, Marlena R.; Horn, Dana R.
Peer tutoring is an evidence-based procedure for improving academic performance for a variety of skill areas. The current study evaluated the feasibility and impact of a peer tutoring package for reading fluency with 4 middle school students receiving Tier II remedial supports. This study used a multiple baseline design across participants to…
Atherley, C. A.
Describes a 12-week peer tutoring reading program for primary students. Students showed significant reading gains when compared with a control group, but lost these gains when they returned to individual silent reading. Concludes that peer tutoring is an under-utilized but valuable teaching strategy. (Author/LS)
Spencer, Vicky G.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Oatis, Tonia L.
This article presents an update of the research on the use of peer tutoring and students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). Nine studies from 2001 to 2007 were identified in which students with EBD served as tutors and/or tutees to teach their peers academic and social behaviours. Five of these studies included elementary students,…
Veerkamp, Mary Baldwin; Kamps, Debra M.; Cooper, Lori
This study investigated the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) on the reading skills of urban middle-school students using novels as the curriculum. Teacher-led instruction was compared with CWPT and CWPT plus a lottery contingency for appropriate on-task and tutoring behaviors. Three sixth-grade general education reading classes under the…
Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.
Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy
This paper describes a study addressing the issue of developing an appropriate mapping of knowledge acquisition methods to problem types for intelligent tutoring system development. Recent research has recognized that knowledge acquisition methodologies are not general across problem domains; the effectiveness of a method for obtaining knowledge depends on the characteristics of the domain and problem solving task. Southwest Research Institute developed a taxonomy of problem types by evaluating the characteristics that discriminate between problems and grouping problems that share critical characteristics. Along with the problem taxonomy, heuristics that guide the knowledge acquisition process based on the characteristics of the class are provided.
Barganski, Linda M.
The purpose of the study was to understand reading tutors' perceptions of the effectiveness of tutorial programs on reading achievement of at-risk students in a South Texas school district. Fifty-eight reading tutors tutoring at-risk students in grades 3-8 were asked to complete a survey entitled "Reading Tutor Survey" and "Characteristics of a…
Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário
The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.
Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário
The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance. PMID:22441291
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Schatschneider, Christopher; Hamlett, Carol L.; DeSelms, Jacqueline; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Wilson, Julie; Craddock, Caitlin F.; Bryant, Joan D.; Luther, Kurstin; Changas, Paul
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. PMID:24065865
Trovato, J; Bucher, B
An operant-based corrective reading program was established to study effectiveness of peer tutoring in the school, for reading deficient children. Sixty-nine second to fourth grade students were matched on measures of initial reading ability and level of reading retardation, and randomly assigned to three groups: Peer Tutoring Only, Peer Tutoring with Home Based Reinforcement, and Control. SRA materials were used in training for the experimental groups, supplemented with additional reading materials. The program continued for 15 weeks, in seven public schools. Changes in oral reading accuracy and comprehansion were assessed. Both reading and comprehension were significantly increased by peer tutoring, relative to the control group. The addition of home-based reinforcement doubled this increase. The measured gain in oral reading, based upon standardized testing, was 0.19 years for the controls and 1.27 years for peer tutoring with home-based reinforcement. Internal measures of gain showed similar results, and comprehension gains were also comparable. A high rate of compliance with the tutoring program was maintained by the tutors. High ratings of satisfaction were obtained for the program, from all groups of participants. The feasibility of the program for application in the school system is discussed. PMID:7364691
Weber, Tobias; Hoffmann, Henriette
Aim: The Center for Interprofessional Training in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, has offered courses covering interprofessional material since the winter semester 2014/15. The unusual feature of these courses is that they are co-taught by peer tutors from medicine and nursing. This study investigates the subjective experiences of these tutors during the collaborative preparation and teaching of these tutorials with the aim of identifying the effects of equal participation in the perceptions and assessments of the other professional group. Method: Semi-structured, guideline-based interviews were held with six randomly selected tutors. The interviews were analyzed using structuring content analysis. Results: The results show that collaborative work led to reflection, mostly by the university student tutors, on the attitudes held. However, the co-tutors from each professional group were perceived to different degrees as being representative of those in their profession. Asked to master a shared assignment in a non-clinical context, the members of the different professional groups met on equal footing, even if the medical students had already gathered more teaching experience and thus mostly assumed a mentoring role over the course of working on and realizing the teaching units. The nursing tutors were primarily focused on their role as tutor. Both professional groups emphasized that prior to the collaboration they had an insufficient or no idea about the theoretical knowledge or practical skills of the other professional group. Overall, the project was rated as beneficial, and interprofessional education was endorsed. Conclusion: In the discussion, recommendations based on the insights are made for joint tutor training of both professional groups. According to these recommendations, harmonizing the teaching abilities of all tutors is essential to ensure equality during cooperation. Ideally
US Department of Education, 2009
Supplemental educational services (SES) are additional academic instruction designed to increase the academic achievement of students in schools in need of improvement. These services may include academic assistance such as tutoring, remediation and other educational interventions, provided that such approaches are consistent with the content and…
Erdil, Kutlay M.
This paper investigates the relationship between quality of support services in online education and the level of satisfaction of e-learners with these services. Case study was employed to measure University of Surrey's virtual MBA students' satisfaction with course facilitator, personal tutor and help desk functions designed for online education.…
Brockett, Ralph G.
Reviews the publications program of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education over the past 10 years, including "Adult Education Quarterly," the change from "Lifelong Learning" to "Adult Learning," publication award winners, and ownership of association publications. (SK)
... year of postsecondary education; (d) Assistance with choosing and declaring an academic major; (e) Assistance regarding academic, social, and personal areas of need; (f) Referrals to providers of appropriate services; (g) Tutoring, mentoring, and supplemental academic support; (h) Assistance with...
... year of postsecondary education; (d) Assistance with choosing and declaring an academic major; (e) Assistance regarding academic, social, and personal areas of need; (f) Referrals to providers of appropriate services; (g) Tutoring, mentoring, and supplemental academic support; (h) Assistance with...
... year of postsecondary education; (d) Assistance with choosing and declaring an academic major; (e) Assistance regarding academic, social, and personal areas of need; (f) Referrals to providers of appropriate services; (g) Tutoring, mentoring, and supplemental academic support; (h) Assistance with...
Lee, Kyong-Hee; Statham, Anne
This study examines the benefits that can be achieved by pre-service teachers tutoring mathematics in after school programs. Analysis of student journal entries show enhanced ability to meet National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) process standards and methods of assessment, as well as greater awareness of the need to teach to…
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Johnson, W. Lewis
We are interested in developing effective performance-oriented training for the operation of systems that are used for monitor and control purposes. We have focused on one such system, the communications Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which is a worldwide system for navigating, tracking and communicating with unmanned interplanetary spacecraft. The tasks in this domain are procedural in nature and require reactive, goal-oriented skills; we have previously described a cognitive model for problem solving that accounts for both novice and expert levels of behavior as well as how skill is acquired. Our cognitive modeling work in this task domain led us to make a number of predictions about tutoring that have influenced the design of the system described in this paper.
Johnson, Debra Steele
An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who had no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.
Truszkowski, Walter F.
The spacecraft command/control environment is becoming increasingly complex. As we enter the era of Space Station and the era of more highly automated systems, it is evident that the critical roles played by operations personnel in supervising the many required control center system components is becoming more cognitively demanding. In addition, the changing and emerging roles in the operations picture have far-reaching effects on the achievement of mission objectives. Thus highly trained and competent operations personnel are mandatory for success. Keeping pace with these developments has been computer-aided instruction utilizing various artificial intelligence technologies. The impacts of this growing capability on the stringent requirements for efficient and effective control center operations personnel is an area of much concentrated study. Some of the research and development of automated tutoring systems for the spacecraft command/control environment is addressed.
Johnson, William B.; Norton, Jeffrey E.; Duncan, Phillip C.
An Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) transcends conventional computer-based instruction. An ITS is capable of monitoring and understanding student performance thereby providing feedback, explanation, and remediation. This is accomplished by including models of the student, the instructor, and the expert technician or operator in the domain of interest. The space shuttle fuel cell is the technical domain for the project described below. One system, Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT), demonstrates that ITS's can be developed and delivered, with a reasonable amount of effort and in a short period of time, on a microcomputer. The MITT system capitalizes on the diagnostic training approach called Framework for Aiding the Understanding of Logical Troubleshooting (FAULT) (Johnson, 1987). The system's embedded procedural expert was developed with NASA's C-Language Integrated Production (CLIP) expert system shell (Cubert, 1987).
Seamster, Thomas; Baker, Clifford; Ames, Troy
Lessons learned during the development of the NASA Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The purpose of the intelligent tutor is to train STOL users by adapting tutoring based on inferred student strengths and weaknesses. This system has been under development for over one year and numerous lessons learned have emerged. These observations are presented in three sections, as follows. The first section addresses the methodology employed in the development of the STOL ITS and briefly presents the ITS architecture. The second presents lessons learned, in the areas of: intelligent tutor development; documentation and reporting; cost and schedule control; and tools and shells effectiveness. The third section presents recommendations which may be considered by other ITS developers, addressing: access, use and selection of subject matter experts; steps involved in ITS development; use of ITS interface design prototypes as part of knowledge engineering; and tools and shells effectiveness.
McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod
The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.
Wu, Hang; Miller, L. Keith
This experiment evaluated the effects of training tutors to use an instructional package to teach pronunciation and translation of the Chinese language. Tutors' correct use of the package increased from 68% of trials to 92% after training, and student correct pronunciation increased from 45% to 90%, with similar effects for translation. Continued use of the package, high social validity, and extended follow-up suggest that use of the package may be sustainable. PMID:22403470
Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline
Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.
Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline
Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice. PMID:23421011
Kenya, Amilliah W.; Hart, John F.; Vuyiya, Charles K.
Objective: This study compared National Board of Chiropractic Examiners part I test scores between students who did and did not serve as tutors on the subject matter. Methods: Students who had a prior grade point average of 3.45 or above on a 4.0 scale just before taking part I of the board exams were eligible to participate. A 2-sample t-test was used to ascertain the difference in the mean scores on part I between the tutor group (n = 28) and nontutor (n = 29) group. Results: Scores were higher in all subjects for the tutor group compared to the nontutor group and the differences were statistically significant (p < .01) with large effect sizes. Conclusion: The tutors in this study performed better on part I of the board examination compared to nontutors, suggesting that tutoring results in an academic benefit for tutors themselves. PMID:26998665
Dolmans, Diana H J M; Gijselaers, Wim H; Moust, Jos H C; de Grave, Willem S; Wolfhagen, Ineke H A P; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
The tutor role in problem-based learning (PBL) has attracted the interest of many researchers and has led to an abundance of studies. This article reports on major trends in studies investigating the tutor during the past 10 years. Three major trends were observed by the authors while analysing the studies conducted: studies on the differential influence of content expert and non-content expert tutors on student achievement, studies on process variables, and studies on the relationship between tutor characteristics and differential contextual circumstances. The aim of this article is to summarize the main findings of the studies conducted so far within the three trends observed, to provide directions for educational practitioners and policy makers, and to suggest directions for future research questions. The studies included were selected by conducting a literature search in medical journals, which was complemented with the personal archives of the authors. The results of the studies conducted within the three trends of research have led to advanced insights in tutoring. The outcomes revealed that content expert tutors tend to use their subject-matter expertise more to direct the discussion in the tutorial group, whereas non-content expert tutors tend to use their process-facilitation expertise more to direct the tutorial group. Furthermore, a tutor's performance is not a stable characteristic but is partly situation specific. It is concluded that a tutor should both know how to deal with the subject matter expertise and should know how to facilitate the learning process. Faculty and policy makers should put substantial efforts into designing curricula and cases and developing tutors' skills by faculty development strategies that stimulate reflection. The research agenda should be driven more by modern educational theories of learning in which tutoring is a process aimed at stimulating constructive, self-directed, situated and collaborative learning by students
Ong, James; Noneman, Steven
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) encode and apply the subject matter and teaching expertise of experienced instructors to provide students with individualized instruction automatically. ITSs complement training simulators by providing automated instruction when it is not economical or feasible to dedicate an instructor to each student during training simulations. Despite their proven training effectiveness and favorable operating cost, however, relatively few ITSs are in use. This is largely because it is usually costly and difficult to encode the task knowledge used by the ITS to evaluate the student's actions and assess the student's performance. Procedural tasks are tasks for which there exist procedures, guidelines, and strategies that determine the correct set of steps to be taken within each situation. To lower the cost and difficulty of creating tutoring systems for procedural task training, Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. (SHAI) worked closely with the Operations Training Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop the Task Tutor Toolkit (T (exp 3)), a generic tutoring system shell and scenario authoring tool. The Task Tutor Toolkit employs a case-based reasoning approach where the instructor creates a procedure template that specifies the range of student actions that are "correct" within each scenario. Because each procedure template is specific to a single scenario, the system can employ relatively simple reasoning methods to represent a correct set of actions and assess student performance. This simplicity enables a non-programmer to specify task knowledge quickly and easily by via graphical user interface, using a "demonstrate, generalize, and annotate" paradigm, that recognizes the range of possible valid actions and infers principles understood (or misunderstood) by the student when those actions are carried out. The Task Tutor Toolkit was also designed to be modular and general, so that it can be interfaced with a wide range of
McNamara, Danielle S; Jacovina, Matthew E; Snow, Erica L; Allen, Laura K
Work in cognitive and educational psychology examines a variety of phenomena related to the learning and retrieval of information. Indeed, Alice Healy, our honoree, and her colleagues have conducted a large body of groundbreaking research on this topic. In this article we discuss how 3 learning principles (the generation effect, deliberate practice and feedback, and antidotes to disengagement) discussed in Healy, Schneider, and Bourne (2012) have influenced the design of 2 intelligent tutoring systems that attempt to incorporate principles of skill and knowledge acquisition. Specifically, this article describes iSTART-2 and the Writing Pal, which provide students with instruction and practice using comprehension and writing strategies. iSTART-2 provides students with training to use effective comprehension strategies while self-explaining complex text. The Writing Pal provides students with instruction and practice to use basic writing strategies when writing persuasive essays. Underlying these systems are the assumptions that students should be provided with initial instruction that breaks down the tasks into component skills and that deliberate practice should include active generation with meaningful feedback, all while remaining engaging. The implementation of these assumptions is complicated by the ill-defined natures of comprehension and writing and supported by the use of various natural language processing techniques. We argue that there is value in attempting to integrate empirically supported learning principles into educational activities, even when there is imperfect alignment between them. Examples from the design of iSTART-2 and Writing Pal guide this argument.