de Silva, Deema; And Others
This handbook provides assistance for tutors in Operation Success, a program to provide limited-income and first-generation college students with academic support services to enable them to persist and graduate from Wichita State University (Kansas). The program provides an interconnected series of academic support services; peer tutoring is…
This study examined the effectiveness of secondary school tutoring services in the Chicago Public Schools, Illinois. During school year 2001-2002, researchers surveyed 4,211 students from four Latino plurality high schools. Survey questions addressed tutoring services. Five student focus groups were held at one school. Results indicated that many…
Hart, Steven Michael; King, James R.
How does service learning impact content acquisition? Undergraduate pre-service teachers participating in a literacy tutoring service-learning experience are compared with pre-service teachers engaged in self-selected and independently directed tutoring sessions. The findings of this study support previous assertions that service-learning…
This paper describes a community service learning (CSL) project that helped sixteen Latino/a teacher trainees in the areas of caring, social justice, bias reduction, teaching experience, personal growth, joy, and collaboration. The project was significant because the participants and the children they tutored were all Latinos who had shared…
Johnson, Marcia Veal
This study examines the use of student learning polls as indicators of student perceptions for tutoring services for the purpose of continuous improvement planning. As an integral part of the educational reform known as No Child Left Behind, continuous improvement plans must be developed by leadership teams when schools fail to make adequate…
Grainger, Michael J.
Under the mandates of No Child Left Behind, supplemental educational services (SES) in the form of tutoring are provided to eligible students who attend schools in the 3rd year of program improvement status. A local suburban school district in the southern California currently uses a 3rd party tutoring model to provide tutoring services in both…
Polansky, Susan G.; Andrianoff, Timothy; Bernard, Jaclyn B.; Flores, Ana; Gardocki, Isabel A.; Handerhan, Ryan J.; Park, Jihea; Young, Lisa
This article examines the role of narrative in the learning process of language tutors in a university service-learning course involving collaboration between an institution of higher learning and public high schools in an urban setting. The tutors' personal narrative reflections offer multiple perspectives on interactions of tutors with high…
Keen, Sadie S.
This report describes a pilot program set up to test the feasibility of a student out-of-school tutoring service for 4th and 5th graders as a means of providing remedial instruction for potential dropouts. For testing purposes, a small-scale 5-session program was set up, using as tutors 9th through 12th grade volunteer students, from a local…
Tutoring teenagers is as much about building self confidence as teaching skills. This paper states that teenagers who have disengaged from reading probably had difficulty learning to read in the primary grades. According to most research, at this critical age, they missed the pleasure of getting lost in a story or discovering new information in…
Morrison, Julie Q.; English, Sarah Baker
This article describes a multiagency initiative to evaluate academic tutoring services by focusing on the processes that contribute to effective program implementation. Community-based tutoring service providers serving students in the Cincinnati Public Schools (OH) partnered to initiate a "Seal of Approval" process for promoting evidence-based…
Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid
A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…
Bjerke, Annette Hessen; Eriksen, Elisabeta
This article reports on the use of Rasch modelling to develop and validate an instrument measuring self-efficacy in tutoring children in primary mathematics (SETcPM). In response to the literature on teacher efficacy, the 20-item instrument aims to inform teacher educators, and is designed for novice pre-service teachers (nPSTs) preparing to teach…
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN... What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN... What recreation, academic tutoring, student safety, and health care services must homeliving...
Post, Carole K.
Described and evaluated are four alternative tutoring models for delivering supportive educational services to elementary grade learning disabled children in regular classes. Discussed are problems of individual programing and models such as the "Cascade of Services" to provide for differing educational needs. It is explained that the alternative…
Warkentien, Siri; Grady, Sarah
This Statistics in Brief contributes to current research by investigating the use of tutoring services among a nationally representative group of public school students enrolled in grades K-12. The report compares students in schools that have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for 3 or more years, and were thereby enrolled in schools that…
Blackburn, Michelle Durkin
With the push for adequate yearly progress (AYP), educators must find cost-effective strategies improve learning for all students. Tutoring has been found to be an effective strategy for improving students' learning. However, little research has been done to determine the influence of pre-service teachers as tutors. This quantitative,…
Hoff, David J.
This article describes one community-based nonprofit group that provides free tutoring to poor children under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law. Unlike most other tutoring sessions under the law, the one at Erie Neighborhood House, a social-services agency in Chicago, is not happening in a school building or at a corporate tutoring outlet. Those…
Kim, Mikyong Minsun
This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…
Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Bratt, Sharon E.
E-tutoring refers to individualized learning support mediated by Internet technology. While increased demand for tutors has led to a surge in commercial e-tutoring services, volunteer e-tutoring programs for children are rare. To test the viability of volunteer e-tutoring for elementary school students, 10 undergraduate students enrolled in a…
Castro Valley Unified School District, CA.
Presented are guidelines for developing a cross-age tutoring program in the elementary school. Program goals and expectations are said to include social and academic improvement, and increased self image of both tutors and younger children. Two models for cross-age tutoring are outlined, and the process of implementing the program is reviewed.…
Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Woloshyn, Vera E.; Elliott, Anne
Teacher candidates were tracked to monitor whether their former tutoring experience influenced their experiences as teacher candidates. Through interviews, email and group discussions, participants reflected on their teacher preparation experiences and their orientations to effective reading and writing instruction. At times, teacher candidates…
While starting a tutoring program may seem like a daunting and time-consuming task, it does not have to be. The best way to approach the creation and development of a tutoring service is with a list of clear objectives. In this article, the author describes the process she used to create a tutoring program with her English as a foreign language…
The study examined the ODL learners' perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University's (ZOU) Bachelor of Education (Educational Management) research students' experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the…
Leach-López, Maria A.
Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…
No Child Left Behind has been a boon to entrepreneurial supplemental educational service (SES) providers. Struggling schools must provide supplemental services to students in an effort to boost their achievement. Federal funds pay for much of this extra instruction; states may pick up some of the tab, as well. School systems may purchase…
Alqadoumi, Omar Mohamed
Previous studies in the field of e-tutoring dealt either with asynchronous tutoring or synchronous conferencing as modes for providing e-tutoring services to English learners. This qualitative research study reports the experiences of Arab ESL tutees with both asynchronous tutoring and synchronous conferencing. It also reports the experiences of…
NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.
Sawyers, Darryl Lavell
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and describe the implementation practices being used by school districts to notify and enroll parents into Supplemental Educational Services under No Child Left Behind. Parents participating in choice programs in the school districts of Savannah, Atlanta and Detroit participated in a survey…
Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Liao, Chen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Chen-Feng
To well prepare pre-service teachers for their future teaching, researchers and teacher-educators have been employing information and communication technology to improve pre-service teachers' learning of subject-matter knowledge, pedagogies, classroom-management skills, and so on. This study illustrates a service-learning project we conducted to…
Diskin, Karin S.
Little academic information exists regarding how private for-fee tutors view the business of tutoring and how they serve the needs of their clients. This study examined whether tutors view the provision of education as a fungible commodity driven by a business model or as a value-laden educational service. Using the concepts of globalization and…
Bryde, Beverly R.
This study compared the attitudes of preservice teachers toward using online tutoring versus face-to-face tutoring with K-12 students. California Lutheran University (CLU) developed a service learning, tutoring project within the teacher preparation foundations of education course in the summer of 2000. The CLU school of education purchased an…
Colver, Mitchell; Fry, Trevor
The present study examined undergraduate peer tutoring in three phases. Phase I qualitatively surveyed students' perceptions about the effectiveness of tutoring. Phase II examined the usefulness of promoting regular use of services through a tutoring contract. Phase III utilized an archival, quasi-experimental approach to estimate the effect of…
Joiner, Lottie L.
Discusses the challenges facing school districts in hiring qualified tutors to provide supplemental services for low-income students in failing Title I schools under the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Describes the supplemental-services provision of NCLB. (PKP)
John, Peter D.; Gravani, Maria N.
This article explores critically the case of university-provided inservice training for secondary teachers in Greece, using the experience of both tutors and teachers as they embark upon it. It draws upon an exploratory study carried out with 22 secondary teachers (philologists) and 12 university teachers in the context of two university…
Wood, Charles L.; Mackiewicz, Sara M.; Van Norman, Renee K.; Cooke, Nancy L.
Peer tutoring is an evidence-based strategy used across a wide range of age groups and settings. Teachers may find it challenging to successfully pair students for tutoring because the tutor must be able to evaluate the tutee's response as correct or incorrect. This article describes four examples of electronic devices that prompt tutors to…
This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…
Maximizing student potential requires explicit (yet flexible) guidelines for tutors and advisors. Many tutors enhance student potential by utilizing an effective process known as the "The Tutoring Cycle," which promotes content knowledge and facilitates independent success (MacDonald, 2000). Similarly, when students attend advising sessions in…
Harrison, Grant Von; And Others
Objectives of a four-phase study were (1) the discovery of relevant tutoring techniques when upper-grade elementary students tutor first-grade children who are having difficulty with sentence equations; (2) the empirical validation of the specified tutoring techniques identified; (3) the development and validation of an instrument for assessing a…
Styler, W. E.
The pamphlet describes the system developed at Hull University for providing tutors for adult education, and analyzes the use of full-time and part-time tutors. These tutors are responsible for teaching courses, generally shorter in duration than a standard academic course, and geared for adults not in school rather than for university students.…
Rubenstein, Ilene; And Others
Tutor training programs in composition which emphasize interpersonal skills while offering concentrated correctness doses of mechanics and grammar are inherently limiting. While interpersonal skills are important, they only superficially address the complex situation of tutoring. A prescription for a healthy tutor program, one which would allow…
Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao
Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)
This article examines the relationship between the use of online tutoring sessions and student success in developmental writing courses. The results suggest a statistically significant difference between the success rates, as measured by course grades, of those students who use the tutoring service and those who do not, thus suggesting the…
de Silva, Deema; Freund, Elizabeth
This handbook for tutors participating in the federally funded Operation Success Special Services Program, one of the college level TRIO programs designed to aid students from disadvantaged backgrounds, was compiled with the cooperation of tutors at the Wichita State University. The first section describes the needs of the students being tutored…
Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie
The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…
Ventura, Alexandre; Jang, Sunhwa
The private tutoring industry has come forward as the third great sector of education. The common sense representation about private tutoring is changing. The growing search for supplementary educational support services and the technological innovation have created a new paradigm. This paper focuses on one of the most interesting faces of this…
Cone, Richard; And Others
Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…
Rosberg, Merilee A.
As a direct result of the passage of the America Reads Challenge Act in 1997, Mt. Mercy College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has developed a reading tutor program. The program includes a college credit course and on-site visits by college faculty supervising student tutors. This article includes the rationale for development of a credit course for reading…
The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…
Anderson, John R.; Boyle, C. Franklin; Reiser, Brian J.
Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.
Johnson, David L.
After decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive psychology, a number of companies have emerged that offer intelligent tutor system (ITS) soft ware to schools. These systems try to mimic the help that a human tutor would provide to an individual student, something nearly impossible for teachers to accomplish in the…
Anderson, John R.; And Others
Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)
Examines the effects of tutoring on trained college tutors and tutees. Reports on interviews of 39 tutors and evaluations from 838 of their tutees, concluding that tutoring plays an integral role in the development of college students and that tutoring programs have value on campus. Lists the qualities of a good tutor, describes tutoring processes…
Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)
Armstrong, C. J.; Large, J. A.
Describes a microcomputer-based software package, Online Search Tutor (OST), which is designed to teach users online bibliographic searching. Modeled on software previously developed for the European Space Agency Information Retrieval Services (ESA-IRS), OST includes a database of 600 bibliographic records which will simulate actual search…
Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2013 International Pre-Conference (Lexington, Kentucky, November 3-5, 2013)
Commission for International Adult Education, 2013
The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…
Clarke, Linda; Abbott, Lesley
This study examines the perspectives of teacher tutors on the value of the online components of PGCE (Post Graduate Certificate in Education) courses at the University of Ulster. The work has been undertaken as part of the ESRC-funded project, "A Values-based Approach to Teacher Education." It is set within the value-laden contexts of government…
Centre County Vocational-Technical School, Pleasant Gap, PA. CIU 10 Bi-County Development Center for Adults.
This document contains the final report of Project PAL (Pennsylvania Adult Literacy), designed to address staff development needs at a Pennsylvania adult literacy center, and three manuals: a tutor training resource manual for use by coordinators in developing a 9.5 hour tutor-training session, a tutor handbook for volunteers, and a coordinator's…
Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Zedadra, Amina
In e-learning systems, tutors have a significant impact on learners' life to increase their knowledge level and to make the learning process more effective. They are characterized by different features. Therefore, identifying tutoring styles is a critical step in understanding the preference of tutors on how to organize and help the learners. In…
Ward, Wayne; Cole, Ron; Bolaños, Daniel; Buchenroth-Martin, Cindy; Svirsky, Edward; Weston, Tim
My Science Tutor (MyST) is an intelligent tutoring system designed to improve science learning by elementary school students through conversational dialogs with a virtual science tutor in an interactive multimedia environment. Marni, a lifelike 3-D character, engages individual students in spoken dialogs following classroom investigations using…
This document, which draws on the findings of a survey of further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom and case studies of 9 FE colleges, presents good practices for managers of tutoring programs and tutors. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the changing role of tutors in the post-16 sector and the importance of recruiting, training, and…
Muchanje, Peter N.; Njuguna, Felicita W.; Kalai, Jeremiah M.; Bironga, Sophia M.
The study sought to determine the influence of gender, Teachers Service Commission (TSC) adherence to career progression policy guidelines and tutors' exposure to professional development on career progression of tutors in primary teachers training colleges in Kenya. This study was a descriptive survey with 264 tutors randomly sampled from eight…
Hartman, Hope J.
Analyzes factors internal to the tutor and tutee (i.e., cognition, metacognition, and affect) and external to them (e.g., teacher/tutor background knowledge, educational environment, content to be learned, socioeconomic status, family background, and cultural forces) that influence the tutoring process. Suggests a theoretical framework for…
National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.
This manual, designed for the use of administrators in implementing a Youth Tutoring Youth Program (developed to encourage positive attitudes in tutors towards going to school, holding jobs, and helping others), outlines the employment of underachieving, disadvantaged 14- and 15-year-old Neighborhood Youth Corps enrollees as tutors for elementary…
Anderson, Linda Brown
Tutoring has long been recognized as superior to group instruction, especially for students with special needs. Tutors can adapt instruction to the learner's pace, learning style and level of understanding. Feedback and correction are immediate. Basic misunderstandings can be quickly identified and corrected. Tutoring also has emotional benefits:…
Isserlis, Janet; And Others
This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…
Goodlad, Sinclair, Ed.
This book provides an international, current account of the developments of mentoring and tutoring by students in tertiary and secondary education. Included are research reviews, case studies of mature projects, and ideas for new uses of student tutoring and mentoring. Chapter titles are as follows: "Students as Tutors and Mentors" (Sinclair…
Hawkridge, David; Wheeler, Matthew
Research into tutoring at a distance has a fairly long history and the functions of tutors in distance education institutions are well understood. Over the past 20 years research into online tutoring has advanced significantly as such institutions have "gone electronic": in this paper we cite published research from the UK Open University.…
Bailey, Geoffrey K.
Peer tutoring at the postsecondary level has been studied extensively, particularly over the last twenty years. Peer tutoring programs are common across institutional type and size in the United States (Boylan, Bonham, Bliss, & Saxon, 1995; Maxwell, 2001) given students' preferences for tutors who share age and status similarity (Cohen, 1986;…
Lane, Holly B.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; McCray, Erica D.; Tragash, Jennifer R.; Zeig, Jacqueline L.
The America Reads Challenge offers colleges and universities an opportunity to make a contribution to the community while enhancing the education of their students, employing tutoring as a service learning experience. At the same time, their efforts will help the institution develop and sustain community partnerships. This paper reports an…
Mynard, Jo; Almarzouqi, Iman
This article gives an overview of a piece of qualitative research conducted at a women's university in the United Arab Emirates. The aim of the study was to evaluate the English language peer tutoring programme in order to highlight benefits and challenges, and to make informed improvements. The study drew particularly on participant perceptions…
Discusses intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), one application of artificial intelligence to computers used in education. Basic designs of ITSs are described; examples are given including PROUST, GREATERP, and the use of simulation with ITSs; protocol analysis is discussed; and 38 prototype ITSs are listed. (LRW)
Siljander, Raymond P.; Reina, Jacqueline A.; Siljander, Roger A.
This book investigates the depth of the illiteracy problem in the United States and the rationale and administration of a literacy-learning program. Based on some of the latest reading research, the authors provide a comprehensive up-to-date look at literacy tutoring. Following an introduction to the illiteracy problem, the book focuses on…
Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean
Presents three tutors' contributions to writing center theory. Shows how writing center theory can be enriched by including tutor voices and perspectives. Discusses the importance of including tutors in the construction of writing center theory. (SG)
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…
Tutoring services often restrict their data collection and analysis practices to publicizing session counts and tutee GPAs. This study suggests that programs that offer writing consultation may enhance their sessions' epistemic power by researching their tutoring staff's instructional choices. After explaining why and describing how a…
This article links the demand for private tutoring to mounting desires for school choice. The number of private tutoring businesses is rapidly growing in Canada, even though its educational system lacks characteristics that spark a demand for those services in other countries. Testing ideas derived from the school choice literature, I examine…
Introduces and discusses a model of teaching and learning that can be used as a basis for building new types of educational infrastructure based upon the use of Web-based resources, peer group interaction and online tutoring. Discusses the special role that e-tutoring plays within online courses and outlines some of the implications of this…
Clark, John T., Ed.; Williams, Ron, Jr., Ed.
This manual, intended for use by tutors working with adults learning to read, offers a consolidated resource of specific instructional techniques and provides additional suggestions not covered in basic tutoring workshops. The manual summarizes a variety of approaches commonly used to instruct adults and provides background for three modes of…
Baker, Ryan S.
The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…
One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…
Scharold, Dagmar Stuehrk
Cooperative tutoring in a writing center setting consists of two tutors who work collaboratively with one student. It is a variation of one method of training new tutors, where the novice tutor observes the expert tutor during a tutoring session and eventually participates with the expert tutor. This study focused on the interactions between the…
Warren, Kimberly C.; Goodman, Bradley A.
We have defined an object-oriented software architecture for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS's) to facilitate the rapid development, testing, and fielding of ITS's. This software architecture partitions the functionality of the ITS into a collection of software components with well-defined interfaces and execution concept. The architecture was designed to isolate advanced technology components, partition domain dependencies, take advantage of the increased availability of commercial software packages, and reduce the risks involved in acquiring ITS's. A key component of the architecture, the Executive, is a publish and subscribe message handling component that coordinates all communication between ITS components.
Reiser, Brian J.
The pedagogical strategies of human tutors in problem solving domains are described and the possibility of incorporating these techniques into computerized tutors is examined. GIL (Graphical Instruction in LISP), an intelligent tutoring system for LISP programming, is compared to human tutors teaching the same material in order to identify how the…
Parker, Ellen M.
Two years ago Dr. Sherrie Gott of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory described an avionics troubleshooting tutor being developed under the Basic Job Skills Research Program. The tutor, known as Sherlock, is directed at teaching the diagnostic procedures necessary to investigate complex test equipment used to maintain F-15 fighter aircraft. Since Dr. Gott's presentation in 1987, the tutor has undergone field testing at two Air Force F-15 flying wings. The results of the field test showed that after an average of 20 hours on the tutor, the 16 airmen in the experimental group (who average 28 months of experience) showed significant performance gains when compared to a control group (having a mean experience level of 37 months) who continued participating in the existing on-the-job training program. Troubleshooting performance of the tutored group approached the level of proficiency of highly experienced airmen (averaging approximately 114 months of experience), and these performance gains were confirmed in delayed testing six months following the intervention. The tutor is currently undergoing a hardware and software conversion form a Xerox Lisp environment to a PC-based environment using an object-oriented programming language. Summarized here are the results of the successful field test. The focus is on: (1) the instructional features that contributed to Sherlock's success; and (2) the implementation of these features in the PC-based version of the avionics troubleshooting tutor.
Velasco, Jonathan B.; Stains, Marilyne
It has been established that both tutors and tutees gain from tutoring sessions. However, tutors' benefits may be enhanced or limited depending on the type of behaviours they perform during the tutoring sessions. Although behaviours enhancing both tutor and tutee learning can be promoted by training, generalized tutor training models that are…
Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; van Velsen, Martin; Popescu, Octav; Demi, Sandra; Ringenberg, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
In 2009, we reported on a new Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) technology, example-tracing tutors, that can be built without programming using the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT). Creating example-tracing tutors was shown to be 4-8 times as cost-effective as estimates for ITS development from the literature. Since 2009, CTAT and its…
Pritchard, David E.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia
This paper demonstrates that an electronic tutoring program can collect data that enables a far more reliable assessment of students' skills than a standard examination. Socratic electronic homework tutor, CyberTutor can integrate effectively instruction and assessment. CyberTutor assessment has about 62 times less variance due to random test…
Roscoe, Rod D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.
Prior research has established that peer tutors can benefit academically from their tutoring experiences. However, although tutor learning has been observed across diverse settings, the magnitude of these gains is often underwhelming. In this review, the authors consider how analyses of tutors' actual behaviors may help to account for variation in…
Matsuda, Noboru; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
SimStudent is a machine-learning agent initially developed to help novice authors to create cognitive tutors without heavy programming. Integrated into an existing suite of software tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT), SimStudent helps authors to create an expert model for a cognitive tutor by tutoring SimStudent on how to solve…
Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen
AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…
Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jorg; Nuckles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander
Tutors often have difficulty with accurately assessing a tutee's understanding. However, little is known about whether the professional expertise of tutors influences their assessment accuracy. In this study, the authors examined the accuracy with which 21 teacher tutors and 25 student tutors assessed a tutee's understanding of the human…
Chappell, Shanan; Arnold, Pamela; Nunnery, John; Grant, Melva
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the impact of synchronous online tutoring services on struggling middle school students' mathematics achievement. The online tutoring was provided as a response to intervention (RTI) Tier 3 support (intensive, individualized intervention) in schools implementing a school-wide mathematics…
Von Harrison, Grant; Cohen, Arthur M.
The increasing use of upper-grade students as tutors for younger children has been viewed as a means of reducing the achievement gap that exists among culturally-disadvantaged children. However, research has indicated that the potential of such a tutorial arrangement is linked closely to the tutoring techniques used, and unless student tutors are…
Pieters, Jules M., Ed.
This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative ITS" (Kanselaar,…
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai
"Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…
Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis
The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.
Woolf, Beverly Park; Poli, Corrado; Grosse, Ian; Day, Roberta
We have built several multimedia tutors for science and engineering education. This paper discusses Design for Manufacturing tutors and an electronic homework systems used by over 2000 students daily. The engineering tutors instruct students on efficient procedures for designing parts for manufacture. The goal is to support a deeper understanding…
Tutoring is one of those skills which require the ability to communicate an in-depth understanding of the subject. This article is about scaffolding while tutoring, and the tutoring talents described can be applied across the curriculum. Lev Vygotsky's ideas about communication and education play a key role in the development of scaffolding…
Linder, Steven; Gordon, Rhonda Ellen
A background manual for tutors explains and defines their role in a system of individualized education in some detail. Differences between the role of teacher and the role of tutor are analyzed. Methods of forestalling cheating and other "black-market operations" are discussed. Tutoring procedures are outlined and individualized education manuals…
Massaro, Dominic W.; Bosseler, Alexis; Stone, Patrick S.; Connors, Pamela
We have developed computer-assisted speech and language tutors for deaf, hard of hearing, and autistic children. Our language-training program utilizes our computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as the conversational agent, who guides students through a variety of exercises designed to teach vocabulary and grammer, to improve speech articulation, and to develop linguistic and phonological awareness. Baldi is an accurate three-dimensional animated talking head appropriately aligned with either synthesized or natural speech. Baldi has a tongue and palate, which can be displayed by making his skin transparent. Two specific language-training programs have been evaluated to determine if they improve word learning and speech articulation. The results indicate that the programs are effective in teaching receptive and productive language. Advantages of utilizing a computer-animated agent as a language tutor are the popularity of computers and embodied conversational agents with autistic kids, the perpetual availability of the program, and individualized instruction. Students enjoy working with Baldi because he offers extreme patience, he doesn't become angry, tired, or bored, and he is in effect a perpetual teaching machine. The results indicate that the psychology and technology of Baldi holds great promise in language learning and speech therapy. [Work supported by NSF Grant Nos. CDA-9726363 and BCS-9905176 and Public Health Service Grant No. PHS R01 DC00236.
Blowers, Sally; Ramsey, Priscilla; Merriman, Carolyn; Grooms, Janelle
Peer tutoring in higher education is an effective strategy for promoting academic gains. Within nursing, peer tutoring has been used in the clinical setting, but little information is available regarding its use across the nursing curriculum. A peer tutoring program was created at a regional Appalachian university to meet the needs of students with poor academic backgrounds and multiple risk factors for failure. As the program naturally evolved, students moved beyond the time-honored one-on-one model. Many tutoring patterns developed including dyad, small group, large group, skill based, assignment based, and question based. Qualitative evaluation data from the program revealed that each pattern required different tutor skills, involved varied tutor-tutoree relationships, focused on different outcomes, and had certain advantages and disadvantages. All tutoring patterns contributed to improved academic skills and performance. PMID:12769424
Spence, Mary Catherine
This manual is intended to assist tutors participating in a program to help nonreaders develop job search skills. The first two sections give an overview of the program and present general guidelines for working with students. Detailed suggestions are provided for working with students in sessions addressing the following questions: Am I ready to…
National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.
Part one of this manual introduces the supervisor to the Youth Tutoring Youth program and outlines his particular responsibilities; the outline also provides a guide to seven resource chapters in part two which contain specific information about how to fulfill the responsibilities. Through the resource chapters, information on the following…
Melton, T. R.
A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…
Research on intelligent tutoring systems is discussed from the point of view of providing moment-by-moment adaptation of content and form of instruction to the changing cognitive needs of individual learners. Implications of this goal for cognitive diagnosis, subject matter analysis, teaching tactics, and teaching strategies are analyzed. (Author)
National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.
A new type of Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) job station was tested by the National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc. The objective of this demonstration project was to explore the feasibility and value of establishing a "model" in-school NYC program whereby disadvantaged youth work as tutors for younger children. The program model, "Youth…
Blankenburg, Juele; Kariotis, Georgia
This paper describes the development of a college online tutor training course at Oakton Community College (Illinois) that attempted to solve the difficulties of training without a loss of effective practice. The online designers had two special considerations in course construction: maintaining the pedagogical soundness of the course modules and…
Meyer, Valerie; Keefe, Donald
According to natural-language theory, reading and writing are learned from whole to part, in meaningful contexts. Strategies based on this theory for literacy tutors to use include Characteristics of Good Readers; Apperceptive Interactive Method; Prime-O-Tec (repeated readings); Knows, Wants, Learned, Confused; and List It and Skip It. (SK)
Early in 1984, Logica started an ICAI research contract with MoD (Procurement Executive), which was to be undertaken in collaboration with the technical authority at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern. A prototype system, which has become known as TUTOR, was scheduled for delivery to the client later in 1985. Initially, and for…
Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank
The literature on peer tutoring indicates that gains for tutors often outdistance those of the students receiving help. Learning through teaching is a significant mechanism that provides an opportunity to reformulate and extend the use of peer tutoring. This digest discusses a new tutor-centered, peer tutoring model being designed at the Peer…
Person, Natalie; Erkel, Mary; Graesser, Arthur C.
In this study, the Bystander Turing Test (BTT) paradigm is used to determine whether participants rate particular dialog moves in tutoring transcripts to be generated by a computer tutor, AutoTutor, or by a skilled human tutor. Currently, AutoTutor initiates a conversation with the learner by posing a question or presenting a problem for the…
Graesser, Arthur C.
AutoTutor helps students learn by holding a conversation in natural language. AutoTutor is adaptive to the learners' actions, verbal contributions, and in some systems their emotions. Many of AutoTutor's conversation patterns simulate human tutoring, but other patterns implement ideal pedagogies that open the door to computer tutors eclipsing…
One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In
Gilbert, Stephen B.; Blessing, Stephen B.; Guo, Enruo
The Extensible Problem Specific Tutor (xPST) allows authors who are not cognitive scientists and not programmers to quickly create an intelligent tutoring system that provides instruction akin to a model-tracing tutor. Furthermore, this instruction is overlaid on existing software, so that the learner's interface does not have to be made from…
Berghmans, Inneke; Neckebroeck, Fanny; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien
Peer tutors' behaviour has been stated to have the power to create and increase learning opportunities within peer tutoring programs. However, previous studies have shown that peer tutors struggle to adopt facilitative and constructivist-oriented strategies, as they lean more towards directive and knowledge-telling strategies. This study aims…
A writing lab director's rationale for the development and use of a tutors' handbook emphasizes its function as a time-saver for all those involved in the lab and as a morale builder for the tutors. The handbook relates information about the paperwork involved in the lab and about the definition, purpose, and advantages of tutoring. Other benefits…
Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…
DeFeo, Dayna Jean; Caparas, Fawn
Much scholarship about writing centers addresses benefits to students; this article instead explores the gains inherent in tutoring for the tutors themselves. Using a phenomenological methodology, this study analyzes reflective narratives from eight former writing center tutors in order to identify commonalities in their experiences. Although they…
In this microanalysis, a university writing center conference with an experienced tutor and a student he has never met before is analyzed for the tutor's use of direct instruction, cognitive scaffolding, and motivational scaffolding. Along with verbal expressions of scaffolding, this analysis also considers the tutor's hand gestures--topic…
Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Heinrich, Carolyn
There is considerable variation in how providers of digital education describe what they do, their services, how students access services, and what is delivered, complicating efforts to accurately assess its impact. We examine program characteristics of digital tutoring providers using rich, longitudinal observational and interview data and then…
The recent curriculum changes in the South African education system have necessitated the development of large scale in-service training programmes for teachers. For some teacher training providers this has resulted in utilizing the services of tutors or facilitators from the various regions to deliver the programme. This article examines the role…
This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…
Describes a program in which closed circuit television (CCTV) is used to provide adult tutor training. The CCTV is used in two ways: (1) as part of an inservice training course to explore teaching methods; and (2) to let tutors see themselves as their students see them. (CT)
Blessing, Stephen B.; Gilbert, Stephen B.; Ourada, Stephen; Ritter, Steven
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that employ a model-tracing methodology have consistently shown their effectiveness. However, what evidently makes these tutors effective, the cognitive model embedded within them, has traditionally been difficult to create, requiring great expertise and time, both of which come at a cost. Furthermore, an…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate tutors. 544.83 Section 544.83 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.83 Inmate tutors. Institutions may establish...
Stewart, Jim; And Others
Describes an intelligent tutoring system named MENDEL, including problem GENERATOR, TUTOR, student MODELER, ADVISOR, hypothesis CHECKER, and problem SOLVER. This software may be used by high school or university biology students as a tool for learning concepts and problem-solving strategies in transmission genetics. (YP)
"An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…
Chen, Ya-Ting; Chou, Yung-Hsin; Cowan, John
With considerable input from the student voice, the paper centres on a detailed account of the experiences of Western academic, tutoring Eastern students online to develop their critical thinking skills. From their online experiences together as tutor and students, the writers present a considered case for the main emphasis in facilitative online…
The Carnegie Learning Cognitive Tutor curricula are based on cognitive models, which include a representation of the learner's thinking, strategies, and misconceptions. The Cognitive Tutor curricula typically speed up learning and yield greater learning as compared to traditional math curricula (Morgan & Ritter, 2002; Sarkis, 2004; Koedinger,…
Hamer, John; Purchase, Helen; Luxton-Reilly, Andrew; Denny, Paul
We report on a study comparing peer feedback with feedback written by tutors on a large, undergraduate software engineering programming class. Feedback generated by peers is generally held to be of lower quality to feedback from experienced tutors, and this study sought to explore the extent and nature of this difference. We looked at how…
A protocol study investigated whether computer tutors (programs that interactively guide writers while they freewrite with a word processing program) promote or hinder a richer understanding of the composing process. The analysis focused on writers' attitudes toward computer tutors in the invention process. Data were collected by tape recording a…
Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos
This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…
Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent
Intelligent tutoring systems are highly interactive learning environments that have been shown to improve upon typical classroom instruction. Cognitive Tutors are a type of intelligent tutor based on cognitive psychology theory of problem solving and learning. Cognitive Tutors provide a rich problem-solving environment with tutorial guidance in…
Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt
The authors investigated whether some advantages of tutoring over other instructional methods are due to microadaptation, or, tutors basing their actions on assessments of tutees they develop during tutoring. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, independent variables were shared experience (tutors either worked with the same or a different…
Latham, Annabel; Crockett, Keeley; McLean, David; Edmonds, Bruce
This paper proposes a generic methodology and architecture for developing a novel conversational intelligent tutoring system (CITS) called Oscar that leads a tutoring conversation and dynamically predicts and adapts to a student's learning style. Oscar aims to mimic a human tutor by implicitly modelling the learning style during tutoring, and…
Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha
CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…
De Smet, M.; Van Keer, H.; Valcke, M.
Cross-age tutors were randomly assigned to one of the three tutor training conditions distinguished for the current study: (1) the labelling experimental condition, characterized by requirements to label their tutor interventions, based on the e-moderating model of Salmon; (2) the non-labelling experimental condition, focusing on tutor's acting…
Hsiao, Ya Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor--tutee pairs of fourth-year secondary school students were created and assigned to one of the two treatments.…
Kalisz, Eugenia; Florea, Adina Magda
Emotions have been shown to have an important impact on several human processes such as decision-making, planning, cognition, and learning. In an e-learning system, an artificial tutor capable of effectively understanding and anticipating the student emotions during learning will have a significantly enhanced role. The paper presents a model of an artificial tutor endowed with synthesized emotions according to the BDE model, previously developed by the authors. It also analyzes possible student reactions while interacting with the learning material and the way the artificial tutor could anticipate and should respond to these reactions, with adequate actions.
Swigger, Kathleen; Loveland, Harry
An intelligent tutoring system for the space domain is described. This system was developed on a Xerox 1108 using LOOPS and provides an environment for discovering principles of ground tracks as a direct function of the orbital elements. Some of the more practical design and implementation issues associated with the development of intelligent tutoring systems are examined. Some solutions to the problems and some suggestions for future research are offered.
Corrigan, Julie A.
While technology use is becoming ever more ubiquitous in society, there are times when even the most useful of technologies faces non-adoption for a variety of contextual reasons. Educational institutions are increasingly relying on online academic support services such as e-tutoring to balance rising demands for public accountability over…
Basic Skills Agency, 2008
This publication contains a series of sessions developed and used by Newcastle City Council Family Learning Service and now published to share practice. The sessions were developed specifically to support "Skills for Life" tutors to deliver the adult literacy and numeracy curricula but can also be used by other practitioners. There are six…
Martens, A.; Bernauer, J.; Illmann, T.; Seitz, A.
Since the beginning of the year 2000 medical students of the University of Ulm are working in their curriculum with the web-based and case-oriented tutoring system "Docs 'n Drugs - The Virtual Polyclinic". The system consists of different subsystems and services. One subsystem is the Training System. It is based on three models: the Tutoring Process Model, the Case Knowledge Model and the Medical Knowledge Model. They describe the tutoring process as a series of nodes and steps, depict the structure of the medical cases, and provide the medical knowledge respectively. Case knowledge and medical knowledge form the expert knowledge of the medical domain. Together with the tutoring process, they build the basis for automatic intelligent tutoring. After giving a deeper insight into the system architecture and the training case structure, an informal evaluation shows a first feedback of the learners. PMID:11825225
Moreale, Emanuela; Vargas-Vera, Maria
This paper outlines an e-Learning services architecture offering semantic-based services to students and tutors, in particular ways to browse and obtain information through web services. Services could include registration, authentication, tutoring systems, smart question answering for students' queries, automated marking systems and a student…
Private tutoring has become popular throughout the world. However, evidence for the effect of private tutoring on students' academic outcome is inconclusive; therefore, this paper presents an alternative framework: a nonparametric bounds method. The present examination uses, for the first time, a large representative data-set in a European…
Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Joao, Pedro F. N.; Vaidya, Binod
Intelligent tutoring systems are any computer systems encompassing interactive applications with some intelligence that support and facilitate the teaching-learning process. The intelligence of these systems is the ability to adapt to each student throughout his/her learning process. This paper presents an intelligent tutoring system, called…
Almassaad, Ahmad; Alotaibi, Khaled
The research aims to identify the attitudes and opinions of tutees and tutors at King Saud University towards using cross-age online tutoring. An electronic survey and interviews were used to collect the data required for this study. A descriptive analysis was used as a research methodology. Thirty participants in this research were asked to…
Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin
International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…
Lazerson, David B.
Concerned professionals in the juvenile justice field frequently express concern for effective programs that help youth offenders successfully rejoin society. This mixed-method pilot study involved detention home teens functioning as tutors for special education students in a public school. Tutors were selected who, based on previous assessment as…
Nye, Benjamin D.; Morrison, Donald M.; Samei, Borhan
Archived transcripts from tens of millions of online human tutoring sessions potentially contain important knowledge about how online tutors help, or fail to help, students learn. However, without ways of automatically analyzing these large corpora, any knowledge in this data will remain buried. One way to approach this issue is to train an…
Katz, Sandra; Albacete, Patricia L.
For some time, it has been clear that students who are tutored generally learn more than students who experience classroom instruction (e.g., Bloom, 1984). Much research has been devoted to identifying features of tutorial dialogue that can explain its effectiveness, so that these features can be simulated in natural-language tutoring systems. One…
Much research has been conducted in the area of teacher professional identity in the past decades. Nonetheless, very little attention has been paid to the professional identity of tutors in distance education. Using interviews, this study set out to investigate distance tutors' claimed and assigned professional identities, their actual, ought and…
Tutor development is an essential part of academic staff development, yet is comparatively under-researched. This article examines what tutors value as most and least important in a program. Using data from more than 300 participants in three years, and using the dimensions or worth, merit and success as an analytical framework, the article…
Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula
The Pause, Prompt, and Praise method of tutor training has been used successfully to train older children and parents to provide remedial reading instruction. Tips for putting together a cross-age tutoring program are given. (MT)
Paslawski, Teresa; Kearney, Ramona; White, Jonathan
Introduction Problem-based learning (PBL) is resource-intensive, particularly as it relates to tutors for small group learning. This study explores the factors that contributed to tutor participation in PBL in a medical training program, examining tutor recruitment and retention within the larger scope of teacher satisfaction and motivation in higher education. Method From 2007 to 2010, following the introduction of new PBL-based curriculum in undergraduate medical education, all faculty members serving as tutors were invited to attend an interview as part of this study. Semi-structured interviews approximately one hour in length were conducted with 14 individuals- 11 who had tutored in PBL within the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry and 3 faculty members who had chosen not to participate in PBL. Thematic analysis was employed as the framework for analysis of the data. Results Seven factors were identified as affecting recruitment and retention of tutors in the undergraduate medical education program. Discussion We suggest that identification and strengthening of the factors that promote tutor recruitment and retention may serve to strengthen PBL initiatives and, furthermore, may increase our understanding of motivation by academics in other aspects of medical education. PMID:26451200
Waite, Kathryn; Gannon-Leary, Pat; Carr, James
Current trends in librarianship in higher education have indicated an increasing tutoring role for librarians in the online environment. This article examines how the role of the e-tutor is outlined in selected online learning literature before progressing to examine the implications for librarians of fulfilling the demanding e-tutoring role by…
Designed to examine the nature and extent of peer tutoring and tutor training at community colleges, this report reviews the literature on the topic, describes a national study conducted by the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), and reports on a survey of the attitudes of peer tutors at Johnson County Community College (JCCC)…
The Lycoming County (Pennsylvania) Literacy Project hosts a tutor training workshop approximately four times per year to certify tutors to teach its learners. Previously, the information provided for the tutors at this workshop consisted of nearly 100 handouts distributed at random. Comments and observations indicated that having such a large…
This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…
The purpose of a peer tutoring program is to assist those students who require ongoing and formal instruction in a subject area. If effectively run, it can have an impact on retention. There are five areas that need to be addressed when initiating a peer tutor program: (1) organization and funding; (2) supervision; (3) tutor training; (4) tutor…
Vick, Nicholas; Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Kite, Valerie
Tutoring is an important form of academic support for developmental education students. A comparison study was conducted to investigate the benefits of tutoring on the final grades for developmental English students who participated in tutoring versus those students who did not. The final grades for three consecutive semesters were analyzed to…
Over the past 3 years, a variety of studies in intelligent tutoring system (ITS) effectiveness have been conducted. A summary is provided of the research into the use of POSIT, MALM, and the Mobile Subscriber Remote-Telephone Terminal (MSRT) Tutor. POSIT is an ITS for the tutoring of whole-number subtraction. It assumes that the learning of a…
The Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS) was designed and developed to support the growing trend of Java programming around the world. JITS is an advanced web-based personalized tutoring system that is unique in several ways. Most programming Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS,…
Berberoglu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students'…
Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle
In this study, we quantitatively analyze the discourse of experienced writing center tutors in 10 highly satisfactory conferences. Specifically, we analyze tutors' instruction, cognitive scaffolding, and motivational scaffolding, all tutoring strategies identified in prior research from other disciplines as educationally effective. We find…
Dang, Trang; Ghenniwa, Hamada; Kamel, Mohamed
Proposes an interface agent for intelligent tutoring systems that creates a collaborative learning environment between the learner and the tutoring software. Describes implementation of a prototype using the IBM Agent Builder Environment Toolkit to use with an intelligent tutoring system for algebra and considers benefits in a lifelong learning…
This study analyzed the relation between volunteer tutor training and reading instruction in 4 adult literacy programs. The data focus on tutors' choices of reading materials and strategies for assisting in the development of comprehension and word identification skills. Tutor training did not always transfer to practice, and it did not always…
Sottilare, Robert A.; Proctor, Michael
It has been long recognized that successful human tutors are capable of adapting instruction to mitigate barriers (e.g., withdrawal or frustration) to learning during the one-to-one tutoring process. A significant part of the success of human tutors is based on their perception of student affect (e.g., mood or emotions). To at least match the…
Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula
A recent cost-benefit analysis was made of reduced class size, increased instructional time, computer-assisted instruction, and peer or cross-age tutoring. Tutoring turned out to have the greatest effect on student learning and to be the most cost effective. Implementation of a successful tutoring program is described. (MT)
Rundle, Debra A.; Watson, Carolyn K.; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Wehrli, Felix W.
The authors report on the Signa Tutor, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulator. Their goal was to cost-effectively teach MRI scanning techniques to technologists and physicians using the simulator, off-line from the General Electric (GE) Signa scanner. They implemented the scanner's user-interface for image acquisition, using HyperCard together with an Oracle database to maintain images and scan-parameters. The software operates on a standard Apple Macintosh-II computer. Two aspects of the project are reported in this paper. First, enhancements to the Signa Tutor, including Signa 4.0 pulse sequences and new images, are presented. Second, a time and motion study that compares image acquisition learning time using Signa Tutor verses traditional technologist training on the GE-Signa console is described. In this study, an expediency test was performed which compares the speed at which an operator performs a single scan sequence on both devices.
Baroffio, Anne; Nendaz, Mathieu R.; Perrier, Arnaud; Vu, Nu V.
Aim: In a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, tutor's feedback skills are important. However, evaluation studies often show that students rate many tutors as ineffective in providing feedback. We explored whether this is related: (a) to tutors' skills, and hence a teaching intervention might improve their performance; (b) to the formulation…
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
In the present study cross-age peer tutoring was implemented in a higher education context. Fourth-year students (N=39) operated as online tutors to support freshmen in discussing cases and solving authentic problems. This study contributes to a better understanding of the supportive interventions of tutors in asynchronous discussion groups. Peer…
Hughes, Carolyn; And Others
This curriculum is designed for a high school course in which nondisabled students receive training and act as peer tutors and role models for peers with special needs for one class period each day. An introductory course description covers peer tutor qualifications and requirements, examples of activities with peers, and benefits to peer tutors.…
Myneni, Lakshman Sundeep
Students in middle school science classes have difficulty mastering physics concepts such as energy and work, taught in the context of simple machines. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics often remain unchanged after completing a science class. To address this problem, I developed an intelligent tutoring system, called the Virtual Physics System (ViPS), which coaches students through problem solving with one class of simple machines, pulley systems. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching simple machines, and includes innovations in three areas. (1) It employs a teaching strategy that focuses on highlighting links among concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by students. (2) Concepts are taught through a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting) and simulations. (3) For each student, the system identifies which misconceptions he or she has, from a common set of student misconceptions gathered from domain experts, and tailors tutoring to match the correct line of scientific reasoning regarding the misconceptions. ViPS was implemented as a platform on which students can design and simulate pulley system experiments, integrated with a constraint-based tutor that intervenes when students make errors during problem solving to teach them and to help them. ViPS has a web-based client-server architecture, and has been implemented using Java technologies. ViPS is different from existing physics simulations and tutoring systems due to several original features. (1). It is the first system to integrate a simulation based virtual experimentation platform with an intelligent tutoring component. (2) It uses a novel approach, based on Bayesian networks, to help students construct correct pulley systems for experimental simulation. (3) It identifies student misconceptions based on a novel decision tree applied to student pretest scores, and tailors tutoring to
Arnott, Elizabeth; Hastings, Peter; Allbritton, David
Research Methods Tutor (RMT) is a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system for use in conjunction with undergraduate psychology research methods courses. RMT includes five topics that correspond to the curriculum of introductory research methods courses: ethics, variables, reliability, validity, and experimental design. We evaluated the effectiveness of the RMT system in the classroom using a nonequivalent control group design. Students in three classes (n = 83) used RMT, and students in two classes (n = 53) did not use RMT. Results indicated that the use of RMT yieldedstrong learning gains of 0.75 standard deviations above classroom instruction alone. Further, the dialogue-based tutoring condition of the system resulted in higher gains than did the textbook-style condition (CAI version) of the system. Future directions for RMT include the addition of new topics and tutoring elements. PMID:18697663
Lake, Vickie E.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Guidry, Lisa
This exploratory study examined the impact of tutoring programs on preservice teachers (PSTs) and tutees. The PSTs are assigned to either the Tutor-Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS) or Book Partners (BP) service-learning tutoring program and work with identified kindergarten or first-grade struggling readers. Three questions are…
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; McGavock, K.; Conlin, N.
Background: Large-scale randomised controlled trials are relatively rare in education. The present study approximates to, but is not exactly, a randomised controlled trial. It was an attempt to scale up previous small peer tutoring projects, while investing only modestly in continuing professional development for teachers. Purpose: A two-year…
Geary, Jennifer Lee
Virtual tutoring and student support systems may be pivotal in developing opportunities of equality and of outcome for students who study at a distance. Cookson (2002) mentions that it is important to assist students to have access to study programs. Cookson (2002) elaborates upon this and states, "If access is to be equitable, once they are…
This article investigates the relatively unexplored field of reflective journal writing by an on-line tutor, in this case working with a group of Chinese learners of English attending an intensive communication skills programme at a tertiary-level institution in Singapore. The results reported highlight the role of the reflective journal in…
Davis, Michelle R.
U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings called on the nation's Roman Catholic schools to become active in providing tutoring to public school students under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Under the law, public schools that fail to meet improvement goals for two consecutive years must provide transportation for students to transfer to…
Baudendistel, Stephen; Hua, Grace
The interface between an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and the person being tutored is critical to the success of the learning process. If the interface to the ITS is confusing or non-supportive of the tutored domain, the effectiveness of the instruction will be diminished or lost entirely. Consequently, the interface to an ITS should be highly integrated with the domain to provide a robust and semantically rich learning environment. In building an ITS for ZetaLISP on a LISP Machine, a Desktop Interface was designed to support a programming learning environment. Using the bitmapped display, windows, and mouse, three desktops were designed to support self-study and tutoring of ZetaLISP. Through organization, well-defined boundaries, and domain support facilities, the desktops provide substantial flexibility and power for the student and facilitate learning ZetaLISP programming while screening the student from the complex LISP Machine environment. The student can concentrate on learning ZetaLISP programming and not on how to operate the interface or a LISP Machine.
Green, Sarah Elizabeth; Smith, Thomas
The goal of the overall study was to evaluate the potential of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout, one-to-one tutoring program, to increase mathematics achievement among low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap by enabling them to achieve at the level of their higher-performing peers in the regular mathematics…
Shute, Valerie J.; Regian, J. Wesley
Discussion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) focuses on what is required to evaluate the efficacy of an ITS. Research and development aspects of ITS are examined; and seven main principles that may be used to design, plan, and implement an effective ITS evaluation are described. (Contains 40 references.) (LRW)
This document consists of eight sections. The first section contains the mission statement of the Goodwill Literacy program, a description of the program, statistics on literacy, and the answers to questions tutors are commonly asked. Section 2 contains statements from students in the program obtained in February 1988, a description of students in…
Reck, Deborah L.; And Others
This handbook is designed for use by Tacoma Community House volunteer tutors of English as a Second Language (ESL) as a supplement to basic volunteer training. The handbook includes detailed information in areas briefly covered during training and specific instructional ideas and class activities. A section on getting started discusses the…
Objective Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Methods Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Results Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Implications Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention. PMID:17136190
A review of BioTutor which is software to accompany the third edition of Neil Campbell's textbook, "Biology," is provided. The review includes a brief description of the software and a discussion of good and bad features of the software. In the closing words, the reviewer expresses a considerable amount of concern regarding the quality of this…
In an attempt to respond to confusion about--or resistance to--the tutoring requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, the U.S. Department of Education issued guidance outlining what it expects states and school districts to do in supplying the help to needy children. This nonregulatory guidance clarifies the roles of states and school…
Zaidin, M. Arifin
The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between aspects of tutor and the students' basic writing outcomes of the Elementary School Teacher Education at the Distance Learning Program Unit, Open University of Palu. This is ex post facto correlation with the population research of 387 people and the total sample of 100 people. This…
Saddler, Bruce; Staulters, Merry
One of the greatest challenges facing teachers is accommodating struggling, diverse, and at-risk readers. Even with the use of effective, research-based techniques, many children fail to make adequate progress in reading and may need additional assistance. One way to provide this assistance is through tutoring. This article outlines a successful…
Schmoelz, Alexander; Swertz, Christian; Forstner, Alexandra; Barberi, Alessandro
This contribution looks at the Intelligent Tutoring Interface for Technology Enhanced Learning, which integrates multistage-learning and inquiry-based learning in an adaptive e-learning system. Based on a common pedagogical ontology, adaptive e-learning systems can be enabled to recommend learning objects and activities, which follow inquiry-based…
Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey
Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…
Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle
Writing center tutors know that improving writing skills requires sustained effort over a long period of time. They also know that motivation--the drive to actively invest in sustained effort toward a goal--is essential for writing improvement. Because motivation can direct attention toward particular tasks and increase both effort and…
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; De Wever, Bram; Valcke, Martin
This study was conducted in an authentic university setting with fourth-year Educational Sciences' students operating as online peer tutors to facilitate freshman tutees' online collaboration and knowledge construction in a blended "Instructional Sciences" course. Taking into account prior research uncovering weaknesses in online peer tutor…
Kopp, Kristopher J.; Britt, M. Anne; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.
The current studies investigated the efficient use of dialogue in intelligent tutoring systems that use natural language interaction. Such dialogues can be relatively time-consuming. This work addresses the question of how much dialogue is needed to produce significant learning gains. In Experiment 1, a full dialogue condition and a read-only…
Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary
The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…
Smith, Mark Edward
This study describes in detail the synthesis of two relatively new, widely accepted and critically approved teaching methods, writing workshops and peer tutoring programs, in a coordinated program designed to improve student writing skills and attitudes. After tracing the origin of this experiment to specific concerns about the use of standard…
Describes a visual tutoring system for programming distributive-memory multiprocessor networks. Highlights include difficulties of parallel programming, and three instructional modes in the system, including a hypertext-like lecture, a question-answer mode, and an expert aid mode. (Author/LRW)
Philadelphia Mayor's Commission on Literacy, PA.
In this document are a final report and guide from a project to produce a 30-minute training videotape that provided volunteer tutors and paid adult educators with concrete methods, techniques, and activities to help adult learners improve their numeracy skills. According to the final report, representatives of various adult education…
With assistance from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, a new breed of ITS for technical training and complex problem-solving has hit the market to provide students and trainees with the decision-making skills necessary to succeed to the next level. The Task Tutor Toolkit (T3), developed by Stottler Henke Associates, Inc., of San Mateo, California, is a generic tutoring system shell and scenario authoring tool that emulates expert instructors and lowers the cost and difficulty of creating scenario-based ITS for technical training. The functionality of Stottler Henke Associates T3 far exceeds that of traditional computer-based training systems, which test factual recall and narrow skills by prompting students to answer multiple-choice or fill-inthe- blank questions. The T3, on the contrary, lets students assess situations, generate solutions, make decisions, and carry out actions in realistically complex scenarios.At the beginning of each scenario, the T3 tutoring system presents a briefing that describes the situation and the goals the students should pursue. Each scenario contains a solution template that specifies a partially-ordered sequence of action patterns that match correct sequences of student actions. During each scenario, the built-in simulator notifies the tutoring system of each student action. The T3 uses this information to evaluate the student action by comparing it with the scenario s solution template and with error rules that detect incorrect actions.
Dvorak, Johanna; Roessger, Kevin
This study investigated the attitudes of peer tutors who received web conferencing training in preparation for synchronous online tutoring. A quasi-experimental design was employed to evaluate changes in peer tutors' attitudes toward distance learning following participation in an online tutor training program. Peer tutors were found to have: (a)…
Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.
Our research objective focused on examining the instructional efficiency of tutoring as a form of instructional change as opposed to a non-tutoring approach in an outreach laboratory. We designed our laboratory based on cognitive load (CL) theory. Altogether, 269 twelfth-graders participated in our day-long module Genetic Fingerprinting. In a quasi-experimental design, the control group ( n = 121) followed the non-tutoring approach previously used, while the treatment group ( n = 148) followed the newly developed tutoring approach. Each tutor was in charge of two student work groups and recorded the tutoring activities requested by the tutees throughout the day. We measured the students' invested mental effort (as an index of CL), cognitive achievement (in a pre-post-follow-up design), and the students' cooperation in their work groups as well as calculated the student instructional involvement (as a motivational variable). Additionally, we examined which aspects of the hands-on phases were of particular relevance to the students' invested mental effort. Unexpectedly, the combined mental effort and cognitive achievement data indicated that our implemented tutoring approach resulted in a lower instructional efficiency despite the relevance of tutoring for students' mental effort invested during the experimental phases. Most of the tutor assistance was unnecessarily requested for performing the procedural steps and using the equipment. Our results indicate an assistance dilemma and consequently underscore the necessity for effective tutor preparation in outreach laboratories.
A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…
Luckhardt-Redfield, Carol A.
Artificial Intelligence has been used in many space applications. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have only recently been developed for assisting training of space operations and skills. An ITS at Southwest Research Institute is described as an example of an ITS application for space operations, specifically, training console operations at mission control. A distinction is made between critical skills and knowledge versus routine skills. Other ITSs for space are also discussed and future training requirements and potential ITS solutions are described.
Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.
Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual
Good, Annalee G.; Burch, Patricia Ellen; Stewart, Mary S.; Acosta, Rudy; Heinrich, Carolyn
Background/Context: Under supplemental educational services ("supplemental services"), a parental choice provision of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), schools that have not made adequate yearly progress in increasing student achievement are required to offer low-income families free, afterschool tutoring. Existing research shows low…
As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…
Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the…
Topping, K. J.; Miller, D.; Murray, P.; Henderson, S.; Fortuna, C.; Conlin, N.
Background: Large-scale randomised controlled trials (RCT) are relatively rare in education. The present study was an attempt to scale up previous small peer tutoring projects, while investing only modestly in continuing professional development for teachers. Purpose: A two-year RCT of peer tutoring in mathematics was undertaken in one local…
Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena
This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…
Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat
The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…
This commentary reconsiders the description and assessment of the design and implementation of "German Tutor," an Intelligent Language Tutoring System (ILTS) for learners of German as a foreign language, published in 2001. Based on our experience over the past 15 years with the design and real classroom use of an ILTS, we address a…
Background/Context: A review of the literature demonstrates that grade retention often fails to improve the academic and socioemotional outcomes of retained students. Although little empirical work on peer tutoring has focused specifically on retained students, the literature suggests that those students who act as peer tutors often experience…
Hennessy, Sara; And Others
Described is an article that describes an adaptive computer tutor for arithmetic entitled "Shopping on Mars." The purpose of the tutor is to help children develop an extensive repertoire of information techniques for performing arithmetic in everyday situations and to learn to formulate shortcuts in problem solving. Results of preliminary field…
Bromme, Rainer; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Jucks, Regina
Tutors often fail to address learners' misconceptions. Although this may indicate a failure to grasp these misconceptions, it may simply be due to a wish to be polite and save the learner's face. In this study we examined whether instructing tutors about the pitfalls of politeness could increase the clarity and precision of their tutorial…
Colvin, Janet W.
Peer tutoring in Higher Education is being used with increasing frequency to aid in student learning, motivation, and empowerment. Although an extensive body of research documents the efficacy of such programs, it exhibits a surprising lack of awareness of the social dynamics involved. This study focuses on peer tutors and students as they…
Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu
Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…
While the delivery and reception of advice is a practice integral to a wide range of settings, little attention has been given to the detailed practices of advice resistance and how it leads to advice negotiation. Based on 7 hours of videotaped tutoring interactions among 6 tutors and 11 tutees, this conversation analytic study examines the…
This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…
Discusses course-oriented intelligent tutoring environments and the role of the teacher, and describes the development of WITS (Whole-course Intelligent Tutoring System), an expert system that teaches a course on solid state electronics independently of a human teacher. Includes results of student evaluations of WITS. (LRW)
Concern is rising in some quarters that the No Child Left Behind Act permits foreign companies to provide federally financed online tutoring to students at underperforming schools. Such arrangements appear to constitute only a minute fraction of the tutoring business that is mushrooming under the federal law. Nine members of Congress asked the…
Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Jucks, Regina
Although tutoring is very effective, tutors often neglect certain strategies such as direct negative feedback. This might be because they want to avoid threatening their tutee's face. The concept of face derives from politeness theory and refers to the aspects of autonomy and social appreciation people claim for themselves and strive to negotiate…
Topping, K. J.; Dehkinet, R.; Blanch, S.; Corcelles, M.; Duran, D.
This paper reports an online reciprocal peer tutoring project for improving language competence in Spanish and English. Students aged 9-12 years from Scotland and Catalonia were matched to act as tutors in their own language and as tutees in a modern foreign language. Students were intended to improve both their first language (through helping the…
Reid, Karla Scoon
For-profit education companies are ramping up their businesses to tap into millions of federal dollars set aside to provide tutoring for students attending struggling schools. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, Title I schools that fail to reach state achievement goals three years in a row are required to offer free tutoring to students…
McKinney, Jackie Grutsch
This article has been about reconsidering how writing center directors train tutors to read and respond to texts. The subject here has been new media texts. The author has asked directors to reconsider how they tutor and how they talk to students about their writing. The impetus for these evolved practices is the arrival of increasing numbers of…
Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili
A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Sussex, Roland; Khan, Asaduzzaman
Private tutoring in English (PT-E), a special and important subclass of private tutoring (PT), is a common phenomenon in ESL/EFL education in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, it has received little attention in TESOL, applied linguistics, or language education research. This article investigates the nature and practice of PT-E in a…
van Rosmalen, P.; Sloep, P.; Kester, L.; Brouns, F.; de Croock, M.; Pannekeet, K.; Koper, R.
The introduction of elearning often leads to an increase in the time staff spends on tutoring. To alleviate the workload of staff tutors, we developed a model for organizing and supporting learner-related interactions in elearning systems. It makes use of the knowledge and experience of peers and builds on the assumption that (lifelong) learners,…
Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993 for analysis, this paper finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for both primary students and lower secondary students, and the trend to…
The Learning Resource Center at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, provides tutoring laboratories that are required for developmental reading, writing, and math courses. This article reviews the processes used to plan and determine the effectiveness of the tutoring laboratories, including logic models, student learning outcomes, and the results of…
This paper reports on a student-created and facilitated peer-tutoring activity to assist first-year students in preparing for their final exam in an introductory information technology course. Tutors at the CIS Sandbox, a collaborative learning lab at an American university, offered a series of "Crunch Sessions" to their peers. This…
Electronic mail-based tutoring of undergraduate writing students upsets the temporal basis of the face-to-face paradigm for writing tutorials. Taking place in real time in a specified place, the face-to-face tutorial session has a beginning, middle and end. Further, the session must have a tangible point. By contrast, in on-line tutoring, time is…
Garcia, Juanita C.
The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…
Walker-Bartnick, Leslie A.; And Others
A program providing successful peer tutoring in nine of 10 basic science courses in the first two years of medical school is described, and the management of such a program is discussed. Positive program effects on both tutors and students in academic difficulty are emphasized. (MSE)
Ostrow, Korinn S.
My research is rooted in improving K-12 educational practice using motivational facets made possible through adaptive tutoring systems. In an attempt to isolate best practices within the science of learning, I conduct randomized controlled trials within ASSISTments, an online adaptive tutoring system that provides assistance and assessment to…
Xu, Yaoying; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.; Sileo, Nancy; Filler, John; Perkins, Peggy G.
This study examined the effects of peer tutoring on children's social interactions and compared social interaction behaviors between children who are English-language learners (ELL) and children who are primary English speakers (PES). Single-subject withdrawal design (ABA) was applied in this study and classwide peer tutoring was used as the…
Rummel, Nikol; Mullins, Dejana; Spada, Hans
With the aim to promote students' mathematics learning, we extended the Cognitive Tutor Algebra (CTA), a computer-based tutoring system for high school mathematics, to a collaborative setting. Furthermore we developed a collaboration script to support students' interactions. In an experimental classroom study, we compared three conditions:…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Suraweera, Pramuditha
Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and…
Whetstone, Patti; Clark, Amy; Flake, Mari Wheeler
This study explores elementary teacher perceptions related to the implementation of an online tutoring program. Teachers were surveyed regarding factors that affected use of the online tutoring program as a supplement to mathematics instruction. Results indicated that teachers overwhelmingly reported positive views of the training and support…
Nelson-Royes, Andrea M.
In this article the author suggests that tutoring has helped students to become more organized, self-assured, and proficient at identifying relationships between ideas. Successful tutoring requires: (1) at least one attentive adult who has the time to speak with students about academic matters, personal problems, and the importance of performing…
Suggests that the correlation between writing instruction and the psychoanalytic process is most apparent in the interaction between writing center tutors and their students. Argues that the core of tutoring and psychotherapy is the interactional dynamics of a search for insight involving an intimate transference of trust and vulnerability between…
Browning, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.
Discusses the development and field testing of a prototype genetics tutor program for microcomputers written in Turbo Pascal. A preliminary field test with undergraduates is described that was used as formative evaluation, and suggestions are given for designing a more effective tutor that uses additional intelligent computer-assisted instruction…
Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa
The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…
Stankov, Slavomir; Rosic, Marko; Zitko, Branko; Grubisic, Ani
Special classes of asynchronous e-learning systems are the intelligent tutoring systems which represent an advanced learning and teaching environment adaptable to individual student's characteristics. Authoring shells have an environment that enables development of the intelligent tutoring systems. In this paper we present, in entirety, for the…
Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood
Discussion of the development of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) using expert systems and hypertext focuses on the Physics Tutor, a prototype ITS built with off-the-shelf software to test the utility, practicality, and generalizability of the ITS concept. Expert models and student models are explained. (Contains 27 references.) (LRW)
Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.
Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…
Vavreck, Sarah; Esposito, Judy
The focus of this paper is on responses from fifth grade peer tutors who were trained to use child-centered play therapy language during tutoring sessions with kindergarteners. The focus of this project was to identify academic and social/emotional benefits of participating in the program. Results indicated that participation in the program…
Barnes, Tiffany; Stamper, John
In building intelligent tutoring systems, it is critical to be able to understand and diagnose student responses in interactive problem solving. However, building this understanding into a computer-based intelligent tutor is a time-intensive process usually conducted by subject experts. Much of this time is spent in building production rules that…
Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.
Our research objective focused on examining the instructional efficiency of tutoring as a form of instructional change as opposed to a non-tutoring approach in an outreach laboratory. We designed our laboratory based on cognitive load (CL) theory. Altogether, 269 twelfth-graders participated in our day-long module "Genetic Fingerprinting." In a…
Song, J. S.; And Others
This discussion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) focuses on a description of C-Tutor, a knowledge-based ITS for novice C programmers. The program analyzer, which is a compound of a reverse engineering system and a didactic system, is explained, and implementation and evaluation is discussed. (LRW)
Arnold, Michael L.
This report describes the 1999-2000 work of the Omaha Public School Tutoring Program, one recipient of a Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) grant to support the Department of Education's America Reads Challenge Initiative. McREL was charged with issuing and monitoring four subcontracts with tutoring partnerships to provide…
Buhagiar, Michael A.
A group of students studying to become mathematics teachers were asked to comment on the tutor feedback they received during teaching practice (TP) and to offer suggestions aimed at improving this feedback. Analysis of the written data--which was collected through emails--suggests the need for: (i) all TP tutors to provide good quality feedback;…
Petto, Christine M.
A European history professor who was once a discipline-specific writing tutor finds that she is now more actively involved in "teaching" writing to non-majors and majors. Her responsibilities as a discipline-specific tutor entailed some possible steps: upon beginning a tutorial session, she might only brainstorm with the student various ways to…
Bright, Alison Sarah
This study examines how graduate teaching assistants of composition and peer and professional tutors of writing develop their identities as teacher and tutors in preparation programs. Research in teacher education programs indicates that when preparatory sessions highlight the concept of teacher identity in the preparation of K-12 teacher…
Sutherland, Kathryn A.
University students often serve as tutors who supplement the lecture-based teaching of permanent academic staff. However, potential issues arise when student tutors are employed with similar expectations of expertise and experience as the industry professionals and permanent staff they teach alongside. Arguably, successful and sustainable…
Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others
This final report presents eight papers resulting from research conducted during the third and final year of the "Handicapped Children as Tutors" project, which investigated effects of involving handicapped students as tutors of disabled and non-disabled elementary and secondary school students. Results of all the research showed significant…
Iserbyt, Peter; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel
This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17-19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and…
Wolz, Ursula; And Others
Discusses tutoring and consulting functions in interactive computer environments. Tutoring strategies are considered, the expert model and the user model are described, and GENIE (Generated Informative Explanations)--an answer generating system for the Berkeley Unix Mail system--is explained as an example of an automated consulting system. (33…
Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.
This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…
McAllister, Elizabeth A.
A study investigated the efficacy of using the neurological impress method in peer tutoring during reading instruction. The neurological impress reading method is a unison reading procedure in which the student and teacher or tutor read aloud simultaneously and quickly, with the student placed slightly in front of the teacher so that the teacher's…
Private supplementary tutoring has long been a major phenomenon in parts of East Asia, including Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. In recent times it has grown dramatically in other parts of Asia and in Africa, Europe and North America. The factors underlying the growth of private tutoring vary, but in all settings it has major…
This article reports on a study of the perspectives of new tutors teaching traditional vocational trades who recently commenced teaching in the Institutes of Technologies and Polytechnics (ITPs) sector in New Zealand. The perspectives are collated from questionnaires and interviews of 13 tutors, from five ITPs, who have been teaching full-time for…
This article presents three related evaluation studies looking at the effectiveness on achievement and motivation of Reading Together, a cross-age peer-tutoring reading program. The effects on tutees, tutors, teachers, and parents were monitored. The advantages of Reading Together began to accrue during the second and third phases of the program.…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan
SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…
Morgan, M. C.
This paper presents 10 techniques for tutoring college-level writing students on word processors. Good teaching and tutoring techniques enable writers rather than simply demand compliance. A good technique: must not rely on a fancy word processing program; will take advantage of the basic word processing functions; will ask that the writer do…
Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina; Segara, Reuben
Effective self-reflection is a key component of excellent teaching. We describe the types of self-reflection identified in tutors' reflective statements following a peer observation of teaching exercise. We used an adapted version of the categories developed by Grushka, McLeod and Reynolds in 2005 to code text from 20 written statements as…
Scandura, Alice B.
This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…
Lassegard, James P.
International students often require extracurricular assistance upon arrival in the host country. Many universities operate programs pairing international and domestic students for academic and adjustment assistance. The tutor system operating at Japanese national universities has similar objectives. Although the literature has highlighted several…
Rabow, Jerome; Chin, Tiffani; Fahimian, Nima
This manual encourages students to act as volunteer tutors. Chapter 1, "Attitudes, Anxieties, and Expectations," discusses normal fears and anxieties and unconditional acceptance. Chapter 2, "Building Relationships," looks at making connections, building trust, motivating students to learn, going beyond academics, and establishing boundaries.…
Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
This study explores cross-age peers' tutoring behavior to support freshmen collaborating online. The study fits in with the need to inquire into the process of peer facilitation in CSCL-environments and focuses on types of peer support and on the evolution over time. The study was conducted with 19 pairs of fourth-year students, each tutoring one…
Tarvers, Josephine Koster; Buswell, Eric
A study examined the feasibility of e-mail tutoring at Winthrop University, a medium-sized state supported liberal arts university with limited technology access. Initially it looked at the questions of directive versus nondirective methods in tutoring, but it quickly spread to questions of submission, formatting, and strategy. A total of 26…
Wichita Public Schools, KS.
This manual is intended to assist volunteer coordinators involved in the Kansas Volunteer Tutor Utilization (KV-TUTOR) project. The first section, which deals with planning, covers management by objectives and a clarification system to test objectives that is denoted by the acronym SMAC (specific, measurable, achievable, compatible). A section on…
Schildgen, Emilia G., Comp.
Ideas and guidance for literacy program tutors are offered. This guide presents the characteristics of an adult learner, in contrast to a student from elementary or high school, and describes how the relationship between the tutor and the student should be established and maintained. Goals should be set up at the beginning of the program, keeping…
Kohn, Liberty L.
Writing centers can be staffed wholly or partially by tutors with little training in science writing. This article suggests that an emphasis on scientific rhetoric, not content, may be most useful for training tutors and developing handouts and checklists to aid novice science writers in invention and revision. The article also suggests that a…
Ng, Wai-Kong; Kong, Sow-Lai
With a revised protocol for interviewing new tutors, Wawasan Open University (WOU) has continued its tutor training program for the second semester of operations. Having experienced working with the first cohort of tutors for semester 1, year 2007 it is evident that we have more confidence and appreciation for tutor training to support WOU's…
Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng
Newtonian mechanics is a core module in technology courses, but is difficult for many students to learn. Computerized tutoring can assist the teachers to provide individualized instruction. This article presents the application of decision theory to develop a tutoring system, "iTutor", to select optimal tutoring actions under uncertainty of…
Breuch, Lee-Ann M. Kastman; Racine, Sam J.
Provides an overview--especially for administrators, developers, and tutors new to electronic tutoring environments--of issues and considerations unique to online tutoring that training programs need to address. Discusses three aspects of online tutoring: appreciating text-only environments, developing procedures for responding online, and…
Lang, Harry G.; Biser, Eileen; Mousley, Keith; Orlando, Richard; Porter, Jeff
Seventy-three deaf college students completed a survey examining perceptions about tutoring outcomes and emphases, characteristics of tutors, and responsibilities associated with learning through tutoring. The comparisons revealed that while baccalaureate and sub-and preparation of tutors, as well as for future research, are provided.…
The researcher conducted present study with the objectives to a) evaluate attitude of learners towards academic and tutoring skills of distance education tutors, b) assess the opinion of distance learners about assessment and evaluation skills of their tutors and c) examine reflection of learners on scaffolding skills of distance education tutors.…
McCloskey, Erin; Cann, Colette N.
In this qualitative case study, we used the framework of positioning to show how college-age tutors and their middle school tutees interact in an afterschool tutoring setting with regard to ability. The authors show how educational tracking and understandings of disability permeated tutoring spaces and influence tutors' instructional…
Dolmans, Diana; And Others
The construction and validation of a tutor evaluation questionnaire are described. The importance of the tutor in problem-based learning requires assessment of staff conducting this role. After a pilot study in 1990-91 with 100 students and 150 tutors who identified important tutor skills, a questionnaire was prepared. This questionnaire was…
Xu, Wei; Zhao, Ke; Li, Yatao; Yi, Zhenzhen
Determining how to provide good tutoring functions is an important research direction of intelligent tutoring systems. In this study, the authors develop an intelligent tutoring system with good tutoring functions, called "FUDAOWANG." The research domain that FUDAOWANG treats is junior middle school mathematics, which belongs to the objective…
Mitchell, Rebekkah J.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Feinauer, Erika; Wilcox, Brad; Black, Sharon
A quasi-experimental study examined some effects of cross-age tutoring on fourth grade tutors' and second grade tutees' ability to spell accurately and correct errors on their own rough drafts. Half of the participating tutors were trained in tutoring skills; half were not. All participants were given pre- and post-assessments. On dictated writing…
Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney K.; Craig, Scotty D.; Witherspoon, Amy; Sullins, Jeremiah; McDaniel, Bethany; Gholson, Barry
Relations between emotions (affect states) and learning have recently been explored in the context of AutoTutor. AutoTutor is a tutoring system on the Internet that helps learners construct answers to difficult questions by interacting with them in natural language. AutoTutor has an animated conversation agent and a dialog management facility that…
Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey
Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…
Ragonis, Noa; Hazzan, Orit
This article presents a tutor-centered tutoring model that aims to develop and establish the pedagogical-disciplinary knowledge and skills of prospective teachers. The tutoring model and the research that accompanied its implementation are presented. The tutor-tutee pairs worked for two five-session cycles for two semesters, enabling prospective…
Roll, Ido; Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
The present research investigated whether immediate metacognitive feedback on students' help-seeking errors can help students acquire better help-seeking skills. The Help Tutor, an intelligent tutor agent for help seeking, was integrated into a commercial tutoring system for geometry, the Geometry Cognitive Tutor. Study 1, with 58 students, found…
Green, Susan K.; Alderman, Gary; Liechty, Adam
This study examined the effect on at-risk second graders of twice weekly peer-tutoring: sessions with repeated readings combined with once per week tutoring by a college student. The college student addressed onsets and rimes appearing in errors made by the second graders during peer tutoring and noted by the peer tutors. The authors monitored…
Robertson, Stephen J.; DeReus, Denise M.; Drabman, Ronald S.
Eighteen second-grade children initially received feedback in the form of nonredeemable tokens for reducing their disruptive classroom behavior. Four types of tutoring were then introduced in a Latin Square Design: noncontingent tutoring from fifth-grade peers, contingent peer tutoring, noncontingent college tutoring, and contingent college tutoring. No significant difference was found in the level of disruptive behavior of those children tutored by fifth-grade peers or college students, but contingent tutoring was significantly effective in reducing disruptive classroom behavior. PMID:16795520
Fink, Pamela K.
Two intelligent tutoring systems were developed. These tutoring systems are being used to study the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems in training high performance tasks and the interrelationship of high performance and cognitive tasks. The two tutoring systems, referred to as the Console Operations Tutors, were built using the same basic approach to the design of an intelligent tutoring system. This design approach allowed researchers to more rapidly implement the cognitively based tutor, the OMS Leak Detect Tutor, by using the foundation of code generated in the development of the high performance based tutor, the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK). It is believed that the approach can be further generalized to develop a generic intelligent tutoring system implementation tool.
Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.; Buehlman, J. D.; Middlecamp, C. H.
The Peer Mentor Tutor (PMT) program in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Physics Department matches upper level undergraduate physics majors in small groups with students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with their gateway introductory non-calculus physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. The program enhances students'learning and confidence by providing an emphasis on problem solving, a supportive environment for asking questions, and opportunities for acquiring missing math skills. The students assisted include, among others, returning adults, students of color,students with English as a second language, and students who have never taken physics in high school. The tutors acquire teaching and leadership experience with ongoing training throughout the year. The Physics PMT program is run in collaboration with a similar program in Chemistry. The peer model is also being applied to other science courses at the University of Wisconsin. We will describe the structure of the Physics PMT program and our current efforts to expand the program into a broader Physics Learning Center that may serve multiple purposes and courses.
Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji; Wilfong, Dona M; McCormick, James T; Rabin, Yoed
As a part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, the current study presents a proof of concept for a computerized tool for cryosurgery tutoring. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobes placement, simulates cryoprobe insertion, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a preselected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computer-generated planning, created for each case study by previously developed planning algorithms. The following two versions of the tutoring system have been tested in the current study: (1) an unguided version, where the trainee can practice cases in unstructured sessions and (2) an intelligent tutoring system, which forces the trainee to follow specific steps, believed by the authors to potentially shorten the learning curve. Although the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal histories, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside the operation room. Post-test results indicate that the intelligent tutoring system may be more beneficial than the nonintelligent tutoring system, but the proof of concept is demonstrated with either system. PMID:25941163
Holmes, Willard M.
A special structure is examined for evolving a detached model of the user of an intelligent tutoring system. Tutoring is used in the context of education and training devices. A detached approach to populating the student model data structure is examined in the context of the need for time dependent reasoning about what the student knows about a particular concept in the domain of interest. This approach, to generating a data structure for the student model, allows an inference engine separate from the tutoring strategy determination to be used. This methodology has advantages in environments requiring real-time operation.
Gott, Sherrie P.
A series of intelligent tutoring systems, or intelligent maintenance simulators, is being developed based on expert and novice problem solving data. A graded series of authentic troubleshooting problems provides the curriculum, and adaptive instructional treatments foster active learning in trainees who engage in extensive fault isolation practice and thus in conditionalizing what they know. A proof of concept training study involving human tutoring was conducted as a precursor to the computer tutors to assess this integrated, problem based approach to task analysis and instruction. Statistically significant improvements in apprentice technicians' troubleshooting efficiency were achieved after approximately six hours of training.
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Pickering, Brad
HyperCard is a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to databases and other applications, and CLIPS is a highly portable government-owned expert system shell. We developed HyperCLIPS in order to fill a gap in the U.S. Army's computer-based instruction tool set; it was conceived as a development environment for building adaptive practical exercises for subject-matter problem-solving, though it is not limited to this approach to tutoring. Once HyperCLIPS was developed, we set out to implement a practical exercise prototype using HyperCLIPS in order to demonstrate the following concepts: learning can be facilitated by doing; student performance evaluation can be done in real-time; and the problems in a practical exercise can be adapted to the individual student's knowledge.
Roper, L. David
Discusses the conduct of an introductory biophysics course with a personalized instruction by using tutors selected from the students themselves. Included are three tables of text contents, a sample of a terminal questionnaire, and a list of biophysics references. (CC)
Gardner, Ralph; Nobel, Michele M.; Hessler, Terri; Yawn, Christopher D.; Heron, Timothy E.
This article discusses the progression of tutoring system innovations from informal, dyadic, and subjectively evaluated arrangements to more formally arranged configurations that emphasize training, application, and evaluation. Suggestions for future innovations, based on existing prototypes, are discussed.
Jones, Patricia M.
The design, implementation, and evaluation of an Operator Function Model intelligent tutoring system (OFMTutor) is presented. OFMTutor is intended to provide intelligent tutoring in the context of complex dynamic systems for which an operator function model (OFM) can be constructed. The human operator's role in such complex, dynamic, and highly automated systems is that of a supervisory controller whose primary responsibilities are routine monitoring and fine-tuning of system parameters and occasional compensation for system abnormalities. The automated systems must support the human operator. One potentially useful form of support is the use of intelligent tutoring systems to teach the operator about the system and how to function within that system. Previous research on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) is considered. The proposed design for OFMTutor is presented, and an experimental evaluation is described.
Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Lincoln, David T.
This user's guide describes how to use the Intelligent Tutoring Systems for the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK) and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and how to use the C code that runs the mockup version of the MSK.
Describes three tutoring centers--two in churches, one in an office building--where adults from the community provide voluntary after-school help to children from Chicago's disadvantaged Cabrini Green housing project. (SJL)
Chinese Education, 1977
Three courses in Marxist-Leninist theory have been established for students at revolutionary cadre training schools in Hunan Province. Through primary source readings and discussion, students understand the revolutionary line and are able to tutor others. (AV)
Fink, Pamela K.; Sines, Laurie J.
The use of intelligent tutoring systems based on the apprenticeship approach to training is explored as a possible solution to the problem of training individuals to operate and maintain complex devices, such as those used in the aerospace industry. A general approach to the development of such a system is presented, and a specific intelligent tutoring system designed for training mission control console operators is described as an example.
Grillo, Michael C.; Leist, Cathy W.
This study seeks to examine the relationship between the long-term use of academic support services such as tutoring, learning assistance, and supplemental instruction and retention to graduation. Little research has been devoted to the relationship between academic support and retention to graduation in both the literatures on retention and…
Adult education opportunities can be increased through cable television technology, which provides home-based instruction as an alternative to the strictures of the classroom or learning center. The 18-month Salem project used television for primary instruction together with the services of paraprofessional tutors as a personal contact for…
Zimmer, Ron; Hamilton, Laura; Christina, Rachel
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has created pressure for districts to improve their students' proficiency levels on state tests. Districts that fail to meet their academic targets for 3 years must use their Title I funds to pay for supplemental education services (SES) that provide tutoring or other academic instruction. Many…
A three-year longitudinal study of student support service programs prepared for the U.S. Department of Education indicated that peer tutoring during the first year of college has a positive and statistically significant impact on students in each of three outcome areas: grades, credits, and retention, and that participation in the first year has…
The New Britain Public Library (Connecticut) conducted a project that involved recruitment, collection development, tutoring, computer-assisted services, and English as a Second Language (ESL) services. The project served a community of 50,000-100,000 and targeted ESL learners. Tutoring was done one-on-one, in small groups, and in classes, using…
Deke, John; Gill, Brian; Dragoset, Lisa; Bogen, Karen
One of the modifications of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (known as the No Child Left Behind Act) gave parents of low-income students in low-performing schools a choice of Supplemental Educational Services (SEdS). SEdS include tutoring or other academic support services offered outside the regular school day, at no charge to students…
Moore, Tricia Susan
This case study, conducted from an interpretive paradigm, illuminates contextual factors related to the tutor experience when senior undergraduate dental hygiene students served as tutors for beginning undergraduate dental hygiene students, or sophomores, in a 1-semester, 2-hour long problem-based learning (PBL) course in a Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene (BDH) curriculum during the spring semester of 2008. Data were collected using various sources and methods. Six tutors and three administrators were interviewed, tutees completed an anonymous questionnaire, the tutorial process and tutor training sessions were observed, and related documents were examined. Data analysis included open and axial coding, creation of tutor profiles, and identification of patterns. Tutor behaviors varied with respect to the nature of intervention (e.g., telling, asking, clarifying, acknowledging), emphasis (process, content, social), and facilitation style (directive, suggestive, empowering). Patterns in tutor behavior and attitudes emerged related to comfort and growth, persistence and lenience, and compliance, resistance, and innovation. Differences in tutor understanding and perception of their role and the purpose of PBL influenced the role the tutor assumed. Other factors that influenced tutor behavior included tutor intentions, tutor training, and environmental factors such as the nature of problems, allotted time, and tutorial group characteristics. The influence of these factors can be understood by applying Fishbein's integrated model of behavior prediction (Fishbein, 2008). Tutor training included experiencing the PBL student role, attending class, and sharing experiences with other tutors in weekly seminar sessions facilitated by a tutor supervisor. Tutor's gained confidence, knowledge, skills, and friendship. They also had the opportunity to see things from a new perspective, that of a teacher encouraging self-direction rather than a student depending on others for direction
Describes the development of the Computer Tutor project in Palo Alto, California, a computer literacy pilot program in which tutors are used to teach high school students and other interested persons computer programing. (JJD)
Kamps, Debra; And Others
Nonhandicapped fifth-grade students conducted tutoring sessions in math, language, and reading for two elementary-aged children with autism. Results demonstrated that normal peers could effectively increase academic behaviors of autistic students through tutoring activities. (Author/JDD)
Beal, Carole R
Intelligent tutoring software (ITS) holds great promise for K-12 instruction. Yet it is difficult to obtain rich information about users that can be used in realistic educational delivery settings--public school classrooms--in which eye tracking and other user sensing technologies are not suitable. We are pursuing three "cheap and cheerful" strategies to meet this challenge in the context of an ITS for high school math instruction. First, we use detailed representations of student cognitive skills, including tasks to assess individual users' proficiency with abstract reasoning, proficiency with simple math facts and computational skill, and spatial ability. Second, we are using data mining and machine learning algorithms to identify instructional sequences that have been effective with previous students, and to use these patterns to make decisions about current students. Third, we are integrating a simple focus-of-attention tracking system into the software, using inexpensive, web cameras. This coarse-grained information can be used to time the display of multimedia hints, explanations, and examples when the user is actually looking at the screen, and to diagnose causes of problem-solving errors. The ultimate goal is to create non-intrusive software that can adapt the display of instructional information in real time to the user's cognitive strengths, motivation, and attention. PMID:15687804
Shute, Valerie J.
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
Kersaint, Gladis; Dogbey, James; Barber, Jeff; Kephart, David
This study investigated outcomes (achievement, attitude, and retention) of college algebra students who had access to an online tutoring resource using a pre-posttest control group design. Students in the experimental groups were provided access to an online tutoring service unlike the students in the control group. Both groups had access to other…
Després, Christophe; Jacoboni, Pierre; Py, Dominique; Lekira, Aina
In this paper, we study how to support a human tutor who regulates learners' activities, in a situation of mediated tutoring. Our goal is to provide the tutor with information about the effect of his/her interventions. To achieve this, we adopt an indicator-based approach and define the notion of meta-indicator. The distinguishing feature of…
Mühlfelder, Manfred; Konermann, Tobias; Borchard, Linda-Marie
In this paper we describe a "Train the Tutor" programme (TtT) for developing the metacognitive skills, facilitator skills, and tutor skills of students in a problem based learning (PBL) context. The purpose of the programme was to train 2nd and 3rd year undergraduate students in psychology to become effective PBL tutors for…
Mahler, Charles A.
A cross-age tutoring program designed to improve school performance of tutors (adolescents classified as emotionally disturbed) and tutees (children classified as educable mentally retarded) was replicated in an urban public school district. Results showed that both tutors and tutees improved on academic and social measures of school performance.…
Sharif, Abdin M.; Ismail, Omer H.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate how tutors at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Kuwait Branch manage their time given workloads they are assigned. Group interviews were conducted with a sample that was selected from AOU tutors in Kuwait branch. The findings showed that tutors do not ask for more time or cut down workloads; instead,…
Song, Ki-Sang; Hu, Xiangen; Olney, Andrew; Graesser, Arthur C.
Whereas existing learning environments on the Web lack high level interactivity, we have developed a human tutor-like tutorial conversation system for the Web that enhances educational courseware through mixed-initiative dialog with natural language processing. The conversational tutoring agent is composed of an animated tutor, a Latent Semantic…
Barker, Martin; Pinard, Michelle
We evaluate the case for using feedback iteratively, to improve student engagement and learning. In this model, students were invited to respond to tutor feedback with students' own responses. Among the three courses/modules (three tutors) studied, differences in feedback styles were evident from: (a) thematic analysis of tutor comments and,…
The researcher conducted present study with the objectives to a). evaluate attitude of learners towards academic and tutoring skills of distance education tutors, b). assess the opinion of distance learners about assessment and evaluation skills of their tutors and c). examine reflection of learners on scaffolding skills of distance education…
Westenskow, Arla; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
This research study examined the perceptions of 24 parents of rising 5th-grade students with mathematics learning difficulties as part of a 10-week summer mathematics tutoring experience. During the summer tutoring program, parents observed their children participating in mathematics learning experiences during one-to-one tutoring sessions. At the…
Gilberts, Guy H.
Peer tutors can facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities into regular education classrooms, especially in schools where money is not available for aides. The first steps in such a program are determining the best placements for students with disabilities and training the peer tutors. Training should cover expectations of peer tutors,…
This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…
This article presents a case study of e-tutoring teaching practice during a 20-week e-tutoring program aimed at improving the English proficiency of targeted students. The study revealed what and why certain online tools were used by e-tutors and investigated how different technological proficiency and face-to-face (f2f) teaching experience shaped…
Jung, Jin Hwa; Lee, Kyung Hee
With the growing worldwide prevalence of private tutoring, the causes and effects of private tutoring have been drawing increasing attention both academically and policy wise. This study intends to draw policy implications by investigating the determinants of private tutoring participation of school-aged children and expenditures per child for…
Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F; Sequeira, Reginald P
Purpose Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69) who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring) using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent). The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students’ questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000). Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. PMID:26793014
Herring-Harrison, Tina J.; Gardner, Ralph; Lovelace, Temple S.
The purpose of this article is to present a classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) model successfully implemented with children who are deaf. Classwide peer tutoring is relatively easy to implement and is both teacher- and student-friendly. A large and growing body of professional literature documents the effectiveness of systematic peer tutoring models.…
The current study explored the effects of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' proficiency level on English-medium instruction (EMI) in an online tutoring project. Sixteen Taiwanese college students (tutees) collaborated with preservice teachers (tutors) in the United States in an EMI online tutorial project. The online tutor-tutee…
Layton, Carol A.; Lock, Robin H.
Studied the effects of training in learning style preferences on the ability of tutors to select appropriate learning strategies for student with disabilities. Findings for 68 tutors show that tutors were more successful in creating individualized strategy plans for students after training with the learning style chart. (SLD)
Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan; Barrow, Devon K.
Tutoring technologies for supporting learning from errors via negative feedback are highly developed and have proven their worth in empirical evaluations. However, observations of empirical tutoring dialogs highlight the importance of positive feedback in the practice of expert tutoring. We hypothesize that positive feedback works by reducing…
Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…
Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent; Suraweera, Pramuditha; Zakharov, Konstantin; Milik, Nancy; Holland, Jay; McGuigan, Nicholas
Over the last decade, the Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group (ICTG) has implemented many successful constraint-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) in a variety of instructional domains. Our tutors have proven their effectiveness not only in controlled lab studies but also in real classrooms, and some of them have been commercialized.…
Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.
Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…
Madrid, Dennis; Terry, Barbara; Greenwood, Charles; Whaley, Martha; Webber, Niza
Examined the effects of active versus passive peer tutoring among African American first graders at risk for school failure, comparing both types of tutoring to teacher mediated instruction. Results of weekly spelling tests indicated that both peer tutoring methods produced spelling scores superior to scores in the teacher mediated group. Passive…
Tansel, Aysit; Bircan, Fatma
This is the first study on private tutoring in Turkey. Private tutoring especially for the purpose of preparing for the competitive university entrance examination is an important, widespread phenomenon in Turkey. Private tutoring centers are commonly referred to as "dersane" in Turkish. This study first gives an overview of private tutoring…
Rincon, Ramon; Zepeda, R. A.
Using Spanish and/or English according to each student's need, the Migrant Tutoring Program (MTP) provided 20 minutes of tutoring daily in oral language development, language arts, and reading to 238 migrant students (K-6) in 17 schools during the year. Questionnaires designed for principals, teachers, and tutors were used to obtain process…
Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.
In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…
This study considers how communication patterns shape the university tutor role. A combination of ethnographic observations and interviews were used to determine the communication behaviors of university tutors and tutees, which help to define what is, otherwise, an ambiguous role. Specifically, the communicative behaviors engaged in by tutors are…
Orsmond, Paul; Merry, Stephen
Tutors' intentions when providing feedback may not be accurately perceived and acted on by students. In this study, 19 biological sciences students and six tutors were interviewed concerning the tutor's intentions when providing specific feedback and the students' perceptions and usage of that feedback. A phenomenological approach was used to…
Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent
Our 1997 article in "IJAIED" reported on a study that showed that a new algebra curriculum with an embedded intelligent tutoring system (the Algebra Cognitive Tutor) dramatically enhanced high-school students' learning. The main motivation for the study was to demonstrate that intelligent tutors that have cognitive science research…
Raymond, Laurel; Quinn, Zarah
The writing center where the authors were trained and currently work emphasizes the model of non-directive, writer-based peer tutoring in which, as Jeff Brooks puts it, tutors "make the student the primary agent in the writing center session." As undergraduate peer tutors, they recognize that some students come into their writing center with goals…
Grundstrom, Erika; Taylor, R. S.
Vast distances, such as those that pervade astronomy, are difficult concepts to grasp. We are all a part of the Earth-Moon system, however most people do not comprehend the sizes and distances involved. In a pilot study, the authors found that an intervention using both discussion and kinesthetic modeling resulted in students of all ages (children up through adults) acquiring a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. We have extended this research and are currently conducting a new study in which undergraduate students serve as "tutors" in a public observatory setting. One of our conjectures is that tutors' mental representations of the Earth-Moon system will be enhanced through their active participation in the cross-age peer tutoring activity. This work is supported in part by grants from the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL), the Vanderbilt University Learning Sciences Institute, and NSF Career grant AST-0349075.
Hull, Alison; du Boulay, Benedict
Motivation and metacognition are strongly intertwined, with learners high in self-efficacy more likely to use a variety of self-regulatory learning strategies, as well as to persist longer on challenging tasks. The aim of the research was to improve the learner's focus on the process and experience of problem-solving while using an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and including motivational and metacognitive feedback based on the learner's past states and experiences. An existing ITS, SQL-Tutor, was used with first-year undergraduates studying a database module. The study used two versions of SQL-Tutor: the Control group used a base version providing domain feedback and the Study group used an extended version that also provided motivational and metacognitive feedback. This paper summarises the pre- and post-process results. Comparisons between groups showed some differing trends both in learning outcomes and behaviour in favour of the Study group.
Massey, Dixie D.; Lewis, Jan
As teacher educators, we continue to focus on tutoring experiences as ways to help tutors connect coursework to practice. This study presents a preservice tutoring program designed to provide a field-based experience where the tutors would be able to (a) learn about literacy instruction, (b) use a multitude of assessment data rather than…
Described as "tough love," Louisiana State University at Eunice's "Pathways to Success" program experienced success in its first two years by implementing mandatory placement, attendance, tutoring, and advising policies. Selected student successes and retention data are discussed, along with policies and some practical advice…
Mueller, Stephen J.
A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. A prototype ITS for tutoring students in the use of CLIPS language: CLIPSIT (CLIPS Intelligent Tutor) was developed. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. While most ITSs have been developed on powerful workstations, CLIPSIT is designed for use on the IBM PC/XT/AT personal computer family (and their clones). There are many issues to consider when developing an ITS on a personal computer such as the teaching strategy, user interface, knowledge representation, and program design methodology. Based on experiences in developing CLIPSIT, results on how to address some of these issues are reported and approaches are suggested for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.
Sáiz-Manzanares, María Consuelo; Bol-Arreba, Alfredo; Payo-Hernanz, René Jesús
Introduction: Recent investigations have emphasized the need for university teachers to develop tutorial programs for students at university. Many universities are committed to broadening research on university teaching that will sharpen academic performance and levels of student satisfaction. Tutoring programs improve the development of the…
Savvopoulos, Anastasios; Virvou, Maria
Purpose: The elderly are often unfamiliar with computer technology and can encounter great difficulties. Moreover, the terms used in such systems may prove to be a challenge for these users. The aim of this research is to tutor the elderly on using an adaptive e-shop system in order to buy products easily. Design/methodology/approach: In view of…
Kear, Karen; Donelan, Helen; Williams, Judith
This paper presents a study of the use of wikis to support online group projects in two courses at the UK Open University. The research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a wiki in supporting (i) student collaboration and (ii) tutors' marking of the students' collaborative work. The paper uses the main factors previously…
Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy
A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…
Lee, Hee Seung; Anderson, John R.; Berman, Susan R.; Ferris-Glick, Jennifer; Joshi, Ambarish; Nixon, Tristan; Ritter, Steve
In designing learning environments that support student learning, there are many instructional design decisions. These include when and how to provide examples, verbal explanations, feedback, and other scaffolding features. In this paper, the authors investigate instructional guidance as it relates to Cognitive Tutor, an intelligent tutoring…
Rodriguez Buitrago, Carolina
Online and blended learning are of growing interest in the English language learning community. In Colombia, national initiatives and policies promote online educational programs and online English courses specifically. As a result, new online tutors are constantly needed for new programs and courses offered by institutions as well as by private…
Shrestha, Prithvi; Coffin, Caroline
Supporting undergraduate students with their academic literacies has recently been a major focus in higher education in the UK. This paper explores the value of tutor mediation in the context of academic writing development among undergraduate business studies students in open and distance learning, following the dynamic assessment (DA) approach…
Brusilovsky, P. L.
Describes the integrated Intelligent Tutor, Environment and Manual for Introductory Programing (ITEM/IP), which supports a course on computer programing based on the minilanguage Turingal. Discussion covers system design, including design philosophy, system overview, concepts included and information structure, programing laboratory mode,…
Kelly, Patrick; Ryan, Steve
Discusses the use of audiocassettes to support students in distance education. While tutor tapes will never be the primary means of student support because they are not interactive, they should be considered as a low cost, flexible option. (AVAIL: Open University, Northwest Region, 70 Manchester Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester, M21 1PQ,…
Ma, Wenting; Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.; Liu, Qing
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are computer programs that model learners' psychological states to provide individualized instruction. They have been developed for diverse subject areas (e.g., algebra, medicine, law, reading) to help learners acquire domain-specific, cognitive and metacognitive knowledge. A meta-analysis was conducted on…
A survey of 66 part-time tutors in Suffolk College's Community and Leisure Learning Program revealed that they spend considerable time in travel and preparation; more than one-third feel isolated and many coped with poor facilities and inadequate resources; and almost half indicated a need for subject-related staff development and subject-based…
Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina
Peer observation partnerships can help teachers improve their teaching practice, transform their educational perspectives and develop collegiality (Bell 2005). This paper describes the peer observation model used in the tutor development program in the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Sydney, and reports on the effectiveness…
Kelly, Kim; Heffernan, Neil
Intelligent tutoring systems have been developed to help students learn independently. However, students who are poor self-regulated learners often struggle to use these systems because they lack the skills necessary to learn independently. The field of psychology has extensively studied self-regulated learning and can provide strategies to…
Kim, Ji-Ha; Park, Daekwon
This study investigated the determinants of the demand for private tutoring (PT) in South Korea, especially focusing on the effectiveness of governmental regulations regarding the operating hours of cram schools in decreasing expenditure on PT. Survey data from 3,605 parents of 12th grade students were collected from 45 proportionally stratified…
Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti
The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…
This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…
Sutherland, Kathryn A.; Gilbert, Amanda
In New Zealand, as in many other western societies, the higher education system has become an increasingly less secure place in which to work, and over 40 per cent of those teaching in New Zealand higher education are sessional staff of some kind. Our university in New Zealand has long relied on part-time paid tutors, many of whom are students…
Mark Rabinovich describes the iPass system, an innovative online tutoring system for remedial writing students that has been in use at Queensborough Community College since 2006. The design of iPass was based on constructivist learning theories that conceptualize learning as a transactional and dynamic process that can occur anywhere at any time.…
The paper describes a special education tutoring approach to maladjusted pupils in the Israeli Kibbutz. Following an overview of the Kibbutz way of life and the characteristics of maladjusted children, the paper examines ways in which the environment can be reorganized to minimize conflicts and help pupils grow up in a more cordial atmostphere.…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2004
"Cognitive Tutor[R]", a full-year course, covers organizing single variable data, simplifying linear expressions, mathematical modeling, solving systems with linear equations, problem-solving using proportional reasoning, and powers and exponents. Students work at their own pace to develop problem-solving skills. The duration of each lesson can…
The central idea of this study is using blended problem-based learning (PBL) in an academic development context with key roles emphasised: academic staff in the role of students and the academic developer as the tutor. The context is a module entitled "Designing e-Learning" on a postgraduate programme for academic staff in Ireland. It is…
The design of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in a knowledge domain where expertise is modeled as a set of uncertain and incomplete beliefs that are justifiable and expressible in the form of a critical argument is outlined. Issues concerning knowledge communication in a tutorial interaction are discussed with reference to a cognitive model…
In recent years, the local school leadership in a suburban southern U.S. high school adopted innovative academic intervention programs to assist underperforming students but did not develop formal methods to evaluate program effectiveness. This gap in the professional practice continued with the inception of mandatory tutoring (MT), an…
Longwill, Amy Wildman; Kleinert, Harold L.
Describes how high school peer tutoring programs can enhance educational outcomes, including increased academic performance, for students with and without moderate and severe disabilities. The role of such programs in educational restructuring is addressed, as is the way such programs can promote general education class participation and community…
Gitomer, Drew H.; And Others
This paper lays out the rationale and implementation of student modeling and updating in the HYDRIVE intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for aircraft hydraulic systems. An epistemic level of modeling concerns the plans and goals students are using to guide their problem solving, as inferred from specific actions in specific contexts. These results…
This prison-based research is grounded upon "reflection-in-action", intertwining the accounts of a reflective prisoner and a reflective practitioner. Through use of ethnographic methods it seeks to make sense of the contradictions encountered while tutoring prisoners. The research story shows how meaning conflicts have been negotiated, not always…
This paper describes practical procedures in mentoring/tutoring students through self-assessment (SA) to establish and maintain partnership in learning. High school teachers ("n"?=?10) allow their students ("N"?=?515: 359 males) to engage in activities that help them identify standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and…
Rosen, Sidney; And Others
This field experiment on same-age peer tutoring was concerned with the differential effects on satisfaction and performance of assigned role and relative competence with junior high students. Satisfaction and performance were predicted to vary directly with prestige and with equity (status congruence) of role assignment. Same-sex, same-class,…
Dawkins, Suzanne; Ritz, Marie-Eve; Louden, William
Whilst early childhood educators are well aware of the importance of meeting the needs of individual children when teaching "struggling readers", finding the time for frequent one-on-one support is difficult. Studies have established that with a well developed and structured tutoring programme, as well as high quality training and supervision,…
Nath, Samir Ranjan
Using the databases created under "Education Watch", a civil society initiative to monitor primary and basic education in Bangladesh, this paper explores trends, socioeconomic differentials and cost in private supplementary tutoring among primary students and its impact on learning achievement. The rate of primary school students getting access to…
Suraweera, Pramuditha; Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are effective tools for education. However, developing them is a labour-intensive and time-consuming process. A major share of the effort is devoted to acquiring the domain knowledge that underlies the system's intelligence. The goal of this research is to reduce this knowledge acquisition bottleneck and better…
Discusses the use of online teaching assistants or "course wizards," employed at Mercy College (New York) not only to tutor students who are experiencing difficulty but also to facilitate discussion and to model the role of a successful student. Presents a discussion of the current crisis in higher education in America and of how online education…
Marr, Bill; Misser, Emmy
This paper reports on a pilot study that involved introducing writing tutors or writing fellows into a compulsory, third-year economics course with the intent of incorporating both writing across the curriculum and writing intensive elements. The connections and interrelationships between writing and writing intensive courses are set out briefly…
Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng
An important trend in the development of Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) has been that providing the student with a more personalized and friendly environment for learning. Many researchers now feel strongly that the ITSs would significantly improve performance if they could adapt to the affective state of the learner. This idea has spawned…
Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol; Sewall, Jonathan; Ringenberg, Michael
Authoring tools have been shown to decrease the amount of time and resources needed for the development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Although collaborative learning has been shown to be beneficial to learning, most of the current authoring tools do not support the development of collaborative ITSs. In this paper, we discuss an extension…
San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.; de Baker, Ryan S. J.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
We investigate the relationship between students' affect and their frequency of careless errors while using an Intelligent Tutoring System for middle school mathematics. A student is said to have committed a careless error when the student's answer is wrong despite knowing the skill required to provide the correct answer. We…
Sanchez, Rebecca Polley; Bartel, Chelsea M; Brown, Emily; DeRosier, Melissa
This study tested the acceptability and efficacy of an innovative intelligent tutoring system (ITS), "Adventures Aboard the S.S. GRIN," that translates the evidence-based in-person Social Skills Group Intervention (SSGRIN), into an interactive game-based social tutorial. This randomized controlled pilot trial tested the first half of the…
Stamper, John Carroll
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that adapt to an individual student's needs have shown significant improvement in achievement over non-adaptive instruction (Murray 1999). This improvement occurs due to the individualized instruction and feedback that an ITS provides. In order to achieve the benefits that ITSs provide, we must find a way to…
Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita
This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2016
"Cognitive Tutor"® is a secondary mathematics curriculum developed by Carnegie Learning that focuses on how students think about and learn mathematics. Teachers facilitate student learning as students acquire and apply new information and discuss their work. The curriculum can be implemented using a textbook, adaptive software, or…
Many learning center administrators understand the need to evaluate the effectiveness of their tutoring programs, but they do not have much free time to design and conduct meaningful research. This article presents a method of evaluation that can be used to determine whether students were able to demonstrate understanding after a tutoring…
Rowe, Neil C.; Schiavo, Sandra
Describes an intelligent tutor incorporating a program using artificial-intelligence planning methods to generate realistic audit files reporting actions of simulated users and intruders of a UNIX system, and a program simulating the system afterwards that asks students to inspect the audit and fix problems. Experiments show that students using…
Goold, Annegret; Coldwell, Jo; Craig, Annemieke
As online learning environments continue to evolve, both teachers and students need to adapt to make the most of opportunities afforded by these environments for teaching and learning. The focus of this paper is on the changing role undertaken by tutors in online learning environments. We present a brief review of the current perspectives on the…
Thot, Iris Delores
These "tips" on how to tutor a student in a foreign language include: (1) Get to know the student, which class he or she is in and how the instruction is conducted; (2) Be a good listener, a skill that, like the first tip, is essential in lowering a student's affective filters; (3) Be patient--instruction may require many repetitions; (4) Be…
Heron, Timothy E.; Villareal, Donna M.; Yao, Ma; Christianson, Rebecca J.; Heron, Kathleen M.
Peer-mediated approaches have been used for years to improve the academic behaviors of students, especially those with disabilities. The most systematized and well researched of the peer-mediated approaches relates to peer tutoring systems, which include specific elements of training, implementation, and evaluation. The purpose of this article is…
Mittrach, Silke; Schlageter, Gunter
The Virtual University is an Internet-based learning environment developed at the University of Hagen (Germany). Complex teaching activities based on new concepts integrating net-based communication and cooperation facilities take place in the Virtual University. Experiences show that there is a threshold, especially for tutors in non-computer…
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Meskill, Carla; Judson, Darlene; Gregory, Karen; Rogers, Patterson; Imperial, Christopher J.; Casler-Failing, Shelli
This study explores the "language repair strategies" (aimed at repairing communication problems) of two bilingual speakers during mathematics word problem tutoring sessions. Bilingual repair was shown to gradually shift from a linguistic to an epistemic focus during problem solving (i.e., communication became more conceptually focused…
This document contains the full and short papers on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction) covering the following topics: a framework for Internet-based distributed learning; a fuzzy-based assessment for the Perl tutoring…
Khan, Masood Mehmood
Describes the implementation of an intelligent tutoring system that employs a game environment and object-oriented user interface for teaching and learning, based on a computer game developed for industrial training. Discusses adventure games, game environments in education, simulation support, and user interface design. (Author/LRW)
Maheady, Larry; Harper, Gregory F.; Mallette, Barbara; Karnes, Melinda
This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils' academic performance. Participants learned to use Juniper Gardens Children's Project's Class Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) program through a two-hour workshop and with in class…
Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim
Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…
The use of student proctors or tutors for a Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) has been considered essential; however, the cost of tutorial training programs may be prohibitive. In an attempt to develop an equivalent but less expensive alternative, students (N=219) participated in an evaluation of the use of a VAX computer system as a…
Tutoring systems become complex and are offering varieties of pedagogical software as course modules, exercises, simulators, systems online or offline, for single user or multi-user. This complexity motivates new forms and approaches to the design and the modelling. Studies and research in this field introduce emergent concepts that allow the…
Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Peterson, Deborah S.
RISE (Reading Intervention Sans Expense) is a one-on-one reading intervention that involves maximizing human resources, not expending dollars. Tutors are high school students enrolled in a community service learning course who are trained in guided reading. Research suggests that RISE is an effective and efficient intervention that impacts all of…
Formalised peer-to-peer collaboration and the use of web-enhanced materials that are consistent with course objectives, graded assessments and learning outcomes is well known in educational practice. This study compared the academic gains of college students enrolled in Physics using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) with others using non-Reciprocal…
This paper examines the changing role of academics in providing support to students. In doing so, it argues that locating practice in higher education in a historical context gives a new perspective to current issues. In this case, the role of the residential warden is compared with the role of the personal tutor in higher education in the UK.…
Mitchell, Christine M.; Govindaraj, T.
Discusses the use of intelligent tutoring systems as opposed to traditional on-the-job training for training operators of complex dynamic systems and describes the computer architecture for a system for operators of a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) satellite control system. An experimental evaluation with college students is…
Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison
Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…
Background/Context: Although prior research shows that the nature and extent of private tutoring practices vary significantly from country to country, differences between Eastern and Western countries in terms of their cultural and institutional aspects of private tutoring choice have not been closely examined. We need to bridge the gap by…
Berghmans, Inneke; Michiels, Lotte; Salmon, Sara; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien
The present study aimed to shed light on students' appraisal and reported learning gains in two differently-tutored learning environments (i.e. directively and facilitatively tutored). In order to investigate this, a quasi-experimental study was set up in the context of a clinical skills learning environment. Not only were participating…
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.
The intent of this handbook is to provide guidelines for tutor-trainers, reading directors, and the community coordinators who need help in organizing programs for training reading tutors. The handbook is divided into three parts. "Reading Directors' Organizational Guidelines" is intended to give direction necessary to form the support group for…
Trevors, Gregory; Duffy, Melissa; Azevedo, Roger
Hypermedia learning environments (HLE) unevenly present new challenges and opportunities to learning processes and outcomes depending on learner characteristics and instructional supports. In this experimental study, we examined how one such HLE--MetaTutor, an intelligent, multi-agent tutoring system designed to scaffold cognitive and…
Baggott, Linda; Wright, Bruce
Describes an exploration of the use of digitized images in teaching biology to school students via the new digital communications channel, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Contains 23 references. (DDR)
Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Two educational uses of models and simulations: 1) Students create models and use simulations ; and 2) Researchers create models of learners to guide development of reliably effective materials. Cognitive tutors simulate and support tutoring - data is crucial to create effective model. Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center: Resources for modeling, authoring, experimentation. Repository of data and theory. Examples of advanced modeling efforts: SimStudent learns rule-based model. Help-seeking model: Tutors metacognition. Scooter uses machine learning detectors of student engagement.
Nguyen, Tang-Hung; Khoo, I.-Hung
In engineering disciplines, students usually have hard time to visualize different aspects of engineering analysis and design, which inherently are too complex or abstract to fully understand without the aid of visual explanations or visualizations. As examples, when learning materials and sequences of construction process, students need to visualize how all components of a constructed facility are assembled? Such visualization can not be achieved in a textbook and a traditional lecturing environment. In this paper, the authors present the development of a computer tutoring software, in which different visualization tools including video clips, 3 dimensional models, drawings, pictures/photos together with complementary texts are used to assist students in deeply understanding and effectively mastering materials. The paper will also discuss the implementation and the effectiveness evaluation of the proposed tutoring software, which was used to teach a construction engineering management course offered at California State University, Long Beach.
Elke, David R.; Seamster, Thomas L.; Truszkowski, Walter
The status of an ongoing project to explore the application of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) technology to NASA command and control languages is described. The primary objective of the current phase of the project is to develop a user interface for an ITS to assist NASA control center personnel in learning Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL). Although this ITS will be developed for Gamma Ray Observatory operators, it will be designed with sufficient flexibility so that its modules may serve as an ITS for other control languages such as the User Interface Language (UIL). The focus of this phase is to develop at least one other form of STOL representation to complement the operational STOL interface. Such an alternative representation would be adaptively employed during the tutoring session to facilitate the learning process. This is a key feature of this ITS which distinguishes it from a simulator that is only capable of representing the operational environment.
Rhodes Eliot, C. III; Park Woolf, B.
This paper examines the problem of modeling multiple agents within an intelligent simulation-based tutor. Multiple agent and planning technology were used to enable the system to critique a human agent`s reasoning about multiple agents. This perspective arises naturally whenever a student must learn to lead and coordinate a team of people. The system dynamically selected teaching goals, instantiated plans and modeled the student and the domain as it monitored the student`s progress. The tutor provides one of the first complete integrations of a real-time simulation with knowledge-based reasoning. Other novel techniques of the system are reported, such as common-sense reasoning about plans, reasoning about protocol mechanisms, and using a real-time simulation for training.
van de Sande, Brett; Hausmann, Robert
Physics instructors agree that homework assignments are an integral part of physics instruction. When students complete their assignments, we know they may work individually or in small groups. Unfortunately, most computer-based homework systems are structured for individual learners. In particular, these systems only evaluate the final answer, putting pressure on any students working in groups to engage in copying. In contrast, Andes is an intelligent tutor homework helper that requires students to show intermediate steps when solving a problem. Andes has been used successfully by instructors at several colleges and high schools. In order to investigate collaborative versus individual problem solving, we conducted a lab study where we recorded verbal self-explanations and logged solution steps as individuals and student pairs used Andes to solve a set of problems. We found that students working in pairs relied less on the tutor's hints and engaged in collaborative sense-making. Implications for instructional practices are discussed.
Cardiac auscultation is the difficult skill of listening to the human heart and using the sounds heard as clues in diagnosis. The CADI (Cardiac Auscultation Diagnosis Instruction) system is designed to tutor medical students and residents in both phases of auscultation: hearing the sounds and diagnosing illness based on what is heard. The system`s design draws on the case-based teaching architecture, which in turn is built on goal-based scenarios and case-based reasoning.
A project to design an interactive program to teach accounting techniques is described. The four major goals of the project are discussed and a review of the literature on teaching machines and computer-assisted-instruction is included. The system is implemented on the CTSS time sharing system at M.I.T. and uses an ARDS graphic display. The software design of the system is described in detail. A typical session with the tutor is also described. Appendices include complete system documentation.
Blechner, Michael David; Sordo, Margarita
Laboratory medicine is not adequately addressed in most medical school curricula. A review of the literature was performed to evaluate the feasibility of an intelligent tutoring system to enhance laboratory medicine training. This appraisal suggests that such a system must integrate basic science and clinical training. A system equipped with a clinical knowledgebase, in the form of an expert system, and a pathophysiology knowledgebase, in the form of multiple semantic networks, could provide such integration. PMID:16779182
Vadasy, P F; Jenkins, J R; Pool, K
This study examined the effectiveness of nonprofessional tutors in a phonologically based reading treatment similar to those in which successful reading outcomes have been demonstrated. Participants were 23 first graders at risk for learning disability who received intensive one-to-one tutoring from noncertified tutors for 30 minutes, 4 days a week, for one school year. Tutoring included instruction in phonological skills, letter-sound correspondence, explicit decoding, rime analysis, writing, spelling, and reading phonetically controlled text. At year end, tutored students significantly outperformed untutored control students on measures of reading, spelling, and decoding. Effect sizes ranged from .42 to 1.24. Treatment effects diminished at follow-up at the end of second grade, although tutored students continued to significantly outperform untutored students in decoding and spelling. Findings suggest that phonologically based reading instruction for first graders at risk for learning disability can be delivered by nonteacher tutors. Our discussion addresses the character of reading outcomes associated with tutoring, individual differences in response to treatment, and the infrastructure required for nonprofessional tutoring programs. PMID:15495399
Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J.; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta
Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction. PMID:24646510
Bardallo Porras, Lola; March i Vila, Gemma
The emerging conceptualization of the teaching-learning process brings with it a modification in the teaching role of a university professor. To think of the function of a tutor-professor from a complex perspective will help professors to develop underneath this paradigm, facilitating the construction of thinking in integrated networks having different types of knowledge which substitute fragmented and lineal knowledge characteristic to positivist thinking. From a complex paradigm, learning acquires a new sense. The complex viewpoint is rich in matrixes, complacent with diversity capable to integrate difficulties. The final objective of teaching is to accompany a student as he/she discovers and interprets reality. The most important function of a tutor is to permit a student to construct himself/herself by means of reflexive dialogue with the student's own learning experience. The tutor's role should enable a student to make use of his/her own speech, offering secure places where a student can find his/her appropriate spot, and where the pressure of an exam becomes more a stimulus to learn than a difficulty for his/her development. PMID:17926667
Albacete, Patricia Lucia
Students in traditional elementary mechanics classes can master problem solving of a quantitative nature but not those of a qualitative type. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics remain unchanged after completing their class. A few approaches have been implemented to improve this situation however none have met with great success. Since elementary mechanics is the foundation for all of physics and it is a required course for most science majors there is a clear need to improve the instruction of the subject. To address this problem I developed a intelligent tutoring system, called the Conceptual Helper, which coaches students during homework problem solving. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching physics, which presents innovations in three areas. (1) The teaching strategy, which focuses on teaching those links among the concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by the students. (2) The manner in which the knowledge is taught, which is based on a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting), effective pedagogical methods (e.g., a microscopic view of matter), and less cognitively demanding approaches (e.g., anthropomorphism). (3) The way in which misconceptions are handled which uses the underlying scientific correct line of reasoning to describe to the student the phenomenon that is the basis for the misconception. From a technological point of view the Conceptual Helper was implemented as a model-tracing tutor which intervenes when students make errors and after completion of each problem, at which time the tutor scaffolds the students on post-problem reflection. The remediation is guided by probabilistic assessment of mastery and the interventions are adapted to the errors. The thesis also presents the results of the evaluation of the system which revealed that the gain scores of the experimental group were statistically significantly higher than those of
Sakai, Damon H; D'Eon, Marcel; Trinder, Krista; Kasuya, Richard T.
At the University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine, senior medical student volunteers are used as tutors for some problem-based learning groups in both the first and second years. Previous studies on the advantages and disadvantages of student tutors compared to faculty tutors have been equivocal. This study expected to answer the…
Schmid, Richard F.; Miodrag, Nancy; Di Francesco, Nathalie
This study involved the analysis of the complex interactions that take place between tutors and preschool children using a computer during early literacy tutoring sessions. Eight five-year-old pre- and early-readers attending a childcare centre participated in daily 20-minute tutoring sessions for two weeks. The literacy software (a beta version)…
Blanch, Silvia; Duran, David; Valdebenito, Vanessa; Flores, Marta
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of an educational programme involving peer tutoring at school and family tutoring at home on child reading comprehension achievement in Catalunya, Spain. We drew upon a sample of 303 primary school students from 8 to 11 years old and 223 family tutors from home (61.5% mothers, 15% fathers,…
Chan, Claudia; Bray, Mark
Around the world, increasing numbers of students receive after-school private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring may be provided through informal channels or by companies, and it may be received one-to-one, in small groups or in large classes. The tutoring is commonly called shadow education since its content mimics that of regular schooling.…
Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Wolfhagen, Ineke H. A. P.
Aim: Tutor performance and tutorial group productivity interact with each other in a complex manner. The aim of this study was to investigate how tutor performance, tutorial group productivity and the effectiveness of a PBL unit interact with each other. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Does the tutor performance score differ across different…
De Rijdt, Catherine; van der Rijt, Janine; Dochy, Filip; van der Vleuten, Cees
We compared effects of tutoring by students and by staff. In four courses in each of two consecutive first years of an undergraduate problem-based law curriculum we examined the achievements and perceptions of tutors of students taught by student and staff tutors. Achievements were measured by the results on the regular end-of-course tests. After…
Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt
Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…
Bhatti, Abdul Jabbar; Jumani, Nabi Bux
This study explores the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different…
Severino, Carol; Deifell, Elizabeth
Writing center tutors play a key role in advancing L2 writers' language learning because the tutorial interaction involves the introduction of new language and vocabulary at the point of need or interest. This tutor-research case study presents a detailed, complex portrait of how a second language writer in a US writing center learned and used…
Chambers, Bette; Abrami, Philip; Tucker, Bradley; Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.; Cheung, Alan; Gifford, Richard
This article presents a randomized experiment evaluating a computer-assisted tutoring program. The software program, Alphie's Alley, provides reading tutors with assessment and planning tools and performance support. It provides students with animated presentations and engaging activities. In a yearlong study involving 25 schools using the Success…
This paper describes a study that examined the demand for tutoring within a context of heightened credential competition and a growing private-education sector consisting of private schools, charter schools, homeschoolers, and a burgeoning entrepreneurial education industry. The number of private-tutoring businesses is rapidly growing in Canada,…
Okoroma, Francisca N.
Peer tutoring plays a very significant role in teaching and learning, its gain is not limited to positive academic performance but extends to social life development. This work seeks to identify the impact peer tutoring has on librarians in training at the University of Ibadan, including the motives and strategies of the participants, the benefits…
Heron, Timothy E.; Welsch, Richard G.; Goddard, Yvonne L.
This article reviews how tutoring systems have been applied across specialized subject areas (e.g., music, horticulture, health and safety, social interactions). It summarizes findings, provides an analysis of skills learned within each tutoring system, identifies the respective methodologies, and reports relevant findings, implications, and…
Kessler, Aaron M.; Stein, Mary Kay; Schunn, Christian D.
Model tracing tutors represent a technology designed to mimic key elements of one-on-one human tutoring. We examine the situations in which such supportive computer technologies may devolve into mindless student work with little conceptual understanding or student development. To analyze the support of student intellectual work in the model…
Effective intervention procedures are essential to breaking the cycle of school failure. Tobin and Sprague (2000) conducted a review of strategies that have shown to be effective with youth served in alternative education settings. Among those were instructional strategies, including tutoring. ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is a well-researched…
Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.
Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is…
Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.
Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…
Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Davis, Heather; Vannest, Kimberly; Williams, Lauren; Greenwood, Charles; Parker, Richard
Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that involves students helping each other learn content through repetition of key concepts. This meta-analysis examined effects of peer tutoring across 26 single-case research experiments for 938 students in Grades 1-12. The TauU effect size for 195 phase contrasts was 0.75 with a confidence interval of…
Walsh, Lisa D.; Semb, George
This study compared obtrusive observers and self-reports to a criterion, unobtrusive observers, to assess how accurately they measured tutor performance. Unobtrusive observers were used as a criterion for comparison because it was assumed that their measures were free of biases. Participants were 55 college-level peer tutors. Course sections were…
Calma, Angelito; Eggins, Mark
This paper investigates how a peer-connected tutor training program can lead to quality enhancement by helping tutors to develop more effective teaching strategies and promoting better learning approaches among business students. It uses 2007-2010 evaluation data from 343 program participants from accounting, economics, finance and management and…
Pantoja, Maria Veronica
Writing centers in American institutions of higher education have existed in one form or another since the late 1800s and early 1900s, providing individualized writing tutoring and support for students. As writing centers evolved, questions arose regarding the effects of writing tutoring on student writing. Some assessment studies on writing…
Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine
Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…
Dufrene, Brad A.; Reisener, Carmen D.; Olmi, D. Joe; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly; McNutt, Marlena R.; Horn, Dana R.
Peer tutoring is an evidence-based procedure for improving academic performance for a variety of skill areas. The current study evaluated the feasibility and impact of a peer tutoring package for reading fluency with 4 middle school students receiving Tier II remedial supports. This study used a multiple baseline design across participants to…
Krajewska, Anna; Kowalczuk-Waledziak, Marta
In the face of mass education, the need to seek individualized methods of students' teaching-learning is increasing. That causes academic tutoring to become more and more popular in higher education all over the world. The article presents the theoretical background of tutoring, the results of research in that regard and the benefits of its…
Wolfe, Christopher; Widmer, Colin L.; Weil, Audrey M.; Cedillos-Whynott, Elizabeth M.
Students in an undergraduate psychology course on Learning and Cognition used SKO (formerly AutoTutor Lite), an Intelligent Tutoring System, to create interactive lessons in which a pedagogic agent (animated avatar) engages users in a tutorial dialogue. After briefly describing the technology and underlying psychological theory, data from an…
The face-to-face computer-supported collaborative learning has emerged as an important strategy to elementary students' learning. Few studies have explicitly incorporated the structured peer tutoring to the synchronous environment in mathematics. This study was aimed to explore the effects of the synchronous peer tutoring system on children's…
Scholastic Aptitude Test, called SAT, has an immense influence in Chinese education. Most Chinese students choose to attend tutoring programs outside of the school curriculum to help them prepare. This study explores the tutoring programs both in China and the United States to assess variables that affect the quality of their preparation.…
Thurston, Allen; Duran, David; Cunningham, Erika; Blanch, Silvia; Topping, Keith
The paper reports data from an on-line peer tutoring project. In the project 78, 9-12-year-old students from Scotland and Catalonia peer tutored each other in English and Spanish via a managed on-line environment. Significant gains in first language (Catalonian pupils) modern language (Scottish pupils) and attitudes towards modern languages (both…
Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth; Phillips, Robert; Ingram, Amy; Ha, Eun Young; Wallis, Michael; Vouk, Mladen; Lester, James
Identifying effective tutorial dialogue strategies is a key issue for intelligent tutoring systems research. Human-human tutoring offers a valuable model for identifying effective tutorial strategies, but extracting them is a challenge because of the richness of human dialogue. This article addresses that challenge through a machine learning…
Wright, Robin Redmon
Examines affective influences on male student attitudes toward peer tutoring. Indicates that gender-specific sociolinguistic characteristics as well as cultural pressures impacted male students' willingness to seek academic assistance. Finds that both male developmental mathematics tutors and male developmental mathematics students admitted to…
Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Xiaohao
This paper analyzes the behavior of families in China regarding private tutoring, applying game theory to its discussion of their actions. It finds that families will definitely give their children private tutoring after school in order to obtain better educational opportunities in situations where the distribution of educational resources is…
Tutors' and students' intentions to use emerging technologies (ETs) in e-learning systems in higher education institutions are a central concern of researchers, academicians, and practitioners. However, tutors' and students' intentions to use ETs in e-learning systems in distance learning are relatively low. The goal of the study, developed in…
While much of the recent academic literature into university seminar teaching has focused on collaborative learning involving student-student interaction, little research has been done into tutor-student interaction and how tutors interact with students during whole class, group-based and one-to-one teaching. In response to this finding, this…
Reed, Stephen K.; Corbett, Albert; Hoffman, Bob; Wagner, Angela; MacLaren, Ben
Algebra students studied either static-table, static-graphics, or interactive-graphics instructional worked examples that alternated with Algebra Cognitive Tutor practice problems. A control group did not study worked examples but solved both the instructional and practice problems on the Cognitive Tutor (CT). Students in the control group…
Panagiotis, Anastasiades; Chrysoula, Iliadou
Two-way communication between students and tutors is one of the two key factors contributing to the success of a Distance Learning programme, the other being the complete and well-designed educational package. Both elements are essential to guide students' learning. By means of this communication the tutor can facilitate the interaction of…
Court, Krista; Johnson, Helen
Strong arguments have been forwarded for embedding academic writing development into the UK higher education curriculum and for subject tutors to facilitate this development (Hyland, 2000; Lea & Street, 2006; Monroe, 2003; Wingate, 2006). This small-scale case study explores subject tutors' practices and beliefs with regard to the provision of…
Barton, James M.
Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…
Müller, Bettina; Richter, Tobias; Križan, Ana; Hecht, Teresa; Ennemoser, Marco
Reading strategy interventions relying upon peer tutoring are a common way to foster poor readers' comprehension skills. Those interventions are based on the assumption that tutees benefit from the (higher) reading skills of their tutors. However, this interpersonal effect has not yet been tested explicitly because the effectiveness of peer…
Kim, Stacey C.; Warren, Susan
This study examined the effects of professional development on strengthening the efficacy and civic engagement of college students tutoring diverse K-5th grade English Language Learners in an urban community. A mixed methods approach including pre-and post-surveys, focus groups, weekly reflections, and supervisor observations revealed tutors'…
Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra
The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…
Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Palazzo, David J.; Pritchard, David E.
We studied students performing a complex learning task, that of solving multipart physics problems with interactive tutoring on the web. We extracted the rate of completion and fraction completed as a function of time on task by retrospectively analyzing the log of student-tutor interactions. There was a spontaneous division of students into three…
Chang, Sau Hou
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…
Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula
While online teaching in post-compulsory education is the focus of much research today, the training of online tutors has largely been neglected. Most papers do not go beyond dealing with the technical skills that are needed to teach in an online environment. This article outlines a framework for tutor training, starting with a brief overview of…
Sosa, Alicia Salinas
In 1984 the Edgewood and South San Antonio Independent School Districts implemented the Valued Youth Partnership Program (VYP). VYP identifies Hispanic junior high and high school students at high risk of dropping out and gives them an opportunity to serve as tutors of younger children. As they tutor, the older students also learn basic skills,…
State Univ. of New York, Brockport. Coll. at Brockport.
The worksheets and tutor tips included in this document were created to tutor the employees of the Faculty Student Association at the State University of New York College at Brockport. They contain general objectives for all workers as well as those related to their jobs in operating the dining rooms at the university. The materials list 39 job…
State Univ. of New York, Brockport. Coll. at Brockport.
The worksheets and tutor tips included in this document were created to tutor the physical plant employees at the State University of New York College at Brockport. They contain general objectives for all workers as well as those related to their jobs in maintenance of the buildings and grounds of the university. The materials list 44 job…
Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.
Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the…
Chien, Tsai Chen; Md. Yunus, Aida Suraya; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Bakar, Ab. Rahim
In this experimental study, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) followed by use of an Intelligent Tutoring System (CAI+ITS) was compared to the use of CAI (CAI only) in tutoring students on the topic of Algebraic Expression. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group of 32 students studied algebraic expression in a CAI…
Gajar, Anna H.; And Others
The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…
Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.
We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…
Mondeik, Shelly L.
This mixed-methods study examined the impact of professional nursing tutors on National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) success. Thirty-eight nursing student success rates from Northcentral Technical College, a two year technical college in Wisconsin, were analyzed by using NCLEX pass rate information, professional tutoring logs, and a…
Qi, Manfei; Ma, Ding; Wang, Wansen
Aiming at emotion deficiency in present Network tutoring system, a lot of negative effects is analyzed and corresponding countermeasures are proposed. The model of Personalized Network tutoring system based on Emotional-cognitive interaction is constructed in the paper. The key techniques of realizing the system such as constructing emotional model and adjusting teaching strategies are also introduced.
Lingo, Amy Shearer
This study evaluated the effectiveness of high school tutors' implementation of "Great Leaps Reading" (Campbell, 1998), a reading fluency supplementary instructional program. The program consists of three sections: phonics, sight word phrases, and story passages. Daily 15-minute tutoring sessions involved repeated 1-minute timings of…
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Acosta, Rudy; Cheng, Huiping; Dillender, Marcus; Kirshbaum, Christi; Nisar, Hiren; Stewart, Mary
School districts are spending millions on tutoring outside regular school day hours for economically and academically disadvantaged students in need of extra academic assistance. Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), parents of children in persistently low-performing schools were allowed to choose their child's tutoring provider, and together…
Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt
Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…
Ireson, Judith; Rushforth, Katie
International surveys indicate that the prevalence of private tutoring in England is relatively low but as few national surveys have been undertaken, there is little detailed evidence available. The aim of this research is to provide a systematic description of the nature and extent of private tutoring at three points of transition in the English…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Schatschneider, Christopher; Hamlett, Carol L.; DeSelms, Jacqueline; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Wilson, Julie; Craddock, Caitlin F.; Bryant, Joan D.; Luther, Kurstin; Changas, Paul
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations…
Rus, Vasile; Lintean, Mihai; Azevedo, Roger
This paper presents several methods to automatically detecting students' mental models in MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students self-regulatory processes during learning of complex science topics. In particular, we focus on detecting students' mental models based on student-generated paragraphs during prior knowledge…
Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Cooper, Harris
This meta-analysis synthesizes research on the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) for college students. Thirty-five reports were found containing 39 studies assessing the effectiveness of 22 types of ITS in higher education settings. Most frequently studied were AutoTutor, Assessment and Learning in Knowledge Spaces, eXtended…
Houge, Timothy T.; Peyton, David; Geier, Constance; Petrie, Bruce
The purpose of this research project was to examine the effectiveness of supervised literacy tutoring delivered by 25 secondary teacher candidates to middle and high school students via webcam technology and in person. The results stem from two semester-long studies of technology-delivered tutoring from a university to middle and high school…
Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…
Gordon, Edward E.; Morgan, Ronald R.; O'Malley, Charles J.; Ponticell, Judith
This book presents a comprehensive research-driven perspective on what we know and do not know about tutoring. The authors link theories, research, and practice together in a coherent, consistent manner to form a new foundation of specific recommendations and strategies to help improve tutoring across America. The book includes practical…
Williams, Margaret; And Others
This handbook for leaders of workshops to teach tutors how to use newspapers in adult literacy education outlines the purpose and procedures of the workshops and provides some audiovisual materials. The materials are intended for use in a 2-hour tutor workshop designed to incorporate various teaching modes: lecture, discussion, questioning,…
This study investigates how literacy was constructed at an adult literacy organization's volunteer tutor-training program. By drawing on qualitative analysis of training texts used during training, such as training evaluations, and data gathered from interviews with experienced tutors, it is possible to identify the assumptions about literacy…
Menesses, Keri F.; Gresham, Frank M.
This study directly compared the academic gains of reciprocal peer tutoring, nonreciprocal peer tutoring, and a waiting-list control group. Participants included 59 elementary students from second-, third-, and fourth-grade classrooms who performed below average on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) math probes. Students involved in peer tutoring…
Lock, Robin H.; Layton, Carol A.
This study examined the relationship between GPAs and attendance at individualized tutoring sessions for 530 students with learning disabilities enrolled in a student support program. Student GPA and attendance records for individualized tutoring sessions identified two groups: four or fewer and five or more no shows over a nine-semester period.…
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…
Ragonis, Noa; Hazzan, Orit
This paper offers a tutoring model its objective is to develop and establish the pedagogical-disciplinary knowledge of prospective computer science teachers with respect to guiding learners in problem-solving processes. The paper presents the tutoring model and the research that accompanied its implementation. The research findings indicate that…
Tyler Junior Coll., TX.
A project conducted at Tyler Junior College (Texas) developed a video and a handbook to train tutors and assist instructors to: employ learning strategies developed specifically for occupational students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit disorder (ADD); build affective skills on their advisory tutors/students; and strengthen the…
Arco-Tirado, Jose L.; Fernandez-Martin, Francisco D.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel
The purposes of this study were, on one had, to determine the impact of a peer tutoring program on preventing academic failure and dropouts among first-year students (N = 100), from Civil Engineering, Economics, Pharmacy, and Chemical Engineering careers; while, on the other hand, to identify the potential benefits of such tutoring program on the…