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Sample records for aaasae fragrance ingredients

  1. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  2. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl isobutyrate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl isobutyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl isobutyrate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl isobutyrate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl propionate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  4. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  5. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  6. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-04-15

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  7. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  8. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-15

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects.

  9. Skin sensitisation to fragrance ingredients: is there a role for household cleaning/maintenance products?

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Lemoine, Sylvie; McFadden, John P

    2015-01-01

    The induction of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients and the consequent risk of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) present a human health concern that cannot be ignored. The problem arises when exposure exceeds safe levels, but the source(s) of exposure which lead to induction often remain unclear. This contrasts with the elicitation of ACD, where the eczema frequently can be traced to specific source(s) of skin exposure. Cosmetic products are often implicated, both for induction and elicitation. However, other products contain fragrance ingredients, including household cleaning products. In this paper, the risk assessment concerning the ability of these products to induce fragrance contact allergy is considered and the clinical evidence for the induction and/or elicitation of ACD is reviewed. It can be concluded that the risk of the induction of fragrance contact allergy from household cleaning products is low. Especially where more potent fragrance allergens are used in higher exposure products, the aggregated exposure from such products can augment the risk for the elicitation of ACD. This supports the need to manage this risk via the provision of information to consumers.

  10. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered.

  11. Application of the expanded Creme RIFM consumer exposure model to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic, personal care and air care products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Rose, J; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2017-02-28

    As part of a joint project between the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) and Creme Global, a Monte Carlo model (here named the Creme RIFM model) has been developed to estimate consumer exposure to ingredients in personal care products. Details of the model produced in Phase 1 of the project have already been published. Further data on habits and practises have been collected which enable the model to estimate consumer exposure from dermal, oral and inhalation routes for 25 product types. . In addition, more accurate concentration data have been obtained which allow levels of fragrance ingredients in these product types to be modelled. Described is the use of this expanded model to estimate aggregate systemic exposure for eight fragrance ingredients. Results are shown for simulated systemic exposure (expressed as μg/kg bw/day) for each fragrance ingredient in each product type, along with simulated aggregate exposure. Highest fragrance exposure generally occurred from use of body lotions, body sprays and hydroalcoholic products. For the fragrances investigated, aggregate exposure calculated using this model was 11.5-25 fold lower than that calculated using deterministic methodology. The Creme RIFM model offers a very comprehensive and powerful tool for estimating aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients.

  12. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. RIFM Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2013-12-01

    The alkyl cyclic ketone (ACK) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. ACK fragrance materials demonstrate low acute toxicity. Upon repeat dose testing, some adverse effects in biochemical and hematological parameters, and slightly increased liver and kidney weights were reported, primarily at high doses, resulting from adaptive effects. Developmental effects occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity. Assays in bacteria and mammalian cell systems and the mouse micronucleus assay did not demonstrate genotoxicity. ACK fragrance ingredients are considered non-irritating to the skin of humans; results showed few reactions, most of which were equivocal or involved doses greater than those in consumer products. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal tests was observed with most compounds; however, full recovery was usually observed. Human sensitization studies indicate that ACK fragrance ingredients have a low sensitization potential. Diagnostic patch-tests indicated low sensitizing potential in humans; except for fragrance materials which caused reactions at 1% or 5%. Phototoxicity and photosensitization were not demonstrated in humans, and, with the possible exception of acetyl cedrene, would not be expected. It is concluded that ACK materials do not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients.

  13. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity of nitrile fragrance ingredients using in vitro and in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S P; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-09-01

    Genotoxicity studies were conducted on a group of 8 fragrance ingredients that belong to the nitrile family. These nitriles are widely used in consumer products however there is very limited data in the literature regarding the genotoxicity of these nitriles. The 8 nitriles were assessed for genotoxicity using an Ames test, in vitro chromosome aberration test or in vitro micronucleus test. The positive results observed in the in vitro tests were further investigated using an in vivo micronucleus test. The results from these different tests were compared and these 8 nitriles are not considered to be genotoxic. Dodecanitrile and 2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enylacetonitrile were negative in the in vitro chromosome aberration test and in vitro micronucleus test, respectively. While citronellyl nitrile, 3-methyl-5-phenylpentanenitrile, cinnamyl nitrile, and 3-methyl-5-phenylpent-2-enenitrile revealed positive results in the in vitro tests, but confirmatory in vivo tests determined these nitriles to be negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay. The remaining two nitriles (benzonitrile and α-cyclohexylidene benzeneacetonitrile) were negative in the in vivo micronucleus test. This study aims to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of these nitriles as well as enrich the literature with genotoxicity data on fragrance ingredients.

  15. Study of the photodegradation of a fragrance ingredient for aquatic environmental fate assessment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianming; Emberger, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Photodegradation is an important abiotic degradation process to be taken into account for more accurate assessment of the fate of chemicals in the aquatic environment, especially those that are not readily biodegradable. Although the significant role of indirect photodegradation in the environmental fate of chemicals has been revealed in recent research, because of the many confounding factors affecting its kinetics, no straightforward approaches can be used to investigate this degradation process for environmental fate assessment. The indirect photodegradation of a fragrance ingredient named Pamplewood was studied in this work for its fate assessment. Indirect photodegradation rates under various indoor and outdoor conditions were measured by using an LC-MS method. Although the half-lives varied from 4 to 13 days, they collectively indicated that Pamplewood is intrinsically photolabile and can undergo rapid photodegradation. Results from quencher experiments revealed that ⋅OH was the main reactive intermediate responsible for indirect photodegradation, with a half-life of about 18 days in sunlit surface water, based on the experimentally determined second-order rate constant (8.48 ± 0.19 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). Photodegradation products of Pamplewood were also studied by GC-MS, LC-MS and total organic carbon content analyses. The results indicated that intermediates of Pamplewood photodegradation continued to photodegrade into smaller and more polar species. Complete mineralization of Pamplewood was observed when it was reacted with hydroxyl radicals in an aqueous solution. This novel approach can be applied for a more realistic environmental fate assessment of other non-readily biodegradable, hydrolysis-resistant, and non-sunlight-absorbing fragrance ingredients.

  16. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.

  17. A safety assessment of branched chain saturated alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Greim, H; Hanifin, J M; Rogers, A E; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G; Tagami, H

    2010-07-01

    The Branched Chain Saturated Alcohol (BCSA) group of fragrance ingredients was evaluated for safety. In humans, no evidence of skin irritation was found at concentrations of 2-10%. Undiluted, 11 materials evaluated caused moderate to severe eye irritation. As current end product use levels are between 0.001% and 1.7%, eye irritation is not a concern. The materials have no or low sensitizing potential. For individuals who are already sensitized, an elicitation reaction is possible. Due to lack of UVA/UVB light-absorbing structures, and review of phototoxic/photoallergy data, the BCSA are not expected to elicit phototoxicity or photoallergy. The 15 materials tested have a low order of acute toxicity. Following repeated application, seven BCSA tested were of low systemic toxicity. Studies performed on eight BCSA and three metabolites show no in vivo or in vitro genotoxicity. A valid carcinogenicity study showed that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is a weak inducer of liver tumors in female mice, however, the relevance of this effect and mode of action to humans is still a matter of debate. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding BCSA under the present levels of use and exposure.

  18. The composition of fine fragrances is changing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Suresh C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-03-01

    High frequencies of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients have been reported in recent years. Developments in analytical chemistry have made it possible to measure exposure to well-known fragrance contact allergens. It has been shown that exposure is widespread in different types of products. The products with the highest concentrations of allergens have been shown to be prestige perfumes intended for women. This investigation explores the possible development in formulation of prestige perfumes, with regard to their content of the chemically defined ingredients of the diagnostic patch test material, the fragrance mix (FM). 10 fine fragrances were subjected to chemical analysis: 5 of these had been launched years ago (1921-1990) and 5 were the latest launches by the same companies, introduced 2 months to 4 years before purchase. The analysis revealed that the 5 old perfumes contained a mean of 5 of the 7 target allergens of the FM, while the new perfumes contained a mean of 2.8 of the allergens. The mean concentrations of the target allergens were 2.6 times higher in the old perfumes than in the new perfumes, range 2.2-337. It is concluded that the old perfumes, which are still popular products on the market, have a different composition from the new perfumes. This may be due to change in fashion or to an effort by the fragrance industry to focus on fragrance contact allergy, especially that to the FM ingredients.

  19. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  20. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from the synthetic fragrances Lyral and acetyl cedrene in separate underarm deodorant preparations.

    PubMed

    Handley, J; Burrows, D

    1994-11-01

    The case is reported of a 28-year-old man who developed allergic contact dermatitis from 2 synthetic fragrance ingredients, Lyral (3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-aldehyde) and acetyl cedrene, in separate underarm deodorant preparations. The implications of the patient's negative patch test reactions to the European standard series (Trolab) and cosmetics and fragrance series (both Chemotechnique Diagnostics) are discussed. The importance is stressed of patch testing with the patient's own preparations when cosmetic dermatitis is suspected, and of identifying and reporting offending fragrance ingredients, with a view possibly to updating the European standard series and commercially available cosmetics and fragrance series.

  2. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  4. Deodorants on the European market: quantitative chemical analysis of 21 fragrances.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P; Menné, T; Bruze, M; Lepoittevin, J P; Dreier, B; Andersen, K E; White, I R

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently used types of cosmetics and side-effects from them are common. Recent studies relate perfume allergy to this type of product. 73 deodorants were analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry for the determination of the contents of 7 wellknown fragrance allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other commonly used fragrance materials. The deodorants were purchased at retail outlets in 5 European countries. It was found that in general, fragrance mix ingredients were more frequently present in vapo- and aerosol sprays than in roll-on products. The levels of the fragrance mix substances ranged from 0.0001-0.2355%. The products investigated contained cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol less frequently (17% and 29% respectively), and eugenol and geraniol most frequently (57% and 76% respectively). The 14 other fragrance materials were found in 40-97% of the deodorants, with hedione and benzyl acetate the most frequently found substances. The concentration of these 14 substances ranged from 0.0001-2.7%. It is concluded that the levels of cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol found in the deodorants could prove to be relevant for elicitation of contact dermatitis. No conclusions could be drawn about the other fragrance mix constituents, as threshold levels in sensitized individuals have not been investigated. Furthermore, all of the fragrance materials investigated were frequently found in deodorants and, apart from the fragrance mix ingredients, the extent of problems with sensitization to these fragrance materials is largely unknown.

  5. Fragrance allergy: assessing the risk from washed fabrics.

    PubMed

    Corea, Namali V; Basketter, David A; Clapp, Catherine; Van Asten, Arian; Marty, Jean-Paul; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Laverdet, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients increased during the last part of the 20th century with the consequence that a substantial number of individuals are at risk of experiencing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) if they have a sufficient degree of skin exposure to the chemical to which they have become sensitized. Such exposure does not necessarily have to arise from the type of source that originally induced the sensitization. A number of sources of exposure are clearly associated with risk of elicitation of ACD, but the role of fragrance deposited on fabrics, for example as a result of laundry processes, also can be questioned. In this article, firstly, the risk of the induction of fragrance-related ACD from exposure to fragrance via fabric is considered. Using a quantitative risk-assessment approach, the risk appears to be extremely low. The possibility that fragrance residues on laundered fabrics might elicit reactions in those already sensitized by a different route is also discussed. Clinically, clothing pattern dermatitis associated with fragrance allergy is almost never observed, although this could be investigated clinically by exposing sensitized individuals to the relevant fragrance allergen.

  6. The search for new amber ingredients.

    PubMed

    Narula, Anubhav P S

    2014-10-01

    There is a constant need for developing new fragrance ingredients in the flavor and fragrance industry, as it allows perfumers to create unique and differentiating perfumes for fine as well as functional products. Among all the categories of notes used in perfume creation, amber notes are indispensible and ubiquitous in their presence in all perfumes. Not only amber notes impart high performance and substantivity to fragrances, but they are paramount in the development of classic and legendary fragrances. This article is based on the plenary lecture delivered at the flavor & fragrance 2013 conference of the German Chemical Society in Leipzig, Germany. The strategy, rationale, and the various synthetic approaches that led to the discovery of two new very powerful, woody, amber materials, Amber Xtreme(®) (1) and Trisamber(®) (2), are delineated.

  7. An in silico skin absorption model for fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Schultz, Terry; Bhatia, Sneha

    2014-12-01

    Fragrance materials are widely used in cosmetics and other consumer products. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) evaluates the safety of these ingredients and skin absorption is an important parameter in refining systemic exposure. Currently, RIFM's safety assessment process assumes 100% skin absorption when experimental data are lacking. This 100% absorption default is not supportable and alternate default values were proposed. This study aims to develop and validate a practical skin absorption model (SAM) specific for fragrance material. It estimates skin absorption based on the methodology proposed by Kroes et al. SAM uses three default absorption values based on the maximum flux (J(max)) - namely, 10%, 40%, and 80%. J(max) may be calculated by using QSAR models that determine octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)), water solubility (S) and permeability coefficient (K(p)). Each of these QSAR models was refined and a semi-quantitative mechanistic model workflow is presented. SAM was validated with a large fragrance-focused data set containing 131 materials. All resulted in predicted values fitting the three-tiered absorption scenario based on Jmax ranges. This conservative SAM may be applied when fragrance material lack skin absorption data.

  8. Fragrances in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheets Room fresheners Carpet fresheners Statements on labels, marketing claims, consumer expectations, and even some ingredients may ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  9. The design principles of axilla deodorant fragrances.

    PubMed

    McGee, T; Rankin, K M; Baydar, A

    1998-11-30

    There are a number of ways that deodorant products control malodor: a) by suppressing sweat, b) by inhibiting bacterial activity, and c) by covering malodor. The paper focuses on the Givaudan Roure methodology used to develop fragrances that effectively cover malodor. Several steps are involved in the development of a successful deodorant fragrance. First, we test for substantivity of the deodorant fragrance material in the axilla, using odor value technology. Second, using an in vitro test with reconstituted axilla odor, we determine the effectiveness of the substantive fragrance material with carefully screened panelists. Third, using a multichannel olfactive blender, the perfumer creates a fragrance heart with effective deodorant fragrance materials that cover malodor in the vapor phase. Finally, the hedonically pleasing heart is used to create the final fragrance, which is then optimized using our in vitro test method.

  10. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer.

  11. A framework for prioritizing fragrance materials for aquatic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Salvito, Daniel T; Senna, Ronald J; Federle, Thomas W

    2002-06-01

    More than 2,100 chemically defined organic chemicals are listed in the Research Institute of Fragrance Materials/Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (RIFM/FEMA) Database that are used as ingredients of fragrances for consumer products. An approach was developed for prioritizing these fragrance materials for aquatic risk assessment by first estimating the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of these fragrance materials in the aquatic environment based upon their physicochemical properties and annual volume of use. Subsequently, an effect level was predicted with a general quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for aquatic toxicity, and a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated from this effect level by using an assessment factor (AF) that accounts for uncertainty in the toxicity QSAR prediction. A conservative AF of 10(6) was applied to the endpoint predicted by the QSAR to provide an adequate margin of safety in the calculation of the PNEC. The PEC was compared to the PNEC to characterize the risk to freshwater aquatic organisms (e.g., Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas). If the ratio of PEC to PNEC was below one, the material was considered to have negligible environmental risk and to be acceptable for the aquatic environment at current use levels. If this ratio exceeded one, the PNEC was refined by using more specific QSAR models (Ecological Structure-Activity Relationships [ECOSAR]). If the ratio continued to exceed one, the material became a candidate for further aquatic risk assessment procedures, which involve iterative steps to refine the PEC, the PNEC, or both by using measured ecotoxicological endpoints. Prioritization for this latter process can be based upon the magnitudes of the estimated PEC:PNEC ratios. When using the first tier of this approach, only 568 of 2,141 fragrance materials (26.5%) in the RIFM/FEMA Database had PEC:PNEC ratios greater than one. This percentage decreased to only 164 materials

  12. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  13. Good quantification practices of flavours and fragrances by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Begnaud, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometric detection have been increasingly used to monitor the rapidly expanded list of regulated flavour and fragrance ingredients. This trend entails a need for good quantification practices suitable for complex media, especially for multi-analytes. In this article, we present experimental precautions needed to perform the analyses and ways to process the data according to the most recent approaches. This notably includes the identification of analytes during their quantification and method validation, when applied to real matrices, based on accuracy profiles. A brief survey of application studies based on such practices is given. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644977

  14. Modeling ready biodegradability of fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Ceriani, Lidia; Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Boethling, Robert; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, quantitative structure activity relationships were developed for predicting ready biodegradability of approximately 200 heterogeneous fragrance materials. Two classification methods, classification and regression tree (CART) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN), were applied to perform the modeling. The models were validated with multiple external prediction sets, and the structural applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach. The best models had good sensitivity (internal ≥80%; external ≥68%), specificity (internal ≥80%; external 73%), and overall accuracy (≥75%). Results from the comparison with BIOWIN global models, based on group contribution method, show that specific models developed in the present study perform better in prediction than BIOWIN6, in particular for the correct classification of not readily biodegradable fragrance materials.

  15. Intraspecific Geographic Variation of Fragrances Acquired by Orchid Bees in Native and Introduced Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886

  16. Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-08-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee.

  17. Accenting Fashion: Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrances. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, K. Denise; Ritz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information on the manufacture of cosmetics, toiletries, and fragrances. Includes a design brief, giving context, challenge, objectives, material and equipment needs, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  18. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  19. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  20. Encapsulation and Enhanced Retention of Fragrance in Polymer Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyomin; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Wesner, Chris; Caggioni, Marco; Zhu, Taotao; Weitz, David A

    2016-02-17

    Fragrances are amphiphilic and highly volatile, all of which makes them a challenging cargo to efficiently encapsulate and retain in microcapsules using traditional approaches. We address these limitations by introducing a new strategy that combines bulk and microfluidic emulsification: a stable fragrance-in-water (F/W) emulsion that is primarily prepared from bulk emulsification is incorporated within a polymer microcapsule via microfluidic emulsification. On the basis of the in-depth study of physicochemical properties of the microcapsules on fragrance leakage, we demonstrate that enhanced retention of fragrance can be achieved by using a polar polymeric shell and forming a hydrogel network within the microcapsule. We further extend the utility of these microcapsules by demonstrating the enhanced retention of encapsulated fragrance in powder state.

  1. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  2. Psychology of Fragrance Use: Perception of Individual Odor and Perfume Blends Reveals a Mechanism for Idiosyncratic Effects on Fragrance Choice

    PubMed Central

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S. Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice. PMID:22470479

  3. Psychology of fragrance use: perception of individual odor and perfume blends reveals a mechanism for idiosyncratic effects on fragrance choice.

    PubMed

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.

  4. Colophonium and Compositae mix as markers of fragrance allergy: cross-reactivity between fragrance terpenes, colophonium and compositae plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, K E

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the strength of any association between sensitization to 'new' fragrance compounds and sensitization to Compositae, fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin and colophonium, respectively. Consecutive eczema patients were tested with a series of essential oils and selected fragrance compounds and another series of oxidized terpenes in connection with European multicentre fragrance projects. Contact allergy to either series was frequently detected, in 5% of 318 and 4.6% of 262 persons tested, and both had a statistically significant association with Compositae, colophonium and fragrance mix sensitization. The individual results indicated that simultaneously occurring positive reactions to essential oils, colophonium and Compositae were based on cross-reactivity rather than concomitant sensitization. Thus, all patients with positive reaction to the rare fragrance sensitizer beta-caryophyllene had positive colophonium reactions, and cross-reactivity between essential oils and Compositae was related to the Compositae plant extracts of the Compositae mix and not the pure sesquiterpene lactones of the standard series. The implication is that Compositae mix and colophonium may be markers of fragrance allergy, which is important to know when assessing the relevance of positive reactions to Compositae plant extracts and colophonium.

  5. Changes in Mood States Are Induced by Smelling Familiar and Exotic Fragrances

    PubMed Central

    Sarid, Orly; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Familiar fragrances usually induce positive mood states and elicit favorable evaluation. Relaxation is also widely thought to improve mood state. Yet experimental evidence on the effect of two different stimuli, fragrance smelling and breathing relaxation, on mood state, and fragrance evaluation is lacking. This study aimed to test (1) the effect of two familiar fragrances, lavender and myrtle, and two exotic fragrances, bergamot and ravensara, on perceived mood states before and after relaxation, (2) the effect of relaxation on perceived mood states for each fragrance, and (3) the effect of relaxation on fragrance evaluation as defined by adjectives. We hypothesized that mood states and assessment of the fragrances would differently be affected both in familiar vs. non-familiar fragrances and also before and after relaxation. Participants (n = 127) completed questionnaires on their mood states at baseline (T0). They were then presented with each of the four fragrances separately and asked to report on mood state and to assess the fragrances with adjectives before (T1) and after (T2) breathing relaxation. Analyses of the T0–T1 delta values of mood states by ANOVA repeated measures and post hoc comparisons showed that mood states were affected by fragrance smelling with no clear differences observed between familiar and exotic fragrances. The same analyses of T1–T2 values showed no differences in mood state after breathing relaxation and fragrance smelling. Fragrance assessment by adjectives indicated a non-conclusive trend for familiar and exotic fragrances. In sum, mood states induced by the fragrance smelling stimulus (T0–T1) were not changed by the addition of the second stimulus of relaxation (T1–T2), indicating that the former stimulus was stronger than the latter. On the other hand, the cognitive component represented by adjective-based assessment of fragrances was slightly modified by the relaxation stimulus. PMID:27877148

  6. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  7. Rapid LC-MS method for the detection of common fragrances in personal care products without sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela; Capriotti, Fabiana; Cappiello, Achille

    2014-05-01

    An LC-MS method for the analysis of personal care and household products without sample preparation is presented. The method takes advantage of the Direct-electron ionization (EI) LC-MS interface for the quantitation of principal components, as well as for the identification of unknown or undeclared ingredients. The technique has proven its inertness toward matrix effects and the electron ionization allows quantitation and library identification. Commercially available products (shower gel, perfume, and hand cream) were diluted with methanol and injected directly into a nano-LC column. Limonene, linalool, and citral were selected as target compounds because of their use as fragrances in toiletry and detergent products. These and all other fragrances are commonly determined with GC-MS analysis, prior to sample cleanup, a procedure that can lead to analytes loss. The selected compounds are not detected with ESI because of their poor or very low response. Figures of merit and validation studies were executed and special attention was devoted to matrix-effects evaluation, because a sample preparation procedure is not involved. No matrix effects were observed, and the repeatability was excellent even after several weeks of operation. Products composition was investigated in full scan mode to determine the presence of unknown or not listed ingredients.

  8. 76 FR 21347 - Proposed Pesticide Program's Pilot Fragrance Notification Program; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... AGENCY Proposed Pesticide Program's Pilot Fragrance Notification Program; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) is... new or modify existing fragrances in new or currently registered pesticide products. The...

  9. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Fenchyl alcohol, CAS registry number 1632-73-1.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Shen, J; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 15 mg/kg/day. A gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 10,714 while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  10. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Linalyl isovalerate, CAS Registry Number 1118-27-0.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Reproductive toxicity was based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) of 0.03 mg/kg/day for a Cramer Class I material. The estimated systemic exposure is determined to be equal to this value while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A systemic exposure at or below the TTC value is acceptable.

  11. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Isoborneol, CAS Registry Number 124-76-5.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential as well as environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NOAEL of 15 mg/kg/day based on a gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a read across analog resulting in a MOE of 1000 considering 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  12. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl isobutyrate, CAS registry number 78-35-3.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Reproductive toxicity was based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) of 0.03 mg/kg/day for a Cramer Class I material. The estimated systemic exposure is determined to be below this value while assuming 80% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A systemic exposure below the TTC value is acceptable.

  13. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isoamyl salicylate, CAS registry number 87-20-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined using to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NOAEL of 47 mg/kg/day. A dietary 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 2350 while considering 10.3% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  14. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, α-butylcinnamaldehyde, CAS Registry Number 7492-44-6.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 29.9 mg/kg/day. A dietary 14-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 3784810 while considering 9.54% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of > 100 is deemed acceptable.

  15. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, CAS registry number 104-76-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog 2-butyloctan-1-ol (CAS # 3913-02-8) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0.03 and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The developmental and repeat dose toxicity endpoints were completed data on the target material which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  16. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate, CAS Registry Number 59230-57-8.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog, benzyl acetate (CAS # 140-11-4), show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose, developmental and reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using benzyl acetate (CAS # 140-11-4) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  17. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Benzyl propionate, CAS Registry Number 122-63-4.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 14.5 mg/kg/day. A dietary 2-year chronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 1318 while considering 78.7% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  18. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isoeugenol, CAS Registry Number 97-54-1.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 37.5 mg/kg/day. A gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in mice resulted in a MOE of 5769 while considering 38.4% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  19. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, α-Ionone, CAS Registry Number 127-41-3.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 10 mg/kg/day. A dietary 90-day subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats resulted in a MOE of 182 while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  20. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-methylundecanol, CAS Registry Number 10522-26-6.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analogs 2-butyloctan-1-ol (CAS # 3913-02-8) and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0.03 and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) and 1-heptanol, 2-propyl (CAS # 10042-59-8) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental toxicity endpoint was completed using 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100 The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  1. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl benzoate, CAS Registry Number 126-64-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dkant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog linalyl phenylacetate (CAS # 7143-69-3) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-37-5) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8), benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) and sodium benzoate (CAS # 532-32-1) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6) and benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework along with data from the suitable read across analog linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-375).

  2. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, l-linalool, CAS Registry Number 126-91-0.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined using a suitable read across analog to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 36 mg/kg/day. A dermal 90-day subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats resulted in a MOE of 2250 while considering 14.4% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  3. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Isopulegol, CAS Registry Number 89-79-2.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose, developmental and reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0.03, 0.03 mg/kg/day and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  4. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, ethylene brassylate, CAS Registry Number 105-95-3.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    : The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (1.4 mg/day). The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using ethylene dodecanedioate (CAS # 54982-83-1) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using oxacyclohexadec-12-en-2-one, (12E)- (CAS # 111879-80-2) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra along with data on the target material. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework along with data on the suitable read across analog oxacyclohexadec-12-en-2-one, (12E)- (CAS # 111879-80-2).

  5. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Eugenol, CAS Registry Number 97-53-0.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Reproductive toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 230 mg/kg/day. A gavage multigenerational continuous breeding study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 12,105 while considering 22.6% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  6. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, benzyl butyrate, CAS Registry Number 103-37-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog benzyl acetate (CAS # 140-11-4) show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential and also provided a MOE > 100 for the repeated dose, developmental and reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  7. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl cinnamate, CAS Registry Number 78-37-5.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0.03 and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The developmental toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8) and cinnamic acid (CAS # 621-82-9) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using data on the target material which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  8. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, α-Methylbenzyl acetate, CAS Registry Number 93-92-5.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Developmental toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 100 mg/kg/day. A gavage developmental toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in aMOE of 3571 while considering 78.7% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  9. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, CAS Registry Number 97-95-0.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog 2-ethylhexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog isopropyl alcohol (CAS # 67-63-0) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (1.4 mg/day). The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using 2-ethylhexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) and 1-heptanol, 2-propyl (CAS # 10042-59-8) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using 2-ethyl-hexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) and isobutyl alcohol (CAS # 78-83-1) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  10. Deodorants: a clinical provocation study in fragrance-sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Bruze, M; Andersen, K E; Frosch, P; Dreier, B; Lepoittevin, J P; White, I; Menné, T

    1998-10-01

    Deodorants are one of the most marketed types of cosmetics and are frequently reported as a cause of dermatitis, particularly among fragrance-sensitive persons. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of deodorants, which had previously caused axillary dermatitis in fragrance-mix-sensitive eczema patients, to provoke reactions on repeated open application tests on the upper arm and in the axillae, and to relate the findings to the content of fragrance-mix constituents in those deodorants. 14 eczema patients performed a 7-day use test with 1 or 2 deodorants that had caused a rash within the last 12 months. 2 applications per day were made in the axilla and simultaneously on a 25 cm2 area on the upper arm. A total of 20 deodorants were tested among the 14 patients. Afterwards, the deodorants were subjected to quantitative chemical analysis identifying constituents of the fragrance mix. 12/20 (60%) deodorants elicited eczema on use testing in the axilla. 8/12 deodorants were positive in the axilla on day (D) 7 and 4 both in the axilla and on the upper arm. 2 of the 4 developed a reaction in the axilla before it developed on the upper arm. Chemical analysis revealed that 18/19 deodorants contained between 1 and 6 of the fragrance-mix constituents, on average 3 being found. The mean concentration of fragrance-mix constituents was generally higher in the deodorants causing a positive use test, as compared with those giving a negative reaction, indicating that the differences between the deodorants in terms of elicitation potential were more related to quantitative aspects of allergen content than of a qualitative nature. It is recommended that deodorants are tested in the axilla in the case of a negative use test on the upper arm and a strong clinical suspicion.

  11. [Use of fragrances. What about the side effects?].

    PubMed

    Straff, W

    2005-12-01

    Fragrances are increasingly used in private and public domains. Over recent years the olfactory sense has been paid more and more scientific and economic attention. While on the one hand bad smells are counteracted by fragrances, marketing experts are now trying to introduce this sense into multimedia-based experiences. Technical means are used to address positively and directly the sense of smell. The aim is to make the smell a unique feature for a certain brand or location. When it comes to "style of living" or "special shopping experience" nowadays the olfactory design plays an important role. Although fragrances are applied very frequently, there is still a lack of knowledge about the potential consequences for health and the environment. Certain substances (musk compounds) have been proven persistent and accumulative, and others belong to the most common causes of contact eczema. Some people also report special sensitivities towards certain smells for unknown reasons. Unlike audiovisual attractions it is very difficult for humans to avoid olfactory stimuli. The question arises whether fragrance materials constitute a group of substances that should receive more attention concerning their risk for health and the environment.

  12. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  13. Expanding the fragrance chemical space for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of fragrance molecules in the public databases SuperScent and Flavornet were analyzed to define a “fragrance-like” (FL) property range (Heavy Atom Count ≤ 21, only C, H, O, S, (O + S) ≤ 3, Hydrogen Bond Donor ≤ 1) and the corresponding chemical space including FL molecules from PubChem (NIH repository of molecules), ChEMBL (bioactive molecules), ZINC (drug-like molecules), and GDB-13 (all possible organic molecules up to 13 atoms of C, N, O, S, Cl). The FL subsets of these databases were classified by MQN (Molecular Quantum Numbers, a set of 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure) and formatted for fast MQN-similarity searching and interactive exploration of color-coded principal component maps in form of the FL-mapplet and FL-browser applications freely available at http://www.gdb.unibe.ch. MQN-similarity is shown to efficiently recover 15 different fragrance molecule families from the different FL subsets, demonstrating the relevance of the MQN-based tool to explore the fragrance chemical space. PMID:24876890

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling of oral acute toxicity and cytotoxic activity of fragrance materials in rodents.

    PubMed

    Papa, E; Luini, M; Gramatica, P

    2009-10-01

    Fragrance materials are used as ingredients in many consumer and personal care products. The wide and daily use of these substances, as well as their mainly uncontrolled discharge through domestic sewage, make fragrance materials both potential indoor and outdoor air pollutants which are also connected to possible toxic effects on humans (asthma, allergies, headaches). Unfortunately, little is known about the environmental fate and toxicity of these substances. However, the use of alternative, predictive approaches, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), can help in filling the data gap and in the characterization of the environmental and toxicological profile of these substances. In the proposed study, ordinary least squares regression-based QSAR models were developed for three toxicological endpoints: mouse oral LD(50), inhibition of NADH-oxidase (EC(50) NADH-Ox) and the effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (EC(50) DeltaPsim). Theoretical molecular descriptors were calculated by using DRAGON software, and the best QSAR models were developed according to the principles defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

  16. Application of response function methodology for the simultaneous determination of potential fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gazpio, J; Garcia-Arrona, R; Millán, E

    2014-01-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed for determination of 15 suspected fragrance allergens and preservatives. The target compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and all of them are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The method was optimized by using a central composite experimental design and response surface methodology. A modified chromatographic response function was defined to weigh the terms in the response function adequately. After optimization of experimental conditions, a background electrolyte of 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate and 24 mM sodium tetraborate and pH 9.0 was selected for the separation of the analytes. The developed methodology was evaluated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy, showing appropriate values (i.e., R (2) = ≥0.99 and accuracy of 89-115 %). Finally, applicability of the micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was assessed by successfully quantifying fragrance allergens and preservatives in commercial personal care products. The most commonly found analyte was linalool (48.3 % of samples) followed by benzoic acid (37.6 %). All samples contained at least one of the target compounds, thus confirming the ubiquity of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

  17. Visualising fragrances through colours: the mediating role of emotions.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Tanudjaja, Inge

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate communication about fragrances, one can use the colours people tend to associate with their smells. We investigated to what extent odour-colour correspondences for fine fragrances can be accounted for by underlying emotional associations. Odour-colour matches and degree-of-fit judgments revealed that odours were matched to colours non-randomly. Matching colours differed mainly on blackness (brightness), and less on chromaticness (saturation) and hue. Furthermore, we found a consistent negative relationship between odour-colour degree-of-fit ratings and the difference between the odour scores and the colour scores on one of the emotion dimensions (pleasure). This suggests that emotional associations may partly underlie odour-colour correspondences.

  18. Fragrance volatiles of developing and senescing carnation flowers.

    PubMed

    Schade, F; Legge, R L; Thompson, J E

    2001-04-01

    Thirteen major volatiles of the carnation flower fragrance signature have been identified by GC/MS. Of these, ten, hexanal, (2E)-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 2-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate and caryophyllene, were quantified. The steady-state levels of these ten volatiles change independently as the flowers develop and senesce, suggesting that their synthesis is developmentally regulated. In addition, the chemical composition of the fragrance signature in naturally senesced flowers proved to be very different from that for flowers that had been induced to senesce prematurely by treatment with ethylene. Thus, senescence-related changes in carnation floral scent appear not to be directly regulated by ethylene. From cellular fractionation studies, it is evident that all of the volatiles, except 2-hexanol, are present in both membranous and cytosolic compartments, suggesting that their synthesis is membrane-associated and that they subsequently partition into the cytosol in accordance with partition coefficients.

  19. Comparison of ready biodegradation estimation methods for fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Boethling, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Biodegradability is fundamental to the assessment of environmental exposure and risk from organic chemicals. Predictive models can be used to pursue both regulatory and chemical design (green chemistry) objectives, which are most effectively met when models are easy to use and available free of charge. The objective of this work was to evaluate no-cost estimation programs with respect to prediction of ready biodegradability. Fragrance materials, which are structurally diverse and have significant exposure potential, were used for this purpose. Using a database of 222 fragrance compounds with measured ready biodegradability, 10 models were compared on the basis of overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), a measure of quality for binary classification. The 10 models were VEGA© Non-Interactive Client, START (Toxtree©), Biowin©1-6, and two models based on inductive machine learning. Applicability domain (AD) was also considered. Overall accuracy was ca. 70% and varied little over all models, but sensitivity, specificity and MCC showed wider variation. Based on MCC, the best models for fragrance compounds were Biowin6, VEGA and Biowin3. VEGA performance was slightly better for the <50% of the compounds it identified as having "high reliability" predictions (AD index >0.8). However, removing compounds with one and only one quaternary carbon yielded similar improvement in predictivity for VEGA, START, and Biowin3/6, with a smaller penalty in reduced coverage. Of the nine compounds for which the eight models (VEGA, START, Biowin1-6) all disagreed with the measured value, measured analog data were available for seven, and all supported the predicted value. VEGA, Biowin3 and Biowin6 are judged suitable for ready biodegradability screening of fragrance compounds.

  20. High loading fragrance encapsulation based on a polymer-blend: preparation and release behavior.

    PubMed

    Sansukcharearnpon, Aurapan; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Leepipatpaiboon, Natchanun; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat; Arayachukeat, Sunatda

    2010-05-31

    The six fragrances, camphor, citronellal, eucalyptol, limonene, menthol and 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl acetate, which represent different chemical functionalities, were encapsulated with a polymer-blend of ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PV(OH)) using solvent displacement (ethanol displaced by water). The process gave >or=40% fragrance loading capacity with >or=80% encapsulation efficiency at the fragrance to polymer weight ratio of 1:1 and at initial polymer concentrations of 2000-16,000 ppm and the obtained fragrance-encapsulated spheres showed hydrodynamic diameters of less than 450 nm. The release profile of the encapsulated fragrances, evaluated by both thermal gravimetric and electronic nose techniques, indicated different release characteristics amongst the six encapsulated fragrances. Limonene showed the fastest release with essentially no retention by the nanoparticles, while eucalyptol and menthol showed the slowest release.

  1. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  2. Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide products contain both active and inert ingredients. An “active ingredient” prevents, destroys, repels, or mitigates a pest. All other ingredients are called inert ingredients by federal law. They aid product performance and usability.

  3. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  4. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fragrance allergens in baby bathwater.

    PubMed

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2009-07-01

    A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of fragrance allergens in water samples. This is the first study devoted to this family of cosmetic ingredients performed by SPME. The influence of parameters such as fibre coating, extraction and desorption temperatures, salting-out effect and sampling mode on the extraction efficiency has been studied by means of a mixed-level factorial design, which allowed the study of the main effects as well as two-factor interactions. Excluding desorption temperature, the other parameters were, in general, very important for the achievement of high response. The final procedure was based on headspace sampling at 100 degrees C, using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fibres. The method showed good linearity and precision for all compounds, with detection limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the evaluation of the recoveries in different real water samples, including baby bathwater and swimming pool water. The absence of matrix effects allowed the use of external standard calibration to quantify the target compounds in the samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of allergens in several real samples. All the target compounds were found in the samples, and, in some cases, at quite high concentrations. The presence and the levels of these chemicals in baby bathwater should be a matter of concern.

  5. Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Piotr; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Galińska, Elżbieta M.; Cholewa, Grażyna; Piątek, Jacek; Koźlik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components. PMID:24353491

  6. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations.

  7. Studies on Fragrance Delivery from Inorganic Nanocontainers: Encapsulation, Release and Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, Shailesh Adinath; Sonawane, Shirish Hari; Bhanvase, Bharat Apparao; Mishra, Satyendra; Joshi, Kalpana Shrikant

    2015-04-01

    The present work deals with encapsulation of fragrance molecule in inorganic nanocontainers substrate and investigation of its prolonged release at different pH condition. The nanocontainers used were aluminosilicate clay (Halloysite) having cylindrical shape with outside diameter in the range of 30-50 nm, 15 nm lumen and length equal to 800 ± 300 nm. Rosewater absolute was used as a sample fragrance for loading in nanocontainer and delivery purpose. The fragrance loaded nanocontainers were coated with a thin layer of polyelectrolyte i.e. Polyacrylic Acid (PAA). The structural characteristics of prepared nanocontainers were determined by using Fourier Transform Intra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and UV spectroscopy analysis. Release of fragrance molecules in the aqueous medium was monitored for 24 h. The fragrance release was found to be responsive as the amount of fragrance release increases with increase in pH value from 3 to 7. Fragrance release has been studied by using various permeation kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Hixson-Crowell, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg models. Korsemyer-Peppas shows the best fit (R2 = 0.9544) compared to other kinetic model for the release of fragrance from nanocontainers.

  8. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  9. A single base substitution in BADH/AMADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and development of SNAP markers for the fragrance.

    PubMed

    Yundaeng, Chutintorn; Somta, Prakit; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chankaew, Sompong; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-09-01

    Sequence analysis revealed that an SNP (A1855G) in CsBADH of cucumber accession PK2011T202 causes amino acid change in a highly conserved motif, Y163C. Gene mapping showed association between the SNP and the fragrance. Pandan-like fragrance is a value-added trait in several food crops such as rice, vegetable soybean and sorghum. The fragrance is caused by the volatile chemical 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Mutation(s) in betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2; also known as aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2) gene causes defective BADH2 and results in biosynthesis of 2AP. Recently, cucumber cultivars possessing pandan-like fragrance were discovered in Thailand. In this study, we report an association between CsBADH and the fragrance in cucumber accession "PK2011T202". Gene expression analysis of CsBADH in leaves of PK2011T202 and "301176" (non-fragrant) at various growth stages revealed that CsBADH was expressed in both accessions. Sequence comparison of CsBADH showed that PK2011T202 possesses a single base substitution (A1855G) in exon 5 which causes an amino acid change in a highly conserved motif of BADH, Y163C. Single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism markers were developed to detect the SNP polymorphism between the wild-type and fragrance alleles. Since CsBADH is located on chromosome 1, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted for this chromosome using an F2 and a backcross populations developed from the cross between PK2011T202 and 301176. QTL analysis in both populations showed that the major QTL for fragrance, qFgr, was co-localized with the CsBADH. We concluded that the defect function of CsBADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber PK2011T202.

  10. Advertising to the enemy: enhanced floral fragrance increases beetle attraction and reduces plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2012-02-01

    Many organisms face challenges in avoiding predation while searching for mates. For plants, emitting floral fragrances to advertise reproductive structures could increase the attraction of detrimental insects along with pollinators. Very few studies have experimentally evaluated the costs and benefits of fragrance emission with explicit consideration of how plant fitness is affected by both pollinators and florivores. To determine the reproductive consequences of increasing the apparency of reproductive parts, we manipulated fragrance, pollination, and florivores in the wild Texas gourd, Cucurbita pepo var. texana. With enhanced fragrance we found an increase in the attraction of florivores, rather than pollinators, and a decrease in seed production. This study is the first to demonstrate that enhanced floral fragrance can increase the attraction of detrimental florivores and decrease plant reproduction, suggesting that florivory as well as pollination has shaped the evolution of floral scent.

  11. Active Ingredient - AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pesticide Chemical Search allows a user to easily find the pesticide chemical or active ingredient that they are interested in by using an array of simple to advanced search options. Chemical Search provides a single point of reference for easy access to information previously published in a variety of locations, including various EPA web pages and Regulations.gov.

  12. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety ... Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure Environmental Incident Illegal Pesticide Activity Problem With Labels or ...

  13. Read-across estimates of aquatic toxicity for selected fragrances.

    PubMed

    Rorije, Emiel; Aldenberg, Tom; Peijnenburg, Willie

    2013-03-01

    Read-across as a non-animal testing alternative for the generation of risk assessment data can be useful in those cases where quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are not available, or are less well developed. This paper provides read-across case studies for the estimation of the aquatic toxicity of five different fragrance substances, and proposes a pragmatic approach for expressing uncertainty in read-across estimates. The aquatic toxicity estimates and their uncertainties are subsequently used to estimate fresh water compartment Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs), with their two-sided 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs). These PNECs can be used directly in risk assessment. The results of the musk fragrance read-across cases (musk xylene, musk ketone and galaxolide) are compared to experimentally derived PNEC values. The read-across estimates made by using similarity in a hypothesised mechanism of action for (acute) toxicity of musk xylene gave a PNEC of 2μg/L (90% CI 0.0004-13.5μg/L) with the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach. This estimated value is 1.8 times above the experimentally-based fresh water PNEC of 1.1μg/L. For musk ketone and galaxolide, the PNEC values based on the SSD approach and employing a toxicity mechanism-based read-across were 2.0 times greater, and 4.9 times below the experimentally derived PNEC values, respectively.

  14. Determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetics by matrix solid-phase dispersion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2011-08-05

    An effective low cost sample preparation methodology for the determination of regulated fragrance allergens in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics has been developed applying, for the first time, matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) to this kind of analytes and samples. The selection of the most suitable extraction conditions was made using statistical tools such as ANOVA, as well as a factorial multifactor experimental design. These studies were carried out using real cosmetic samples. In the final conditions, 0.5 of sample, previously mixed with 1g of anhydrous Na(2)SO(4), were blended with 2g of dispersive sorbent (Florisil), and the MSPD column was eluted with 5 mL of hexane/acetone (1:1). The extract was then analyzed by GC-MS without any further clean-up or concentration step. Accuracy, precision, linearity and detection limits (LODs) were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. Quantitative recoveries (>75%) were obtained and RSD values were lower than 10% in all cases. The quantification limits were well below those set by the international cosmetic regulations, making this multi-component analytical method suitable for routine control. In addition, the MSPD method can be implemented in any laboratory at low cost since it does not require special equipment. Finally, a wide variety of cosmetic products were analyzed. All the samples contained several of the target cosmetic ingredients, with and average number of seven. The total fragrance allergen content was in general quite high, even in baby care products, with values close to or up to 1%, for several samples, although the actual European Cosmetic Regulation was fulfilled.

  15. Inert Ingredients Overview and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page provides information on inert ingredients approved for use in pesticide products and the guidance documents that are available to assist in obtaining approval for a new inert ingredient.

  16. Non-Conventional Yeasts Whole Cells as Efficient Biocatalysts for the Production of Flavors and Fragrances.

    PubMed

    Forti, Luca; Di Mauro, Simone; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Filippucci, Sara; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro

    2015-06-04

    The rising consumer requests for natural flavors and fragrances have generated great interest in the aroma industry to seek new methods to obtain fragrance and flavor compounds naturally. An alternative and attractive route for these compounds is based on bio-transformations. In this review, the application of biocatalysis by Non Conventional Yeasts (NCYs) whole cells for the production of flavor and fragrances is illustrated by a discussion of the production of different class of compounds, namely Aldehydes, Ketones and related compounds, Alcohols, Lactones, Terpenes and Terpenoids, Alkenes, and Phenols.

  17. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Robson B; Santos, Mauricio C; Poppi, Ronei J

    2016-03-15

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies.

  18. Determination of fragrance content in perfume by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, Robson B.; Santos, Mauricio C.; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2016-03-01

    An alternative methodology is herein proposed for determination of fragrance content in perfumes and their classification according to the guidelines established by fine perfume manufacturers. The methodology is based on Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration, allowing the determination of fragrance content in a fast, nondestructive, and sustainable manner. The results were considered consistent with the conventional method, whose standard error of prediction values was lower than the 1.0%. This result indicates that the proposed technology is a feasible analytical tool for determination of the fragrance content in a hydro-alcoholic solution for use in manufacturing, quality control and regulatory agencies.

  19. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures: clinical and experimental data and consideration of structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Lidén, Carola; Rastogi, Suresh; Roberts, David; White, Ian R

    2013-10-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization of substances as contact allergens. A total of 54 individual chemicals and 28 natural extracts (essential oils) can be categorized as established contact allergens in humans, including all 26 substances previously identified as contact allergens (SCCNFP/0017/98). Twelve of the 54 individual chemicals are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (>100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration of 11 substances of special concern should be limited to 100 ppm. The substance hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and the two ingredients chloroatranol and atranol in the natural extracts Evernia prunastri and Evernia furfuracea should not be present in cosmetic products.

  20. Safety assessment of Ylang-Ylang (Cananga spp.) as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2008-02-01

    Ylang-Ylang oil is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is a complex chemical mixture in the form of an essential oil extracted by water or water-and-steam distillation from the fresh flowers of Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thomson. Ylang-Ylang oil has been reported to cause dermal sensitization reactions in animals and humans, but it is unclear what constituent(s) within the essential oil comprise the offending agent(s) and whether some Ylang-Ylang oils that have had certain constituent(s) removed are any less prone to cause such allergic reactions. There is no indication in the literature that food exposure to Ylang-Ylang oil has caused allergic reactions. One subchronic inhalation toxicity study, involving Ylang-Ylang oil as part of a larger fragrance raw materials mixture, gave no indication of causing adverse effects, but the relevance to risk assessment of oral food flavoring use exposures is likely minimal. No further toxicity data for Ylang-Ylang oil have been reported. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Ylang-Ylang oil has a long history of fragrance and food flavoring use, with no indication that its estimated consumption from food flavoring use (0.0001 mg/kg/day) has led to any adverse human health effects. These data indicate that at the current level of intake as a food ingredient, Ylang-Ylang oil does not pose a health risk to humans.

  1. Perfume Fragrance Discrimination Using Resistance And Capacitance Responses Of Polymer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, John Paul Hempel; Vandendriessche, Thomas; Fonseca, Fernando J.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart M.; de Andrade, Adnei Melges

    2009-05-01

    This work shows a comparison between electrical resistance and capacitance responses of ethanol and five different fragrances using an electronic nose based on conducting polymers. Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements were performed to evaluate the main differences between the analytes. It is shown that although the fragrances are quite similar in their compositions the sensors are able to discriminate them through PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANNs (Artificial Neural Network) analysis.

  2. Coconut fragrance and cardiovascular response to laboratory stress: results of pilot testing.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, Elizabeth Sibolboro; Arumugam, Uma; Chen, Sylvia Yue; Stein, Traci R; Oz, Mehmet; Buckle, Jane

    2010-01-01

    There is preliminary evidence that pleasant fragrances may alter response to stressors in different settings. This pilot study examined the effect of coconut fragrance on cardiovascular response to standard laboratory stressors. While inhaling coconut fragrance (n = 17) or air (n = 15), subjects performed a Stroop color-word task and a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate (HR), heart period variability (HPV) and blood pressure were measured during the 5-minute baseline, the task, and the recovery periods. The results indicated that subjects breathing coconut fragrance had higher HR and lower HPV than those who performed tasks while breathing air. HR response to mental arithmetic seemed to be blunted in the subjects breathing coconut; however, the lack of a difference in HPV seems to indicate that the blunting may be due to decreased sympathetic response, not decreased parasympathetic withdrawal under stress. Blood pressure recovery was slightly enhanced in subjects under coconut fragrance. Thus, the results of this pilot test suggest that coconut fragrance may alter cardiovascular activity both at rest and in response to stressors. Future experimentation should attempt to replicate and extend these findings in larger samples in clinical settings.

  3. Novel biocompatible nanocapsules for slow release of fragrances on the human skin.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Callewaert, Chris; Vanbeveren, Nelleke; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-25

    There is a growing demand for fragranced products, but due to the poor aqueous solubility and instability of fragrance molecules, their use is limited. Nowadays, fragrance encapsulation in biocompatible nanocontainer material is emerging as a novel strategy to overcome the evaporation of volatile molecules and to prolong the sensory characteristics of fragrance molecules and the longevity of perfumes. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative sustained release system of perfume, by entrapping fragrance molecules in a polymeric nanocarrier; the impact of this strategy on the human axillary microbiome was further assessed. Stabilised poly-l-lactic acid nanocapsules (PLA-NCs) with a diameter of approximately 115 nm were prepared through nanoprecipitation. Size and morphology of the capsules were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Two model hydrophobic compounds, chlorobenzene and fluorescein, representing two different types of functionalised molecules, were encapsulated in PLA-NCs with an efficiency rate of 50%. Different release behaviours were seen, dependent on hydrophobicity. For hydrophobic compounds, a steady release was observed over 48hours. The polymeric nanocarriers did not impact the human axillary microbiome. Because of the slow and sustained release of fragrances, encapsulation of molecules in biocompatible NCs can represent a revolutionary contribution to the future of toiletries, body deodorant products, and in washing and cleaning sectors.

  4. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, CAS Registry Number 115-18-4.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Shen, J; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential as well as environmental safety. Repeated dose, developmental, and reproductive toxicities were determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 50 mg/kg/day, based on OECD gavage toxicity studies in rats, that resulted in a MOE of 4545455 after considering 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  5. The effect of pollination on floral fragrance in thistles.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Raguso, Robert A

    2005-11-01

    We investigated postpollination changes in fragrance composition and emission rates, as well as pollinator discrimination in hand-pollinated flower heads of two thistle species: Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and sandhill thistle (C. repandum). Following pollination, neither species emitted any novel compounds that could function as repellents. Scent emission rates declined in pollinated plants of both species by approximately 89% within 48 hr. This decline was evident in all 13 scent components of C. arvense. Apis mellifera, the dominant pollinator in the study population of C. arvense, was nearly three times more likely to visit an unpollinated rather than a pollinated flower head. A more complex pattern was observed for C. repandum, whose scent comprised 42 compounds. Quantities of aromatic and sesquiterpenoid volatiles declined after pollination, whereas two classes of scent compounds, fatty acid derivatives and monoterperpenoids, continued to be emitted. In C. repandum, discrimination against pollinated flower heads by Papilio palamedes (its primary pollinator) was not as marked. Unpollinated control plants of both species maintained moderate levels of scent production throughout this experiment, demonstrating that senescence and floral advertisement may be delayed until pollination has occurred. We expect postpollination changes in floral scent contribute to communication between plants with generalized pollinator spectra and their floral visitors. This study provides the first field study of such a phenomenon outside of orchids.

  6. Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, E; Hongratanaworakit, T; Böhm, C; Weber, R; Buchbauer, G

    2001-03-01

    The effects of chiral fragrances (enantiomers of limonene and carvone) on the human autonomic nervous system (ANS) and on self-evaluation were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Each fragrance was administered to each subject by inhalation using an A-A-B design. Individuals were tested in four separate sessions; in one session one fragrance was administered. ANS parameters recorded were skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Subjective experience was assessed in terms of mood, calmness and alertness on visual analog scales. In addition, fragrances were rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity and stimulating property. Inhalation of (+)-limonene led to increased systolic blood pressure, subjective alertness and restlessness. Inhalation of (-)-limonene caused an increase in systolic blood pressure but had no effects on psychological parameters. Inhalation of (-)-carvone caused increases in pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure and subjective restlessness. After inhalation of (+)-carvone increased levels of systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure were observed. Correlational analyses revealed that changes in both ANS parameters and self-evaluation were in part related to subjective evaluation of the odor and suggest that both pharmacological and psychological mechanisms are involved in the observed effects. In conclusion, the present study indicates that: (i) prolonged inhalation of fragrances influences ANS parameters as well as mental and emotional conditions; (ii) effects of fragrances are in part based on subjective evaluation of odor; (iii) chirality of odor molecules seems to be a central factor with respect to the biological activity of fragrances.

  7. Effects by inhalation of abundant fragrances in indoor air - An overview.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D

    2017-01-23

    Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensitization in the airways. Breathing and cardiovascular effects, and work performance, and the impact in the airways of ozone-initiated gas- and particle phase reactions products have also been assessed. Measured maximum indoor concentrations for APN, LIM and LIL are close to or above their odor thresholds, but far below their thresholds for sensory irritation in the eyes and upper airways; no information could be traced for EUG. Likewise, reported risk values for long-term effects are far above reported indoor concentrations. Human exposure studies with mixtures of APN and LIM and supported by animal inhalation models do not support sensitization of the airways at indoor levels by inhalation that include other selected fragrances. Human exposure studies, in general, indicate that reported lung function effects are likely due to the perception rather than toxic effects of the fragrances. In general, effects on the breathing rate and mood by exposure to the fragrances are inconclusive. The fragrances may increase the high-frequency heart rate variability, but aerosol exposure during cleaning activities may result in a reduction. Distractive effects influencing the work performance by fragrance/odor exposure are consistently reported, but their persistence over time is unknown. Mice inhalation studies indicate that LIM or its reaction mixture may possess anti-inflammatory properties. There is insufficient information that ozone-initiated reactions with APN or LIM at typical indoor levels cause airway effects in humans. Limited experimental information is available on long-term effects of ozone-initiated reaction products of

  8. Encapsulation of new active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I

    2012-01-01

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components and protect the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organs. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in processed foods. Microencapsulation efficiency is balanced against the need to access the entrapped nutrients in bioavailable forms. Encapsulated ingredients boosted with bioactive nutrients are intended for improved health and well-being and to prevent future health problems. Presently, active ingredients are delivered using new techniques, such as hydrogels, nanoemulsions, and nanoparticles. In the future, nutraceuticals and functional foods may be tailored to individual metabolic needs and tied to each person's genetic makeup. Bioactive ingredients provide health-enhancing nutrients and are protected through encapsulation processes that shield the active ingredients from deleterious environments.

  9. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-06

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response.

  10. Skin-Applied Repellent Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Active ingredients in EPA-registered insect repellents include catnip oil, oil of citronella, DEET, IR 3535, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2-undecanone. Find fact sheets and pesticide regulatory information.

  11. Determinants of exposure to fragranced product chemical mixtures in a sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fox, Mary A

    2015-01-27

    Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for "twin pair" and "sharing address with twin", and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and "ever being bothered by fragrances". Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was "more vs. less", followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93). This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96), rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25) and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27). Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95) but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. "Ever being bothered by fragrance" had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30) but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93). Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28) but there were apparent differences in use of shampoo (0.01, 95% CI: 0.00, 0

  12. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  13. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  14. Adding Scents to Symbols: Using Food Fragrances with Deafblind Young People Making Choices at Mealtimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Heather; Gough, Anne; Boothroyd, Eileen; Williams, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is written by Heather Murdoch, research consultant for the Seashell Trust, Anne Gough, deputy headteacher at Royal School Manchester/Seashell Trust, Eileen Boothroyd, consultant for the Seashell Trust, and Kate Williams, a creative perfumer for Seven (PZ Cussons). It describes the use of food fragrances with deafblind students who are…

  15. Hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates, fragrances and flavoring agents in foods, by microsomes of rat and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Tamura, Yuki; Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Sone, Tomomichi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-12-01

    Salicylates are used as fragrance and flavor ingredients for foods, as UV absorbers and as medicines. Here, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of phenyl and benzyl salicylates by various tissue microsomes and plasma of rats, and by human liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Both salicylates were readily hydrolyzed by tissue microsomes, predominantly in small intestine, followed by liver, although phenyl salicylate was much more rapidly hydrolyzed than benzyl salicylate. The liver and small-intestinal microsomal hydrolase activities were completely inhibited by bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, and could be extracted with Triton X-100. Phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activity was co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by anion exchange column chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts of liver and small-intestinal microsomes. Expression of rat liver and small-intestinal isoforms of carboxylesterase, Ces1e and Ces2c (AB010632), in COS cells resulted in significant phenyl salicylate-hydrolyzing activities with the same specific activities as those of liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited higher hydrolyzing activity than liver microsomes towards these salicylates. Human CES1 and CES2 isozymes expressed in COS cells both readily hydrolyzed phenyl salicylate, but the activity of CES2 was higher than that of CES1. These results indicate that significant amounts of salicylic acid might be formed by microsomal hydrolysis of phenyl and benzyl salicylates in vivo. The possible pharmacological and toxicological effects of salicylic acid released from salicylates present in commercial products should be considered.

  16. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    PubMed Central

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz), and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the

  17. Identification of coumarin as the sensitizer in a patient sensitive to her own perfume but negative to the fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    Mutterer, V; Giménez Arnau, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P J; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Rastogi, S C; White, I R

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the chemicals responsible for the sensitivity of a 44-year-old woman to her own perfume, but showing negative patch test results to the fragrance mix. For this purpose, the perfume concentrate from the eau de toilette was chemically fractionated. Each fraction obtained was afterwards tested on the patient using a ROAT and/or a patch test. Only 1 fraction gave a positive ROAT result. This fraction was analyzed and found to contain coumarin and ethyl vanillin. Coumarin, one of the most widely used fragrance compounds that is not present in the fragrance mix, was confirmed as being the sensitizer.

  18. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  19. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  20. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  1. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  2. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  3. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  4. Designed cell consortia as fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converters.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marius; Ausländer, Simon; Spinnler, Andrea; Ausländer, David; Sikorski, Julian; Folcher, Marc; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia. The ADC consists of multiple sampling-and-quantization modules sensing analog gaseous fragrance inputs; a gas-to-liquid transducer converting fragrance intensity into diffusible cell-to-cell signaling compounds; a digitization unit with a genetic amplifier circuit to improve the signal-to-noise ratio; and recombinase-based digital expression switches enabling 2-bit processing of logic gates. Synthetic ADCs that can remotely control cellular activities with digital precision may enable the development of novel biosensors and may provide bioelectronic interfaces synchronizing analog metabolic pathways with digital electronics.

  5. Species-specific antennal responses to tibial fragrances by male orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Eltz, Thomas; Ayasse, Manfred; Lunau, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from orchids and other sources and store them in tibial pouches, accumulating complex and species-specific bouquets. These fragrances are later exposed at display sites, presumably to attract females or conspecific males or both. We hypothesized that the necessity to detect and recognize specific fragrance bouquets has led to peripheral chemosensory specializations in different species of orchid bees. To test this, excised male antennae of four species of Euglossa were stimulated with complete tibial extracts of the same four species in a crosswise experiment. In the majority of the tested extracts, the amplitude of the electroantennogram (EAG) response was significantly different between species and always maximal in males of the extracted species. This effect did not appear to result from a given species' increased sensitivity toward certain attractive components: gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) of one extract of Euglossa tridentata evoked similar and generalized response patterns in all four species, encompassing a total of 34 peaks that elicited antennal responses. Therefore, the species effect in EAG responses to complete extracts likely resulted from species-specific interactions of compounds at the receptor level. Antennal specialization to conspecific bouquets adds additional strength to the argument that specificity is an important evolutionary aspect of euglossine tibial fragrances.

  6. Minimum Risk Pesticides - Inert Ingredient and Active Ingredient Eligibility under 40 CFR 152.25(f)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingredients found on both the Minimum Risk Active Ingredient and List 4A Inert Ingredients of Minimal Concern lists may be used either as an active or an inert ingredient. Otherwise, it can only be used based on the list it appears on.

  7. Occurrences and potential risks of 16 fragrances in five German sewage treatment plants and their receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula; von der Ohe, Peter Carsten; Bschorer, Anne; Krezmer, Sonja; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Fragrances are used in a wide array of everyday products and enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. While several musk compounds have been studied in detail, little is known about the occurrence and fate of other fragrances. We selected 16 fragrance compounds and scrutinized their presence in Bavarian sewage treatment plants (STP) influents and effluents and discussed their ecological risks for the receiving surface waters. Moreover, we followed their concentrations along the path in one STP by corresponding time-related water sampling and derived the respective elimination rates in the purification process. Six fragrance substances (OTNE, HHCB, lilial, acetyl cedrene, menthol, and, in some grab samples, also methyl-dihydrojasmonate) could be detected in the effluents of the investigated sewage treatment plants. The other fragrances under scrutiny were only found in the inflow and were eliminated in the purification process. Only OTNE and HHCB were found in the receiving surface waters of the STP in congruent concentrations, which exceeded the preliminary derived environmental thresholds by a factor of 1.15 and 1.12, respectively, indicating potential risks. OTNE was also detected in similar concentration ranges as HHCB in muscles and livers of fish from surface waters and from ponds that are supplied with purified wastewater. The findings show that some fragrance compounds undergo high elimination rates, whereas others-not only musks-are present in receiving surface water and biota and may present a risk to local aquatic biota. Hence, our results suggest that the fate and potential effects of fragrance compounds in the aquatic environment deserve more attention.

  8. Advances in assessing ingredient safety.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; York, Raymond G

    2016-08-01

    The safety of food ingredients will be assessed in the 21st century by mixture of traditional methods, such as the "safe" dose concept, which is thought to be an accurate but imprecise estimation of dose below the population threshold for adverse effect, and contemporary methods, such as the Benchmark Dose (BMD), Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF), physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, and biologically-informed dose response modeling. New research on the horizon related to toxicology 21 may also improve these risk assessment methods, or suggest new ones. These traditional, contemporary and new methods and research will be briefly described.

  9. Fluorinated Desensitizing Ingredients for Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-24

    Entered) 19. KEY WORDS (Continued) 20 ABSTRACT (Continued) Compound Structure 3-Fluoro-1,2- propanediol dinitrate FCH2CH(ONO2 )CH2ONO2 FDNP 3,3,3...Trifluoro-1,2- propanediol dinitrate F3 CCH(ONO2 )CH2ONO2 TFDNP 4,4,4-Trifluoro-l,2,3-butanetriol F3CCH(ONO 2 )CH(ONO2)CH2ONO 2 Trinitrate TFBTTN Preliminary...are potentially useful propellant ingredients. When compared with 1,2- propanediol dinitrate (DNP), which is currently used in Otto Fuel II, FDNP has a

  10. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  11. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Matthew O.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fox, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93). This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96), rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25) and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27). Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95) but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30) but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93). Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28) but there were apparent differences in use of shampoo (0

  12. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Arnau, E G; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Rastogi, S C; White, I R; Lepoittevin, J P

    2000-12-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application test on the pre-sensitized patient. The chemical composition of the fractions giving a positive patch-test response and repeated open application test reactions was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the compounds identified, those that contained a "structural alert" in their chemical structure, indicating an ability to modify skin proteins and thus behave as a skin sensitizer, were tested on the patient. The patient reacted positively to the synthetic fragrance p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (Lilial), a widely used fragrance compound not present in the fragrance mix. The combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships seems to be a valuable tool for the investigation of contact allergy to fragrance materials.

  13. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Sun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2004-01-01

    Natural fragrances from lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) were studied by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) techniques followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with six different fibre coatings being tested to evaluate the extraction efficiencies of several selected compounds. A total of 14 compounds were identified in the fragrances of lemon verbena. Geranial and neral were detected as major components and alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene, and curcumene as minor components. Enantiomeric analysis of chiral compounds from lemon verbena was carried out on a chiral column. alpha-Pinene, limonene, and camphor in the fragrances emitted from lemon verbena were found in the (+), (-), and (-) forms, respectively.

  14. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening

    PubMed Central

    Wombacher, William D.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water. PMID:20126513

  15. A simple floral fragrance and unusual osmophore structure in Cyclopogon elatus (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Wiemer, A P; Moré, M; Benitez-Vieyra, S; Cocucci, A A; Raguso, R A; Sérsic, A N

    2009-07-01

    We studied gland morphology, anatomy and the chemical composition of the floral fragrance in the sweat bee-pollinated orchid Cyclopogon elatus. This is apparently the first such analysis for any Cyclopogon species, and one of very few studies in which both odour and osmophore are characterised in a nectar-rewarding orchid. Structures responsible for floral scent production were localised with neutral red staining and histochemical assays for lipids and starch. Their morphology and anatomy were studied with scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy thin sections, respectively. Fragrance samples were collected using SPME fibres and analysed with GC-MS. Anatomical evidence suggests that two parallel oval-shaped patches of unicellular trichomes on the abaxial surface of the labellum are osmophores. These are rich in stored lipids, while the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles contains starch. Only freshly opened flowers produced odours, while buds and withered flowers lacked scent. The chemical composition of the odour was dominated (>99.8%) by a single compound, trans-4,8-dimethyl-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT). Gland anatomy and position on the outside of the perianth are unusual for scent glands in general. The presence of DMNT, a nearly ubiquitous compound in herbivore-induced vegetative emissions and one of the major floral volatiles of Yucca, is not surprising in view of hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of flower scents, suggesting that wound volatiles are utilised as kairomonal attractants by florivores whose activities result in pollination.

  16. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    PubMed

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  17. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.20 Ingredient control. (a) Except as provided in § 106.20(b), no...

  18. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES (Eff. until 7-10-14) Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.20 Ingredient control. (a) Except as provided in §...

  19. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.117 Inactive ingredients. A...

  20. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.117 Inactive ingredients. A...

  1. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  2. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  3. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  4. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  5. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  6. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    PubMed

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  7. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.12 Antihistamine active ingredients. The active ingredient of... ingredient: (a) Brompheniramine maleate. (b) Chlorcyclizine hydrochloride. (c) Chlorpheniramine maleate....

  8. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the ingredients of a wheat flour are declared in an ingredient statement, the principal ingredient of the flour shall be declared by the name(s) specified in §§ 137.105, 137.200, 137.220, 137.225 of this chapter, i.e., the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of flour, or bromated flour,...

  9. Analysis of an SFP marker in the rice fgr/BAD2 gene and fragrance in US rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et. al (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase...

  10. Analysis of an SFP marker in the Rice fgr/BAD2 gene and fragrance in US rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde...

  11. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-nonadien-3-ol, CAS Registry Number 10339-55-6.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog linalool (CAS # 78-70-6) show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential and also provided a MOE > 100 for the local respiratory endpoint. The repeated dose, developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoints were completed using nerolidol (isomer unspecified, CAS # 7212-44-4) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  12. 30 CFR 15.21 - Tolerances for ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; (c) Carbonaceous materials: ±3 percent; and (d) Moisture and ingredients other than specified in... Moisture and Other Ingredients Quantity of ingredients (as percent of total explosive or sheath)...

  13. Determination of descriptors for fragrance compounds by gas chromatography and liquid-liquid partition.

    PubMed

    Karunasekara, Thushara; Poole, Colin F

    2012-04-27

    Retention factors on a minimum of eight stationary phases at various temperatures by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid partition coefficients for five totally organic biphasic systems were combined to estimate descriptors for 28 fragrance compounds with an emphasis on compounds that are known or potential allergens. The descriptors facilitated the estimation of several properties of biological and environmental interest (sensory irritation threshold, odor detection threshold, nasal pungency threshold, skin permeability from water, skin-water partition coefficients, octanol-water partition coefficients, absorption by air particles, adsorption by diesel soot particles, air-water partition coefficients, and adsorption by film water). The descriptors are suitable for use in the solvation parameter model and facilitate the estimation of a wide range of physicochemical, chromatographic, biological, and environmental properties using existing models.

  14. Fragrances in oolong tea that enhance the response of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2004-09-01

    We electrophysiologically investigated the effect of some fragrant compounds in oolong tea on the response of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABAA receptors) which were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Of the tested fragrances in oolong tea, cis-jasmone, jasmine lactone, linalool oxide and methyl jasmonate significantly potentiated the response. Among these, cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate potently potentiated the response, having a respective dissociation constant of the compound (Kp) and maximum potentiation (Vm) of 0.49 mM and 322% for cis-jasmone, and 0.84 mM and 450% for methyl jasmonate. Inhalation of 0.1% cis-jasmone or methyl jasmonate significantly increased the sleeping time of mice induced by pentobarbital, suggesting that these fragrant compounds were absorbed by the brain and thereby potentiated the GABAA receptor response. Both of these compounds may therefore have a tranquillizing effect on the brain.

  15. [Development of new SSR markers from EST of SSH cDNA libraries on rose fragrance].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Hao; Xie, Ji-Rong; Li, Shu-Fa; Jian, Hong-Ying; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Tang, Kai-Xue

    2009-09-01

    The new SSR markers of rose related fragrance were developed based on the SSH cDNA libraries of rose floral scent mutant. In this study, 10 EST-SSRs (2.6%) from 391 ESTs in the libraries were identified. Six EST-SSRs primers were designed to sequence flanking SSRs. The primer pairs designed were screened on the wild-type Jinyindao, which has flowers full of pleasant scent, and the mutant-type Wangriqinghuai without perceivable floral scent. Five primer pairs were amplified effectively in Jinyindao and Wangriqinghuai, and 3 were polymorphic between Jinyindao and Wangriqinghuai. Eighteen rose cultivars including fragrant roses and nonfragrant roses were identified by the five prime pairs. These results proved that EST-SSR markers are effective markers to identify the polymorphism of the rose.

  16. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  17. Chemically-related Groups of Active Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many pesticide active ingredients affect pests in similar ways, and we re-evaluate them together as a group. Groups include carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethrins, and pyrethroids.

  18. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  19. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko

    2005-05-15

    In this study, the occurrence of the polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydeonaphthalene) in marine mammals and sharks collected from Japanese coastal waters is reported. HHCB was present in the blubbers of all finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) analyzed (n = 8), at levels ranging from 13 to 149 ng/g on a wet weight basis. A fetus sample of finless porpoise contained a notable concentration of HHCB (26 ng/g wet wt), suggesting transplacental transfer of this compound. Among 12 tissues and organs of a finless porpoise analyzed, the highest HHCB concentration was found in blubber, followed by kidney. This indicates that HHCB accumulates in lipid-rich tissues in marine mammals, which is similar to the accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDTs. In general, the residue levels of AHTN and nitro musks were low or below the detection limits in finless porpoises, implying either less usage in Japan or high metabolic capacity of these compounds in this animal. HHCB was also found in the livers of five hammerhead sharks (Sphrna lewini) from Japanese coastal waters, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 48 ng/g wet wt. Occurrence of HHCB in higher trophic organisms strongly suggests that it is less degradable in the environment and accumulates in the top predators of marine food chains. This is the first report on the accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks.

  20. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antiperspirant active ingredients. 350.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTIPERSPIRANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 350.10 Antiperspirant active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  1. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANORECTAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  2. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e), (f... multiplied by 2. (2) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(b), (c), (e), (f), (i... active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), and (r) of...

  3. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e), (f... multiplied by 2. (2) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(b), (c), (e), (f), (i... active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), and (r) of...

  4. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  5. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  6. 21 CFR 355.10 - Anticaries active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anticaries active ingredients. 355.10 Section 355...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.10 Anticaries active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following...

  7. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... combination) or more of the skin protectant active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 347... Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of...

  8. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e), (f... multiplied by 2. (2) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(b), (c), (e), (f), (i... active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), and (r) of...

  9. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  10. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  11. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  12. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  13. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  14. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  15. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  16. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  17. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  18. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  19. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  20. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  1. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  2. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  3. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  4. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  5. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  6. Micro/nanoencapsulation of essential oils and fragrances: Focus on perfumed, antimicrobial, mosquito-repellent and medical textiles.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Herbal products have been widely used due to good antimicrobial, fragrance and medical properties. Essential oils and fragrances can be applied on the textile substrates as micro/nanocapsules to prolong lifetime by controlling the release rate. The present review tries to give a general overview on the application of micro/nanoencapsulated essential oils on the textile substrates to achieve aromatherapy textiles. These are divided into four diverse categories as the following: antimicrobial, perfumed, mosquito-repellent and medical textiles. The reports in this field revealed that the encapsulation technique plays an important role in the finishing of plant extracts on the textile substrates. It is also anticipated that aromatherapy textiles have to be developed in the new fields such as multifunctional textiles having wound-healing, antimicrobial and fragrant properties.

  7. A comparative human health risk assessment of p-dichlorobenzene-based toilet rimblock products versus fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Dallas B; Bosch, Stephen; Gray, D Anthony; Howard, Philip H; Guiney, Patrick D

    2007-10-01

    A comparison of the human health risk to consumers using one of two types of toilet rimblock products, either a p-dichlorobenzene-based rimblock or two newer fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives, was conducted. Rimblock products are designed for global use by consumers worldwide and function by releasing volatile compounds into indoor air with subsequent exposure presumed to be mainly by inhalation of indoor air. Using the THERdbASE exposure model and experimentally determined emission data, indoor air concentrations and daily intake values were determined for both types of rimblock products. Modeled exposure concentrations from a representative p-dichlorobenzene rimblock product are an order of magnitude higher than those from the alternative rimblock products due to its nearly pure composition and high sublimation rate. Lifetime exposure to p-dichlorobenzene or the subset of fragrance components with available RfD values is not expected to lead to non-cancer-based adverse health effects based on the exposure concentrations estimated using the THERdbASE model. A similar comparison of cancer-based effects was not possible as insufficient data were available for the fragrance components.

  8. A sensitive method for determination of allergenic fragrance terpene hydroperoxides using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rudbäck, Johanna; Islam, Nurul; Nilsson, Ulrika; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2013-04-01

    Different compositions of monoterpenes are utilized for their pleasant scent in cosmetics and perfumes. However, the most commonly used fragrance terpenes easily oxidize upon contact with air, forming strongly skin-sensitizing hydroperoxides. Due to their thermolability and low UV absorbance, detection methods for hydroperoxides are scarce. For the first time, a simple and sensitive method using LC/ESI-MS/MS was developed to quantitatively determine hydroperoxides from the common fragrance compounds linalool, linalyl acetate, and limonene. The method was applied to autoxidized petitgrain oil and sweet orange oil. A separation was accomplished using a C3 column. The method LOD for the investigated hydroperoxides in the essential oils was below 0.3 μg/mL, corresponding to 0.3 ppm. For prevention purposes and according to EU regulations, concentrations in cosmetics exceeding 100 ppm in "rinse-off" and 10 ppm in "stay-on" products of linalool and limonene must be labeled. However, the products may still contain allergens, such as hydroperoxides, formed by oxidative degradation of their parent terpenes. The sensitivity and selectivity of the presented LC/MS/MS method enables detection of hydroperoxides from the fragrance terpenes linalool, linalyl acetate, and limonene. However, for routine measurements, the method requires further validation.

  9. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-02-22

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both.

  10. Respiratory Health – Exposure Measurements and Modeling in the Fragrance and Flavour Industry

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Eric; Camerini, Gerard; Diop, Malick; Roche, Patrice; Rodi, Thomas; Schippa, Christine; Thomas, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although the flavor and fragrance industry is about 150 years old, the use of synthetic materials started more than 100 years ago, and the awareness of the respiratory hazard presented by some flavoring substances emerged only recently. In 2001, the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified for the first time inhalation exposure to flavoring substances in the workplace as a possible occupational hazard. As a consequence, manufacturers must comply with a variety of workplace safety requirements, and management has to ensure the improvement of health and safety of the employees exposed to hazardous volatile organic compounds. In this sensitive context, MANE opened its facilities to an intensive measuring campaign with the objective to better estimate the real level of hazardous respiratory exposure of workers. In this study, exposure to 27 hazardous volatile substances were measured during several types of handling operations (weighing-mixing, packaging, reconditioning-transferring), 430 measurement results were generated, and were exploited to propose an improved model derived from the well-known ECETOC-TRA model. The quantification of volatile substances in the working atmosphere involved three main steps: adsorption of the chemicals on a solid support, thermal desorption, followed by analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our approach was to examine experimental measures done in various manufacturing workplaces and to define correction factors to reflect more accurately working conditions and habits. Four correction factors were adjusted in the ECETOC-TRA to integrate important exposure variation factors: exposure duration, percentage of the substance in the composition, presence of collective protective equipment and wearing of personal protective equipment. Verification of the validity of the model is based on the comparison of the values obtained after adaptation of the ECETOC-TRA model, according to various exposure

  11. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  12. Haplotype variation at Badh2, the gene determining fragrance in rice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Gaoneng; Tang, Shaoqing; Chen, Mingliang; Wei, Xiangjin; He, Jiwai; Luo, Ju; Jiao, Guiai; Hu, Yichao; Xie, Lihong; Hu, Peisong

    2013-02-01

    Fragrance is an important component of end-use quality in rice. A set of 516 fragrant rice accessions were genotyped and over 80% of them carried the badh2.7 allele. A subset of 144 mostly fragrant accessions, including nine of Oryza rufipogon, was then subjected to a detailed diversity and haplotype analysis. The level of linkage disequilibrium in the Badh2 region was higher among the fragrant accessions. Re-sequencing in the Badh2 region showed that badh2.7, badh2.2 and badh2.4-5 all arose in the japonica genepool, and spread later into the indica genepool as a result of deliberate crossing. However, loss-of-function alleles of Badh2 are also found in the indica genepools, and then transferred into japonica. Evidence for three new possible FNPs was obtained from the Badh2 sequence of 62 fragrant accessions. Based on these data, we have elaborated a model for the evolution of Badh2 and its participation in the rice domestication process.

  13. Lyotropic liquid crystal behaviour of azelate and succinate monoester surfactants based on fragrance alcohols.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Frédéric; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Chailloux, Nelly; Aubry, Jean-Marie; Tiddy, Gordon J T

    2008-05-01

    Azelaic acid was used as a starting material for the preparation of new monoester surfactants based on fragrance alcohols. Sodium monocitronellyl azelate (citroC(9)Na) and sodium monomenthyl azelate (menC(9)Na) were synthesized and their aqueous phase behaviour was studied. For comparison, monoesters derived from succinic anhydride, i.e. sodium monocitronellyl succinate (citroC(4)Na) and sodium monomenthyl succinate (menC(4)Na), were also prepared as well as sodium monodecyl succinate (C(10)C(4)Na) and sodium monodecyl azelate (C(10)C(9)Na) in order to study the effect of the position of the ester function inside the hydrophobic tail and of branching and unsaturation respectively. Liquid crystal structures were examined by optical polarising microscopy and schematic partial binary phase diagrams (surfactant+water, 0-100 wt%, 10-90 degrees C) of the surfactants were established. Succinate surfactants behave as longer alkyl chain surfactants than their azelate counterparts, meaning that these last ones probably adopt a more folded conformation, with the ester function more frequently present at the micelle surface. This conformation would result in a rougher micelle surface, making it slightly less easy for micelles to pack in liquid crystalline phases. It was also shown that the tendency to adopt a more folded conformation and to form smaller micelles is ranked in this order: monomenthyl>monocitronellyl>monodecyl.

  14. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content... analyzed as to nutrient composition or are labeled as having nutrient compositions complying with... an ingredient is relied upon as a source of a nutrient(s) and when evidence indicates that...

  15. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content... analyzed as to nutrient composition or are labeled as having nutrient compositions complying with... an ingredient is relied upon as a source of a nutrient(s) and when evidence indicates that...

  16. Key Ingredients to Meaningful Educational Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Tom; Duenkel, Nickey

    1996-01-01

    Two day-long college events--wilderness orienteering and a role-playing canoe trip into the past--illustrate ingredients critical for experiential learning: active learning, student focus, clear purpose, emotional investment and risk, holistic engagement, mixture of content and process, stepping outside one's comfort zone, meaningful…

  17. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  18. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  19. Colloids in food: ingredients, structure, and stability.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews progress in the field of food colloids with particular emphasis on advances in novel functional ingredients and nanoscale structuring. Specific aspects of ingredient development described here are the stabilization of bubbles and foams by the protein hydrophobin, the emulsifying characteristics of Maillard-type protein-polysaccharide conjugates, the structural and functional properties of protein fibrils, and the Pickering stabilization of dispersed droplets by food-grade nanoparticles and microparticles. Building on advances in the nanoscience of biological materials, the application of structural design principles to the fabrication of edible colloids is leading to progress in the fabrication of functional dispersed systems-multilayer interfaces, multiple emulsions, and gel-like emulsions. The associated physicochemical insight is contributing to our mechanistic understanding of oral processing and textural perception of food systems and to the development of colloid-based strategies to control delivery of nutrients during food digestion within the human gastrointestinal tract.

  20. [Antiperspirants and deodorants--ingredients and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Lukacs, V A; Korting, H C

    1989-01-01

    Antitranspirants and deodorants gain more and more interest. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequently used active ingredients in commercial antitranspirants today. Aluminium chloride and propantheline bromide, the anticholinergic substance, are important alternatives although less common. Active ingredients of deodorants are mainly perfumes or bactericidal/bacteriostatic substances, such as triclosan. In addition, there are substances which are meant to bind offending smells (e.g. zinc ricinoleate) or to influence the skin surface pH (e.g. triethyl citrate). As in the cosmetics industry in general, both safety and efficacy of a product are major parameters in the experimental and clinical evaluation. Establishment of efficacy is based on olfactory tests in model situations as well as on the detection of associated effects (e.g. influence on cutaneous microflora).

  1. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  2. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential

  3. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-04-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management, including consumption of caffeine, capsaicin and different teas such as green, white and oolong tea, have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as they may increase energy expenditure (4-5%), fat oxidation (10-16%) and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. Daily increases in thermogenesis of approximately 300-400 kJ can eventually lead to substantial weight loss. However, it becomes clearer that certain conditions have to be met before thermogenic ingredients yield an effect, as intra-variability with respect to body weight regulation has been shown between subjects. Furthermore, the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may have an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general. Taken together, these functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome may sometimes appear straightforward and may also depend very strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  4. Innovative natural functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Merichel; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2009-08-26

    Nowadays, a wide variety of compounds such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or phytosterols obtained, for example, from wine, fish byproducts, or plants are employed to prepare new functional foods. However, unexplored natural sources of bioactive ingredients are gaining much attention since they can lead to the discovery of new compounds or bioactivities. Microalgae have been proposed as an interesting, almost unlimited, natural source in the search for novel natural functional ingredients, and several works have shown the possibility to find bioactive compounds in these organisms. Some advantages can be associated with the study of microalgae such as their huge diversity, the possibility of being used as natural reactors at controlled conditions, and their ability to produce active secondary metabolites to defend themselves from adverse or extreme conditions. In this contribution, an exhaustive revision is presented involving the research for innovative functional food ingredients from microalgae. The most interesting results in this promising field are discussed including new species composition and bioactivity and new processing and extraction methods. Moreover, the future research trends are critically commented.

  5. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  6. Use of inverse gas chromatography to characterize cotton fabrics and their interactions with fragrance molecules at controlled relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Cantergiani, Ennio; Benczédi, Daniel

    2002-09-06

    The present work focused on the surface characterization and fragrance interactions of a common cotton towel at different relative humidities (RHs) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and dynamic vapour sorption. The sigmoidal water sorption isotherms showed a maximum of 16% (w/w) water uptake with limited swelling at 100% RH. This means that water interacts strongly with cotton and might change its initial physico-chemical properties. The same cotton towel was then packed in a glass column and characterized by IGC at different relative humidities, calculating the dispersive and specific surface energy components. The dispersive component of the surface energy decreases slightly as a function of relative humidity (42 mJ/m2 at 0% RH to 36 mJ/m2 at 80% RH) which would be expected from swelling of the humidified cotton. The Gutmann's donor constant Kd increased from 0.28 kJ/mol at 0% RH to 0.42 kJ/mol at 80% RH, indicating that a greater hydrophilic surface exists at 80% RH, which is also as expected. Water, undecane and four fragrance molecules (dimetol, benzyl acetate, decanal and phenylethanol) were used to investigate cotton-fragrance interactions between 0 and 80% RH. The adsorption enthalpies and the Henry's constants were calculated and are discussed. The higher values for the adsorption enthalpies of polar molecules such as dimetol and phenylethanol suggest the presence of hydrogen bonds as the main adsorption mechanism. The Henry's constant of dimetol was also determined by headspace gas chromatography measurements at 20% RH, giving a similar value (230 nmol/Pa g by IGC and 130 nmol/Pa g by headspace GC), supporting the usefulness of IGC for such determinations. This work confirms the usefulness of chromatographic methods to investigate biopolymers such as textiles, starches and hairs.

  7. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labeled according to § 341.85. (c) Any single antihistamine active ingredient identified in § 341.12 may...) Any single antihistamine active ingredient identified in § 341.12(a) through (e) and (h) through (m... according to § 341.70(a). (h) Any single oral antitussive active ingredient identified in §...

  8. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... years or older. (c) Bismuth-containing active ingredients: (1) Bismuth aluminate. (2) Bismuth carbonate.... (8) Magnesium trisilicate. (h) Milk solids, dried. (i) Phosphate-containing active ingredients: (1... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Listing of specific active ingredients....

  9. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following...) Combinations of antibiotic active ingredients. (1) Bacitracin-neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  10. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following...) Combinations of antibiotic active ingredients. (1) Bacitracin-neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  11. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following...) Combinations of antibiotic active ingredients. (1) Bacitracin-neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  12. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following...) Combinations of antibiotic active ingredients. (1) Bacitracin-neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  13. 21 CFR 333.120 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.120 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The following...) Combinations of antibiotic active ingredients. (1) Bacitracin-neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each... with a suitable filler. (b) Combinations of first aid antibiotic active ingredients and...

  14. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of skin...) Combinations of skin protectant and external analgesic active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be...

  15. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  16. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  17. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  18. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  19. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  20. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  1. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  2. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  3. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  4. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ingredients § 352.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The SPF of any combination product is... sufficient to contribute a minimum SPF of not less than 2 to the finished product. The finished product must have a minimum SPF of not less than the number of sunscreen active ingredients used in the...

  5. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ingredients § 352.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. The SPF of any combination product is... sufficient to contribute a minimum SPF of not less than 2 to the finished product. The finished product must have a minimum SPF of not less than the number of sunscreen active ingredients used in the...

  6. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  7. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  8. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of skin...) Combinations of skin protectant and external analgesic active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be...

  9. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of skin...) Combinations of skin protectant and external analgesic active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be...

  10. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of skin...) Combinations of skin protectant and external analgesic active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be...

  11. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  12. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  13. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  16. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  17. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... solution, on a weight to volume basis, in combination with menthol, 1.5 percent, in a shampoo formulation... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358... Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combination of active ingredients for the control...

  19. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  20. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  1. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  2. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  3. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  4. New insights into the microemulsion-based chromatographic NMR resolution mechanism and its application to fragrance/flavor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Roy E.; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2012-07-01

    The NMR chromatography method is applied to a class of molecules with similar physical properties. We correlate the separation ability of microemulsions to the physical properties of the analyzed molecules. Flavor and aroma compounds are very widespread. Compositional analysis is in many cases tedious. Any new method of analysis is always useful and challenging. Here we show a new application to a class of fragrance molecules, with only a moderate variation in their chemical and physical characteristics. Up to 11 selected compounds in one mixture are resolved in one spectrum by NMR chromatography, despite the similarity of the compounds. The differences between O/W and W/O microemulsions and their resolution mechanism as applied to fragrance molecules are explained in terms of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity and effective critical packing parameters of the microemulsions. The observed diffusion rates are shown to correlate with solvation parameters. These results can be used to estimate the diffusion rates of molecules to be separated, allowing selection of the microemulsion or NMR chromatography solvent appropriate for each specific application.

  5. Co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in seafood and macroalgae collected in European hotspots.

    PubMed

    Cunha, S C; Fernandes, J O; Vallecillos, L; Cano-Sancho, G; Domingo, J L; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F; Maulvault, A L; Ferrari, F; Fernandez-Tejedor, M; Van den Heuvel, F; Kotterman, M

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and wildlife. Seafood is one of the most significant food commodities in the world and, certainly, one of the most prone to bioaccumulation of PCP, what can consequently lead to human exposure, especially for coastal population, where its consumption is more marked. The aim of this work was to evaluate the co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in both seafood and macroalgae collected in different European hotspots (areas with high levels of pollution, highly populated and near wastewater treatment plants). Despite the fact that UV-filters were detected in three different kind of samples (mussel, mullet, and clam), in all cases they were below the limit of quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the musk fragrances most frequently detected and quantified in samples from the European hotspots. Cashmeran (DPMI) was also detected in most samples but only quantified in two of them (flounder/herring and mullet). The highest levels of HHCB and AHTN were found in mussels from Po estuary.

  6. Advanced Skin Care – A Novel Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Cynthia Ann; Newman, Mackenzie

    2014-01-01

    The skin provides the human body with protection and a major barrier to environmental assault. Caring for skin is sometimes an afterthought. In other words, if something isn't broken, don't fix it. However, in the case of the integument, nothing could be further from the truth. Intact skin is paramount to health and well-being. This article will review skin care, specifically, advanced skin care, uncovering novel ingredients, and their importance for prevention and treatment as well as delving into the caring for the skin from the outside in. PMID:26199880

  7. Antibotulinal activity of process cheese ingredients.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Johnson, Eric A

    2004-08-01

    Ingredients used in the manufacture of reduced-fat process cheese products were screened for their ability to inhibit growth of Clostridium botulinum serotypes A and B in media. Reinforced clostridial medium (RCM) supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) of various ingredients, including a carbohydrate-based fat replacer, an enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) derived from a Blue cheese, sweet whey, modified whey protein, or whey protein concentrate, did not inhibit botulinal growth and toxin production when stored at 30 degrees C for 1 week. In contrast, RCM supplemented with 10% soy-based flavor enhancer, 10% Parmesan EMC, or 5 or 10% Cheddar EMC inhibited botulinal toxin production in media for at least 6 weeks of storage at 30 degrees C. Subsequent trials revealed that the antibotulinal effect varied significantly among 13 lots of EMC and that the antimicrobial effect was not correlated with the pH or water activity of the EMC.

  8. Formulation ingredients for toothpastes and mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Vranić, Edina; Lacević, Amela; Mehmedagić, Aida; Uzunović, Alija

    2004-10-01

    In order to achieve the multi-claim products required for the dental care category, it is necessary for the formulator to use a variety of different ingredients. This places a number of demands on the development process. Innovations in the areas of pharmaceutical technology have contributed to the formulation of the products having superior efficacy as well as other attributes that may contribute to clinical response and patient acceptability. Improved clinical efficacy and tolerability, along with conditioning signals, should encourage patient compliance with oral hygiene further complementing professional efforts directed at disease prevention. The most effective way of preventing the development of dental disease is in controlling the production of dental plaque. It is formed by microbial action. The removal of plaque from the teeth and related areas is essential for the maintenance of a healthy mouth. In this paper we have presented the main components of toothpastes and mouthwashes. For the active ingredients, their supposed effect as therapeutic agents is also explained.

  9. Estimation of dermal and oral exposure of children to scented toys: analysis of the migration of fragrance allergens by dynamic headspace GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Masuck, Ines; Hutzler, Christroph; Luch, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Fragrances capable of inducing contact allergy in skin potentially can migrate from the toy to the child via oral or dermal contacts. The goal of this work was the developing of an analytical method based on dynamic headspace GC-MS to determine the concentration of 24 fragrances in saliva or sweat simulant. Under optimized conditions, 5 mL of the migration simulant with 2 g sodium chloride were incubated for 10 min at 30°C. The headspace was purged at a flow rate of 50 mL/min. The compounds were quantified by internal calibration resulting in good linearity (>0.991). The recovery was greater than 66.3% for most of the compounds. The limits of detection ranged between 0.5 ng/mL for hydrophobic and 196.0 ng/mL for hydrophilic fragrances. The method was subsequently applied to seven real toys purchased from the market. The highest migration rate could be observed for benzyl benzoate with 268.0 ng/cm(2)/min. Based on the migration data measured, the ranges of dermal and oral exposure of children to fragrances in scented toys were calculated. The maximum oral and dermal exposure levels were estimated at 22.2 μg per kg body weight (BW) and day (d) for benzyl benzoate and 605.0 μg/kg BW/d for benzyl alcohol, respectively.

  10. Influence of pre-treatment process on matrix effect for the determination of musk fragrances in fish and mussel.

    PubMed

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2015-03-01

    Musk compounds are widely used as fragrances in personal care products. On account of their widespread use and their low biodegradation, they can be found in environmental samples. In our study two extraction methodologies were compared and different clean-up strategies were also studied in order to develop a reliable analytical method, with minimum matrix effect and good detection limits, to determine synthetic musk fragrances- six polycyclic musks, three nitro musks and the degradation product of one polycyclic musk- in fish and mussel samples. The first extraction technique involves a QuEChERS extraction, a consolidate extraction methodology in the field of food analysis of growing interest over recent years, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) as clean-up strategy. The second extraction technique consists of a conventional pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and an in-cell clean-up to decrease the matrix effect and remove the undesired components(⁎)present in PLE extracts. Large volume injection (LVI) followed by gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS) was chosen as the separation and detection technique. Validation parameters, such as method detection limits and method quantification limits were found at ng g(-1) levels for both fish and mussel matrices. Good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities were obtained analysing fish and mussel samples spiked at 50 ng g(-1) (d.w.) (n=5, RSDs<17%). The developed PLE/GC-IT-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine the target musk fragrances present in fish and mussel samples from the local market in Tarragona and fish samples from the Ebro River. The results showed the presence of galaxolide (2.97-18.04 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) and tonalide (1.17-8.42 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) in all the samples analysed, while the remaining polycyclic musks such as cashmeran, celestolide and phantolide, were only detected in some of the fish samples analysed. None

  11. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  12. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed.

  13. A New Ingredient for Simulating B Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Matthew; Shigemitsu, Junko; Lepage, Peter; Davies, Christine

    2002-08-01

    The fundamental states of QCD, quarks and gluons, are experimentally inaccessible due to confinement. Furthermore, the properties of bound states (e.g. hadrons) cannot be computed perturbatively due to the strength of the color force, so instead we employ Monte Carlo simulation of QCD on a spacetime lattice. Some quantities of particular interest to particle physicists are those necessary to connect flavor-changing decays of hadrons created in experiments to the flavor-changing interactions of the Standard Model quarks. Recently we have been investigating a new technique for simulating heavy-light bound states which should both decrease the computational burden and increase the numerical accuracy compared to present calculations. The new ingredient is the use of so-called staggered fermions as the light quark. Details and results for B meson energies and decay constants will be shown.

  14. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea.

    PubMed

    Nichols, K; Desai, N; Lebwohl, M G

    1998-06-01

    Patients with rosacea are particularly susceptible to the irritation caused by sunscreen ingredients. The purpose of this bilateral comparison study was to examine the effects of different ingredients found in sunscreen on facial cutaneous irritancy in patients with rosacea. patients clinically diagnosed with rosacea were asked to test different preparations of common sunscreens on their faces. The results show that the presence or absence of appropriate protective ingredients, such as dimethicone and cyclomethicone in the vehicle, may prevent irritation from other sunscreen ingredients in patients with inflammatory conditions such as rosacea.

  15. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2<--1) linear fructans including native inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  16. [Further characterization of percutaneous analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicine--the patient preference for smell/fragrance of cataplasm or plaster based on results of 2,351 outpatient questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Shinichiro

    2012-08-01

    This single center questionnaire survey began in 13 February 2012 and ended in 13 April 2012 at our clinic. Patients were received the questionnaire to measure preference about smell/fragrance of percutaneous analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicine, including cataplasm or plaster. The questionnaire consisted of the following two questions: [which do you prefer, fragrance free medicine or fragrance medicine? why do you prefer either one?] We studied 2,351 outpatients (613 male and 1,738 female) aged 64.9 +/- 17.2 years, had had various orthopedic diseases. Sixteen hundred and fifty patients (retired persons, housewives, and students) did not have work, and 701 patients had work. Of 701 patients, 325 patients had work as a service trade. Fifteen hundred and thirteen patients (64.4%) preferred fragrance free medicine, and only 76 patients (3.2%) preferred fragrance medicine. The others (32.4%) answered that whichever could be sufficient. Patients who preferred fragrance free medicine were significantly younger than patients who preferred fragrance medicine (64.9 +/- 16.7 years and 69.0 +/- 13.2 years, respectively). Of patients who preferred fragrance free medicine, 37.4 % of patients answered that they wanted to make it secret to have cataplasm or plaster, and 15.7% of patients answered that they would be troubled if a smell occurs during work. Compared with male patients, female patients tended to prefer fragrance free medicine, irrespective of age. Furthermore, female patients had had work as a service trade, were more likely to prefer fragrance free medicine, compared with female patients had had no job (77.5 % versus 64.9%, p<0.05). It had a 1.9 times (95%CI 1.33 to 2.62) higher odds ratio for choosing fragrance free medicine. There are few reports focused on patient preference or patient demand of percutaneous analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicine, using questionnaire survey. Therefore, it was considered that our findings based on 2,351 patients

  17. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  18. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Bruno Di; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fargeas, Elodie; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping:attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction,the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species,with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome,or nectar rim,accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species.

  19. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  20. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  1. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  2. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  3. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  4. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  5. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient without listing the ingredient itself. (3) Skim milk, concentrated skim milk, reconstituted skim milk, and nonfat dry milk may be declared as skim milk or nonfat milk. (4) Milk, concentrated milk, reconstituted milk, and dry whole milk may be declared as milk. (5) Bacterial cultures may be declared by......

  6. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs; statement of ingredients. 201.10 Section 201.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.10 Drugs; statement of ingredients. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with any generally recognized as safe and effective single oral anesthetic/analgesic active ingredient, or any combination of anesthetic/analgesic active ingredients provided that the product is available.... Menthol in § 341.14(b)(2) and part 356 of this chapter may be both the antitussive and the...

  11. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with any generally recognized as safe and effective single oral anesthetic/analgesic active ingredient, or any combination of anesthetic/analgesic active ingredients provided that the product is available.... Menthol in § 341.14(b)(2) and part 356 of this chapter may be both the antitussive and the...

  12. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    PubMed

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are <4 mg/kg. This is well below the level that would trigger label declaration on the consumer good. Calibration curves for all allergens are linear (r > 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  13. Ionic liquids as active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Ricardo; Branco, Luís C; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Petrovski, Zeljko

    2011-06-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are ionic compounds that possess a melting temperature below 100 °C. Their physical and chemical properties are attractive for various applications. Several organic materials that are now classified as ionic liquids were described as far back as the mid-19th century. The search for new and different ILs has led to the progressive development and application of three generations of ILs: 1) The focus of the first generation was mainly on their unique intrinsic physical and chemical properties, such as density, viscosity, conductivity, solubility, and high thermal and chemical stability. 2) The second generation of ILs offered the potential to tune some of these physical and chemical properties, allowing the formation of "task-specific ionic liquids" which can have application as lubricants, energetic materials (in the case of selective separation and extraction processes), and as more environmentally friendly (greener) reaction solvents, among others. 3) The third and most recent generation of ILs involve active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), which are being used to produce ILs with biological activity. Herein we summarize recent developments in the area of third-generation ionic liquids that are being used as APIs, with a particular focus on efforts to overcome current hurdles encountered by APIs. We also offer some innovative solutions in new medical treatment and delivery options.

  14. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  15. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  16. Facilitation: An Essential Ingredient in Online Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvey, J.; Bogner, D.

    2003-12-01

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) partnered with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to offer the ESSEA Earth System Science Online Course for Middle School Teachers during the 2002-2003 school year. During the two semesters that the course was offered, we were able to retain 75% of our enrollees. We found that course facilitation was the key ingredient in retaining this large number of students-who are not only scattered across the U.S., but around the world-in a rigorous online course. In this poster session, we will share what we have learned about online facilitation as part of this course, and how this knowledge might translate into other online coursework. Online facilitation begins as soon as a student enrolls in the course. When a student registers online or at CSM, McREL receives notification and then sends course materials and e-mail and written confirmation to the enrollee within 24 hours. This sets the tone for the type of communications that students can expect during the 16-week course. McREL facilitators know how time consuming monitoring participant progress can be, but feel strongly about its importance when facilitating learners who are working in small groups and are completing independent research. Timely monitoring of discussion spaces and e-mail messages is essential to maintaining a high student-retention rate. Kearsley (2000) confirms this when he states that, "the most important role of the instructor in online classes is to ensure that there is a high degree of interactivity and participation." In the ESSEA courses, the isolation of students working independently on classroom applications and reflection is balanced with group construction of interactions and causal chains. Each step of the way facilitators use guided questioning in group discussion sessions and serve as a mentor when participants develop individualized classroom assignments, giving participants the opportunity to apply what they have learned in a

  17. Lack of sustained efficacy for alcohol-based surgical hand rubs containing 'residual active ingredients' according to EN 12791.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Suchomel, M

    2017-02-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (P<0.01) after 3h in comparison to the reference procedure. Formulations with 0.5 and 1% CHG in 70% iso-propanol or 61% ethanol were not superior after 3h. Formulations with 0.2% MES in 45% iso-propanol and 30% n-propanol were also not superior when applied for 1min (one data set), 1.5min as currently recommended for use (14 data sets), and 2min (one data set). When applied for 3min the formulations were superior in three out of seven data sets. The hand rub with 0.1% OPP in 78.2% ethanol was also not superior to the reference treatment when applied as recommended for 1.5min. It appears reasonable and responsible to limit the dermal exposure and environmental input to biocidal agents with a clear benefit such as the alcohols. In analogy to avoiding dyes and fragrances in hand rubs, formulations containing 'active' substances without a clear benefit but with potential risks should be avoided when alternative formulations with the same level of antimicrobial activity, dermal tolerance, and user acceptability are available.

  18. Real-time monitoring of fragrance release from cotton towels by low thermal mass gas chromatography using a longitudinally modulating cryogenic system for headspace sampling and injection.

    PubMed

    Haefliger, Olivier P; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Ouali, Lahoussine; León, Géraldine

    2010-01-15

    An innovative headspace sampling and injection system for gas chromatography was designed using a longitudinally modulating cryogenic system mounted around the sampling loop of a two-position loop injector. The setup was hyphenated to a fast low thermal mass gas chromatograph, allowing transient concentrations of semivolatile analytes to be monitored in real time with a time resolution of 4.5 min. The performance of the instrument, and in particular its cryotrapping efficiency, was characterized using a mixture of long-chain alkanes, methyl esters, ethyl esters, and alcohols of different volatilities. The device was found to be ideally suited to the analysis of semivolatile compounds with boiling points ranging between 190 and 320 degrees C, which are typical for a majority of perfumery raw materials. The new instrument was successfully used to monitor the release of eight odorant compounds from cotton towels to which fabric softener had been applied that alternatively contained the fragrance in free form or in microencapsulated form. The analytical results, unprecedented in their level of precision and time resolution for such an application, evidenced the major impact of microencapsulation technology on the kinetics of fragrance release during the drying of the towels and on the triggering of additional fragrance release by applying mechanical stress to the fabric to rupture the microcapsule walls.

  19. How to Search for Information about Pesticide Ingredients and Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to use the databases Pesticide Chemical Search, Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS), and InertFinder to find information such as Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers, active and inert ingredients, and regulatory actions.

  20. Influence of energy drink ingredients on mood and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy products have grown enormously in recent years. Manufacturers claim that the products, in the form of drinks, shots, supplements, and gels, enhance physical and cognitive performance, while users believe the products promote concentration, alertness, and fun. Most of these products contain caffeine, a mild psychostimulant, as their foremost active ingredient. However, they also contain additional ingredients, e.g., carbohydrates, amino acids, herbal extracts, vitamins, and minerals, often in unspecified amounts and labeled as an "energy blend." It is not clear whether these additional ingredients provide any physical or cognitive enhancement beyond that provided by caffeine alone. This article reviews the available empirical data on the interactive effects of these ingredients and caffeine on sleep and cognitive performance and suggests objectives for future study.

  1. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English...

  2. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English...

  3. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English...

  4. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English...

  5. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English...

  6. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  7. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  8. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  9. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  10. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  11. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chlorofluorocarbon 11S Dimethicone Copolyol Disperse Red 17 Pigment Green 7 Polyamino Sugar Condensate SD Alcohol... either (1) immediately following the normally used ingredient for which it substitutes, in which case...

  12. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Chlorofluorocarbon 11S Dimethicone Copolyol Disperse Red 17 Pigment Green 7 Polyamino Sugar Condensate SD Alcohol... either (1) immediately following the normally used ingredient for which it substitutes, in which case...

  13. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chlorofluorocarbon 11S Dimethicone Copolyol Disperse Red 17 Pigment Green 7 Polyamino Sugar Condensate SD Alcohol... either (1) immediately following the normally used ingredient for which it substitutes, in which case...

  14. Stability analysis for drugs with multiple active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Shao, Jun

    2007-03-30

    For every drug product on the market, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that an expiration dating period (shelf-life) must be indicated on the immediate container label. For determination of the expiration dating period of a drug product, regulatory requirements and statistical methodology are provided in the FDA and ICH Guidelines. However, this guideline is developed for drug products with a single active ingredient. There are many drug products consisting of multiple active ingredients, especially for most traditional Chinese medicine. In this article, we propose a statistical method for determining the shelf-life of a drug product with multiple active ingredients following similar idea as suggested by the FDA and assuming that these active ingredients are linear combinations of some factors. Stability data observed from a traditional Chinese medicine were analysed to illustrate the proposed method.

  15. 21 CFR 331.15 - Combination with nonantacid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... solely for the concurrent symptoms involved, e.g., headache and acid indigestion, and is marketed in a... and effective antiflatulent ingredient if it is indicated for use solely for the concurrent...

  16. Mixed feed and its ingredients electron beam decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu; Voronin, L. A.; Ites, Yu V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Leonov, S. V.; Leonova, M. A.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.; Yuskov, Yu G.

    2017-01-01

    Electron beam treatment is used for food processing for decades to prevent or minimize food losses and prolong storage time. This process is also named cold pasteurization. Mixed feed ingredients supplied in Russia regularly occur to be contaminated. To reduce contamination level the contaminated mixed feed ingredients samples were treated by electron beam with doses from 2 to 12 kGy. The contamination levels were decreased to the level that ensuring storage time up to 1 year.

  17. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively. PMID:28269965

  18. Determination of phosphorus fractions in animal protein ingredients.

    PubMed

    Hua, Katheline; Liu, Lijuan; Bureau, Dominique P

    2005-03-09

    Phosphorus (P) is present in different chemical compounds in animal feeds, and the solubility and digestibility of these different compounds are known to differ significantly. Animal protein ingredients generally have a high P content and are major contributors to total P of feeds for fish and other domestic animals. Estimation of different P compounds in these ingredients could help to improve the accuracy of estimates of digestible P contents of feeds. Bone P and organic P contents were quantified in 32 animal protein ingredients, including 10 fish meals, 14 meat and bone meals, and 8 poultry byproducts meals, using a fractionation protocol. The total P contents of the ingredients ranged from 2.1 to 8.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Organic P contents varied between 0.3 and 1.3% of DM. Highly significant (p < 0.001) linear relationships were observed between total P and ash and between bone P and ash for all ingredients combined: total P (%) = 0.185 x ash (%) (R (2) = 0.88), and bone P (%) = 0.188 x ash (%) - 0.852 (R (2) = 0.94). These results suggest that bone P can be easily and reliably estimated on the basis of ash content in animal protein ingredients.

  19. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively.

  20. Quantitative structure-property relationship analysis for the retention index of fragrance-like compounds on a polar stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Cristian; Duchowicz, Pablo R; Tripaldi, Piercosimo; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2015-11-27

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was developed for modeling the retention index of 1184 flavor and fragrance compounds measured using a Carbowax 20M glass capillary gas chromatography column. The 4885 molecular descriptors were calculated using Dragon software, and then were simultaneously analyzed through multivariable linear regression analysis using the replacement method (RM) variable subset selection technique. We proceeded in three steps, the first one by considering all descriptor blocks, the second one by excluding conformational descriptor blocks, and the last one by analyzing only 3D-descriptor families. The models were validated through an external test set of compounds. Cross-validation methods such as leave-one-out and leave-many-out were applied, together with Y-randomization and applicability domain analysis. The developed model was used to estimate the I of a set of 22 molecules. The results clearly suggest that 3D-descriptors do not offer relevant information for modeling the retention index, while a topological index such as the Randić-like index from reciprocal squared distance matrix has a high relevance for this purpose.

  1. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity.

  2. Specialization for pollination by beetles and wasps: the role of lollipop hairs and fragrance in Satyrium microrrhynchum (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven D; Ellis, Allan; Dötterl, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Exposed nectar presentation is a key trait in flowers specialized for pollination by short-tongued insects. We investigated the pollination of Satyrium microrrhynchum, a rare South African orchid in which nectar is secreted as droplets on long floral hairs ("lollipop hairs") at the mouth of a shallow labellum. Our observations indicate that this orchid is pollinated specifically by two insect species: a cetoniid beetle (Atrichelaphinus tigrina) and a pompilid wasp (Hemipepsis hilaris). Both insects have short mouthparts and remove nectar from the hairs with sweeping motions of their mouthparts. Pollinaria become attached to the upper surface of their heads while they feed on the nectar. Beetles damage the hairs while feeding, which may explain the positive relationship between hair damage and pollination success in plants of S. microrrhynchum from populations where beetles were common. The orchid has cryptic green-yellow flowers with spectral reflectance similar to that of its leaves. The fragrance from plants in three populations, analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, was dominated by various terpenoids; linalool was the most abundant. Plants in different populations emitted similar compounds, but eugenol and derivatives of this compound were found in only one of the three populations. In an electrophysiological study (gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography), using antennae of A. tigrina, clear signals were elicited by some of the floral scent compounds.

  3. Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Costigan, C; Singh, G; Shepherd, V; Chalkley, L; Robinson, M; Ison, R; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this we designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively. Subjects/methods: Study 1: exploratory study evaluating the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to actives like curcumin and potato protease inhibitor. Study 2: mechanistic study investigating the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways. Results: The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK. Conclusions: These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation. Improved knowledge of how to stimulate bile release using food ingredients will be useful to improve in vitro–in vivo correlation of bioavailability testing of hydrophobic drugs. It could improve performance of cholesterol-lowering plant stanol and sterol products and possibly aid understanding of some cholesterol gallstone disease. PMID:24045793

  4. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  5. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  6. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  7. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  8. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  9. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  10. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  11. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  12. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  13. 21 CFR 346.16 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 346.16 Section 346.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ingredients § 346.16 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The active ingredient of...

  14. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.

  15. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 1-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4,4-dimethyl-1-naphthyl)propan-1-one, CAS Registry Number 74499-60-8.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the target material and the suitable read across analog 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (CAS # 21145-77-7) show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (CAS # 21145-77-7) provided a MOE > 100 for the repeat dose and developmental toxicity endpoints. The reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class II material (0.009 mg/kg/day and 0.47 mg/day, respectively). Data on the target material showed that this material is below the non-reactive DST for skin sensitization and did not have the potential for phototoxicity or photoallergenicity. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.

  16. Scented traces--Dermal exposure of synthetic musk fragrances in personal care products and environmental input assessment.

    PubMed

    Homem, Vera; Silva, Eduardo; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance and fixative additives in several personal care products. Until now, little is known about their occurrence and distribution in these household commodities. However, this information is essential to perform a human dermal exposure assessment. Therefore, this study gives an overview on the levels of 12 synthetic musks in 140 personal care products from 7 different categories (body and hair wash, toilet soaps, shaving products, dentifrice products, deodorants/antiperspirants, moisturizers and perfumes). They were analysed by QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Detection limits were found between 0.01ngg(-1) (galaxolide) and 5.00ngg(-1) (musk xylene). Higher average concentrations of total synthetic musks were detected in perfumes (5245.05μgg(-1)) and shampoos (487.67μgg(-1)) for adults. Galaxolide, exaltolide and cashmeran were the most detected compounds. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 75.69μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 15.54μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for babies/children was achieved. The main contributors for adult and babies/children dermal exposure were perfumes and lotions, respectively. About 40% of the adult daily dermal exposure is related to exaltolide, 30% galaxolide, and 15% tonalide, while for babies/children 96% occurs due to exaltolide. An estimate of the amount of musks discharged "down-the-drain" into the wastewater treatment systems through the use of toiletries was also performed. An average emission per capita of 6.7mgday(-1) was determined and galaxolide and exaltolide were the predominant musks in the effluents.

  17. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  18. Metabolically active functional food ingredients for weight control.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, E M R; Mela, D J

    2006-02-01

    The scale of the obesity epidemic creates a pressing consumer need as well as an enormous business opportunity for successful development and marketing of food products with added benefits for weight control. A number of proposed functional food ingredients have been shown to act post-absorptively to influence substrate utilization or thermogenesis. Characteristics and supporting data on conjugated linoleic acid, diglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides, green tea, ephedrine, caffeine, capsaicin and calcium, are reviewed here, giving examples of how these could act to alter energy expenditure or appetite control. Consideration is also given to other factors, in addition to efficacy, which must be satisfied to get such ingredients into foods. We conclude that, for each of the safe, putatively metabolically active agents, there remain gaps in clinical evidence or knowledge of mechanisms, which need to be addressed in order to specify the dietary conditions and food product compositions where these ingredients could be of most benefit for weight control.

  19. Essential Ingredients for Successful Redesign of Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since the passage of healthcare reform, there have been many discussions about how the mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) system will need to change. Of the many components involved in a system redesign, the identification of essential ingredients is crucial to its success. In an effort to determine what essential ingredients the new MH/SUD system requires to optimally meet the needs of its customers, we convened a group of 16 multi-industrial experts who analyzed data collected from a string of 7 focus groups and 15 interviews with people dealing with or working in the SUD field. This paper summarizes the 11 essential ingredients our group identified. PMID:25243237

  20. 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in food ingredients from UK food producers and ingredient suppliers.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, C G; Jayaratne, S M; Matthews, W

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in a range of food ingredients available in the UK is reported. The survey was conducted for the Food Standards Agency to assess the progress made by manufacturers in reducing levels of 3-MCPD in food ingredients in line with the UK Food Advisory Committee's recommendation, i.e. that 3-MCPD is undetectable (i.e. < 0.010 mg kg(-1) in foods and where technologically feasible, in food ingredients as well. Sixty-three samples of food ingredients available in the UK were analysed using a validated method of analysis with a limit of quantification of 0.010 mg kg(-1). Samples included breadcrumbs, caramels, enzyme-hydrolysed vegetable proteins, gelatines, malt products (malt extracts, malt flours and other malt-based in gredients), meat extracts, modified starches, and yeast extracts. 3-MCPD was not quantified in 49 (78%) of the samples analysed. The remaining 14 samples (22%) contained levels of 3-MCPD between 0.014 and 0.488 mg kg(-1), the highest level being in a maize yellow dextrin. Malt-based ingredients accounted for the majority of samples containing 3-MCPD > 0.010 mg kg(-1), with nine of these 24 samples (38%) having quantifiable levels of 3-MCPD.

  1. A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rubin; Kong, John; Wang, Dali; Lien, Linda Lin-min; Lien, Eric Jung-chi

    2007-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1) the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2) supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects). Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, μ, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf) and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating) are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:17490493

  2. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide.

  3. Solid rocket propellant waste disposal/ingredient recovery study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of facility and operating costs of alternate methods shows open burning to be the lowest cost incineration method of waste propellant disposal. The selection, development, and implementation of an acceptable alternate is recommended. The recovery of ingredients from waste propellant has the probability of being able to pay its way, and even show a profit, when large consistent quantities of composite propellant are available. Ingredients recovered from space shuttle waste propellant would be worth over $1.5 million. Open and controlled burning are both energy wasteful.

  4. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  5. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... structure or function of the body comes within the definition of a drug in section 201(g)(1) of the act... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35 Section 700.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  6. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... structure or function of the body comes within the definition of a drug in section 201(g)(1) of the act... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35 Section 700.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. Literacy: An Essential Ingredient in the Recipe for Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The ingredients that underpin economic growth are well-known and generally accepted; population growth, physical capital, financial capital and human capital all play a part in creating long term differences in the wealth of nations. There remains, however, considerable debate about the ideal recipe for economic growth. Recently, Statistics Canada…

  8. 7 CFR 58.634 - Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  9. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG... antitussive active ingredient identified in § 341.14(a)(1) through (a)(4) provided that the product is labeled... hydrochloride in §§ 341.12(g) and 341.14(a)(6) may be both the antihistamine and the antitussive...

  10. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  12. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  15. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  16. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  17. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  18. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  19. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  20. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG... antitussive active ingredient identified in § 341.14(a)(1) through (a)(4) provided that the product is labeled... hydrochloride in §§ 341.12(g) and 341.14(a)(6) may be both the antihistamine and the antitussive...

  1. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  2. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  3. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  4. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  5. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  6. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  7. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  8. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  9. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ion; maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. for persons up to 60 years old and 100 mEq. for persons 60...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... effervescent preparation); maximum daily dosage limit 200 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons up to 60...

  10. 21 CFR 358.720 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dandruff. Salicylic acid identified in § 358.710(a)(4) may be combined with sulfur identified in § 358.710... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 358.720 Section 358.720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. Using Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Composition of Consumer Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to substances in consumer products requires data on the composition of the products. This is a challenge since product composition data are rarely available. Many products, however, provide a list of ingredients. In many cases the list is presented in descendin...

  12. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rheumatologic active ingredients. 343.13 Section 343.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular active ingredients. 343.12 Section 343.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 344.10 - Earwax removal aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earwax removal aid active ingredient. 344.10 Section 344.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... carbamide peroxide 6.5 percent formulated in an anhydrous glycerin vehicle....

  15. 21 CFR 341.20 - Nasal decongestant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal decongestant active ingredients. 341.20 Section 341.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS...

  16. 21 CFR 341.16 - Bronchodilator active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchodilator active ingredients. 341.16 Section 341.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  17. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  19. 21 CFR 341.18 - Expectorant active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expectorant active ingredient. 341.18 Section 341.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  20. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  1. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  2. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  3. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  4. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  5. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  6. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  7. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Astringent active ingredients. 347.12 Section 347.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active...

  8. TOWARD A TENTATIVE MEASUREMENT OF THE CENTRAL THERAPEUTIC INGREDIENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRUAX, CHARLES B.

    THESE RESEARCH SCALES PROVIDE CONCRETE SPECIFICATIONS, ALONG QUANTIFIED DIMENSIONS, OF THE THREE CENTRAL INGREDIENTS OF EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC ENCOUNTERS--(1) ACCURATE EMPATHY, (2) NONPOSSESSIVE WARMTH, AND (3) GENUINENESS. THE RELIABILITY OF THE SCALES WAS OBTAINED BY CORRELATING DIFFERENT RATER'S RATINGS ON THE SCALES FOR THE SAME SAMPLES OF…

  9. Fragrances and other materials in deodorants: search for potentially sensitizing molecules using combined GC-MS and structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C; Lepoittevin, J P; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P J; Menné, T; Bruze, M; Dreier, B; Andersen, K E; White, I R

    1998-12-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently-used types of cosmetics and are a source of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of 71 deodorants was performed for identification of fragrance and non-fragrance materials present in marketed deodorants. Futhermore, the sensitizing potential of these molecules was evaluated using structure activity relationships (SARs) analysis. This was based on the presence of 1 or more chemically reactive site(s), in the chemical structure, associated with sensitizing potential. Among the many different substances used to formulate cosmetic products (over 3500), 226 chemicals were identified in a sample of 71 deodorants. 84 molecules were found to contain at least 1 structural alert, and 70 to belong to, or be susceptible to being metabolized into, the chemical group of aldehydes, ketones and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, ketone or esters. The combination of GC-MS and SARs analysis could be helpful in the selection of substances for supplementary investigations regarding sensitizing properties. Thus, it may be a valuable tool in the management of contact allergy to deodorants and for producing new deodorants with decreased propensity to cause contact allergy.

  10. Full evaporation dynamic headspace in combination with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Devos, Christophe; Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2012-09-14

    Suspected fragrance allergens were determined in cosmetic products using a combination of full evaporation-dynamic headspace (FEDHS) with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional GC-MS. The full evaporation dynamic headspace approach allows the non-discriminating extraction and injection of both apolar and polar fragrance compounds, without contamination of the analytical system by high molecular weight non-volatile matrix compounds. The method can be applied to all classes of cosmetic samples, including water containing matrices such as shower gels or body creams. In combination with selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS, consisting of a dedicated heart-cutting GC-MS configuration using capillary flow technology (CFT) and low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC), a highly flexible and easy-to-use analytical solution is offered. Depending on the complexity of the perfume fraction, analyses can be performed in one-dimensional GC-MS mode or in heart-cutting two-dimensional GC-MS mode, without the need of hardware reconfiguration. The two-dimensional mode with independent temperature control of the first and second dimension column is especially useful to confirm the presence of detected allergen compounds when mass spectral deconvolution is not possible.

  11. Bioprocesses for the manufacture of ingredients for foods and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Peter S J

    2004-01-01

    This chapter describes the rapid growth in the use of biotransformation processes to manufacture food and cosmetic ingredients. Newly introduced processes include those to produce both ingredients not previously available, and also improved processes to make ingredients previously produced by chemical synthesis, fermentation or extraction from natural sources. What can we learn from what has already been achieved that will help us in the future? This question is very important because the key challenge is not just to do innovative research, but also to develop such research into cost-effective industrial scale processes that deliver products of proven utility to the end customer, and at prices that give good returns on R&D investments to the manufacturer. Therefore biotransformation R&D information is presented in the real-life context of manufacturing, IP, regulatory and safety, product costs and quality etc. Examples of new ingredients and processes are given that illustrate the great variety of ingredients produced biochemically, and the range of raw materials and enzyme reactions used to make them. These examples also illustrate how the technical advances made in developing these processes and products are inseparable from economic factors, especially production costs and functional benefits that create the demand and set the performance, cost, and quality standards for the product. Many of the key factors necessary for the translation of research into commercial successes are identified and described, as well as some special features that have helped individual processes to become successful. This review also proves that a key factor for success is management that can successfully integrate and implement the large number of different technical and commercial factors involved. The wide range of examples provided also prove that very many of the technical advances made in the field of applied biocatalysis have actually been made while developing processes for

  12. 78 FR 64937 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ....), Avda, Paret del Patriarca 11-B, Ap. 30, 46113 Moncada (Valencia) Spain. Active ingredient: Bacillus.... 30, 46113 Moncada (Valencia) Spain. Active ingredient: Bacillus subtilis strain IAB/BS03....

  13. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. Combinations containing aspirin must meet the... permitted: Aspirin identified in §§ 343.12 and 343.13 may be combined with any antacid ingredient...

  14. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. Combinations containing aspirin must meet the... permitted: Aspirin identified in §§ 343.12 and 343.13 may be combined with any antacid ingredient...

  15. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. Combinations containing aspirin must meet the... permitted: Aspirin identified in §§ 343.12 and 343.13 may be combined with any antacid ingredient...

  16. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. Combinations containing aspirin must meet the... permitted: Aspirin identified in §§ 343.12 and 343.13 may be combined with any antacid ingredient...

  17. 78 FR 75343 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received several applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any currently registered pesticide...

  18. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...

  19. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...

  20. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...

  1. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...

  2. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...

  3. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  4. Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2009-12-01

    Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.

  5. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    PubMed

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Chinese five-spice ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinyan; Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in spices were reportedly found to possess high antioxidant capacities (AOCs), which may prevent or reduce risk of human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The potential AOC of Chinese five-spice powder (consist of Szechuan pepper, fennel seed, cinnamon, star anise and clove) with varying proportion of individual spice ingredients was investigated through four standard methods. Our results suggest that clove is the major contributor to the AOC of the five-spice powder whereas the other four ingredients contribute to the flavour. For example, the total phenolic content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values increased linearly with the clove percentage in five-spice powder. This observation opens the door to use clove in other spice mixtures to increase their AOC and flavour. Moreover, linear relationships were also observed between AOC and the total phenolic content of the 32 tested spice samples.

  7. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  8. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  9. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids.

  10. Analytical methods for the determination of persistent ingredients of personal care products in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Peck, Aaron M

    2006-10-01

    Concern about the environmental fate and potential effects of synthetic organic chemicals used in soaps, lotions, toothpaste, and other personal care products continues to increase. This review describes procedures used for the analysis of five classes of these compounds-synthetic musk fragrances, antimicrobials, ultraviolet filters, insect repellents, and parabens-in water, sediment, sewage sludge, air, and aquatic biota. The primary focus is on sample extraction and preparation methods for these compounds. Instrumental methods commonly used for these compounds are also discussed.

  11. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients’ metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. Description HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski’s Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients’ targets databases). Conclusions A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/. PMID:23721660

  12. Physiological properties of milk ingredients released by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Hartung, Julia

    2013-02-01

    The demand for health-promoting food ingredients rises within an increasing market worldwide. Different milks fermented with bacteria, yeasts, moulds or enzymes from animal, plant and microbial sources offer a broad range of possibilities to cover different health aspects with new bioactive components. By the fermentation process interesting ingredients are enriched and released from the matrix, like lactoferrin, micro-nutrients, CLA and sphingolipids or synthesized, such as exo-polysaccharides and bioactive peptides. In particular, milk derived bioactive peptides exert several important health-promoting activities, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, opioid and mineral-binding properties. Milk-fermentation processes with probiotic bacteria synergistically combine health supporting bacterial and milk ingredient aspects which include new therapeutic solutions concerning hypercholesterolemia, carcinogenic intoxications, treatment of diarrhea, reduction of intestine pathogens, and supporting natural immune defense. Especially, milk-proteins and associated bioactive peptides released during microbial or enzymatic fermentation of milk offer a broad spectrum of new functional properties, for instance anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, immuno-modulatory, opioid and mineral-binding properties. This review aimed at discussing recent research activities on physiological purposes and technical process aspects of functional components from fermented milk with a specific focus on biofunctional peptides released from fermented milk proteins.

  13. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Eric

    2013-03-15

    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products.

  14. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

  15. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research. PMID:23062065

  16. Biochemical basis for functional ingredient design from fruits.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jissy K; Tiwari, Krishnaraj; Correa-Betanzo, Julieta; Misran, Azizah; Chandrasekaran, Renu; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2012-01-01

    Functional food ingredients (nutraceuticals) in fruits range from small molecular components, such as the secondary plant products, to macromolecular entities, e.g., pectin and cellulose, that provide several health benefits. In fruits, the most visible functional ingredients are the color components anthocyanins and carotenoids. In addition, several other secondary plant products, including terpenes, show health beneficial activities. A common feature of several functional ingredients is their antioxidant function. For example, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be oxidized and stabilized by flavonoid components, and the flavonoid radical can undergo electron rearrangement stabilizing the flavonoid radical. Compounds that possess an orthodihydroxy or quinone structure can interact with cellular proteins in the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway to activate the gene transcription of antioxidant enzymes. Carotenoids and flavonoids can also exert their action by modulating the signal transduction and gene expression within the cell. Recent results suggest that these activities are primarily responsible for the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  17. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The...

  18. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The...

  19. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The...

  20. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The...

  1. 21 CFR 348.10 - Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. 348.10 Section 348.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Active Ingredients § 348.10 Analgesic, anesthetic, and antipruritic active ingredients. The...

  2. Analysis of Volatile Fragrance and Flavor Compounds by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and GC-MS: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galipo, Randolph C.; Canhoto, Alfredo J.; Walla, Michael D.; Morgan, Stephen L.

    1999-02-01

    A senior-level undergraduate laboratory experiment that demonstrates the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the identification of volatile compounds in consumer products. SPME minimizes sample preparation and concentrates volatile analytes in a solvent-free manner. Volatile flavor and fragrance compounds were extracted by SPME from the headspace of vials containing shampoos, chewing gums, and perfumes and analyzed by GC-MS. Headspace SPME was shown to be more sensitive than conventional headspace analysis of similar samples performed with an airtight syringe. Analysis times were less than 30 min, allowing multiple analyses to be performed in a typical laboratory class period.

  3. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  4. Amended safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. A common name for this plant is St John wort. These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the H perforatum-derived ingredients. Because formulators may use more than 1 botanical ingredient in a formulation, caution was urged to avoid levels of toxicological concern for constituent chemicals and impurities. The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  5. Evaluation of salt whey as an ingredient in processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, R; Metzger, L E

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether salt whey, obtained from a traditional Cheddar cheese manufacturing process, could be used as an ingredient in processed cheese. Due to its high salinity level, salt whey is underutilized and leads to disposal costs. Consequently, alternative uses need to be pursued. The major components of salt whey (salt and water) are used as ingredients in processed cheese. Three replicates of pasteurized processed cheese (PC), pasteurized processed cheese food (PCF), and pasteurized processed cheese spread (PCS) were manufactured. Additionally, within each type of processed cheese, a control formula (CF) and a salt whey formula (SW) were produced. For SW, the salt and water in the CF were replaced with salt whey. The composition, functionality, and sensory properties of the CF and SW treatments were compared within each type of processed cheese. Mean melt diameter obtained for the CF and SW processed cheeses were 48.5 and 49.4 mm, respectively, for PC, and they were 61.6 and 63 mm, respectively, for PCF. Tube-melt results for PCS was 75.1 and 79.8 mm for CF and SW treatments, respectively. The mean texture profile analysis (TPA) hardness values obtained, respectively, for the CF and SW treatments were 126 N and 115 N for PC, 62 N and 60 N for PCF, and 12 N and 12 N for PCS. There were no significant differences in composition or functionality between the CF and SW within each variety of processed cheese. Consequently, salt whey can be used as an ingredient in PC without adversely affecting processed cheese quality.

  6. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  7. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  8. Heavy metals testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients: an alternate approach.

    PubMed

    Raghuram, P; Soma Raju, I V; Sriramulu, J

    2010-01-01

    The principle of the pharmacopoeial heavy metals test is detection and estimation of the metallic impurities colored by sulfide ion by comparison against lead standard. The test suffers from a loss of analytes upon ashing and from having varied responses for various metals. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for estimating 23 metals in active pharmaceutical ingredients is being proposed. The method covers the metals listed in USP, Ph. Eur and EMEA guidance on "Residues of Metal Catalysts or Metal Reagents".

  9. Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Shawn H; Dang, Thao P; Maibach, Howard I

    2007-01-01

    The rabbit external ear canal was used to define which chemicals caused comedone formation on topical application. Some of the tested ingredients are currently used in topically applied formulations. Certain raw materials have been shown to produce follicular hyperkeratosis in the rabbit ear assay. This study quantifies comedogenic potential of cosmetic materials, including: isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, decyl oleate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isocetyl stearate, myristle myristate, cocoa butter, cetyl alcohol, paraffin, stearyl alcohol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and petrolatum. The first nine were deemed positive. Factors aiding clinical relevance are listed.

  10. The functionality of plum ingredients in meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Nathan; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2015-04-01

    Dried plums (prunes) have been marketed to consumers for consumption directly from the package as a convenient snack and have been reported to have broad health benefits. Only recently have fractionated, dried plum ingredients been investigated for their functionality in food and feed products. Dried plum puree, dried plum fiber, dried plum powder, dried plum concentrate, and fresh plum concentrate have been investigated to date. They have been evaluated as fat replacers in baked goods, antioxidants in meat formulations, phosphate replacers in chicken marinades, and antimicrobials in food systems. Overall, dried plum products have been shown to be effective at reducing lipid oxidation and show promise as antimicrobials.

  11. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-04-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  13. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. PMID:24761112

  14. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  15. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  16. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  17. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  18. UV Filters, Ingredients with a Recognized Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Couteau, Céline; Chauvet, Catherine; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. Methodology/Principal Findings To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%), benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%), benzophenone-3 (83%), octocrylène and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%), PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%), octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%), octyl dimethyl PABA (75%), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%). These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. Conclusions/Significance The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value. PMID:23284607

  19. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market.

  20. Unidentified Inert Ingredients in Pesticides: Implications for Human and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Caroline; Surgan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background By statute or regulation in the United States and elsewhere, pesticide ingredients are divided into two categories: active and inert (sometimes referred to as other ingredients, adjuvants, or coformulants). Despite their name, inert ingredients may be biologically or chemically active and are labeled inert only because of their function in the formulated product. Most of the tests required to register a pesticide are performed with the active ingredient alone, not the full pesticide formulation. Inert ingredients are generally not identified on product labels and are often claimed to be confidential business information. Objectives In this commentary, we describe the shortcomings of the current procedures for assessing the hazards of pesticide formulations and demonstrate that inert ingredients can increase the toxicity of and potential exposure to pesticide formulations. Discussion Inert ingredients can increase the ability of pesticide formulations to affect significant toxicologic end points, including developmental neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and disruption of hormone function. They can also increase exposure by increasing dermal absorption, decreasing the efficacy of protective clothing, and increasing environmental mobility and persistence. Inert ingredients can increase the phytotoxicity of pesticide formulations as well as the toxicity to fish, amphibians, and microorganisms. Conclusions Pesticide registration should require full assessment of formulations. Evaluations of pesticides under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and similar statutes should include impact assessment of formulations. Environmental monitoring for pesticides should include inert ingredients. To enable independent research and risk assessment, inert ingredients should be identified on product labels. PMID:17185266

  1. Drug-drug Interaction Discovery Using Abstraction Networks for "National Drug File - Reference Terminology" Chemical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Zheng, Ling; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Zakharchenko, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology. NDF-RT provides important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles. It is difficult to comprehend large, complex terminologies like NDF-RT. In previous studies, we introduced abstraction networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies. In this paper, we introduce the Ingredient Abstraction Network to summarize NDF-RT's Chemical Ingredients and their associated drugs. Additionally, we introduce the Aggregate Ingredient Abstraction Network, for controlling the granularity of summarization provided by the Ingredient Abstraction Network. The Ingredient Abstraction Network is used to support the discovery of new candidate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) not appearing in First Databank, Inc.'s DDI knowledgebase.

  2. The THz fingerprint spectra of the active ingredients of a TCM medicine: Herba Ephedrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shihua; Liu, Guifeng; Zhang, Peng; Song, Xiyu; Ji, Te; Wang, Wenfeng

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, THz-TDS has been used to measure the spectral properties of two active ingredients of Herba Ephedrae: ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which exist in hydrochloride salts. The THz spectra of the sole-ingredient, twoingredient and three-ingredient compounds are studied. We obtained the finger-print spectra of the net active ingredients of the medicine, and also measured the mixtures of by two or three active ingredients at the different ratios. At the same time, theoretical analysis and quantitative analysis is applied to foretell the different THz spectra, identify the ingredients and infer the contents of principal components in samples. The THz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in evaluating and inspecting the quality of the drugs in the TCM field.

  3. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  4. [Analysis of volcanic-ash-based insoluble ingredients of facial cleansers].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    The substance termed "Shirasu balloons", produced by the heat treatment of volcanic silicates, is in the form of hollow glass microspheres. Recently, this substance has gained popularity as an ingredient of facial cleansers currently available in the market, because it lends a refreshing and smooth feeling after use. However, reports of eye injury after use of a facial cleanser containing a substance made from volcanic ashes are on the rise. We presumed that the shape and size of these volcanic-ash-based ingredients would be the cause of such injuries. Therefore, in this study, we first developed a method for extracting water-insoluble ingredients such as "Shirasu balloons" from the facial cleansers, and then, we examined their shapes and sizes. The insoluble ingredients extracted from the cleansers were mainly those derived from volcanic silicates. A part of the ingredients remained in the form of glass microspheres, but for the most part, the ingredients were present in various forms, such as fragments of broken glass. Some of the fragments were larger than 75 microm in length. Foreign objects having a certain hardness, shape, and size (e.g., size greater than 75 microm) can possibly cause eye injury. We further examined insoluble ingredients of facial scrubs, such as artificial mineral complexes, mud, charcoal, and polymers, except for volcanic-silicate-based ingredients. The amounts of insoluble ingredients extracted from these scrubs were small and did not have a sharp edge. Some scrubs had ingredients with particles larger than 75 microm in size, but their specific gravities were small and their hardness values were much lower than those of glass microspheres of ingredients such as "Shirasu balloons". Because the fragments of glass microspheres can possibly cause eye injury, the facial cleansers containing large insoluble ingredients derived from volcanic ashes should be avoided to use around eyes.

  5. Investigation of fragrance stability used in the formulation of cosmetic and hygienic products using headspace solid-phase microextraction by nanostructured materials followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Ghaheri, Salehe; Bouveresse, Delphine Jouan-Rimbaud; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2016-07-01

    A new composite coating of polypyrrole and sodium lauryl ether sulfate was electrochemically prepared on a stainless-steel wire using cyclic voltammetry. The application and performance of the fiber was evaluated for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of a fragrance in aqueous bleach samples followed by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry to assess the fragrance stability in this kind of household cleaning product. To obtain a stable and efficient composite coating, parameters related to the coating process such as scan rate and numbers of cycles were optimized using a central composite design. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction process such as extraction temperature and time, ionic strength, sample volume, and stirring rate were investigated by experimental design methods using Plackett-Burman and Doehlert designs. The optimum values of 53°C and 28 min for sample temperature and time, respectively, were found through response surface methodology. Results show that the combination of polypyrrole and sodium lauryl ether sulfate in a composite form presents desirable opportunities to produce new materials to study fragrance stability by headspace solid-phase microextraction.

  6. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  7. Separation of cold medicine ingredients by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Suntornsuk, L

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates the separation of cold medicine ingredients (e.g., phenylpropanolamine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine maleate, and paracetamol) by capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Factors affecting their separations were the buffer pH and the concentrations of buffer, surfactant and organic modifiers. Optimum results were obtained with a 10 mM sodium dihydrogen-phosphate-sodium tetraborate buffer containing 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5% methanol (MeOH), pH 9.0. The carrier electrolyte gave a baseline separation of phenylpropanolamine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine maleate, and paracetamol with a resolution of 1.2, and the total migration time was 11.38 min.

  8. Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-03-15

    Algae have been suggested as a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the strong development of functional foods as a method to improve or maintain health, the exploration of new compounds with real health effects is now an intense field of research. The potential use of algae as source of functional food ingredients, such as lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, phenolics, carotenoids, etc., is presented, together with the different possibilities of improving valuable metabolites production either using the tools and the knowledge provided by marine biotechnology or improving the different factors involved in the production on a large scale of such metabolites. The bio-refinery concept is also presented as a way to improve the efficient use of algae biomass while favouring process sustainability.

  9. Mass transfer ways of ultraviolet printing ink ingredients into foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Jung, T; Simat, T J; Altkofer, W

    2010-07-01

    The case of isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) showed conclusively that the ingredients of ultraviolet printing inks may migrate into packaged foodstuffs. For multilayered materials like beverage cartons, the only way that mass transfer can occur is by the so-called set-off effect. In contrast, in the case of rigid plastics like yoghurt cups, two other methods of mass transfer, permeation and gas phase, have to be considered. In cooperation with producers of ink, plastic cups and yoghurt, a project was conducted in order to elucidate the mass transfer of ink ingredients. In addition, the influence of storage time and the age of ultraviolet lamps on the migration level was examined. The suitability of 50% ethanol as a simulant for yoghurt was also tested. ITX was chosen as a model migrant, as it is easily detectable. Furthermore, the migration of two other substances, the photo-initiator 2-methyl-4'-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone (MTMP) and the amine synergist ethyl-4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDAB), which may be used in combination with ITX, was studied. Before being filled with yoghurt or 50% ethanol, the printed cups were stored under different contact conditions, with and without contact between the inner layer and the printed surfaces, in order to distinguish between the possible mass transfer ways. All analyses were performed by means of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD/FLD). It was shown that contamination with ITX and EDAB occurs via set-off and that the degree of migration increases with lamp age and storage time of the unfilled cups. Migration of MTMP was not detectable. The results show that besides the careful selection of the appropriate raw materials for printing ink, a close monitoring of the process also plays a major role in migration control. In addition, the results proved that 50% ethanol is a suitable simulant for yoghurt.

  10. Fast screening of terpenes in fragrance-free cosmetics by fluorescence quenching on a fluorescein-bovine serum albumin probe confined in a drop.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Noelia; de la Calle, Inmaculada; Bendicho, Carlos; Lavilla, Isela

    2012-03-16

    A headspace single drop microextraction procedure is proposed for terpene screening in fragrance-free cosmetics. The drop is composed by an aqueous solution of a fluorescence probe formed by bovine serum albumin and fluorescein. Extracted volatile terpenes produce a fluorescence quenching that can be monitored by microvolume-fluorospectrometry. This quenching is observed on the fluorescein fluorescence only when it is linked to bovine serum albumin. A mechanism of contact quenching is proposed. Variables related to the terpene microextraction procedure were carefully studied, namely drop composition and volume, microextraction time, sample volume and temperature, stirring rate and salt addition. The only sample treatment is the dilution of cosmetic with 40% (v/v) ethanol. Citronellol was selected as a representative terpene for calibration purposes. According to the European legislation, the probability-concentration graph of the screening system was established using 0.001% (w/w) as the cut-off level. Low limits of detection with simple instrumentation, absence of matrix effects and high sample throughput can be emphasized.

  11. Occurrence of UV filters, fragrances and organophosphate flame retardants in municipal WWTP effluents and their removal during membrane post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzeminski, P; Schwermer, C; Wennberg, A; Langford, K; Vogelsang, C

    2017-02-05

    Membrane filtration using ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was evaluated as an efficient effluent polishing step at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for the removal of selected contaminants of emerging concern and for improvement of water quality according to water reuse requirements. In samples collected at two largest WWTPs in Norway, 12 out of 14 selected personal care products and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were found above analytical detection limit. The highest concentrations were observed for BP3, OC (UV filters), HHCB, AHTN (fragrances), TCPP and TBP (OPFRs), exceeding the predicted no-effect concentration for BP3 in one sample and AHTN in five samples. Independently of the membrane type used, membrane filtration effectively (>60%) removed BP3, UV-329, OC, HHCB, AHTN and DBPP. However, UF was insufficient (<20%) for removal of DEET, TCPP and TCEP. UF was sufficient to remove 30-50% of COD, 80-95% of TP, up to 30% of TN and NH4, and a min of 2log reduction of E. coli. Water quality improved further with application of NF and RO. The results indicate that membrane filtration can be effective post-treatment to improve overall water quality and a measure to reduce potential risk in the receiving aquatic environment.

  12. Circadian Regulation of the PhCCD1 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Controls Emission of β-Ionone, a Fragrance Volatile of Petunia Flowers1

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Andrew J.; Underwood, Beverly A.; Auldridge, Michele; Loucas, Holly M.; Shibuya, Kenichi; Schmelz, Eric; Clark, David G.; Klee, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to be the precursors of terpenoid volatile compounds that contribute to flavor and aroma. One such volatile, β-ionone, is important to fragrance in many flowers, including petunia (Petunia hybrida). However, little is known about the factors regulating its synthesis in vivo. The petunia genome contains a gene encoding a 9,10(9′,10′) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, PhCCD1. The PhCCD1 is 94% identical to LeCCD1A, an enzyme responsible for formation of β-ionone in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum; Simkin AJ, Schwartz SH, Auldridge M, Taylor MG, Klee HJ [2004] Plant J [in press]). Reduction of PhCCD1 transcript levels in transgenic plants led to a 58% to 76% decrease in β-ionone synthesis in the corollas of selected petunia lines, indicating a significant role for this enzyme in volatile synthesis. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that PhCCD1 is highly expressed in corollas and leaves, where it constitutes approximately 0.04% and 0.02% of total RNA, respectively. PhCCD1 is light-inducible and exhibits a circadian rhythm in both leaves and flowers. β-Ionone emission by flowers occurred principally during daylight hours, paralleling PhCCD1 expression in corollas. The results indicate that PhCCD1 activity and β-ionone emission are likely regulated at the level of transcript. PMID:15516502

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of the aggregate dermal exposure to the sensitizing fragrance geraniol in personal care products and household cleaning agents.

    PubMed

    Nijkamp, M M; Bokkers, B G H; Bakker, M I; Ezendam, J; Delmaar, J E

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was performed to establish if consumers are at risk for being dermally sensitized by the fragrance geraniol. Aggregate dermal exposure to geraniol was estimated using the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, containing data on the use of personal care products and household cleaning agents. Consumer exposure to geraniol via personal care products appeared to be higher than via household cleaning agents. The hands were the body parts receiving the highest exposure to geraniol. Dermal sensitization studies were assessed to derive the point of departure needed for the estimation of the Acceptable Exposure Level (AEL). Two concentrations were derived, one based on human studies and the other from dose-response analysis of the available murine local lymph node assay data. The aggregate dermal exposure assessment resulted in body part specific median exposures up to 0.041 μg/cm(2) (highest exposure 102 μg/cm(2)) for hands. Comparing the exposure to the lowest AEL (55 μg/cm(2)), shows that a range of 0.02-0.86% of the population may have an aggregated exposure which exceeds the AEL. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that personal care products contribute more to the consumer's geraniol exposure compared to household cleaning agents.

  14. Metabolomics for the Authentication of Natural Extracts Used in Flavors and Fragrances: the Case Study of Violet Leaf Absolutes from Viola odorata.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lary, Laure; Roy, Céline; Paris, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Jean-François; Thomas, Olivier P; Fernandez, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Natural extracts used in fine fragrances (alcoholic perfumes) are rare and precious. As such, they represent an interesting target for fraudulent practices called adulterations. Absolutes, important materials used in the creation of perfumes, are obtained by organic solvent extraction of raw plant materials. Because the nonvolatile part of these natural extracts is not normalized and scarcely reported, highlighting potential adulterations present in this fraction appears highly challenging. For the first time, we investigated the use of nontargeted UHPLC-ToFMS metabolomics for this purpose, considering Viola odorata l., a plant largely used in the perfume industry, as a model. Significant differences in the metabolic fingerprints of the violet leaf absolutes were evidenced according to geographical locations, and/or adulterations. Additionally, markers of the geographical origin were detected through their molecular weight/most probable molecular formula and retention time, while adulterations were statistically validated. In this study, we thus clearly demonstrated the efficiency of UHPLC-ToFMS-based metabolomics in accelerating both the identification of the origin of raw materials as well as the search for potential adulterations in absolutes, natural products of high added value.

  15. Evaluation of ingredients for the development of new insensitive munitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Johnston, Lois A.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2004-12-01

    Several ingredients being considered by the U.S. Army for the development of new insensitive munitions have been examined. One set of ingredients consists of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX). In this set, the decomposition of the mixture was examined to determine whether adding DNPH to RDX would generate a sufficient quantity of gas to rupture the case of a munition prior to the onset of the rapid reaction of RDX, thus mitigating the violence of reaction. The second set of ingredients consists of three different reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX) powders manufactured by SNPE and Dyno-Nobel. In this set, the objective was to determine properties of RS-RDX powders that may distinguish them from normal RDX powder and may account for their reduced shock sensitivity. The decomposition reactions and sublimation properties of these materials were examined using two unique instruments: the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) instrument and the Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry instrument. These instruments provide the capability to examine the details of decomposition reactions in energetic materials. DNPH does not appear to be a good candidate to mitigate the violence of the RDX reaction in a munition. DNPH decomposes between 170 C and 180 C. When mixed with RDX it decomposes between 155 C and 170 C. It decomposes to form 1,3-dintrobenzene (DNB), ammonia, water and nitrogen. Of these compounds only nitrogen and ammonia are capable of generating high pressures within a munition. When DNPH is mixed with RDX, the DNB formed in the decomposition of DNPH interacts with RDX on the surface of the RDX powder leading to a higher rate of formation of CH2O and N2O. The CH2O is consumed by reaction with DNPH to form 2-methylene-1-(2,4-dintrophenyl)hydrazine. As a result, DNPH does not generate a large quantity of gas that will lead to rupture of a munition case. Another

  16. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients....

  17. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients....

  18. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients....

  19. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients....

  20. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients....

  1. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  2. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  3. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  4. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  5. 21 CFR 357.810 - Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Active ingredients for deodorant drug products for internal use. 357.810 Section 357.810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for Internal Use § 357.810 Active ingredients for deodorant...

  6. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... understanding of both the nutritional content of and ingredients contained in food offered to schools and ultimately served to students. In addition, as schools look to increase the nutritional quality of the meals... to reflect nutritional and ingredient needs of the program/students. m. The frequency with...

  7. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  8. 75 FR 7560 - Public Availability of Identities of Inert Ingredients in Pesticides; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 156 Public Availability of Identities of Inert Ingredients in Pesticides; Extension of... identities of the inert ingredients in pesticide products. Two requests for a 90-day extension of the comment... comment period on the initiation of rulemaking to increase public availability of the identities of...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients 1 Table 1 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients 1 Table 1 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients 1 Table 1 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1...

  12. Development of a Consumer Product Ingredient Database for Chemical ExposureScreening and Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in cons...

  13. 9 CFR 317.345 - Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for voluntary nutrition... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products. (a) Nutrition information on the cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat...

  14. 9 CFR 381.445 - Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for voluntary nutrition... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.445 Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products. (a) Nutrition information on the cuts of single-ingredient, raw poultry...

  15. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water...

  16. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water...

  17. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water...

  18. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... processed products labeled as “organic” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” only... labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” prohibited in agricultural...

  19. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... processed products labeled as “organic” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” only... labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” prohibited in agricultural...

  20. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water...

  1. 7 CFR 205.302 - Calculating the percentage of organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)),” or that include organic ingredients must be calculated by: (1) Dividing the total net weight (excluding water...

  2. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  3. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  4. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  5. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  6. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  7. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  8. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  9. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  10. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  11. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  12. Final report of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients derived from Zea mays (corn).

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2011-05-01

    Many cosmetic ingredients are derived from Zea mays (corn). While safety test data were not available for most ingredients, similarities in preparation and the resulting similar composition allowed extrapolation of safety data to all listed ingredients. Animal studies included acute toxicity, ocular and dermal irritation studies, and dermal sensitization studies. Clinical studies included dermal irritation and sensitization. Case reports were available for the starch as used as a donning agent in medical gloves. Studies of many other endpoints, including reproductive and developmental toxicity, use corn oil as a vehicle control with no reported adverse effects at levels used in cosmetics. While industry should continue limiting ingredient impurities such as pesticide residues before blending into a cosmetic formulation, the CIR Expert Panel determined that corn-derived ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration described in the assessment.

  13. Pesticide Risk Indicators: Unidentified Inert Ingredients Compromise Their Integrity and Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surgan, Michael; Condon, Madison; Cox, Caroline

    2010-04-01

    Pesticide Risk Indicators (PRIs) are widely used to evaluate and compare the potential health and environmental risks of pesticide use and to guide pest control policies and practices. They are applied to agricultural, landscape and structural pest management by governmental agencies, private institutions and individuals. PRIs typically assess only the potential risks associated with the active ingredients because, with few exceptions, pesticide manufacturers disclose only the identity of the active ingredients which generally comprise only a minor portion of pesticide products. We show that when inert ingredients are identified and assessed by the same process as the active ingredient, the product specific risk can be much greater than that calculated for the active ingredient alone. To maintain transparency in risk assessment, all those who develop and apply PRIs or make decisions based on their output, should clearly disclose and discuss the limitations of the method.

  14. Impurities in Drug Products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Kątny, M; Frankowski, M

    2016-09-29

    Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling. The aim of this article was to characterize the relevant classification of drug impurities and to review the methods of impurities determination for atorvastatin (ATV) and duloxetine (DLX) (both in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in different dosage forms). These drugs have an impact on two systems of the human body: cardiac and nervous. Simple characteristics of ATV and DLX, their properties and specificity of action on the human body, are also included in this review. The analyzed pharmaceuticals-ATV (brand name Lipiron) and DLX (brand name Cymbalta)-were selected for this study based on annual rankings prepared by Information Medical Statistics.

  15. Design of natural food antioxidant ingredients through a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, Jose A; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Señoráns, F Javier; Reglero, Guillermo; Capodicasa, Alessandro; Nazzaro, Filomena; Sada, Alfonso; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2010-01-27

    In the present work, an environmentally friendly extraction process using subcritical conditions has been tested to obtain potential natural food ingredients from natural sources such as plants, fruits, spirulina, propolis, and tuber, with the scope of substituting synthetic antioxidants, which are subject to regulation restrictions and might be harmful for human health. A full characterization has been undertaken from the chemical and biochemical point of view to be able to understand their mechanism of action. Thus, an analytical method for profiling the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity has been used, allowing the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in a single run. This information has been integrated and analyzed using a chemometrical approach to correlate the bioactive compounds profile with the antioxidant activity and thus to be able to predict antioxidant activities of complex formulations. As a further step, a simplex centroid mixture design has been tested to find the optimal formulation and to calculate the effect of the interaction among individual extracts in the mixture.

  16. Chemical inactivation of aflatoxins in peanut protein ingredients.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, K R

    1992-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts has posed a threat to the peanut industry in utilizing peanuts as a source of a low-cost protein ingredient for food and feed. Although the best approach to containing the aflatoxin problem in peanuts is prevention, it appears that chemical inactivation of aflatoxin in contaminated raw material provides the best means to salvaging the contaminated material. Several chemical reagents have been investigated for their efficacy in destroying aflatoxins present in raw peanuts and defatted peanut meal. Using certain oxidizing agents such as NaOCl, H2O2, and benzoyl peroxide; bases such as ammonia, methylamine, and calcium hydroxide; and aldehydes such as formaldehyde, contaminated raw peanuts or defatted peanut meal have been demonstrated to yield peanut meals, protein isolates, and concentrates having trace amounts or nondetectable levels of aflatoxins. Processing conditions for inactivating aflatoxins using these chemicals were investigated. The chemical treatments had little effect on the physiochemical properties of the detoxified protein product. The advantages and disadvantages of using these chemicals for inactivation of aflatoxins are discussed.

  17. Influence of prebiotics, probiotics and protein ingredients on mycotoxin bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M; Manyes, L; Mañes, J; Meca, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of prebiotic compounds (cellulose and inulin), food ingredients (milk whey, β-lactoglobulin and calcium caseinate) and several probiotic microorganisms on the bioaccessibility of beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENs A, A1, B, B1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) present in wheat crispy bread produced with wheat flour previously fermented with F. tricinctum, F. culmorum and G. zeae. The bioaccessibility of mycotoxins was determined by a dynamic simulated gastrointestinal digestion system, imitating the human digestive physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Mycotoxins were determined in the simulated intestinal fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). EN bioaccessibility ranged from 15.1 to 30.6%, whereas the values evidenced for BEA ranged from 12 to 19%. DON showed bioaccessibility data ranging from 0.8 to 5.6% whereas for ZEA the data evidenced ranged from 26 to 44%. The bioaccessibility reduction evidenced using probiotic microorganisms for the mycotoxins studied ranged from 21 to 27.1% for ENs, from 29 to 39.7% for DON, from 41 to 57% for ZEA and from 6.6 to 10.5% for BEA. The addition of prebiotic and bioactive microorganisms decreased the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins, with a concentration-dependent behavior, thus being a potential strategy for reducing human exposure to these minor mycotoxins.

  18. Quality investigation of hydroxyprogesterone caproate active pharmaceutical ingredient and injection

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, John L.; Jozwiakowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from com pounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit setforthe FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. PMID:22329865

  19. Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-01-01

    A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes. PMID:26516578

  20. Electrophysiological characterization of tight junctional pathway of rabbit cornea treated with ophthalmic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadahiro; Yamada, Mikiko; Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; To, Hideto; Ichikawa, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the continuous and real-time influence of ophthalmic ingredients on rabbit cornea by monitoring electrophysiological characteristics. The tight junctional permeabilities of FITC-dextran 4,400 (FD-4) was also determined through the cornea in the presence of ophthalmic ingredients. Intact cornea showed approximately one k-ohmxcm(2) of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and extremely low permeability of FD-4. The ophthalmic ingredients used in the present study were benzalkonium chloride (BK; 0.002%, 0.01%, 0.05%), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 0.5%), capric acid (C10; 0.25%), saponin (SP; 0.1%), taurocholic acid (TA; 1.0%) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 0.01%). They were previously reported to be effective on corneal penetrations of various drugs at those concentrations without severe toxicity. These ingredients decreased TEER and increased corneal permeability of FD-4. BK reduced TEER in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant correlation (gamma=0.860) between the permeability coefficient (Papp) of FD-4 and conductance (Gm), which is the reciprocal value of TEER. It was also indicated that Papp and Gm have a relationship with the corneal cytotoxicity of the ingredients. In conclusion, an electrophysiological method using isolated cornea was very useful to determine the continuous and real-time influence of ophthalmic ingredients on the cornea. In this method, electrophysiological conductance must be able to predict corneal tight junction permeability and the corneal cytotoxicity of ingredients.

  1. Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-10-01

    A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes.

  2. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  3. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  4. Ingredients for an Integrated Dinner: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In 1966, Simon and Garfunkel combined the English traditional "Scarborough Fair" with a counter melody. This is one of the manifold techniques of the Kontrapunktik described by Bach around 1745 in "The Art of the Fugue": combining completely different and seemingly independent melodies (or motifs) into a coherent piece of music, pleasant for the audience. This achievement, transposed into Computer Science, could be of great benefit for geo services as we look at the currently disparate situation: On the one hand, we have metadata - traditionally, they are understood as being small in volume, but rich in content and semantics, and flexibly queryable through the rich body of technologies established over several decades of database research, centering around query languages like SQL. On the other hand, we have data themselves, such as remote sensing and other measured and observed data sets - they are considered difficult to interpret, semantic-poor, and only for clumsy download, as they are the main constituent of what we today call Big Data. The traditional advantages of databases, such as information integration, query flexibility, and scalability seem to be unavailable. These are the melodies that require a kontrapunctic harmonization, leading to a Holy Grail where different information categories enjoy individually tailored support, while an overall integrating framework allows seamless and convenient access and processing by the user. Most of the data categories to be integrated are well known in fact: ontologies, geospatial meshes, spatiotemporal arrays, and free text constitute major ingredients in this orchestration. For many of them, isolated solutions have been presented, and for some of them (like ontologies and text) integration has been achieved already; a complete harmonic integration, though, is still lacking as of today. In our talk, we detail our vision on such integration through query models and languages which merge established concepts and novel

  5. Survival and growth of Salmonella in salsa and related ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Tauxe, Robert V; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    A large outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul associated with raw jalapeño peppers, serrano peppers, and possibly tomatoes was reported in the United States in 2008. During the outbreak, two clusters of illness investigated among restaurant patrons were significantly associated with eating salsa. Experiments were performed to determine the survival and growth characteristics of Salmonella in salsa and related major ingredients, i.e., tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cilantro. Intact and chopped vegetables and different formulations of salsas were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of Salmonella and then stored at 4, 12, and 21 degrees C for up to 7 days. Salmonella populations were monitored during storage. Salmonella did not grow, but survived on intact tomatoes and jalapeño peppers, whereas significant growth at 12 and 21 degrees C was observed on intact cilantro. In general, growth of Salmonella occurred in all chopped vegetables when stored at 12 and 21 degrees C, with chopped jalapeño peppers being the most supportive of Salmonella growth. Regardless of differences in salsa formulation, no growth of Salmonella (initial inoculation ca. 3 log CFU/g) was observed in salsa held at 4 degrees C; however, rapid or gradual decreases in Salmonella populations were only observed in formulations that contained both fresh garlic and lime juice. Salmonella grew at 12 and 21 degrees C in salsas, except for those formulations that contained both fresh garlic and lime juice, in which salmonellae were rapidly or gradually inactivated, depending on salsa formulation. These results highlight the importance of preharvest pathogen contamination control of fresh produce and proper formulation and storage of salsa.

  6. Effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients mixtures in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rey, M; Mattos, J J; Piazza, C E; Bainy, A C D; Bebianno, M J

    2014-08-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are emergent environmental contaminants widely detected in surface waters as result of incomplete waste water treatment plant (WWTP) removal processes and improper disposal. The assessment of potential effects of APIs on non-target organisms is still scarce since besides presenting multiple chemical structures, properties and modes of action, these compounds occur as complex mixtures. This study comprises a 15-day exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to mixtures (at environmentally relevant nominal concentrations) of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac (DCF) (250 ng L(-1) each) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) (75 ng L(-1)) (MIX 1) along with the addition of classical pro-oxidant copper (Cu) (5 μg L(-1)) (MIX 2). The goals included the assessment of oxidative stress, neurotoxic and endocrine effects on this sentinel species applying both a multibiomarker and gene expression (here and later gene expression is taken as synonym to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that it is also affected by, e.g. translation, and mRNA and protein stability) analysis approaches. The results revealed a swifter antioxidant response in digestive glands than in gills induced by MIX 1, nevertheless the presence of Cu in MIX 2 promoted a higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction. Neither mixture altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, while both triggered the formation of vitellogenin-like proteins in females confirming the xenoestrogenic effect of mixtures. All these results varied with respect to those obtained in previous single exposure essays. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed a catalase (CAT) and CYP4Y1 gene expression down- and upregulation, respectively, with no significant changes in mRNA levels of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Finally, this study highlights variable tissue and time-specific biomarker

  7. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  8. Standardized extract of Syzygium aqueum: a safe cosmetic ingredient.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, U D; Ling, L T; Manaharan, T; Sivapalan, V; Subramaniam, T; Helme, M H; Masilamani, T

    2011-06-01

    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry.

  9. Fully automated determination of macrocyclic musk fragrances in wastewater by microextraction by packed sorbents and large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2012-11-16

    A fully automated method has been developed for the determination of eight macrocyclic musk fragrances in urban wastewater. The procedure includes the enrichment of the analytes by microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The main factors in the MEPS technique were optimized. For all of the analytes, the highest enrichment factors were achieved when 4 mL samples were extracted by using C18 MEPS-sorbent and 50 μL of ethyl acetate were used for desorption. The eluate was directly analysed by GC-MS. Detection limits were found to be between 5 ng L(-1) and 10 ng L(-1), depending on the target analytes. In addition, under optimized conditions, the method gave good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatability in wastewater samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=3, 1,000 ng L(-1)) less than 5% and 9%, respectively. The applicability of the method was tested with wastewater samples from two influent and effluent urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The analysis of influent urban wastewater revealed the presence of most of the macrocylic musks at concentrations higher than the method quantification limits (MQLs), being the most abundant analyte ambrettolide at 9.29 μg L(-1). In addition, the analyses of effluent urban wastewater showed a decrease in the concentrations with macrocyclic musk concentrations of between not detected (n.d.) and 2.26 μg L(-1) being detected.

  10. Effects on humans elicited by inhaling the fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermometric study and forehead surface potential wave measurement on basil and peppermint.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomoko; Sugawara, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The effects on humans inhaling the fragrance of essential oils were examined in terms of a sensory test, a multi-channel skin thermometer study and a portable forehead surface electroencephalographic (IBVA-EEG) measurement. The essential oils examined in this study were those of basil and peppermint, because our previous sensory test had indicated an opposite effect of these essential oils when mental work was undertaken; the inhalation of basil produced a more favorable impression after work than before work, whereas peppermint produced an unfavorable impression under these circumstances. For subjects administered basil or peppermint before and after mental work using an inhalator, a series of multi-channel skin thermometer studies and IBVA-EEG measurements were conducted. Using such paired odorants, our results showed that when compared between before and after mental work assigned to subjects: (1) the inhalation of basil, in which a favorable impression was predominant on the whole in terms of the sensory evaluation spectrum, was shown to be associated upward tendency in finger-tip skin temperature; (2) whereas these situations were opposite in the case of peppermint, in which the reversed (unfavorable) feature in sensory profiling was accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of beta waves and a decrease in the finger-tip skin temperature both based on Welch's method, even at p < 0.01, implying a decreasing propensity of the aroused state and of the arousal response. The elucidation of such sensory and physiological endpoints of paired odorants would be of primary importance for human chemoreception science, because these are only rarely recorded during the same experiments, and this paradigm is highly informative about non-verbal responses to odorants.

  11. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD).

  12. Influence of ingredients and chemical components on the quality of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2014-11-15

    Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a staple food in China since ancient time. The basic ingredients include wheat flour, yeast/sourdough, and water. Current consumer trends urge the production of CSB on a large scale as well as the formulation of healthier CSB with specific nutritional benefits. This requires a better definition of the relationship between the properties of ingredients/chemical components and CSB quality. This review summarises the recent advances in understanding the roles of basic and optional ingredients and their chemical components in the appearance, textural, sensory, and shelf-life properties of CSB, and provides suggestions for further research to match the current trends.

  13. New developments in the analysis of fragrances and earthy-musty compounds in water by solid-phase microextraction (metal alloy fibre) coupled with gas chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Machado, S; Gonçalves, C; Cunha, E; Guimarães, A; Alpendurada, M F

    2011-05-30

    Fragrances are widespread aquatic contaminants due to their presence in many personal care products used daily in developed countries. Levels of galaxolide and tonalide are commonly found in surface waters, urban wastewaters and river sediments. On the other hand, earthy-musty compounds confer bad odour to drinking water at levels that challenge the analytical capabilities. The combined determination of earthy-musty compounds and fragrances in water would be a breakthrough to make the traditional organoleptic evaluation of the water quality stricter and safer for the analyst. Two approaches were attempted to improve the analytical capabilities: analyte pre-concentration with a newly developed PDMS-DVB solid-phase microextraction fibre on metal alloy core and sensitive detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The optimization of SPME parameters was carried out using a central composite design and desirability functions. The final optimum extraction conditions were: headspace extraction at 70°C during 40 min adding 200 g L(-1) of NaCl. The detection limits in tandem MS (0.02-20 ng L(-1)) were marginally lower compared to full scan except for geosmin and trichloroanisol which go down to 0.1 and 0.02 ng L(-1), respectively. The analysis of different water matrices revealed that fragrances and earthy-musty compounds were absent from ground- and drinking waters. Surface waters of river Leça contained levels of galaxolide around 250 ng L(-1) in the 4 terminal sampling stations, which are downstream of WWTPs and polluted tributaries. Geosmine was ubiquitously distributed in natural waters similarly in rivers Leça and Douro at concentrations <7 ng L(-1).

  14. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  15. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  16. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  17. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  18. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... official inspection legend and ingredient statement. 316.10 Section 316.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient... “ring” variety or larger shall be marked with the official inspection legend and list of ingredients...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1122 - Inert ingredients of semiochemical dispensers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inert ingredients of semiochemical... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1122 Inert ingredients of semiochemical dispensers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) All inert ingredients of...

  20. 21 CFR 358.760 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients for the control of dandruff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... control of dandruff and external analgesic active ingredients in § 358.720(b). The label states “dandruff...) Combinations of control of dandruff and external analgesic active ingredients in § 358.720(b). The labeling... control of dandruff and external analgesic active ingredients in § 358.720(b). The labeling states “...