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Sample records for aacsb international the association

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of AACSB International's 2013 Accreditation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Morgan P.; Franklin, Geralyn McClure; Grimmer, Martin; Heriot, Kirl C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of an exploratory survey designed to measure AACSB member deans' perceptions about the recently revised 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Accreditation Standards. In April of 2013, AACSB International released a major revision of its accreditation…

  2. How Project Management Tools Aid in Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International Maintenance of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Cynthia W.; Brumagim, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the case of one business college's use of project management techniques as tools for accomplishing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International maintenance of accreditation. Using these techniques provides an efficient and effective method of organizing maintenance efforts. In addition, using…

  3. Ensuring Quality in Online Courses: Applying the AACSB International's Distance Learning Quality Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the Distance Learning Quality Issues published by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB-International) to document the various characteristics that high-quality online courses must possess. A content analysis methodology was employed to examine the seven…

  4. The Effects of AACSB Accreditation on Faculty Salaries and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, David W.; Henson, Steven E.; Krieg, John M.; Wassell, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored differences between salaries and productivity of business faculty in Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)-accredited business programs and those without AACSB accreditation. Empirical evidence is scarce regarding these differences, yet understanding the impact of AACSB accreditation on salaries and…

  5. The Future of Work, Business Education, and the Role of AACSB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Dudley, Caryn L.

    2018-01-01

    In this keynote address to the Academy of Legal Studies in Business, delivered on September 8, 2017 in Savannah, Georgia, Karyn Beck-Dudley, discusses her new role as vice-chair/chair elect of Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), and the changing role of AACSB to keep pace with a rapidly changing education landscape. The…

  6. The Perfect Match: Factors That Characterize the AACSB International Initial Accreditation Host School and Mentor Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Norman A.; Scherer, Robert F.; Oliveti, Joseph J.; Mochel, Lucienne; Bryant, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Initial Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International accreditation involves a process of pairing mentor and host schools to provide guidance and feedback on the congruence of the host school with the accreditation standards. The mentor serves as the primary resource for assisting the host school in identifying gaps with the…

  7. A Checklist for Readiness Evaluation of Learning and Teaching Area of AACSB Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Bairi, Jayachandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to introduce the concept of a checklist, focusing on the detailed analysis of requirements of the AACSB International--the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards related to the learning and teaching area--for evaluation of implementation readiness in a business school setting.…

  8. Applying for Initial AACSB Accreditation: An Exploratory Study to Identify Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot, Kirk C.; Franklin, Geralyn; Austin, Walt W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors identified the type and magnitude of costs colleges and schools incur when seeking Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International accreditation. This issue is important to the 156 schools and colleges currently seeking initial accreditation by AACSB and to the thousands of schools worldwide that could seek…

  9. Deans' Perceptions of AACSB-Endorsed Post-Doctoral Bridge Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Shawn; McManis, Bruce; Breaux, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International has endorsed 5 Post-Doctoral Bridge (PDB) to Business Programs. The objective of these programs is to prepare PhDs from other academic programs for teaching and research careers in business. The authors solicited feedback from deans of AACSB-accredited business schools…

  10. Language and Culture Requirements in International Business Majors at AACSB-Accredited Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, business managers are expected to be able to function effectively in a global context. In consequence, business schools in North America, Britain, and Australasia have been urged to internationalize their curricula. The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been at the forefront of this imperative. To what…

  11. Business School Learning Goals: The Legal and Regulatory Context of Organizations in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedel, George J.

    2017-01-01

    AACSB International (the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) is the premier accrediting body for business schools. Of the thousands of business schools worldwide, fewer than five percent have met the high standards for AACSB accreditation. The latest version of AACSB's accreditation standards was adopted in 2013 and updated in…

  12. Managing Learning Experiences in an AACSB Environment: Beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruell, James; Hawkins, Al; Vicknair, David

    2009-01-01

    The study explores the development and management of a rich learning environment that extends the traditional classroom to include significant co-curricular programs. Learning enrichment is guided by the individual mission of the business school, accreditation agency (AACSB), and in our case, the Jesuit mission. That central framework provides a…

  13. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  14. Flooding the Zone: A Ten-Point Approach to Assessing Critical Thinking as Part of the AACSB Accreditation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank; Mayer, Bradley W.

    2012-01-01

    Undergoing the accreditation process of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) can be quite daunting and stressful. It requires prodigious amounts of planning, record-keeping, and document preparation. It is not something that can be thrown together at the last minute. The same is true of the five-year reaccreditation…

  15. AACSB Accreditation in China--Current Situation, Problems, and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xinrui; Gao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This paper first introduces the background of the AACSB (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) accreditation, and then analyzes the current status of the participation of Chinese business schools in AACSB accreditation. Based on the data analysis, the paper points out that there are two main problems in the Chinese business…

  16. AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or March toward Mediocrity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, William; Noland, Thomas G.; Sinclair, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is supposed to be a symbol of excellence for business schools. However, the recent increase in the number of accredited schools and the creation of AACSB's "professionally qualified" (PQ) designation for faculty raises some concern in the academic community. Why has…

  17. Managing University Business Educational Quality: ISO or AACSB?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumond, Ellen J.; Johnson, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into quality management for business education. The paper provides business schools and Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) with information about two different quality standards and suggests how the AACSB accreditation process might be strengthened--thereby…

  18. Assessment at AACSB Schools: A Survey of Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeling, Barbara M.; Miller, Donald S.; Slocombe, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to document the extent to which Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)-accredited business schools have implemented strategies to improve students' ability to achieve program learning objectives. Assessment of academic programs is increasingly important at AACSB schools. Compliance with…

  19. Achieving Globalization of AACSB Accounting Programs with Faculty-Led Study Abroad Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Heidi Hylton; Smith, Deborah Drummond

    2016-01-01

    This paper is motivated by recommendations from the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), the Pathways Commission, and NAFSA: Association of International Educators to increase global exposure in the accounting curriculum. Some schools have responded to these demands by offering short-duration, faculty-led, study abroad…

  20. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  1. Teaching Managerial Economics in MBA Programs: A Survey of AACSB Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolluri, Bharat; Singamsett, Rao

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant variation in the managerial economics course in terms of the prerequisites, contents and delivery in the MBA programs of AACSB [Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business] institutions. In order to get detailed information on these aspects, we conducted a survey of 275 AACSB institutions and reported the results.…

  2. An Organizational Performance Study of AACSB International Member Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are thought to adopt or evolve to an organizational strategy that will improve organizational effectiveness. Familiar strategies in the business world include a production strategy, low cost strategy, and market orientation strategy. In the world of higher education however organizational strategies may take a different form such as…

  3. Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Sustainability Education in AACSB Undergraduate and Graduate Marketing Curricula: A Benchmark Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Jeananne; Hair, Joseph F., Jr.; Ragland, Charles B.; Schimmel, Kurt E.

    2013-01-01

    AACSB International advocates integration of ethics, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability in all business school disciplines. This study provides an overview of the implementation of these three topics in teaching initiatives and assessment in business schools accredited by AACSB International. Since no comprehensive studies have…

  4. Assessing MBA Student Teamwork under the AACSB Assurance of Learning Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procino, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2003 release of the AACSB's Assurance of Learning standards, outcomes assessment has been a required practice for business schools wishing to receive their endorsement. While most accredited institutions had been dabbling with the measurement of student learning, the new standards raised the bar considerably. It is now necessary to…

  5. Two Years into the Journey: AACSB Assessment of Learning in a "Principles of Marketing" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Steven R.; Marco, Gayle; Chu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Using a "Principles of Marketing" course, the authors demonstrate how compliance with AACSB standards and assessment of learning has been undertaken at Robert Morris University over a two-year period. Learning goals and objectives are tied to a specific assessment instrument to provide an illustration of how broad conceptual ideas are…

  6. The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

    2008-01-01

    Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

  7. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  8. Content, Pedagogy, and Learning Outcomes in the International Marketing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Victoria L.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2005-01-01

    The early internationalization of business school curricula was in response to corporate needs and expectations, and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) fostered changes by instituting accreditation outcomes that focused upon international content in the curriculum. By the late 1990s, a course in…

  9. Research performance of AACSB accredited institutions in Taiwan: before versus after accreditation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shih-Wen; Lin, Wei-Chao; Tsai, Chih-Fong

    2016-01-01

    More and more universities are receiving accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), which is an international association for promoting quality teaching and learning at business schools. To be accredited, the schools are required to meet a number of standards ensuring that certain levels of teaching quality and students' learning are met. However, there are a variety of points of view espoused in the literature regarding the relationship between research and teaching, some studies have demonstrated that research and teaching these are complementary elements of learning, but others disagree with these findings. Unlike past such studies, we focus on analyzing the research performance of accredited schools during the period prior to and after receiving accreditation. The objective is to answer the question as to whether performance has been improved by comparing the same school's performance before and after accreditation. In this study, four AACSB accredited universities in Taiwan are analyzed, including one teaching oriented and three research oriented universities. Research performance is evaluated by comparing seven citation statistics, the number of papers published, number of citations, average number of citations per paper, average citations per year, h-index (annual), h-index, and g-index. The analysis results show that business schools demonstrated enhanced research performance after AACSB accreditation, but in most accredited schools the proportion of faculty members not actively doing research is larger than active ones. This study shows that the AACSB accreditation has a positive impact on research performance. The findings can be used as a reference for current non-accredited schools whose research goals are to improve their research productivity and quality.

  10. Customer and Market Orientation within AACSB Member Business Schools: Comparative Views from Three Levels of Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.; Rothwell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a stream of research dealing with customer and market orientation within higher education, specifically within business schools holding membership in AACSB-International. A market orientation strategy leading to a customer and market-oriented organizational culture is based upon the acceptance and adoption of the marketing…

  11. A Pillar for Successful Business School Accreditation: Conducting the Curriculum Review Process--A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, David E.; Jennings, Susan Evans; Dunn, Deborah; Fisher, Warren; Kouliavtsev, Mikhail; Rogers, Violet

    2011-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) describes their accreditation as the "hallmark of business education." According to information at BestBizSchools.com (n.d.), "AACSB accreditation represents the highest standard of achievement for business schools worldwide. Being AACSB accredited means a business…

  12. Perceptions of Online Degrees by Hiring Managers at AACSB and IACBE Accredited Schools in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Damon L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to examine the current perceptions of online graduate degrees by academic hiring managers when making hiring decisions. The population studied consisted of deans, department chairs, human resource directors, and faculty at colleges and universities with AACSB and IACBE business program…

  13. Strategic Management and Innovation: A Checklist for Readiness Evaluation of AACSB Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Bairi, Jayachandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of a checklist, focusing on the detailed analysis of the requirement of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards related to strategic management and innovation area, for evaluation of implementation readiness in a business school setting.…

  14. A Survey of Internship Programs for Management Undergraduates in AACSB-Accredited Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eyong B.; Kim, Kijoo; Bzullak, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to survey the current status of internship programs for Management undergraduate students and to introduce a well-established internship program. Design/methodology/approach: A web page analysis was conducted on 473 institutions that have AACSB (the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business)…

  15. Handbook To Facilitate Faculty Awareness of Library Resources and Services: One Library's Initial Response to the College of Business Administration's Search for AACSB Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Katherine Weeks

    Created by the College of Business Administration (COBA) and the libraries of the University of Northern Colorado, this 1988-89 handbook was part of a strategic plan to achieve initial accreditation by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). Constructed by the reference librarian who works directly with COBA, the handbook…

  16. Management Science in U.S. AACSB International-Accredited Core Undergraduate Business School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palocsay, Susan W.; Markham, Ina S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, accreditation standards were revised to require coverage of management science (MS) after previously removing it in 1991. Meanwhile, increasing awareness of the value of business analytics stimulated a renewed interest in MS. To examine its present status in undergraduate core business curricula, the authors conducted two studies to…

  17. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  18. Internationalizing the Business Curriculum: A South Korean Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Robin; Self, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Accrediting agencies for Colleges and Schools of Business such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB) and the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP) require that business programs incorporate both an international dimension and an active learning component in developing their…

  19. Comparing the Costs and Benefits of Re-Accreditation Processes. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibley, Lisa R.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    This study examined the costs and benefits of reaccredidation processes at a public research university. A case study approach was used to examining the costs and benefits of reaccredidation activities by Middle States Association (MSA), American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business-International Association for Management Education (AACSB),…

  20. Law-Based Degree Programs in Business and Their Departments: What's in a Name? (A Comprehensive Study of Undergraduate Law-Based Degrees in AACSB-Accredited Universities)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol J.; Crain, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines undergraduate law-based degree programs in the 404 U.S. universities with undergraduate degrees in business that had Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation in 2005. University Web sites were used to identify and compare law-based undergraduate programs inside business to law-related programs…

  1. Challenges and Opportunities of Business Education in Southeast Europe: The Case of a Balkan Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, William R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) concluded a 4-year, 10 million dollar contract with the University of Delaware to create the Sarajevo Graduate School of Business, the first Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business [AACSB]-accredited business school in Southeast Europe. This case study examines…

  2. AACSB Accreditation and Possible Unintended Consequences: A Deming View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanovich, Paul; Mueller, James; Benson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB accreditation process reflects basic quality principles, providing standards and a process for feedback for continuous improvement. However, implementation can lead to unintended negative consequences. The literature shows that while institutionalism and critical theory have been used as a theoretical base for evaluating accreditation,…

  3. A Study of the Database Marketing Course in AACSB-Accredited Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teer, Harold B.; Teer, Faye P.; Kruck, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings of an empirical investigation of the database marketing (DBM) course in business schools within the United States accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Results indicated that from 2001 to 2005 there was a 52.5% increase in the percentage of business schools offering an undergraduate…

  4. The Environment for Professional Interaction and Relevant Practical Experience in AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 276 of 1,128 faculty at Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited schools indicated that 231 were certified; only 96 served in professional associations; large numbers received financial support for professional activities, but only small numbers felt involvement or relevant experience (which are required for…

  5. The Medical Library Association's international fellowship programs.

    PubMed Central

    Poland, U H

    1978-01-01

    This article describes the two international fellowship programs administered by the International Cooperation Committee of the Medical Library Association: (1) the program supported by the Rockfeller Foundation from 1948 to 1963; (2) the Eileen R. Cunningham program, supported by Mrs. Cunningham's bequest to the association, from 1971 to date. Comments and suggestions received from Cunningham Fellows in response to a letter sent to each by the author in the summer of 1977 are listed. The cost of the fellowship program, not only in terms of financial support but also in terms of human resources, is documented. While the program receives enthusiastic support from the International Cooperation Committee and many members of MLA, the membership needs to examine its mission with regard to the training of medical librarians from other countries, to determine whether future funding is to be sought. PMID:708961

  6. Innovation, Engagement, and Impact Measures: Two Exploratory Studies on the Processes and Outcomes Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galperin, Bella L.; Tabak, Filiz; Kaynama, Shohreh A.; Ghannadian, F. Frank

    2017-01-01

    The authors examine the development and implementation of measures for the 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) thematic dimensions of innovation, engagement, and impact (IEI) at two AACSB-accredited business schools. Agreement exists among faculty in Study 1 that IEI should be viewed as interrelated and overlapping…

  7. Examining IS Curriculum Profiles and the IS 2010 Model Curriculum Guidelines in AACSB-Accredited Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Robert J.; Velasquez, Nicole Forsgren; Fadel, Kelly J.; Bell, Corbin C.

    2012-01-01

    The IS 2010 Model Curriculum Guidelines were developed to provide recommendations for standardized information systems curricula while simultaneously allowing for customization within individual programs. While some studies have examined program adherence to the IS 2010 Model Curriculum Guidelines, a more detailed analysis of IS curriculum…

  8. The Role of Industry Certifications in an AACSB-Accredited Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomillion, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Instructors, practitioners, and students have different goals, and as such, different perspectives on industry certifications. University and technical school programs focusing solely on certifications struggle to retain relevance and compete against boot camp certification programs; yet programs without certifications may not be serving the needs…

  9. Reflections on the Medical Library Association's international activities.

    PubMed Central

    Poland, U H

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Medical Library Association's past international activities is given with emphasis on the international fellowship program, international exchange of materials, participation in the International Federation of Library Associations, and international congresses on medical librarianship. Problems presented by cultural and educational differences, as well as governmental, political, and economic influences affecting international activities are enumerated. Lastly, continuation of the association's current international activities is endorsed, especially the extension of bilateral agreements with health sciences library associations of other countries, and increased activity in comparative medical librarianship. PMID:7150824

  10. Professional Interaction, Relevant Practical Experience, and Intellectual Contributions at Nondoctoral AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a survey of faculty members at nondoctoral AACSB-accredited accounting programs in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to determine the environment for professional interaction and relevant experience in light of institutional demands for intellectual contributions. The findings show that the…

  11. Toward a Cybersecurity Curriculum Model for Undergraduate Business Schools: A Survey of AACSB-Accredited Institutions in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Samuel C.; Wen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing demand for cybersecurity professionals, the authors examined how business schools are meeting that demand, specifically the core requirements of their cybersecurity curricula related to information systems programs. They examined 518 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business schools in the United…

  12. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Phonetic Association.

    This guide contains concise information on the International Phonetic Alphabet, a universally agreed system of notation in use for over a century, for the sounds of languages, and guidance on how to use it. The handbook replaces the previous edition, "Principles of the International Phonetic Association," which has not been revised since 1949.…

  13. As Compared to What? Characteristics of the AACSB Institutions That Utilize the Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2014-01-01

    The publishers of the Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), an assessment of learning instrument, provide a list of institutions utilizing the instrument and a table that allows for comparison of local MFT-B mean scores to those of other institutions. The absence of information regarding the comparison group's characteristics limits the validity…

  14. The Core Curricula of Information Systems Undergraduate Programs: A Survey of AACSB-Accredited Colleges in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the present state of information systems undergraduate programs in the United States. He reviewed 516 institutions and collected data on 234 institutions offering information systems (IS) undergraduate programs. Of seven core courses required by the IS 2010 curriculum model, four are required by more than 50% of the programs,…

  15. The brain commission of the international association of academies: the first international society of neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Richter, J

    2000-08-01

    International associations of scientists, set up to organize cooperative scientific investigations in an international scope and to lay down global binding standards of research, are of great and still growing importance for the advancement of science. This was also recognized at the beginning of the 20th century by the community of researchers in basic and clinical neurological sciences, who created their first international organization following the trend initiated by scholars in astronomy and geophysics. Thus, the so-called "Brain Commission" of the International Association of Academies was founded in 1903 and was active until the outbreak of the First World War. The Brain Commission had no successor for nearly half a century, until the "International Brain Research Organization" (IBRO) was founded in 1961. Although the Brain Commission could exert an impact on neurosciences only for one decade, this international scientific association inspired and promoted the foundation of a series of Brain Research Institutes, which in part still exist in Europe, and long-lasting innovations in the neurosciences.

  16. The Association For Preservation Technology International (APT)

    Science.gov Websites

    Heritage Library Introduction to Early American Masonry Conferences & Training Current Annual Conference Future Past Future/Past Conferences Other Conferences & Training APT Training & Education from the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT). Registration fee is $35 for

  17. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics: Mission, Organization, and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2017-12-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) was founded in 2012, during the 34th IGC in Brisbane (Australia), to provide a multidisciplinary platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about principles and problems of ethics as applied to the geosciences. It is a scientific, non-governmental, non-political, non-profit, non-party institution, headquartered at the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy. IAPG focuses on behaviors and practices where human activities interact with the Earth system, and deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication. Its goal is to enhance awareness of the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities such as geoeducation, sustainability, and risk prevention. IAPG is a legally recognized non-profit association with members in 115 countries on 5 continents, and currently has 26 national sections. As of the date of this abstract, IAPG has been involved with approximately 70 international meetings (scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, expositions, etc.). Other activities range from exchanging information with newsletters, blogs, social networks and publications; promoting the creation of working groups and encouraging the participation of geoscientists within universities and professional associations for the development of geoethics themes; and cooperating with national and international organizations whose aims are complementary, e.g., International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), Geological Society of London (GSL), Geoscience Information in Africa - Network (GIRAF), American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Association of Environmental & Engineering

  18. A Brief Background of the ICA (International Communication Association) Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivonos, Paul D.

    This paper examines the International Communication Association (ICA) audit, the aim of which is to establish an integrated communication audit system and a multimethod approach to the auditing of the communication of an organization. Many of an organization's communication variables and concepts are examined so that strengths and weaknesses in…

  19. Progress report to the International Fruit Tree Association

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report provides an update on several projects that are fostered by the International Fruit Tree Association which covers some aspects of rootstock development, performance in the orchard and to address nursery industry needs. The report highlights results from graft union strength experiments,...

  20. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  1. The International Mycological Association: its history in brief with summaries of its International Mycological Congresses and diverse international relationships.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Emory G

    2010-06-01

    This history presents a review of International Mycological Association activities, its international congresses, and its relationships with regional mycological associations as well as with international organizations of other scientific disciplines. The IMA was organized in 1971 during the First Mycological Congress (IMC-1) convened at Exeter, U.K. In the period 1971 to 2010, nine international congresses have been held, each with its own organizational structure but under the guidance of one of the successive inter-Congress management groups of IMA officers and executive committee members. The congress list includes Exeter, U.K.; Tampa, U.S.A.; Tokyo, Japan; Regensburg, Germany; Vancouver, Canada; Jerusalem, Israel; Oslo, Norway; Cairns, Australia; and Edinburgh, Scotland. Inter-congress activities of each IMA executive group are summarized. The characteristics of each congress are surveyed as to organization, programming, attendance numbers, finances, and satellite meetings.The IMA has sponsored the establishment of Regional Mycological Associations beginning in 1977 and has lent operational funding. Regional associations currently are functional and hold their own regional congresses in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, and Latin America. The relationships of the IMA with other organizations recognized within the supra-national International Council of Scientific Unions are discussed.

  2. Working for Change across International Borders: The Association of Headmistresses and Education for International Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to the retrieval of the "lost history" of interwar internationalism that is increasingly receiving attention from historians of education. It traces the involvement of the English Association of Headmistresses (AHM) in a range of organizations that networked women educationists with women's organizations, with…

  3. The Forum of the International HCH and Pesticides Association--a platform for international cooperation.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, John; Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable life cycle management of pesticides in the last 60 years has created large pesticide stockpiles. The two major working areas of the International HCH and Pesticide Association (IHPA; www.ihpa.info ) address a part of these legacies and are shortly introduced here: (1) The assessment and support of the management of the worlds single largest POPs stockpile: the globally dumped 4 to 7 million tonnes hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) wastes from lindane production, and (2) the support for the management of the obsolete pesticides legacy in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries of ~240,000 t, leaving these pesticides in unregulated storages without adequate safety control being a huge risk to the environment and human health. The integrative approach IHPA takes-promoting international cooperation and the exchange of knowledge and experiences-is shortly explained. IHPA has developed various supporting tools for its work: the IHPA web page and newsletter informing on the threats and challenges, but also on the progresses of managing pesticide stockpiles; the joint GIZ-PAN-IHPA exhibition on awareness of the pesticide stockpile challenge; and the 'International HCH and Pesticides Forum' as most important tool to progress the integrative work and mission of IHPA. Finally, a summary of the 11th International HCH and Pesticides Forum held in Gabala, Azerbaijan is given which brought together more than 120 scientists, policy-makers, non-governmental and international organisations, industry and students from more than 40 countries to progress the obsolete pesticides and hazardous chemical waste challenge in EECCA countries. The event finished with adoption of 'Gabala Declaration', which aims to mobilise efforts of all stakeholders for prevention and elimination of POPs, obsolete pesticides, and hazardous chemical waste in the region.

  4. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  5. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 32nd Annual Report 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    After a general outline of the organization of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience and a brief introduction to its functions and activities, this annual report contains the international report. This includes: the report of the General Secretary; a list of international visits and visitors; publicity…

  6. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 34th Annual Report 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    The 1981 annual report of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE) is presented. IAESTE seeks to provide students at institutions of higher education with technical experience abroad relative to their studies and to promote international understanding among all students. An international report…

  7. The Expansion of Higher Education. Papers of the International Association of Universities. No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Universities, Paris (France).

    Papers are presented from a conference of the International Association of Universities concerning the expansion of higher education. The contents are as follows: Foreword by J. Baugniet, International Association of Universities; "The Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil," by Rev. A. Alonso, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de…

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Association between Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature consistently shows an association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems in girls. The association for boys is less clear. The present study examines genetic and environmental influences on the association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems for boys and girls in two primarily Caucasian adolescent…

  9. Factors Associated with Intern Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Vidyarthi, Arpana R.; Baron, Robert B.; Katz, Patricia P.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Prior data suggest that fatigue adversely affects patient safety and resident well-being. ACGME duty hour limitations were intended, in part, to reduce resident fatigue, but the factors that affect intern fatigue are unknown. OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with intern fatigue following implementation of duty hour limitations. DESIGN Cross-sectional confidential survey of validated questions related to fatigue, sleep, and stress, as well as author-developed teamwork questions. SUBJECTS Interns in cognitive specialties at the University of California, San Francisco. MEASUREMENTS Univariate statistics characterized the distribution of responses. Pearson correlations elucidated bivariate relationships between fatigue and other variables. Multivariate linear regression models identified factors independently associated with fatigue, sleep, and stress. RESULTS Of 111 eligible interns, 66 responded (59%). In a regression analysis including gender, hours worked in the previous week, sleep quality, perceived stress, and teamwork, only poorer quality of sleep and greater perceived stress were significantly associated with fatigue (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). To identify factors that may affect sleep, specifically duty hours and stress, a secondary model was constructed. Only greater perceived stress was significantly associated with diminished sleep quality (p = 0.04), and only poorer teamwork was significantly associated with perceived stress (p < 0.001). Working >80 h was not significantly associated with perceived stress, quality of sleep, or fatigue. CONCLUSIONS Simply decreasing the number of duty hours may be insufficient to reduce intern fatigue. Residency programs may need to incorporate programmatic changes to reduce stress, improve sleep quality, and foster teamwork in order to decrease intern fatigue and its deleterious consequences. PMID:18807096

  10. Factors associated with intern fatigue.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Lindsay D; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Baron, Robert B; Katz, Patricia P

    2008-12-01

    Prior data suggest that fatigue adversely affects patient safety and resident well-being. ACGME duty hour limitations were intended, in part, to reduce resident fatigue, but the factors that affect intern fatigue are unknown. To identify factors associated with intern fatigue following implementation of duty hour limitations. Cross-sectional confidential survey of validated questions related to fatigue, sleep, and stress, as well as author-developed teamwork questions. Interns in cognitive specialties at the University of California, San Francisco. Univariate statistics characterized the distribution of responses. Pearson correlations elucidated bivariate relationships between fatigue and other variables. Multivariate linear regression models identified factors independently associated with fatigue, sleep, and stress. Of 111 eligible interns, 66 responded (59%). In a regression analysis including gender, hours worked in the previous week, sleep quality, perceived stress, and teamwork, only poorer quality of sleep and greater perceived stress were significantly associated with fatigue (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). To identify factors that may affect sleep, specifically duty hours and stress, a secondary model was constructed. Only greater perceived stress was significantly associated with diminished sleep quality (p = 0.04), and only poorer teamwork was significantly associated with perceived stress (p < 0.001). Working >80 h was not significantly associated with perceived stress, quality of sleep, or fatigue. Simply decreasing the number of duty hours may be insufficient to reduce intern fatigue. Residency programs may need to incorporate programmatic changes to reduce stress, improve sleep quality, and foster teamwork in order to decrease intern fatigue and its deleterious consequences.

  11. Standardized Testing for Outcome Assessment: Analysis of the Educational Testing Systems MBA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of standardized tests for outcome assessment has grown dramatically in recent years. Two driving factors have been the No Child Left Behind legislation, and the increase in outcome assessment measures by accrediting agencies such as AACSB, the international accrediting body for business schools. Despite the growth in usage, little effort…

  12. Report of the Task Force on Testing Standards (TFTS) to the International Language Testing Association (ILTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Language Testing Association.

    The Task Force on Testing Standards (TFTS) of the International Language Testing Association was charged to produce a report of an international survey of language assessment standards, to provide for exchange of information on standards and for development of a code of practice. Contact with individuals in both language testing and the broader…

  13. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Implementation of a Course Design Using Online Curricular Tools for Assurance of Learning at a Small Private AACSB School of Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fratto, Victoria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if the use of online curricular tools as a pedagogical supplement to an introductory accounting course would improve student accounting knowledge as compared to traditional teaching methodology. The curricular model employed course-embedded online assessments and tools that were designed to assist an accounting…

  15. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female anorectal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Abdul H; Monga, Ash; Lee, Joseph; Emmanuel, Anton; Norton, Christine; Santoro, Giulio; Hull, Tracy; Berghmans, Bary; Brody, Stuart; Haylen, Bernard T

    2017-01-01

    The terminology for anorectal dysfunction in women has long been in need of a specific clinically-based Consensus Report. This Report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted on Committee by experts in their fields to form a Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Female Anorectal Terminology. Appropriate core clinical categories and sub classifications were developed to give an alphanumeric coding to each definition. An extensive process of twenty rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A Terminology Report for anorectal dysfunction, encompassing over 130 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based with the most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Female-specific anorectal investigations and imaging (ultrasound, radiology and MRI) has been included whilst appropriate figures have been included to supplement and help clarify the text. Interval review (5-10 years) is anticipated to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based Terminology Report for female anorectal dysfunction terminology has been produced aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:10-34, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and The International Urogynecological Association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and The International Urogynecological Association.

  16. Disentangling the Associations between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits: A Community Based Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Happe, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Internalizing difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the underlying cause of this comorbidity. It is also unclear which types of autistic-like and internalizing difficulties are most strongly associated. The current study investigated the phenotypic and etiological associations…

  17. The Association of Parental Depressive Symptoms with Child Internalizing Problems: The Role of Parental Guilt Induction

    PubMed Central

    Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; Haker, Kelly; McKee, Laura G.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Potts, Jennifer; Hardcastle, Emily; Roberts, Lorinda; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on prior research by Rakow et al. (2009) by examining the role of parental guilt induction in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child internalizing problems in a sample of parents with a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred and two families with 129 children (66 males; Mage = 11.42 years) were studied. The association of parental depressive symptoms with child internalizing problems was accounted for by parental guilt induction, which was assessed by behavioral observations and child report. Implications of the findings for parenting programs are discussed and future research directions are considered. PMID:21355654

  18. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  19. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013. The Mobile Learning 2013 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  20. Shaping Institutional Environments: The Process of Becoming Legitimate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Edith A.; Wilbur, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Scott and Meyer (1991) suggest that individual organizations must conform to elaborate rules and institutional scripts to achieve legitimacy. In the case of the College of Business at Potential University (pseudonym), legitimacy was accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). This case study used Benson's…

  1. The association of students requiring remediation in the internal medicine clerkship with poor performance during internship.

    PubMed

    Hemann, Brian A; Durning, Steven J; Kelly, William F; Dong, Ting; Pangaro, Louis N; Hemmer, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the Uniformed Services University (USU) system of workplace performance assessment for students in the internal medicine clerkship at the USU continues to be a sensitive predictor of subsequent poor performance during internship, when compared with assessments in other USU third year clerkships. Utilizing Program Director survey results from 2007 through 2011 and U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3 examination results as the outcomes of interest, we compared performance during internship for students who had less than passing performance in the internal medicine clerkship and required remediation, against students whose performance in the internal medicine clerkship was successful. We further analyzed internship ratings for students who received less than passing grades during the same time period on other third year clerkships such as general surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine, and psychiatry to evaluate whether poor performance on other individual clerkships were associated with future poor performance at the internship level. Results for this recent cohort of graduates were compared with previously published findings. The overall survey response rate for this 5 year cohort was 81% (689/853). Students who received a less than passing grade in the internal medicine clerkship and required further remediation were 4.5 times more likely to be given poor ratings in the domain of medical expertise and 18.7 times more likely to demonstrate poor professionalism during internship. Further, students requiring internal medicine remediation were 8.5 times more likely to fail USMLE Step 3. No other individual clerkship showed any statistically significant associations with performance at the intern level. On the other hand, 40% of students who successfully remediated and did graduate were not identified during internship as having poor performance. Unsuccessful clinical performance which requires remediation in

  2. "Less Success than Meets the Eye?" The Impact of Master of Business Administration Education on Graduates' Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Hill, Inga B.

    2006-01-01

    Some negative rumblings about Master of Business Administration (MBA) education have lately been circulating among business journals and magazines. To test the validity of such rumblings, the authors surveyed 309 graduates who obtained MBAs between 1996 and 2002 from an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)…

  3. Behind the Curtain of the Beauty Pageant: An Investigation of U.S. News Undergraduate Business Program Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The undergraduate business program rankings in USNWR are based solely on peer assessments from deans and associate deans of AACSB accredited U.S. business schools. Often these reputation-based rankings are discounted and likened to a beauty pageant because the process lacks transparent input data. In this study, ten deans and ten associate…

  4. Facilitating Cross-Cultural Management Education through Global Faculty Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon K.; Kvedaraviciene, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    According to the AACSB International (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2011), the next big transformational wave to hit business schools is globalization. Globalizing the faculty is one strategy for enhancing the globalization of business schools and using global faculty exchanges is one method to…

  5. Next Waves in the Evolution of Management Education: Non-Traded Enterprises and Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The last generation in management education identified and addressed two perceived gaps in standard degree curricula: global business and corporate ethics. The Association for Advancement of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in assuring these topics receive due attention. Given the current state of management education…

  6. Experiencing Adventure Education Internationally: What in the World Is the Wilderness Education Association Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The Wilderness Education Association (WEA) is increasingly offering more international courses (Williams, 2007). Recent examples of such courses have included courses operating in Taiwan, Japan, New Zealand, Romania, and East Africa. This article compares the ethnographic data resulting from a recent 14 day Wilderness Stewardship Course in Taiwan…

  7. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) / International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

    PubMed

    Haylen, Bernard T; Maher, Christopher F; Barber, Matthew D; Camargo, Sérgio; Dandolu, Vani; Digesu, Alex; Goldman, Howard B; Huser, Martin; Milani, Alfredo L; Moran, Paul A; Schaer, Gabriel N; Withagen, Mariëlla I J

    2016-02-01

    The terminology for female pelvic floor prolapse (POP) should be defined and organized in a clinically-based consensus Report. This Report combines the input of members of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by external referees. Appropriate core clinical categories and a sub-classification were developed to give a coding to definitions. An extensive process of fourteen rounds of internal and external review was involved to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A Terminology Report for female POP, encompassing over 230 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically-based with the most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction and POP. Female-specific imaging (ultrasound, radiology and MRI) and conservative and surgical managements are major additions and appropriate figures have been included to supplement and clarify the text. Emerging concepts and measurements, in use in the literature and offering further research potential, but requiring further validation, have been included as an appendix. Interval (5-10 year) review is anticipated to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based Terminology Report for female POP has been produced to aid clinical practice and research.

  8. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female anorectal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Abdul H; Monga, Ash; Lee, Joseph; Emmanuel, Anton; Norton, Christine; Santoro, Giulio; Hull, Tracy; Berghmans, Bary; Brody, Stuart; Haylen, Bernard T

    2017-01-01

    The terminology for anorectal dysfunction in women has long been in need of a specific clinically-based Consensus Report. This Report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted on Committee by experts in their fields to form a Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Female Anorectal Terminology. Appropriate core clinical categories and sub classifications were developed to give an alphanumeric coding to each definition. An extensive process of twenty rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A Terminology Report for anorectal dysfunction, encompassing over 130 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based with the most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Female-specific anorectal investigations and imaging (ultrasound, radiology and MRI) has been included whilst appropriate figures have been included to supplement and help clarify the text. Interval review (5-10 years) is anticipated to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based Terminology Report for female anorectal dysfunction terminology has been produced aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research.

  9. Tenure's Impact: Male versus Female Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premeaux, Shane R.; Mondy, R. Wayne

    2002-01-01

    The attitudes of male and female university professors at AACSB (The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) International accredited business schools differ substantially regarding certain aspects of traditional tenure. This survey of 1,306 professors at 307 AACSB International accredited schools in 48 states and Canada examines a…

  10. The Glass Door Remains Closed: Another Look at Gender Inequality in Undergraduate Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laura Marini; Geyfman, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated women's underrepresentation in undergraduate business schools by analyzing a broad sample of Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)--accredited U.S. business programs between 2003 and 2011. They found that while there was an increase in the number of male students enrolled in the…

  11. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Colorado and graduated with a B.S. in finance. Latest News & Announcements Search Our Site About WDA ... Help Donate Volunteer Shop Online Search the Internet Corporate Sponsorship Marketplace Copyright © 1978 - 2017 The Wilson Disease ...

  12. Sociodemographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by sociodemographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested the moderating effects of sociodemographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-reported total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002 and 2003, adults from 9 countries (N = 10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short), perceived environment, and sociodemographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting (a) high PA levels and (b) minimum PA guidelines. Logistic models tested environment by sociodemographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction P < .05), with inverse associations found only among the high education group and men. Education and gender also moderated associations of safety from crime and the presence of transit stops with meeting minimum PA guidelines (interaction P < .05), with positive associations found for safety from crime only among women and presence of transit stops only among men and the high education group. The limited number of moderating effects found provides support for population-wide environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA and maintain environmental sustainability.

  13. Does Competence Mediate the Associations between Puberty and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Hillman, Jennifer, B.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine separate mediational models linking a) menarcheal status or b) pubertal timing to internalizing and externalizing problems through competence. Method Cross-sectional analyses of 262 adolescent girls (11–17 years; M=14.93, SD=2.17) enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the association of psychological functioning and smoking with reproductive and bone health. Measures of menarcheal status (pre/post), pubertal timing (early, on-time, or late), internalizing and externalizing behavior, and perceived competence (parent and adolescent report) were obtained. Structural Equation Modeling was used for analyses. Results Perceived competence was found to fully mediate the association between menarcheal status and parent report of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent report, there was a full mediation effect for internalizing problems but a partial mediation effect for externalizing problems. Being menarcheal was related to lower competence which was related to higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Models including pubertal timing were not significant. Conclusions Perceived competence is important in understanding the associations between menarcheal status and internalizing and externalizing problems. Interventions targeting competence, particularly in post-menarcheal girls, may reduce or prevent problem behaviors. PMID:21939864

  14. Does competence mediate the associations between puberty and internalizing or externalizing problems in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Hillman, Jennifer B; Dorn, Lorah D

    2011-10-01

    To examine separate mediational models linking (a) menarcheal status or (b) pubertal timing to internalizing and externalizing problems through competence. This study involved cross-sectional analyses of 262 adolescent girls (age: 11-17 years; mean = 14.93, standard deviation = 2.17) enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the association of psychological functioning and smoking with reproductive and bone health. Measures of menarcheal status (pre/post), pubertal timing (early, on-time, or late), internalizing and externalizing behavior, and perceived competence (parent and adolescent report) were obtained. Structural equation modeling was used for analyses. Perceived competence was found to fully mediate the association between menarcheal status and parent report of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent report, there was a full mediation effect for internalizing problems but a partial mediation effect for externalizing problems. Being menarcheal was related to lower competence, which was in turn related to higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Models including pubertal timing were not significant. Perceived competence is important in understanding the associations between menarcheal status and internalizing and externalizing problems. Interventions targeting competence, particularly in postmenarcheal girls, may reduce or prevent problem behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Bailey, Jon S.; Dorsey, Michael F.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M.; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called "restraint" and "seclusion." Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the…

  16. The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Aitken, H; O'Sullivan, E

    2007-12-01

    The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland was established over 30 years ago to assist anaesthetists working in developing countries. The committee has attempted to make an impact through distribution of educational materials, supporting training courses and investing in a number of small equipment projects. In 2005, the Overseas Anaesthesia Fund was set up to allow members to donate directly to support our work.

  17. An NSTA Position Statement: International Science Education and the National Science Teachers Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) encourages and promotes international science education because it has the ability to improve the teaching and learning of science, as well as to "empower people, improve their quality of life, and increase their capacity to participate in the decision-making processes leading to social, cultural,…

  18. Improving Public Education through Comprehensive School Reform: An Issue Brief from the International Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program is a new initiative that could affect International Reading Association members in the United States--but will benefit only those who take advantage of it. The purpose of the CSR initiative is to provide financial incentives for schools to develop comprehensive school reforms. Funding is available to…

  19. A Report on the Peace Education Commission Program, International Peace Research Association Conference 2010, Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    From July 6th to 10th, 2010, International Peace Research Association (IPRA) held its biennial conference at the University of Sydney in Australia. Hosted by the University's Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies and coordinated by Jake Lynch and a team of dedicated staff and volunteers, the conference featured seven plenary panels and many…

  20. The Associations among Sibling and Peer-Bullying, Social Support and Internalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Samantha; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Klossing, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peer bullying is associated with internalizing problems for children and adolescents. However, less is known about how these same behaviors are related to student well-being when they occur within the context of the sibling relationship and how supportive behavior may benefit those experiencing bullying. Objective: The purpose of this…

  1. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  2. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  3. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Madeira, Portugal, July 1-4, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2016, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, 1-3 July, 2016. This conference is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2016, 1-4 July. The e-Learning (EL) 2016 conference aims…

  4. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (12th, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2016, which was organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016. The Mobile Learning 2016 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  5. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (13th, Budapest, Hungary, April 10-12, 2017)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 13th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2017, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), in Budapest, Hungary, April 10-12, 2017. The Mobile Learning 2017 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and…

  6. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  7. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on E-Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, July 20-22, 2017)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.; Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2017, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, 20-22 July, 2017. This conference is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2017, 20-23 July, which had a total of 652 submissions.…

  8. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Educational Technologies (5th, Sydney, Australia, December 11-13, 2017)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.; Hol, Ana, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 5th International Conference on Educational Technologies 2017 (ICEduTech 2017), which has been organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and co-organised by the Western Sydney University, held in Sydney, Australia, 11-13 December 2017. ICEduTech is…

  9. Outreach Programmes for Education and Training: Contributions from the International Cartographic Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, W. E.; Fairbairn, D.

    2012-07-01

    Organisations like the International Cartographic Association champion programmes that develop and deliver education and training to cartographers and geospatial scientists, globally. This can be in the form of traditional university and training college programmes, short courses for professional and technical members of mapping agencies and as outreach initiatives to transfer knowledge about the discipline and its contemporary practices. Through its international community, the ICA undertakes the transfer of knowledge about cartography and GI Science by publishing books and special editions of journals and running workshops. Colleagues from the ICA community conduct these workshops on a volunteer basis, generally with the support of the national member organisation of ICA or the national mapping body. For example, the ICA promotes the generation of extensive publications, generally through its Commissions and Working Groups. The publications include books, journals and the ICA Newsletter. Outreach activities are especially pertinent to up skill colleagues from developing countries. Specialist programmes can be offered for professional and 'everyday' map users (from adults to children). The ICA can assist with its current programmes, designed to embrace professional and non-professional cartographers alike. This paper will address how education and outreach programmes can be supported by international associations, by offering programmes independently, or in partnership with sister associations and national and regional organisations and societies. As well, the paper will address the need to deliver education and outreach programmes not to just the professional international community, but also to map users and citizen map publishers.

  10. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  11. Baby massage classes and the work of the International Association of Infant Massage.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R

    2001-02-01

    This article describes the role of the International Association of Infant Massage (IAIM) in promoting the importance of touch for the developing relationship between the parents and infants. Infants are unique personalities and it is important that the parent learns how to respond appropriately to the infant's needs. Infant massage classes can demonstrate and promote interaction with infants using eye-to-eye contact, recognizing infant cues, talking and singing, and responding in a loving and sensitive manner. The photographs are of an infant massage class held recently in Leicestershire.

  12. Technology assessment network building: The International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.; Andersen, J.

    1996-01-01

    With the globalization of trade and the increased understanding of transboundary problems such as global climate change, the need for understanding the consequences of technological change has never been higher. Institutional arrangements necessary to assess these changes and make decision makers aware of the consequences have not necessarily adapted to these world conditions. In response to this leading technology assessment and forecasting institutions formed an international association of technology assessment and forecasting institutions to assist in the diffusion of technology assessment in the decision-making process. This paper discusses the origins of the International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutionsmore » (IATAFI) and the goals and the vision for the organization. The articles cited represent some of the topics discussed at the first IATAFI conference in Bergen, Norway in May 1994.« less

  13. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Helen; Fox, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease.

  14. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. Contribution of IADR This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. Conclusions IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease. PMID:26391001

  15. The global pediatric nephrology workforce: a survey of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Dorey; Ocegueda, Sophie; Nazareth, Meaghan; Zhong, Yi; Weinstein, Adam; Primack, William; Cochat, Pierre; Ferris, Maria

    2016-07-15

    The global pediatric nephrology workforce is poorly characterized. The objectives of our study were to assess pediatric nephrologists' perceptions of the adequacy of the pediatric nephrology workforce, and understand regional challenges to fellow recruitment and job acquisition. Perceptions regarding optimal length of training and research requirements were also queried. A 17-question web-based survey comprised of 14 close-ended and 3 open-ended questions was e-mailed to members of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. We received 341 responses from members of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association from 71 countries. There was a high degree of overall perceived workforce inadequacy with 67 % of all respondents reporting some degree of shortage. Perceived workforce shortage ranged from 20 % in Australia/New Zealand to 100 % in Africa. Respondents from Africa (25 %) and North America (22.4 %) reported the greatest difficulty recruiting fellows. Respondents from Australia/New Zealand (53.3 %) and Latin America (31.3 %) reported the greatest perceived difficulty finding jobs as pediatric nephrologists after training. Low trainee interest, low salary, lack of government or institutional support, and few available jobs in pediatric nephrology were the most frequently reported obstacles to fellow recruitment and job availability. Globally, there is a high level of perceived inadequacy in the pediatric nephrology workforce. Regional variability exists in perceived workforce adequacy, ease of recruitment, and job acquisition. Interventions to improve recruitment targeted to specific regional barriers are suggested.

  16. Interpersonal Mechanisms Contributing to the Association between HIV-Related Internalized Stigma and Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Helms, C. Blake; Turan, Janet M.; Atkins, Ghislaine; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Clay, Olivio J.; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that persons living with HIV (PLWH) sometimes internalize HIV-related stigma existing in the community and experience feelings of inferiority and shame due to their HIV status, which can have negative consequences for treatment adherence. PLWH’s interpersonal concerns about how their HIV status may affect the security of their existing relationships may help explain how internalized stigma affects adherence behaviors. In a cross-sectional study conducted between March 2013 and January 2015 in Birmingham, AL, 180 PLWH recruited from an outpatient HIV clinic completed previously validated measures of internalized stigma, attachment styles, and concern about being seen while taking HIV medication. Participants also self-reported their HIV medication adherence. Higher levels of HIV-related internalized stigma, attachment-related anxiety (i.e., fear of abandonment by relationship partners), and concerns about being seen by others while taking HIV medication were all associated with worse medication adherence. The effect of HIV-related internalized stigma on medication adherence was mediated by attachment-related anxiety and by concerns about being seen by others while taking HIV medication. Given that medication adherence is vitally important for PLWH to achieve long-term positive health outcomes, understanding interpersonal factors affecting medication adherence is crucial. Interventions aimed at improving HIV treatment adherence should address interpersonal factors as well as intrapersonal factors. PMID:26864692

  17. Geography and International Knowledge. A Report of the Committee on Geography and International Studies of the Association of American Geographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC.

    This report illustrates how geography can play an important role in improving America's performance in international matters. The degree of interdependence among nations intensifies daily. Today world interaction affects everyone. For example, a frost in Brazil raises coffee prices in the United States and a strike in Africa's Copperbelt affects…

  18. Teaching of the International Component in the Introductory Marketing Course: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Robert; Koernig, Stephen K.; Greene, Scott

    2004-01-01

    For almost three decades, the AACSB and business leaders have sought increased emphasis on internationalizing students' perspectives. Recent studies demonstrate mixed results in the extent to which business schools have globalized their curricula. With decreasing student interest in the marketing major, Introductory Marketing emerges as a critical…

  19. RECALMIN: The association between management of Spanish National Health Service Internal Medical Units and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio; Javier Elola-Somoza, Francisco; Casariego-Vales, Emilio; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Bernal, José Luis; Barba-Martín, Raquel

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between management of Internal Medical Units (IMUs) with outcomes (mortality and length of stay) within the Spanish National Health Service. Data on management were obtained from a descriptive transversal study performed among IMUs of the acute hospitals. Outcome indicators were taken from an administrative database of all hospital discharges from the IMUs. Spanish National Health Service. One hundred and twenty-four acute general hospitals with available data of management and outcomes (401 424 discharges). IMU risk standardized mortality rates were calculated using a multilevel model adjusted by Charlson Index. Risk standardized myocardial infarction and heart failure mortality rates were calculated using specific multilevel models. Length of stay was adjusted by complexity. Greater hospital complexity was associated with longer average length of stays (r: 0.42; P < 0.001). Crude in-hospital mortality rates were higher at larger hospitals, but no significant differences were found when mortality was risk adjusted. There was an association between nurse workload with mortality rate for selected conditions (r: 0.25; P = 0.009). Safety committee and multidisciplinary ward rounds were also associated with outcomes. We have not found any association between complexity and intra-hospital mortality. There is an association between some management indicators with intra-hospital mortality and the length of stay. Better disease-specific outcomes adjustments and a larger number of IMUs in the sample may provide more insights about the association between management of IMUs with healthcare outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Milton; Quintner, John; van Rysewyk, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The definition of pain promulgated by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is widely accepted as a pragmatic characterisation of that human experience. Although the Notes that accompany it characterise pain as "always subjective," the IASP definition itself fails to sufficiently integrate phenomenological aspects of pain. This essay reviews the historical development of the IASP definition, and the commentaries and suggested modifications to it over almost 40 years. Common factors of pain experience identified in phenomenological studies are described, together with theoretical insights from philosophy and biology. A fuller understanding of the pain experience and of the clinical care of those experiencing pain is achievable through greater attention to the phenomenology of pain, the social "intersubjective space" in which pain occurs, and the limitations of language. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  1. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/collaborative-research-groups/past-crgs). This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  2. The prevalence of halitosis (oral malodor) and associated factors among dental students and interns, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf; Almas, Khalid; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of halitosis and the factors associated with it among dental students and interns in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study design was chosen, and a sample of dental students and interns was collected from seven dental colleges in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 833 participants were approached in person as convenient sample population. A self-reported questionnaire was administered and informed consent was obtained. The associations between oral malodor and different variables of the study were explored using analytical statistics (Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis). Statistical significance was determined using a 95% confidence interval (CI). Six hundred and fifteen participants (aged 19-27 years) completed the survey with a response rate of 73.8%. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis was 75.1%. More female (51.4%) than male students (23.7%) reported oral malodor, and most participants (61%) reported early morning halitosis. Thirteen percent of respondents had examination for oral malodor by a dentist and 37.6% treated the condition with self-medication. Binary logistic regression model showed that male gender (odds ratio [OR] =0.44, CI = 0.22-0.87), daily use of dental floss (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.13-0.58), and drinking tea with mint (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.22-0.89) were significantly associated with oral malodor. The participants with tongue coating had higher odds (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.13-6.69) of having oral malodor than those without tongue coating, and the association was statistically significant. The study identified high prevalence of oral malodor among dental students and interns. They should receive appropriate diagnosis and management of the condition from dentist. The regular use of dental floss and removal of tongue coating can significantly reduce halitosis.

  3. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics / medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http://www.imia.org/wg1).

  4. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for healthcare professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in healthcare (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for healthcare professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, healthcare management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http:www.imia.org/wg1).

  5. Direct Associations or Internal Transformations? Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Sequential Learning Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate two broad classes of cognitive mechanisms that might support the learning of sequential patterns. According to the first, learning is based on the gradual accumulation of direct associations between events based on simple conditioning principles. The other view describes learning as the process of inducing the transformational structure that defines the material. Each of these learning mechanisms predict differences in the rate of acquisition for differently organized sequences. Across a set of empirical studies, we compare the predictions of each class of model with the behavior of human subjects. We find that learning mechanisms based on transformations of an internal state, such as recurrent network architectures (e.g., Elman, 1990), have difficulty accounting for the pattern of human results relative to a simpler (but more limited) learning mechanism based on learning direct associations. Our results suggest new constraints on the cognitive mechanisms supporting sequential learning behavior. PMID:20396653

  6. An Innovative Approach to the Design and Implementation of an International Finance Field Study Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Kevin; Filante, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    Internationalization of a business school curriculum has long been an important objective of AACSB-accredited schools in the United States. During the past 4 years, the authors of this article have developed, taught, and guided an undergraduate finance field study course that has incorporated trips to London, Dublin, and Paris. In this article,…

  7. Networking Matters: A Social Network Analysis of the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Warm, Eric; Arora, Vineet M; Chaudhry, Saima; Halvorsen, Andrew; Schauer, Daniel; Thomas, Kris; McDonald, Furman S

    2018-03-22

    Networking has positive effects on career development; however, personal characteristics of group members such as gender or diversity may foster or hinder member connectedness. Social network analysis explores interrelationships between people in groups by measuring the strength of connection between all possible pairs in a given network. Social network analysis has rarely been used to examine network connections among members in an academic medical society. This study seeks to ascertain the strength of connection between program directors in the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) and its Education Innovations Project subgroup and to examine possible associations between connectedness and characteristics of program directors and programs. We hypothesize that connectedness will be measurable within a large academic medical society and will vary significantly for program directors with certain measurable characteristics (e.g., age, gender, rank, location, burnout levels, desire to resign). APDIM program directors described levels of connectedness to one another on the 2012 APDIM survey. Using social network analysis, we ascertained program director connectedness by measuring out-degree centrality, in-degree centrality, and eigenvector centrality, all common measures of connectedness. Higher centrality was associated with completion of the APDIM survey, being in a university-based program, Educational Innovations Project participation, and higher academic rank. Centrality did not vary by gender; international medical graduate status; previous chief resident status; program region; or levels of reported program director burnout, callousness, or desire to resign. In this social network analysis of program directors within a large academic medical society, we found that connectedness was related to higher academic rank and certain program characteristics but not to other program director characteristics like gender or international medical

  8. The International Association for Danube Research (IAD)-portrait of a transboundary scientific NGO.

    PubMed

    Bloesch, Jürg

    2009-08-01

    The International Association for Danube Research (IAD), a legal association (Verein) according to Austrian law, presently consists of 13 member countries and 12 expert groups covering all water-relevant scientific disciplines. IAD, founded in 1956, represents a traditional and significant stakeholder in the Danube River Basin, fulfilling an important task towards an integrative water and river basin management requested by the EU Water Framework Directive. IAD, stretching between basic and applied research, adapted its strategy after the major political changes in 1989. IAD fosters transdisciplinary and transboundary projects to support integrative Danube River protection in line with the governmental International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) in which IAD has had observer status since 1998. Recent scientific outputs of IAD encompass, amongst others, a water quality map of the Danube and major tributaries, the Sturgeon Action Plan, hydromorphological mapping of the Drava, a macrophyte inventory, and a Mures River study. Further information about IAD can be found on our website http://www.iad.gs.

  9. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Milton; Quintner, John; van Rysewyk, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The definition of pain promulgated by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is widely accepted as a pragmatic characterisation of that human experience. Although the Notes that accompany it characterise pain as “always subjective,” the IASP definition itself fails to sufficiently integrate phenomenological aspects of pain. Methods: This essay reviews the historical development of the IASP definition, and the commentaries and suggested modifications to it over almost 40 years. Common factors of pain experience identified in phenomenological studies are described, together with theoretical insights from philosophy and biology. Results: A fuller understanding of the pain experience and of the clinical care of those experiencing pain is achievable through greater attention to the phenomenology of pain, the social “intersubjective space” in which pain occurs, and the limitations of language. Conclusion: Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity. PMID:29756084

  10. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for the conservative and nonpharmacological management of female pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bo, Kari; Frawley, Helena C; Haylen, Bernard T; Abramov, Yoram; Almeida, Fernando G; Berghmans, Bary; Bortolini, Maria; Dumoulin, Chantale; Gomes, Mario; McClurg, Doreen; Meijlink, Jane; Shelly, Elizabeth; Trabuco, Emanuel; Walker, Carolina; Wells, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Introduction and hypothesis There has been an increasing need for the terminology on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction to be collated in a clinically based consensus report. Methods This Report combines the input of members and elected nominees of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by many external referees. An extensive process of nine rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). Before opening up for comments on the webpages of ICS and IUGA, five experts from physiotherapy, neurology, urology, urogynecology, and nursing were invited to comment on the paper. Results A Terminology Report on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction, encompassing over 200 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based, with the most common symptoms, signs, assessments, diagnoses, and treatments defined. Clarity and ease of use have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Ongoing review is not only anticipated, but will be required to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. Conclusion A consensus-based terminology report for the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced, aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and The International Urogynecological Association.

  11. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  12. The International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care: Advancing Hospice and Palliative Care Worldwide.

    PubMed

    De Lima, Liliana; Radbruch, Lukas

    2018-02-01

    The International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) is a membership-based organization dedicated to the development and improvement of hospice and palliative care worldwide. The mission of IAHPC is to improve the quality of life of adults and children with life-threatening conditions and their families. The vision of IAHPC is universal access to high-quality palliative care, integrated into all levels of health care systems in a continuum of care with disease prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment, to assure that any patient's or family caregiver's suffering is relieved to the greatest extent possible. IAHPC focuses on the advancement of four areas of palliative care: education, access to medicines, health policies, and service implementation. IAHPC works on three levels: at the grass roots, developing resources, and educational strategies that enable health workers to provide cost-effective palliative care; at the national level, working with government representatives to improve national policies to ensure adequate care and access to medicines; and at the international level, advocating with the UN organizations to ensure that access to palliative care and to essential medicines for palliative care and pain treatment is stipulated and incorporated as an obligation of member states. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Report of the first international workshop on onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, Robert; Mandro, Michel; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Boussinesq, Michel; Hotterbeekx, An; Kamgno, Joseph; O'Neill, Sarah; Hopkins, Adrian; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Post, Rory J; Pedrique, Belén; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Stolk, Wilma A; Nutman, Thomas B; Idro, Richard

    2018-03-22

    Recently, several epidemiological studies performed in Onchocerca volvulus-endemic regions have suggested that onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) may constitute an important but neglected public health problem in many countries where onchocerciasis is still endemic. On October 12-14 th 2017, the first international workshop on onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was held in Antwerp, Belgium. The workshop was attended by 79 participants from 20 different countries. Recent research findings strongly suggest that O. volvulus is an important contributor to epilepsy, particularly in meso- and hyperendemic areas for onchocerciasis. Infection with O. volvulus is associated with a spectrum of epileptic seizures, mainly generalised tonic-clonic seizures but also atonic neck seizures (nodding), and stunted growth. OAE is characterised by an onset of seizures between the ages of 3-18 years. Multidisciplinary working groups discussed topics such as how to 1) strengthen the evidence for an association between onchocerciasis and epilepsy, 2) determine the burden of disease caused by OAE, 3) prevent OAE, 4) improve the treatment/care for persons with OAE and affected families, 5) identify the pathophysiological mechanism of OAE, and 6) deal with misconceptions, stigma, discrimination and gender violence associated with OAE. An OAE Alliance was created to increase awareness about OAE and its public health importance, stimulate research and disseminate research findings, and create partnerships between OAE researchers, communities, advocacy groups, ministries of health, non-governmental organisations, the pharmaceutical industry and funding organizations. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanism underlying OAE remains unknown, there is increasing evidence that by controlling and eliminating onchocerciasis, OAE will also disappear. Therefore, OAE constitutes an additional argument for strengthening onchocerciasis elimination efforts. Given the high numbers of

  14. A new way to experience the International Gastric Cancer Association Congress: the Web Round Tables.

    PubMed

    Morgagni, Paolo; Verlato, Giuseppe; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco; de Manzoni, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    In an attempt to attract a wider diversity of professionals to the 10th International Gastric Cancer Association Congress (IGCC) held in June 2013, the Scientific Committee of the conference organized a number of pre-congress Web Round Tables to discuss cutting-edge topics relating to gastric cancer treatment. Twenty Web Round Tables, each coordinated by a different chairman, were proposed on the IGCC Website 1 year before the congress. Each chairman identified a number of studies related to the theme of his/her Round Table and invited corresponding authors to send an update of their conclusions in light of their subsequent experience, which would then form the basis of discussion of the Web Round Tables. The chairmen posted several questions regarding these updates on the web and opened a forum for a period of 1-2 months. The forum was free and specifically intended for congress participants. Fifty-one (9.9 %) of the 516 authors contacted took part in the initiative. Two hundred fifty participants from 21 countries joined the forum discussion and posted 671 comments. The Web Round Tables were viewed 15,810 times while the forum was open. Overall, the Web Round Tables aroused considerable interest, especially among young professionals working in the area of gastric cancer who had the opportunity to contact and interact with experts in what often turned out to be an interesting and lively exchange of views. All the discussions are now freely available for consultation on the IGCC website. The Web Round Table experience was presented, with great success, during the conference at special afternoon sessions.

  15. Association between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the internal carotid artery: a CBCT imaging study.

    PubMed

    Damaskos, S; Aartman, I H A; Tsiklakis, K; van der Stelt, P; Berkhout, W E R

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between the extracranial and intracranial calcification depiction of the internal carotid artery (ICA), incidentally found in CBCT examinations in adults, and to discuss the conspicuous clinical implications. Out of a series of 1085 CBCT examinations, 705 CBCT scans were selected according to pre-defined criteria. The extra- and intracranial calcifications depicted along the course of the ICA were documented according to a comprehensive set of descriptive criteria. In total, 799 findings were detected, 60.1% (n = 480) were intracranially and 39.9% (n = 319) were extracranially allocated. The χ(2) test showed associations between all variables (p < 0.001). Also, most of the combinations of variables showed statistically significant results in the McNemar's test (p < 0.001). We found that a significant correlation exists between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the ICA. It is clear that in cases of the presence of a calcification in the ICA extracranially, the artery's intracranial portion has an increased risk of showing the same findings. CBCT imaging is widely used as a diagnostic tool, thus, our results contribute to the identification of a subgroup of patients who should undergo further medical evaluation of the atherosclerosis of the ICAs.

  16. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 30-hour duty period requirement.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Christopher G; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Bale, James F; Ying, Jian; Greene, Tom; Srivastava, Rajendu

    2012-07-13

    In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Retrospective review of interns' performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the duty hour regulations.

  17. Factors associated with the health status of internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, B; Ocaka, K Felix; Browne, J; Oyok, T; Sondorp, E

    2009-01-01

    Background: Globally, there are over 24 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have fled their homes due to violence and insecurity but who remain within their own country. There have been up to 2 million IDPs in northern Uganda alone. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with mental and physical health status of IDPs in northern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2006 in IDP camps in the Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. The study outcome of physical and mental health was measured using the SF-8 instrument, which produces physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary measures. Independent demographic, socio-economic, and trauma exposure (using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) variables were also measured. Multivariate regression linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate associations of the independent variables on the PCS and MCS outcomes. Results: 1206 interviews were completed. The respective mean PCS and MCS scores were 42.2 (95% CI 41.32 to 43.10) and 39.3 (95% CI 38.42 to 40.13), well below the instrument norm of 50, indicating poor health. Variables with negative associations with physical or mental health included gender, age, marital status, income, distance of camp from home areas, food security, soap availability, and sense of safety in the camp. A number of individual trauma variables and the frequency of trauma exposure also had negative associations with physical and mental health. Conclusions: This study provides evidence on the impact on health of deprivation of basic goods and services, traumatic events, and fear and uncertainty amongst displaced and crisis affected populations. PMID:19028730

  18. The International Permafrost Association: new structure and initiatives for cryospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, I.; Lewkowicz, A. G.; Christiansen, H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Lantuit, H.; Schrott, L.; Sergeev, D.; Wei, M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details recent and ongoing changes in the functioning of the IPA that will influence the way cryospheric research is conducted under its auspices. One of the most important is the development of competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Since the first call, four proposals have been accepted by the Executive Committee and the teams are currently working on high topical issues, such as the assessment of the deep permafrost organic carbon pools and the mapping of subsea permafrost, as well as fundamental questions such as the extent of permafrost during the Last Permafrost Maximum. The IPA also decided to put additional effort into facilitating the study of the significance of permafrost to the global climate systems, with human aspects playing a very important role. To achieve this goal, the IPA will encourage and assist the climate modeling community in improving the representation of perennially frozen ground

  19. [Factors associated with the prognosis of mechanically ventilated infants and children. An international study].

    PubMed

    Farias, J A; Frutos-Vivar, F; Casado Flores, J; Siaba, A; Retta, A; Fernández, A; Baltodano, A; Ko, I J; Johnson, M; Esteban, A

    2006-12-01

    Identify factors associated with the survival of pediatric patients who are submitted to mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 12 hours. International prospective cohort study. It was performed between April 1 and May 31 1999. All patients were followed-up during 28 days or discharge to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). 36 PICUs from 7 countries. A total of 659 ventilated patients were enrolled but 15 patients were excluded because their vital status was unknown on discharge. Overall in-UCIP mortality rate was 15,6%. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression were used and an outcome model was constructed. The variables significantly associated with mortality were: peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), acute renal failure (ARF), PRISM score and severe hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100). The subgroup with best outcome (mortality 7%) included patients who were ventilated with a PIP < 35 cmH2O, without ARF, or PaO2/FiO2 > 100 and PRISM < 27. In patients with a mean PaO2/FiO2 < 100 during MV mortality increased to 26% (OR: 4.4; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.4). Patients with a PRISM score > 27 on admission to PICU had a mortality of 43% (OR: 9.6; 95% CI 4,2 to 25,8). Development of acute renal failure was associated with a mortality of 50% (OR: 12.7; 95% CI 6.3 to 25.7). Finally, the worst outcome (mortality 58%) was for patients with a mean PIP >/= 35 cmH2O (OR 17.3; 95% CI 8.5 to 36.3). In a large cohort of mechanically ventilated pediatric patients we found that severity of illness at admission, high mean PIP, development of acute renal failure and severe hypoxemia over the course of MV were the factors associated with lower survival rate.

  20. Internal Dynamics and Boundary Forcing Characteristics Associated with Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.- M.; Kim, K.-M.; Yang, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a description of the internal dynamics and boundary forcing characteristics of two major components of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), i.e., the South Asian (SAM) and the Southeast-East Asian monsoon (SEAM). The description is based on a new monsoon-climate paradigm in which the variability of ASM is considered as the outcome of the interplay of a "fast" and an "intermediate" monsoon subsystem, under the influenced of the "slow" varying external forcings. Two sets of regional monsoon indices derived from dynamically consistent rainfall and wind data are used in this study. For SAM, the internal dynamics is represented by that of a "classical" monsoon system where the anomalous circulation is governed by Rossby-wave dynamics, i.e., generation of anomalous vorticity induced by an off-equatorial heat source is balanced by planetary vorticity advection. On the other hand, the internal dynamics of SEAM is characterized by a "hybrid" monsoon system featuring multi-cellular meridional circulation over the East Asian section, extending from the deep tropics to midlatitudes. These meridional-cells link tropical heating to extratropical circulation system via the East Asian jetstream, and are responsible for the characteristic occurrences of zonally oriented anomalous rainfall patterns over East Asian and the subtropical western Pacific. In the extratropical regions, the major upper level vorticity balance is by anomalous vorticity advection and generation by the anomalous divergent circulation. A consequence of this is that compared to SAM, the SEAM is associated with stronger teleconnection patterns to regions outside the ASM. A strong SAM is linked to basin-scale sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuation with significant signal in the equatorial eastern Pacific. During the boreal spring SST warming in the Arabian Sea and the subtropical western Pacific may lead to a strong SAM. For SEAM, interannual variability is tied to SSTA over the Sea of

  1. [Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    el Khamlichi, A; Amrani, F; el Azzusi, M; el Oufir, M; Khamlichi, A M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery in a 17 year old female patient. This anomaly was discovered following a meningeal haemorrhage, which recurred 18 months later, causing the patient's death. Surgical operation was refused by the patient and her family. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries is a rare congenital malformation (16 cases have been reported in the literature, our case constitutes the 17th). It is distinguished from aplasia by the presence of a patent but very reduced vascular lumen, while aplasia is associated with vestiges of non-patent vessels. The mechanism of development of such a malformation is unclear: some authors have suggested secondary regression of the internal carotid artery following a phase of normal development, while others consider it to represent arrest of the development of the internal carotid artery, at a given moment in time. The frequency of associated aneurysm would be due to the haemodynamic disruption induced by the malformation, especially as parietal defects are more frequent in a malformed vasculature. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries may be compatible with normal life for an indefinite period of time due to the development of a large number of collateral vessels. However, the new vasculature is threatened by rupture with meningeal haemorrhage and by acute ischaemia, which would probably involve another aetiological factor.

  2. The Association between Attention Problems and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Peer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Vania T.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Mehrotra, Kala; Sung, Min; Lim, Choon Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of attention problems in children warrants concern, as it is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems. There lies a need to understand possible factors that may mediate this link so that interventions may be targeted to alleviate these mediators and interrupt the link between attention problems and…

  3. Service and Education: The Association Between Workload, Patient Complexity, and Teaching on Internal Medicine Inpatient Services.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Temple A; Crabtree, Meghan A; Palmer, Raymond F; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Leykum, Luci K

    2018-04-01

    Attending rounds remain the primary venue for formal teaching and learning at academic medical centers. Little is known about the effect of increasing clinical demands on teaching during attending rounds. To explore the relationships among teaching time, teaching topics, clinical workload, and patient complexity variables. Observational study of medicine teaching teams from September 2008 through August 2014. Teams at two large teaching hospitals associated with a single medical school were observed for periods of 2 to 4 weeks. Twelve medicine teaching teams consisting of one attending, one second- or third-year resident, two to three interns, and two to three medical students. The study examined relationships between patient complexity (comorbidities, complications) and clinical workload variables (census, turnover) with educational measures. Teams were clustered based on clinical workload and patient complexity. Educational measures of interest were time spent teaching and number of teaching topics. Data were analyzed both at the daily observation level and across a given patient's admission. We observed 12 teams, 1994 discussions (approximately 373 h of rounds) of 563 patients over 244 observation days. Teams clustered into three groups: low patient complexity/high clinical workload, average patient complexity/low clinical workload, and high patient complexity/high clinical workload. Modest associations for team, patient complexity, and clinical workload variables were noted with total time spent teaching (9.1% of the variance in time spent teaching during a patient's admission; F[8,549] = 6.90, p < 0.001) and number of teaching topics (16% of the variance in the total number of teaching topics during a patient's admission; F[8,548] = 14.18, p < 0.001). Clinical workload and patient complexity characteristics among teams were only modestly associated with total teaching time and teaching topics.

  4. Forging Ahead in Reading. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Convention of the International Reading Association, Volume 12, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figurel, J. Allen, Ed.

    This book contains the featured addresses of the International Reading Association convention held in Seattle, Washington. Also included are sections on instruction in reading, curriculum and organization, teacher education, special interest areas, and research on the psychology and sociology of reading, the pedagogy of reading, linguistics in its…

  5. The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to enter…

  6. Neighborhood disadvantage as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and toddler-aged children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Kristin L; Scaramella, Laura V; Laird, Robert D; Sohr-Preston, Sara L

    2011-02-01

    Neighborhood dangerousness and belongingness were expected to moderate associations between harsh parenting and toddler-age children's problem behaviors. Fifty-five predominantly African American mothers participated with their 2-year old children. Neighborhood danger, neighborhood belongingness, and children's problem behaviors were measured with mothers' reports. Harsh parenting was measured with observer ratings. Analyses considered variance common to externalizing and internalizing problems, using a total problems score, and unique variance, by controlling for internalizing behavior when predicting externalizing behavior, and vice versa. Regarding the common variance, only the main effects of neighborhood danger and harsh parenting were significantly associated with total problem behavior. In contrast, after controlling for externalizing problems, the positive association between harsh parenting and unique variance in internalizing problems became stronger as neighborhood danger increased. No statistically significant associations emerged for the models predicting the unique variance in externalizing problems or models considering neighborhood belongingness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Improving the analysis of biogeochemical patterns associated with internal waves in the strait of Gibraltar using remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Gabriel; Vicent, Jorge; Caballero, Isabel; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Morris, Edward P.; Sabater, Neus; Macías, Diego; Bolado-Penagos, Marina; Gomiz, Juan Jesús; Bruno, Miguel; Caldeira, Rui; Vázquez, Águeda

    2018-05-01

    High Amplitude Internal Waves (HAIWs) are physical processes observed in the Strait of Gibraltar (the narrow channel between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea). These internal waves are generated over the Camarinal Sill (western side of the strait) during the tidal outflow (toward the Atlantic Ocean) when critical hydraulic conditions are established. HAIWs remain over the sill for up to 4 h until the outflow slackens, being then released (mostly) towards the Mediterranean Sea. These have been previously observed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which captures variations in surface water roughness. However, in this work we use high resolution optical remote sensing, with the aim of examining the influence of HAIWs on biogeochemical processes. We used hyperspectral images from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and high spatial resolution (10 m) images from the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) onboard the Sentinel-2A satellite. This work represents the first attempt to examine the relation between internal wave generation and the water constituents of the Camarinal Sill using hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing images. This enhanced spatial and spectral resolution revealed the detailed biogeochemical patterns associated with the internal waves and suggests local enhancements of productivity associated with internal waves trains.

  8. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for the conservative and nonpharmacological management of female pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bo, Kari; Frawley, Helena C; Haylen, Bernard T; Abramov, Yoram; Almeida, Fernando G; Berghmans, Bary; Bortolini, Maria; Dumoulin, Chantale; Gomes, Mario; McClurg, Doreen; Meijlink, Jane; Shelly, Elizabeth; Trabuco, Emanuel; Walker, Carolina; Wells, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    There has been an increasing need for the terminology on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction to be collated in a clinically based consensus report. This Report combines the input of members and elected nominees of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by many external referees. An extensive process of nine rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). Before opening up for comments on the webpages of ICS and IUGA, five experts from physiotherapy, neurology, urology, urogynecology, and nursing were invited to comment on the paper. A Terminology Report on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction, encompassing over 200 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based, with the most common symptoms, signs, assessments, diagnoses, and treatments defined. Clarity and ease of use have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Ongoing review is not only anticipated, but will be required to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based terminology report for the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced, aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research.

  9. An international Urogynecological association (IUGA)/international continence society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for the assessment of sexual health of women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Thakar, Ranee; Morin, Melanie; Kuhn, Annette; Petri, Eckhard; Fatton, Brigitte; Whitmore, Kristene; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Lee, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    The terminology in current use for sexual function and dysfunction in women with pelvic floor disorders lacks uniformity, which leads to uncertainty, confusion, and unintended ambiguity. The terminology for the sexual health of women with pelvic floor dysfunction needs to be collated in a clinically-based consensus report. This report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA), and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by many external referees. Internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). Importantly, this report is not meant to replace, but rather complement current terminology used in other fields for female sexual health and to clarify terms specific to women with pelvic floor dysfunction. A clinically based terminology report for sexual health in women with pelvic floor dysfunction encompassing over 100 separate definitions, has been developed. Key aims have been to make the terminology interpretable by practitioners, trainees, and researchers in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Interval review (5-10 years) is anticipated to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based terminology report for female sexual health in women with pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research.

  10. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for the assessment of sexual health of women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Thakar, Ranee; Morin, Melanie; Kuhn, Annette; Petri, Eckhard; Fatton, Brigitte; Whitmore, Kristene; Kinsberg, Sheryl; Lee, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The terminology in current use for sexual function and dysfunction in women with pelvic floor disorders lacks uniformity, which leads to uncertainty, confusion, and unintended ambiguity. The terminology for the sexual health of women with pelvic floor dysfunction needs to be collated in a clinically-based consensus report. This report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA), and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by many external referees. Internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). Importantly, this report is not meant to replace, but rather complement current terminology used in other fields for female sexual health and to clarify terms specific to women with pelvic floor dysfunction. A clinically based terminology report for sexual health in women with pelvic floor dysfunction encompassing over 100 separate definitions, has been developed. Key aims have been to make the terminology interpretable by practitioners, trainees, and researchers in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Interval review (5-10 years) is anticipated to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based terminology report for female sexual health in women with pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Real Estate Brokers View the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Grant J.; Williams, Numan A.

    1993-01-01

    Real estate programs of 76 institutions accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) were reviewed. Findings of a survey of real estate brokers (n=178) indicated that business programs within the parameters of the AACSB business curriculum should adequately prepare students for a career in real estate. (JOW)

  12. Pneumonia treated in the internal medicine department: focus on healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Giannella, M; Pinilla, B; Capdevila, J A; Martínez Alarcón, J; Muñoz, P; López Álvarez, J; Bouza, E

    2012-08-01

    Patients with pneumonia treated in the internal medicine department (IMD) are often at risk of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The importance of HCAP is controversial. We invited physicians from 72 IMDs to report on all patients with pneumonia hospitalized in their department during 2 weeks (one each in January and June 2010) to compare HCAP with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). We analysed 1002 episodes of pneumonia: 58.9% were CAP, 30.6% were HCAP and 10.4% were HAP. A comparison between CAP, HCAP and HAP showed that HCAP patients were older (77, 83 and 80.5 years; p < 0.001), had poorer functional status (Barthel 100, 30 and 65; p < 0.001) and had more risk factors for aspiration pneumonia (18, 50 and 34%; p < 0.001). The frequency of testing to establish an aetiological diagnosis was lower among HCAP patients (87, 72 and 79; p < 0.001), as was adherence to the therapeutic recommendations of guidelines (70, 23 and 56%; p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality increased progressively between CAP, HCAP and HAP (8, 19 and 27%; p < 0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the main pathogen in CAP and HCAP. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused 17 and 12.3% of HCAP. In patients with a confirmed aetiological diagnosis, the independent risk factors for pneumonia due do difficult-to-treat microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa or MRSA) were HCAP, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and higher Port Severity Index. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining high awareness of HCAP among patients treated in IMDs, because of the different aetiologies, therapy requirements and prognosis of this population. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Globalizing Historically Black Business Schools: A Case Study of the Application of Modern Pedagogical Theories of Internationalizing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedia, Ben L.; Clampit, Jack; Gaffney, Nolan

    2014-01-01

    The AACSB and AIB have each issued reports aimed at ensuring the internationalization of business schools. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)--as underresourced entities serving an underprivileged constituency--may need additional attention. Unfortunately, neither the AACSB nor AIB reports mention HBCUs. The broader literature is…

  14. Development assistance for health: past trends, associations, and the future of international financial flows for health.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Schneider, Matthew T; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Sadat, Nafis; Birger, Maxwell; Reynolds, Alex; Templin, Tara; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J L

    2016-06-18

    Disbursements of development assistance for health (DAH) have risen substantially during the past several decades. More recently, the international community's attention has turned to other international challenges, introducing uncertainty about the future of disbursements for DAH. We collected audited budget statements, annual reports, and project-level records from the main international agencies that disbursed DAH from 1990 to the end of 2015. We standardised and combined records to provide a comprehensive set of annual disbursements. We tracked each dollar of DAH back to the source and forward to the recipient. We removed transfers between agencies to avoid double-counting and adjusted for inflation. We classified assistance into nine primary health focus areas: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, maternal health, newborn and child health, other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, Ebola, and sector-wide approaches and health system strengthening. For our statistical analysis, we grouped these health focus areas into two categories: MDG-related focus areas (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, child and newborn health, and maternal health) and non-MDG-related focus areas (other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, sector-wide approaches, and other). We used linear regression to test for structural shifts in disbursement patterns at the onset of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; ie, from 2000) and the global financial crisis (impact estimated to occur in 2010). We built on past trends and associations with an ensemble model to estimate DAH through the end of 2040. In 2015, US$36·4 billion of DAH was disbursed, marking the fifth consecutive year of little change in the amount of resources provided by global health development partners. Between 2000 and 2009, DAH increased at 11·3% per year, whereas between 2010 and 2015, annual growth was just 1·2%. In 2015, 29·7% of DAH was for HIV/AIDS, 17·9% was for child and newborn health, and 9·8

  15. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:24244085

  16. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reising, Michelle M; Watson, Kelly H; Hardcastle, Emily J; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9-15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children's symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

  17. An association between the internalization of body image, depressive symptoms and restrictive eating habits among young males.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Dias, Fernanda Coelho; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the relationship between the internalization of body image and depressive symptoms with restrictive eating habits among young males. Three hundred and eighty-three male adolescents, aged between twelve and seventeen, took part in this survey. The "Overall Internalization" and "Athletic Internalization" sub-scales taken from the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) were used to evaluate the internalization of body images. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The "Diet" sub-scale from the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate restrictive eating habits. The logistic regression findings indicated 2.01 times greater chances of youngsters with a high level of overall internalization adopting restrictive eating habits (Wald = 6.16; p = 0.01) when compared with those with low levels. On the other hand, the regression model found no significant association between "Athletic Internalization" (Wald = 1.16; p = 0.23) and depressive symptoms (Wald = 0.81; p = 0.35) with eating restrictions. The findings made it possible to conclude that only overall internalization was related to eating restrictions among young males.

  18. Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance of International Travel-Associated Campylobacter Infections in the United States, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amanda; Wymore, Katie; Clogher, Paula; Oosmanally, Nadine; Robinson, Trisha; Lathrop, Sarah; Karr, Jillian; Hatch, Julie; Dunn, John; Ryan, Patricia; Blythe, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to determine the role international travel plays in US Campylobacter epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance. Methods. In this study, epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance data, encompassing the years 2005 to 2011, from 10 sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network were linked. The 10 sites are represented by 7 states that conducted surveillance on a statewide level, and 3 states which conducted county-level surveillance. Cases of Campylobacter among persons with history of international travel in the week prior to illness were compared with cases among individuals with no international travel. Results. Approximately 18% of Campylobacter infections were estimated to be associated with international travel, and 60% of international travel-associated infections had a quinolone-resistant Campylobacter isolate. Conclusions. We confirm that international travel plays a significant role in campylobacteriosis diagnosed in the United States. Recognizing this is important to both medical management decisions and understanding burden and attribution estimates of US campylobacteriosis and antibiotic-resistant campylobacteriosis. PMID:24832415

  19. Expert Meeting and Membership Meetings, Standing Committee Meeting. Section of Libraries for the Blind. International Federation of Library Associations. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt

    Two meetings of the International Federation of Library Associations Section of Libraries for the Blind (BLISTA) are summarized. The first was an expert meeting which was held in Marburg/Lahn, Federal Republic of Germany, in August 1983. Participants included 51 librarians and technical experts serving blind and physically disabled individuals in…

  20. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

    PubMed

    Haylen, Bernard T; Maher, Christopher F; Barber, Matthew D; Camargo, Sérgio; Dandolu, Vani; Digesu, Alex; Goldman, Howard B; Huser, Martin; Milani, Alfredo L; Moran, Paul A; Schaer, Gabriel N; Withagen, Mariëlla I J

    2016-04-01

    The terminology for female pelvic floor prolapse (POP) should be defined and organized in a clinically-based consensus Report. This Report combines the input of members of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by external referees. Appropriate core clinical categories and a sub-classification were developed to give a coding to definitions. An extensive process of fourteen rounds of internal and external review was involved to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A Terminology Report for female POP, encompassing over 230 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically-based with the most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction and POP. Female-specific imaging (ultrasound, radiology and MRI) and conservative and surgical managements are major additions and appropriate figures have been included to supplement and clarify the text. Emerging concepts and measurements, in use in the literature and offering further research potential, but requiring further validation, have been included as an appendix. Interval (5-10 year) review is anticipated to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based Terminology Report for female POP has been produced to aid clinical practice and research.

  1. Internalization of the ultra-thin ideal: positive implicit associations with underweight fashion models are associated with drive for thinness in young women.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Hetherington, Marion M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young women who make implicit associations between underweight models and positive attributes report elevated eating disorder symptoms. Ninety nine female undergraduates completed a weight based implicit association test (IAT) and self report measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization and eating disorder symptoms. IAT scores were associated with drive for thinness (r = -0.26, p < 0.05). This relationship was moderated by attitude importance. The relationship between drive for thinness and IAT scores was stronger (r = 0.34; p < 0.02) in participants who report that the media is an important source of information about fashion and being attractive. The IAT used in the current study is sensitive enough to discriminate between participants on drive for thinness. Women who have developed cognitive schemas that associate being underweight with positive attributes report higher eating disorder symptoms. Attitude importance is highlighted as a key construct in thin ideal internalization.

  2. Child Characteristics as Moderators of the Association between Family Stress and Children's Internalizing, Externalizing, and Peer Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Noni K.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Lockwood, Rebecca L.

    2003-01-01

    We examined child characteristics of coping strategies, age, and gender as moderators of the association between family stressors and internalizing, externalizing, and peer rejection in a sample of 228 3rd-5th grade children. Consistent with previous research, children in the current study who experienced a higher number of family stressors were…

  3. The Prospective Association Between Internalizing Symptoms and Adolescent Alcohol Involvement and the Moderating Role of Age and Externalizing Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth; Read, Jennifer P; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2017-12-01

    As predicted by self-medication theories that drinking is motivated by a desire to ameliorate emotional distress, some studies find internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression) increase risk of adolescent drinking; however, such a risk effect has not been supported consistently. Our prior work examined externalizing symptoms as a potential moderator of the association between internalizing symptoms and adolescent alcohol use to explain some of the inconsistencies in the literature. We found that internalizing symptoms were protective against early adolescent alcohol use particularly for youth elevated on externalizing symptoms (a 2-way interaction). Our sample has now been followed for several additional assessments that extend into young adulthood, and the current study tests whether the protective effect of internalizing symptoms may change as youth age into young adulthood, and whether this age-moderating effect varied across different clusters of internalizing symptoms (social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and depression). Internalizing symptoms were hypothesized to shift from a protective factor to a risk factor with age, particularly for youth elevated on externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 387 adolescents was followed for 9 annual assessments (mean age = 12.1 years at the first assessment and 55% female). Multilevel cross-lagged 2-part zero-inflated Poisson models were used to test hypotheses. The most robust moderating effects were for levels of alcohol use, such that the protective effect of all internalizing symptom clusters was most evident in the context of moderate to high levels of externalizing problems. A risk effect of internalizing symptoms was evident at low levels of externalizing symptoms. With age, the risk and protective effects of internalizing symptoms were evident at less extreme levels of externalizing behavior. With respect to alcohol-related problems, findings did not support age moderation for generalized anxiety or

  4. A Review of the Internal and External Physiological Demands Associated With Batting in Cricket.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Vickery, William M; Kean, Crystal O

    2016-11-01

    Cricket is a popular international team sport with various game formats ranging from long-duration multiday tests to short-duration Twenty20 game play. The role of batsmen is critical to all game formats, with differing physiological demands imposed during each format. Investigation of the physiological demands imposed during cricket batting has historically been neglected, with much of the research focusing on bowling responses and batting technique. A greater understanding of the physiological demands of the batting role in cricket is required to assist strength and conditioning professionals and coaches with the design of training plans, recovery protocols, and player-management strategies. This brief review provides an updated synthesis of the literature examining the internal (eg, metabolic demands and heart rate) and external (eg, activity work rates) physiological responses to batting in the various game formats, as well as simulated play and small-sided-games training. Although few studies have been done in this area, the summary of data provides important insight regarding physiological responses to batting and highlights that more research on this topic is required. Future research is recommended to combine internal and external measures during actual game play, as well as comparing different game formats and playing levels. In addition, understanding the relationship between batting technique and physiological responses is warranted to gain a more holistic understanding of batting in cricket, as well as to develop appropriate coaching and training strategies.

  5. Factors associated with the subspecialty choices of internal medicine residents in Canada.

    PubMed

    Horn, Leora; Tzanetos, Katina; Thorpe, Kevin; Straus, Sharon E

    2008-06-26

    Currently, there are more residents enrolled in cardiology training programs in Canada than in immunology, pharmacology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, geriatrics and endocrinology combined. There is no published data regarding the proportion of Canadian internal medicine residents applying to the various subspecialties, or the factors that residents consider important when deciding which subspecialty to pursue. To address the concern about physician imbalances in internal medicine subspecialties, we need to examine the factors that motivate residents when making career decisions. In this two-phase study, Canadian internal medicine residents participating in the post graduate year 4 (PGY4) subspecialty match were invited to participate in a web-based survey and focus group discussions. The focus group discussions were based on issues identified from the survey results. Analysis of focus group transcripts grew on grounded theory. 110 PGY3 residents participating in the PGY4 subspecialty match from 10 participating Canadian universities participated in the web-based survey (54% response rate). 22 residents from 3 different training programs participated in 4 focus groups held across Canada. Our study found that residents are choosing careers that provide intellectual stimulation, are consistent with their personality, and that provide a challenge in diagnosis. From our focus group discussions it appears that lifestyle, role models, mentorship and the experience of the resident with the specialty appear to be equally important in career decisions. Males are more likely to choose procedure based specialties and are more concerned with the reputation of the specialty as well as the anticipated salary. In contrast, residents choosing non-procedure based specialties are more concerned with issues related to lifestyle, including work-related stress, work hours and time for leisure as well as the patient populations they are treating. This study suggests that internal

  6. The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH): reflecting on 60 years of contributions to groundwater science and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Willi; Howard, Ken; Chilton, John

    2016-08-01

    The 60th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is an important milestone that allows pause for reflection on how the association has evolved over the years and the contributions it has made to groundwater science and water management. IAH was founded in 1956 at the 20th International Geological Congress and developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s in response to a growing global interest in groundwater mapping and in sound approaches to resource protection and sustainable aquifer management. Incorporated in 2000, IAH has now secured its position as the world's leading international association specialising in groundwater with over 4,100 members in 131 countries. Much credit for this success must go to members, past and present, whose individual efforts and collaboration with sister institutions are documented here. These members have shaped the association's goals and contributed selflessly to its scientific programmes, publications and educational and charitable activities. Looking ahead to the next 60 years, it is essential that IAH does not rest on past achievements but listens and adjusts to the needs of members while continuing to pursue its mission of furthering the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater resources throughout the world.

  7. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-06-29

    Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10-40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2-3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m(2) increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m(2) compared to those <25 kBq/m(2), RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m(2) compared to those <11 kBq/m(2), RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual measurements are essential for the

  8. Cultural orientation moderates the association between desired affect and depressed mood among Chinese international students living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiquan; Dmitrieva, Julia

    2018-04-26

    Culture is thought to shape an individual's ideal/desired emotions, which may in turn regulate actual emotional experiences (Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006). In particular, European Americans tend to favor high-arousal positive (HAP) affect, whereas East Asians favor low-arousal positive affect. This study examined whether cultural adaptation from the East Asian to Western culture is associated with similar differences in ideal and actual affect. We recruited 150 Chinese international students enrolled in a midsize university in the United States and investigated the role of acculturation to U.S. culture in participants' ideal and actual affect as well as associated differences in depressive symptoms. Results showed that acculturation was associated with higher ideal and actual HAP affect (but not lower low-arousal positive affect). Consistent with Mauss et al. (2012), higher ideal HAP affect was directly associated with higher depressive symptoms for all participants. However, among participants with higher orientation to the U.S. culture, higher ideal HAP also had an indirect protective association with depressed mood (i.e., higher ideal HAP affect was associated with higher actual HAP affect, which in turn was associated with lower depressed mood). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  10. The Norden Associations and International Efforts to Change History Education, 1919-1970: International Organisations, Education, and Hegemonic Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmersjö, Henrik Åström

    2015-01-01

    During the interwar period, a number of organisations started to look into education as part of an attempt to understand how nationalism was fuelled through education and to what extent it had forced the outbreak of the Great War. In response to nationalism and a perceived need for reformation of national narratives, the school subjects of history…

  11. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (13th, Mannheim, Germany, October 28-30, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 13th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2016), October 28-30, 2016, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by the University of Mannheim, Germany, and endorsed by the…

  12. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (Fort Worth, Texas, October 22-24, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2013), October 22-24, 2013, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by The University of North Texas (UNT), sponsored by the…

  13. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (11th, Porto, Portugal, October 25-27, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 11th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2014), October 25-27, 2014, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) and endorsed by the Japanese Society for Information and Systems in…

  14. Student Achievement at CCCU-Member Colleges: A Comparison of CCCU Students' Outcomes on the Uniform CPA Exam to Students' Outcomes at AACSB and Other Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Fairchild, Chris; Childs, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated differences in Uniform Certified Public Accountant Exam (UCPAE) pass rates between candidates who graduated from Council for Christian Colleges & Universities member schools (CCCU-member) and candidates who graduated from institutions that are not CCCU members. The data set included 1,131 institutions (72,453…

  15. Internal PR for Education Associations. PR Bookshelf No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains discussion of internal public relations for a local education association with suggestions for enhancing the association's image with its members and potential members. The five sections are (1) "Start with Analysis and Evaluation"--a listing of steps in planning an internal public relations program; (2) "Orientation: A Key…

  16. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  17. Burnout status of interns and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Sevencan, Funda; Cayir, Ebru; Uner, Sarp

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that due to long working hours and stressful working conditions, doctors experience burnout more often than other professional groups. Their career burnout begins in the early years, continues to increase and becomes most evident in the internship of medical school. On this wise, the purpose of this study was to investigate the burnout status of intern doctors and the associated factors. Participants in this cross-sectional study were sixth-year medical students (n = 302). Data were collected under observation using a questionnaire including some sociodemographic characteristics and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, SF-36, General Health Questionnaire and COPE Inventory. The mean age of the participants was 24.5 +/- 1.1 years and 53.4% of them were male. Mean scores of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment were 25.5 +/- 7.5, 11.3 +/- 3.9 and 24.7 +/- 3.4, respectively and the three sub-dimension scores of the burnout scale showed no association with gender. Students' emotional exhaustion scores significantly differed according to the socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). Participants who had lower scores on the mental and physical dimensions of SF-36 and higher scores on GHQ-12 showed significantly more emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.Positive coping methods showed negative correlation with the subscales of burnout and individuals using problem-focused coping felt more successful (personal accomplishment) confirming the relationship between mental health and burnout. The medical education curricula (both theoretical and practical studies) should be reviewed and appropriate adjustments should be made according to the needs of intern doctors.

  18. Factors Associated with International Graduate Students' Academic Performance: A Comparative Analysis between the First Semester and the Subsequent Semester in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavusoglu, Muhittin; White, Williemae; James, Waynne B.; Cobanoglu, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences that impact international graduate student performance in the first semester compared to the subsequent semesters. This study was a qualitative study focused on the factors associated with international graduate student academic performance between the first semester and their subsequent…

  19. Interest in international surgical volunteerism: results of a survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association.

    PubMed

    Butler, Marilyn W; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Rothstein, David H; Cusick, Robert A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses interest in international volunteer work by members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) and attempts to identify demographics, motivations, obstacles, and institutional issues of the respondents. An online survey service was used to send a 25-question survey to all APSA members with email addresses in November 2009. An answer to all questions was not required. Written comments were encouraged. The survey was sent to 807 members of whom 316 responded, for a response rate of 39%. International work had been done previously by 48% of respondents, whereas 95% stated that they were interested or perhaps interested in doing so. Most (83%) were interested in operating with local surgeons to teach them how to perform procedures. Altruism was the chief motivation in 75% of respondents. Primary obstacles to doing international work were family obligations and lack of time, although 37% stated that a lack of information about volunteer opportunities was an issue. A significant number of respondents (48%) stated that their institution had no established international collaborations. This study suggests that there is interest in international volunteerism among many members of APSA. Understanding the issues surrounding surgical volunteerism may facilitate humanitarian involvement among pediatric surgeons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M

    2000-08-01

    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  1. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms

    PubMed Central

    VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y.; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2018-01-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e. positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e. secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in Previously Institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving. PMID:28401841

  2. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vantieghem, Michelle R; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-05-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.

  3. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15–25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7–14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave–current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave–current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for

  4. Double jeopardy: assessing the association between internal displacement, housing quality and chronic illness in a low-income neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Habib, Rima R; Yassin, Nasser; Ghanawi, Joly; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad

    2011-04-01

    PURPOSE: This study analyzed associations between war-related internal displacement, housing quality and the prevalence of chronic illness in Nabaa, a low-income neighborhood on the outskirts of Beirut, Lebanon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of sociodemographics, household characteristics and health conditions of the study population was carried out in 2002. Using a structured questionnaire, the research team surveyed 1,151 households representing 4,987 residents of all ages. The survey was administered to a proxy respondent from each household in face-to-face interviews. A multiple logistic regression model using the generalized estimation equation method was constructed to assess the simultaneous effect of displacement and housing quality on reported ill health, while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Housing quality and internal displacement were strongly associated with occurrences of chronic illness. The most vulnerable respondents were older residents, females and internally displaced people, who reported high rates of chronic illnesses. Residents with high levels of education were less likely to report a chronic illness than those that had elementary education or less. CONCLUSION: Nabaa residents' experience of poor health was associated with inadequate housing quality. Moreover, residents who have been displaced experience worse living conditions and were more likely to experience poor health than those who were not displaced. These results reveal a need for policies to improve housing quality and alleviate war-related consequences in low-income neighborhoods.

  5. Sustaining the Vision. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (24th, Worcester, England, July 17-21, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Seattle, WA.

    Themes of the 24th Annual International Association of School Librarianship conference included: "School Librarianship"; "Children's Literature"; "Technology"; and "Children's Literature, Literacy, and School Librarianship." The following presented papers are assembled in this proceedings: (1) "For…

  6. Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2016 International Pre-Conference (65th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 6-8, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie, Ed.; Avoseh, Mejai, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…

  7. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information and Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015). The e-Learning 2015…

  8. Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2013 International Pre-Conference (Lexington, Kentucky, November 3-5, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…

  9. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (14th, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, October 18-20, 2017)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 14th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2017), 18-20 October 2017, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) and endorsed by the Japanese Society for Information and Systems in…

  10. Actions at Hamburg International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The third Workshop on Historical Seismograms, held in Hamburg on August 18-19, 1983, in conjunction with the meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, was specifically organized to discuss the status of historical seismic data for Latin America and Europe. Since it is unlikely that an additional workshop will be held on this subject, reports for other regions were included as well.In the first session, H. Meyers described the purpose of the workshop and gave some history of the previous activities of the IASPEI/Unesco Working Group on Historical Seismograms. E.R. Engdahl noted that thus far more than 500,000 seismograms have been filmed as part of the Historical Microfilming Project and emphasized the importance of the activities to be covered during the workshop. M. Hashizume, representing Unesco, described the importance of historical seismic data and the Unesco interests in having these data available for the analysis of seismic risks, particularly in areas where the recurrence rate of significant earthquakes is very low and for regions where much data do not exist. He mentioned that both these conditions occur frequently in developing nations.

  11. The Young Scientist Club of the International Association for Promoting Geoethics - Promoting geoethics among the young geoscientists community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; De Pascale, Francesco; Gomez Cantero, Jonathan; Hassan, Tharwat; Mukosi, Ndivhuwo Cecilia; O'Brien, Craig

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) is a multidisciplinary, scientific platform for the debate on problems of Ethics applied to the Geosciences. The Young Scientists Club (YSC) of the IAPG represents the interface between the IAPG and the young geoscientists' community, organizations and groups. Its overall goal is to promote the topic of geoethics and the IAPG among its young colleagues. The YSC is considered to be the outpost of the IAPG and one of its greater strengths. It is believed that young people entering the professional world or evolving in academic settings can identify needs and expectations that geosciences can cover. The YSC seeks to give a status update on pertinent geoscience challenges and how geoethical principles can be integrated in tackling these challenges. They can also report new instances from the society and identify the potential innovative contributions that geosciences can provide as a service to the population. The YSC was initiated in the summer 2015. All IAPG members younger than 35 years old are part of the YSC. Its Executive Board is constituted by enthusiastic young geoscientists from various backgrounds and countries. Their tasks are to organize and coordinate the activities of the YSC: manage young geoscientists blog posts on Geoethics, set-up a forum platform to allow discussions about geoethics between young and senior geoscientists, organize IAPG-YSC sessions at international conferences for example to discuss the new values that allow to do research in geosciences and organize working groups on geoethical topics. The YSC eagerly anticipates meeting the young geoscientist community at the upcoming EGU Assembly and discuss all current geoethical issues. We look forward to garnering further support for this exciting initiative.

  12. International aspects of problems associated with the use of psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Chruściel, T L

    1976-01-01

    Problems of terminology, use and consumption, advertising, effectiveness and appropriate information and education on psychoactive drugs are outlined and advantages of international collaboration in attempts to establish standards for controlled clinical trials in psychopharmacology are discussed.

  13. [Training of medical physicists in radiation therapy at the International Educational Center of the Association of Medical Physicists in Russia].

    PubMed

    Kostylev, V A; Lysenko, M N; Zhgutov, A V; Ulanov, D V; Kislyakova, M V; Kazantsev, P V; Kostylev, D V; Narkevich, B Y

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients and use of the state-of-the-art accelerator facilities, in the first place, depends on the qualification and number of medical physicists. The need for the training and continuing professional development (CPD) of medical radiation physicists in Russia and CIS countries has dramatically increased today. The article considers the system of refresher training which should provide the continuing professional development and advance training of medical radiation physicists. The authors analyze the experience of the International Educational Center of the Association of Medical Physicists in Russia involved in the CPD of medical physicists under the IAEA TC projects, RMAPO and N.N. Blokhin RCRC joint educational programs.

  14. Internal Associations of the Acidic Region of Upstream Binding Factor Control Its Nucleolar Localization.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Shuhei; Nagata, Kyosuke; Okuwaki, Mitsuru

    2017-11-15

    Upstream binding factor (UBF) is a member of the high-mobility group (HMG) box protein family, characterized by multiple HMG boxes and a C-terminal acidic region (AR). UBF is an essential transcription factor for rRNA genes and mediates the formation of transcriptionally active chromatin in the nucleolus. However, it remains unknown how UBF is specifically localized to the nucleolus. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms that localize UBF to the nucleolus. We found that the first HMG box (HMG box 1), the linker region (LR), and the AR cooperatively regulate the nucleolar localization of UBF1. We demonstrated that the AR intramolecularly associates with and attenuates the DNA binding activity of HMG boxes and confers the structured DNA preference to HMG box 1. In contrast, the LR was found to serve as a nuclear localization signal and compete with HMG boxes to bind the AR, permitting nucleolar localization of UBF1. The LR sequence binds DNA and assists the stable chromatin binding of UBF. We also showed that the phosphorylation status of the AR does not clearly affect the localization of UBF1. Our results strongly suggest that associations of the AR with HMG boxes and the LR regulate UBF nucleolar localization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  16. Reducing Health Disparity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report from Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheepers, M.; Kerr, M.; O'Hara, D.; Bainbridge, D.; Cooper, S.-A.; Davis, R.; Fujiura, G.; Heller, T.; Holland, A.; Krahn, G.; Lennox, N.; Meaney, J.; Wehmeyer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in the health status and care experienced by people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being recognized. This special report presents the results of an international expert consensus workshop held under the auspices of the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific…

  17. The Association between Tax Structure and Cigarette Price Variability: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O’Connor, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance when cigarette excise tax structure departs from a uniform specific structure. However, the association between tax structure and cigarette price variability has not been thoroughly studied in the existing literature. Objective To examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with price variability. The variability of self-reported prices is measured using the ratios of differences between higher and lower prices to the median price such as the IQR-to-median ratio. Methods We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Cigarette prices were derived using individual purchase information and aggregated to price variability measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on price variability was estimated using Generalised Estimating Equations after adjusting for year and country attributes. Findings Our study provides empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette price variability. We find that, compared to the specific uniform tax structure, mixed uniform and tiered (specific, ad valorem or mixed) structures are associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). Moreover, while a greater share of the specific component in total excise taxes is associated with lower price variability (p≤0.05), a tiered tax structure is associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). The results suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption and prevalence by limiting price variability and decreasing opportunities for tax avoidance. PMID:25855641

  18. Factors associated with internal medicine physician job attitudes in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Mohr, David C; Eaton, Jennifer L; Meterko, Mark; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Restuccia, Joseph D

    2018-04-05

    US healthcare organizations increasingly use physician satisfaction and attitudes as a key performance indicator. Further, many health care organizations also have an academically oriented mission. Physician involvement in research and teaching may lead to more positive workplace attitudes, with subsequent decreases in turnover and beneficial impact on patient care. This article aimed to understand the influence of time spent on academic activities and perceived quality of care in relation to job attitudes among internal medicine physicians in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with inpatient attending physicians from 36 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, practice settings, workplace staffing, perceived quality of care, and job attitudes. Job attitudes consisted of three measures: overall job satisfaction, intent to leave the organization, and burnout. Analysis used a two-level hierarchical model to account for the nesting of physicians within medical centers. The regression models included organizational-level characteristics: inpatient bed size, urban or rural location, hospital teaching affiliation, and performance-based compensation. A total of 373 physicians provided useable survey responses. The majority (72%) of respondents reported some level of teaching involvement. Almost half (46%) of the sample reported some level of research involvement. Degree of research involvement was a significant predictor of favorable ratings on physician job satisfaction and intent to leave. Teaching involvement did not have a significant impact on outcomes. Perceived quality of care was the strongest predictor of physician job satisfaction and intent to leave. Perceived levels of adequate physician staffing was a significant contributor to all three job attitude measures. Expanding opportunities for physician involvement with research may lead to more positive work experiences

  19. The Association of Intended and Attained Curriculum in Science with Program for International Students Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çepni, Salih

    2014-01-01

    International examination results have already influenced many countries to make radical reforms in education system. According to these results countries have been categorized as high, middle and low achievement in education. Turkey has also taken these results into consideration quite seriously and started to investigate to what extent there are…

  20. Regulation of glutamate receptor internalization by the spine cytoskeleton is mediated by its PKA-dependent association with CPG2

    PubMed Central

    Loebrich, Sven; Djukic, Biljana; Tong, Zachary J.; Cottrell, Jeffrey R.; Turrigiano, Gina G.; Nedivi, Elly

    2013-01-01

    A key neuronal mechanism for adjusting excitatory synaptic strength is clathrin-mediated endocytosis of postsynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs). The actin cytoskeleton is critical for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of its interaction with the endocytic process and how it may be regulated. Here we show that F-actin in dendritic spines physically binds the synaptic nuclear envelope 1 gene product candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) in a PKA-dependent manner, and that this association is required for synaptic GluR internalization. Mutating two PKA sites on CPG2 disrupts its cytoskeletal association, attenuating GluR endocytosis and affecting the efficacy of synaptic transmission in vivo. These results identify CPG2 as an F-actin binding partner that functionally mediates interaction of the spine cytoskeleton with postsynaptic endocytosis. Further, the regulation of CPG2/F-actin association by PKA provides a gateway for cellular control of synaptic receptor internalization through second messenger signaling pathways. Recent identification of human synaptic nuclear envelope 1 as a risk locus for bipolar disorder suggests that CPG2 could play a role in synaptic dysfunction underlying neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:24191017

  1. British American Tobacco ghost-wrote reports on tobacco advertising bans by the International Advertising Association and J J Boddewyn.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    2008-06-01

    In 1983 and 1986, the International Advertising Association (IAA) published an original version and then a revision of a report entitled "Tobacco Advertising Bans and Consumption in 16 Countries," which were edited by J J Boddewyn, a marketing professor. The reports concluded that tobacco advertising bans have not been accompanied by any significant reduction in tobacco consumption. Opponents of tobacco advertising restrictions trumpeted the IAA reports in print materials, media communications and legislative hearings during the 1980s and beyond. A new analysis of tobacco industry documents and transcripts of tobacco litigation testimony reveals that British American Tobacco ghost-wrote the IAA reports and that the Tobacco Institute (the trade association then representing the major US cigarette manufacturers) helped to arrange for Boddewyn to present the findings to the US Congress and the media. Further research on tobacco industry documents and tobacco litigation transcripts should assess whether tobacco industry sources were responsible for ghost-writing other studies favourable to the industry.

  2. Participation of National Medical Associations in quality improvement activities - International comparison and the Israeli case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many countries have devoted considerable efforts in an attempt to improve the performance of their health care systems. National Medical Associations (NMAs), along with other stakeholders, play a part in the promotion of such activities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and level of participation of NMAs in activities of quality improvement in medicine, with a specific emphasis on Israel. Methods The authors conducted a survey among NMAs around the world inquiring as to their involvement in three central aspects of quality improvement: clinical guidelines, quality measurement and continuing medical education (CME). In addition, they conducted a review of the literature in order to gather more information and complete the data collected in the survey. The findings were processed and analyzed comparatively. Results Most of the NMAs surveyed participate in quality improvement activities at least to some extent. NMAs' main involvement is in the regulation of CME and they are involved to a much lesser extent in the preparation of clinical guidelines and in quality measurement. In Israel, the Israeli Medical Association (IMA) has a dominant role in both the preparation of clinical guidelines and the regulation of CME credits. Discussion It is possible that the expertise maintained by the profession, coupled with the organizational power of the NMA as a union, is viewed as beneficial for regulating educational activities in medicine such as CME. Conversely, the issuing of clinical guidelines is usually regarded as a typical scientific activity, and therefore often rests in the hands of professional medical societies. Quality measurement is regarded as a distinctive administrative tool and is usually found in the province of governments. Based on the typology that we introduced in our previous paper, we discovered that the extent of NMAs’ involvement in quality improvement coincides with the mode of governance of the health care system

  3. Regulatory tasks of national medical associations - international comparison and the Israeli case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many countries, NMAs, along with other stakeholders, play a part in the regulation of physicians. The purpose of this paper is to compare and explain the level of involvement of NMAs in physician regulation in several developed countries, with a specific emphasis on Israel. Methods The authors conducted a review of the literature on physician regulation, focusing on licensing and registration, postgraduate training and physician disciplinary measures. Detailed country specific information was also obtained via the websites of relevant NMAs and regulatory bodies and correspondence with select NMAs. Five test cases were examined in detail: Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Israeli case will be discussed at greater length. Results Medical licensing usually lies in the hands of the government (on the national or state level). Specialist training, on the other hand, is often self-regulated and entrusted in the hands of the profession, frequently under the direct responsibility of the NMA, as in Israel, the Netherlands and Germany. In all the countries presented, other than Germany, the NMA is not involved in instituting disciplinary procedures in cases of alleged physician misconduct. Discussion The extent to which NMAs fulfill regulatory functions varies greatly from country to country. The relationship between government and the profession in the area of regulation often parallels the dominant mode of governance in the health care system as a whole. Specifically, the level of involvement of the Israeli Medical Association in medical regulation is a result of political, historical and ideological arrangements shaped vis-à-vis the government over the years. Conclusions In Continental Europe, co-operation between the NMA and the government is more common than in the USA and the UK. The Israeli regulatory model emerged in a European-like fashion, closer to the Netherlands than to Germany. The Israeli case, as

  4. AACSB Deans' Understanding of Multimedia Copyright Laws and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatlin, Rebecca; Arn, Joseph V.; Kordsmeier, William

    1999-01-01

    Fewer than 60% of 114 business-education deans answered questions correctly about fair use and the use of copyrighted multimedia materials in instruction. Those with less multimedia experience assumed copyright regulations to be more restrictive than they actually are. (SK)

  5. Conference scene: Summary of the 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories with international participation.

    PubMed

    Carasevici, Eugen

    2011-10-01

    The Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories (RAML) conferences have acquired a reputation for standing out as the most prominent and efficient meetings in the national community of laboratory medicine, being a landmark of the development in this field in Romania and an active affiliation to international forums. This year, the conference setting was Piatra Neamt, in the northeast part of Romania, which produced a friendly and stimulating professional environment. As in previous years, leading experts in the fields of laboratory medicine attended the event. This year, we enjoyed the opportunity to have such distinguished guests as the members of the executive board of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC); Graham Beastall, IFCC President; Päivi Hannele Laitinen, IFCC secretary; and Grazyna Sypniewska, IFCC Communication and Publication Division, and editor of the electronic journal of the IFCC. As usual, the conference program included all aspects of clinical laboratory activity, with a special focus on technology development, instrumentation and laboratory management. Fully aware of the fact that the complexity and depth of laboratory practice have undergone an impressive and rapid evolution, the specific goals of the event were to increase knowledge in the fundamentals of new molecular investigation, areas which show the tendency to become routine in our daily activity. In addition, laboratory management and the place of medical laboratories in the process of translational medicine were subjects of focus. The 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories was held from Wednesday 1st to Saturday 4th of June 2011. A total of 273 participants from all local branches of the Association attended. The scientific program included seven plenary sessions where 22 lectures and 18 short communications were delivered, and three poster sessions with 44 poster presentations. Session topics covered issues of

  6. International Perspectives on Environmental Education: Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st International and 13th Annual Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed.

    The proceedings of the first International Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers and reports are…

  7. DSM-IV personality disorders and associations with externalizing and internalizing disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Ruan, W June; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-11-01

    Although associations between personality disorders and psychiatric disorders are well established in general population studies, their association with liability dimensions for externalizing and internalizing disorders has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between personality disorders (PDs) and lifetime externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders. Data were obtained from the total sample of 34,653 respondents from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drawing on the literature, a 3-factor exploratory structural equation model was selected to simultaneously assess the measurement relations among DSM-IV Axis I substance use and mood and anxiety disorders and the structural relations between the latent internalizing-externalizing dimensions and DSM-IV PDs, adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status. Antisocial, histrionic, and borderline PDs were strong predictors for the externalizing factor, while schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PDs had significantly larger effects on the internalizing fear factor when compared to the internalizing misery factor. Paranoid, schizoid, narcissistic, and dependent PDs provided limited discrimination between and among the three factors. An overarching latent factor representing general personality dysfunction was significantly greater on the internalizing fear factor followed by the externalizing factor, and weakest for the internalizing misery factor. Personality disorders offer important opportunities for studies on the externalizing-internalizing spectrum of common psychiatric disorders. Future studies based on panic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may elucidate PD associations with the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Investigating the Association between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits in a Community-Based Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The phenotypic and etiologic relation between internalizing and autistic-like traits is studied using a community-based twin sample. Internalizing and autistic-like traits showed moderate phenotypic overlap but have specific genetic influences.

  9. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics. First Revision.

    PubMed

    Mantas, John; Ammenwerth, Elske; Demiris, George; Hasman, Arie; Haux, Reinhold; Hersh, William; Hovenga, Evelyn; Lun, K C; Marin, Heimar; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Wright, Graham

    2010-01-07

    Objective: The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on revising the existing international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), particularly international activities in educating BMHI specialists and the sharing of courseware. Method: An IMIA task force, nominated in 2006, worked on updating the recommendations' first version. These updates have been broadly discussed and refined by members of IMIA's National Member Societies, IMIA's Academic Institutional Members and by members of IMIA's Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education. Results and Conclusions: The IMIA recommendations center on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (e.g. physicians, nurses, BMHI professionals), 2) type of specialization in BMHI (IT users, BMHI specialists), and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, doctorate). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role a) as IT user and b) as BMHI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in BMHI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in BMHI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in BMHI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high-quality BMHI education. It supports information

  10. Male perception about the inconveniences associated with monthly bleeding for their partner - an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle; Fiala, Christian; Häusler, Günther; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    To assess men's perceptions about monthly bleeding and associated inconveniences for their partner, as well as men's attitudes regarding the desired menstruation frequency for their partner and knowledge about hormonal contraceptives. A 15 min quantitative online survey was conducted among 5044 men aged 18-45 years, who had been in a relationship for more than 6 months, across 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland). Responses were compared to those obtained in a similar study among European women. Most men perceived that their partner considered her menstrual flow as moderate, lasting an average of 5.2 d, slightly longer than previously reported by women. Almost all men reported that their partners experience menstruation-related symptoms. However, prevalence of mood-related symptoms was perceived to be more frequent and physical symptoms less frequent, relative to women's self-reported symptoms. Given the option, 71% of men would choose longer intervals between their partner's periods. Maintaining the couple's sex life, social life and relationship quality were key factors cited in their preference. Overall, 42% of respondents stated that women taking hormonal contraceptives needed to have monthly periods. Men's perception regarding their partner's periods was generally consistent with that previously reported by women. Most men would prefer less frequent bleeding episodes for their partners. Although, the present data suggest that couples are discussing periods, knowledge about contraception could be improved. Health care professionals should intensify counselling to better inform both partners about their contraceptive options.

  11. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  12. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science.

  13. Microgravity Induces Changes in Microsome-Associated Proteins of Arabidopsis Seedlings Grown on Board the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    The “GENARA A” experiment was designed to monitor global changes in the proteome of membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to microgravity on board the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose, 12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1 g centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated to membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1 g (space and ground) and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated to auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in µg space conditions, whereas proteins associated to stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in µg than in 1 g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach gives a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected. PMID:24618597

  14. Microgravity induces changes in microsome-associated proteins of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on board the international space station.

    PubMed

    Mazars, Christian; Brière, Christian; Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    The "GENARA A" experiment was designed to monitor global changes in the proteome of membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to microgravity on board the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose, 12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1 g centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated to membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1 g (space and ground) and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated to auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in µg space conditions, whereas proteins associated to stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in µg than in 1 g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach gives a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected.

  15. Policy and Practice Implications of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000. Report of the International Reading Association PISA Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith; Valtin, Renate; Roller, Cathy; Brozo, William; Dionisio, M. Lourdes

    The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a study of comparisons. Subjects, 15-year-old students from 32 participating countries, were compared in their abilities to "use literacy knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges," as assessed on a two-hour, paper-and-pencil test. Students also responded to a…

  16. Interpersonal and intrapersonal factors as parallel independent mediators in the association between internalized HIV stigma and ART adherence

    PubMed Central

    Seghatol-Eslami, Victoria C.; Dark, Heather; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Janet M.; Turan, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People living with HIV (PLWH) need to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to achieve optimal health. One reason for ART non-adherence is HIV-related stigma. Objectives We aimed to examine whether HIV treatment self-efficacy (an intrapersonal mechanism) mediates the stigma – adherence association. We also examined whether self-efficacy and the concern about being seen while taking HIV medication (an interpersonal mechanism) are parallel mediators independent of each other. Methods 180 PLWH self-reported internalized HIV stigma, ART adherence, HIV treatment self-efficacy, and concerns about being seen while taking HIV medication. We calculated bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for indirect effects using bootstrapping to conduct mediation analyses. Results Adherence self-efficacy mediated the relationship between internalized stigma and ART adherence. Additionally, self-efficacy and concern about being seen while taking HIV medication uniquely mediated and explained almost all of the stigma – adherence association in independent paths (parallel mediation). Conclusion These results can inform intervention strategies to promote ART adherence. PMID:27926668

  17. Motivations, Costs and Results of AOL: Perceptions of Accounting and Economics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenfelder, Mark J.; Bryan, Lois D.; Lee, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) on improving student learning through Assurance of Learning (AOL) makes faculty involvement in the process at AACSB accredited schools important. This study examines the attitudes of accounting and economics faculty at AACSB accredited institutions toward the AOL…

  18. Association between tax structure and cigarette consumption: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ce; Lee, Hye Myung; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O'Connor, Richard J

    2018-05-24

    Recent studies show that greater price variability and more opportunities for tax avoidance are associated with tax structures that depart from a specific uniform one. These findings indicate that tax structures other than a specific uniform one may lead to more cigarette consumption. This paper aims to examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with cigarette consumption. We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Self-reported cigarette consumption was aggregated to average measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on cigarette consumption was estimated using generalised estimating equations after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, average taxes and year fixed effects. Our study provides important empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette consumption. We find that a change from a specific to an ad valorem structure is associated with a 6%-11% higher cigarette consumption. In addition, a change from uniform to tiered structure is associated with a 34%-65% higher cigarette consumption. The results are consistent with existing evidence and suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The Pain Associates' International Network Initiative: a novel practical approach to the challenge of chronic pain management in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morlion, Bart; Walch, Heribert; Yihune, Gabriel; Vielvoye-Kerkmeer, Ans; de Jong, Zuzana; Castro-Lopes, José; Stanton-Hicks, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with a multidimensional impact on the lives of patients, their families and communities. The public health burden of chronic pain is gathering recognition as a major healthcare problem in its own right and deserves closer attention. The challenge in treating chronic pain is to provide effective clinical management of a complex, multifaceted set of conditions that require a coordinated strategy of care. Epidemiological data and patient surveys have highlighted the areas of pain management that might be improved. These include a need for better understanding and documentation of the symptoms of chronic pain, standardized levels of care, improved communication among clinical personnel and with patients, and an updated education program for clinicians. For these reasons, new strategies aimed at improving the standards of pain management are needed. The Pain Associates' International Network (P.A.I.N.) Initiative was set up to devise practical methods for improving the quality of pain management for patients. These strategies have recently been put into practice through a number of activities: P.A.I.N. Workshops are meetings of international pain management professionals dedicated to discussing current management strategies and producing consensus recommendations for improving standards of care; P.A.I.N. Quality is a unique software program designed to help treating clinicians to document patient data and derive effective treatment plans; P.A.I.N. Online provides a web site forum for discussion of pain management topics; and P.A.I.N. Management is a clinician education program providing up-to-date training in pain management.

  20. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Miller, Roger G.; Pugh, Barry K.; Howell, Edwin I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been 238PuO2, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the ``Pluto Express'' mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS).

  1. National and International Associations... 50 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Looking back fifty years is a salutary experience. There is a sense that everything changes, and everything stays the same. Whilst people now have a global non-government organisation to support national bodies in the field of adult learning, most of the national members have a fragile financial base, and the International Council for Adult…

  2. Multiple Free Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Insertion in the Treatment of Macular Hole-Associated Retinal Detachment in High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Ni; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Yang, Chung-May

    2018-06-06

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of multiple free internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap insertion in the management of macular hole-associated retinal detachment in high myopia. Eyes receiving operation for macular hole-associated retinal detachment were retrospectively recruited. Those in the study group received ILM peeling and multiple free ILM flap insertion, while those in the control group received ILM peeling only. Postoperative anatomical outcomes and best-corrected visual acuity were compared between the 2 groups. Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients were recruited in this study (13 in the study group, 14 in the control group). After the operation, the retina was reattached in all cases in both groups. The macular hole closure rate was 100% in the study group but only 42.9% in the control group (adjusted p < 0.001). The eyes in the study group had better visual improvement (logMAR -0.58 ± 0.43) than those in the control group (logMAR -0.31 ± 0.50) with borderline significance (adjusted p = 0.078). For macular hole-associated retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes, the multiple free ILM flap insertion technique offers an effective way to close macular holes. Whether this result also means better visual outcome remains to be seen. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Results of the 2017 National Resident Matching Program® and the American Osteopathic Association Intern/Resident Registration Program.

    PubMed

    Kozakowski, Stanley M; Travis, Alexandra; Marcinek, Julie P; Bentley, Ashley; Fetter, Gerald T

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of medicine as a profession is to meet the health needs of people and communities. Despite empirical evidence worldwide that an appropriate foundation of primary care in a health care system leads to improved health outcomes, improved experience of health care, a reduction in health disparities, and lower overall cost of care, publicly available data from National Resident Matching Program® (NRMP) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Intern/Resident Registration Program show that PGY-1 family medicine and primary care positions offered in the NRMP Match continue to grow, but are losing ground in comparison to the growth of non-primary care specialties. In ACGME-accredited family medicine programs, DO students have been displacing non-US citizen IMGs while the proportion of US seniors has remained stable over the past decade. The impact of the displacement of non-US citizen IMGs by DO students in ACGME programs is unknown and deserves future research. Continuing trends in the growth of non-primary care specialties should raise great concern that the current primary shortage will be exacerbated, not serving the needs of the population. A major overhaul of the graduate medical education (GME) system is required to align the medical education system with the transformation of the health care system needed to improve quality, population health, and cost control.

  4. The Politics of Accountability: Educative and International Perspectives. The 1997 Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold J. S., Ed.

    This book reports on the outcomes of an international policy-research project concerned with how power is used in education to construct and discharge obligations among stakeholders. The collection of articles suggests how such processes might better serve educational ends. The research examines how the politics of education at the site and…

  5. Inaugural conference of the International Association of Immunization Managers (IAIM), Istanbul Turkey, 3-4 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Peter; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Andrus, Jon; Waller, Katie; Maassen, Alison; Symenouh, Emi; Hafalia, Gabrielle

    2015-08-07

    For more than 35 years, most national immunization programs have established managerial structures and processes for delivering vaccination services to their populations. These days, immunization managers are facing an increasing number of challenges due to the introduction of new vaccines, shifting demographic patterns, complex networks of service providers, and maintaining the gains achieved with previous vaccination efforts. To confront these challenges, better program performance will require better managerial practices, which incorporates new technologies. To that end, the International Association of Immunization Managers (IAIM) is the first global professional association launched to promote superior leadership and management skills among health professionals involved with vaccination efforts worldwide. From 3 to 4 March 2015, approximately 132 members from 70 countries representing six regions, gathered in Istanbul, Turkey for the inaugural conference of IAIM. In the two-day program, members selected thirteen peers to constitute the Governing Council. The 12 articles of the bylaws of the Association were also ratified. This conference was a forum for sharing managerial best practices through networking sessions, breakout sessions, and presentations. Members also learned about IAIM sponsored training opportunities to deepen their managerial competencies through peer-to-peer exchanges and scholarship training programs. We believe that the IAIM inaugural conference was an appropriate platform for equipping managers with tools and professional network of peers to support them in achieving national, regional and global immunization goals, including those of the Global Vaccine Action Plan of the World Health Organization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  7. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Methods An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection

  8. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  9. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.

  10. Factors Associated With Pharmacy Student Interest in International Study

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. Methods. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Results. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. Conclusions. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  11. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Costa Mesa, California, January 18-21, 2001. Papers include: (1) "An Elementary Preservice Teacher's Search for Solutions about the Evolution-Divine Creation Question: The Story of Tracy"…

  12. Referral for competency committee review for poor performance on the internal medicine clerkship is associated with poor performance in internship.

    PubMed

    Hemann, Brian A; Durning, Steven J; Kelly, William F; Dong, Ting; Pangaro, Louis N; Hemmer, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    remediation garnering low ratings compared to 18% of the reviewed group. Students who are referred to a committee for review following completion of their internal medicine clerkship are more likely to receive poor ratings in internship and fail USMLE Step 3 compared to students whose performance in the medicine clerkship does not trigger a committee review. These findings provide validity evidence for our competency committee review in that the students identified as requiring further clinical work had significantly higher rates of poor ratings in professionalism than students who were reviewed by the competency committee but not required to remediate. Additionally, students reviewed but not required to remediate were nonetheless at risk of low internship ratings, suggesting that these students might need some intervention prior to graduation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. First international spread and dissemination of the virulent Queensland community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    Ellington, M J; Ganner, M; Warner, M; Boakes, E; Cookson, B D; Hill, R L; Kearns, A M

    2010-07-01

    We report the first international spread and dissemination of ST93-SCCmecIV (Queensland clone) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), previously identified in communities and hospitals in Australia. Ten highly genetically related MRSA isolates and one methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolate were identified in England between 2005 and June 2008. The demography and clinical features were typical for community-associated-MRSA. One female with MRSA infection died from necrotizing pneumonia. Travel between Australia and the UK, and some onward transmission, suggested that both importation and clonal dissemination of this strain had occurred, albeit to a small extent. Nosocomial transmission was not detected, but we remain vigilant for further importations and/or spread.

  14. Visual Literacy in the Digital Age: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (25th, Rochester, New York, October 13-17, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Darrel G.; And Others

    This document contains selected papers from the 25th annual conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA). Topics addressed in the papers include the following: visual literacy; graphic information in research and education; evaluation criteria for instructional media; understanding symbols in business presentations;…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

  16. [Rules of the International Air Traffic Association and problems of transporting disabled passengers by commercial airlines].

    PubMed

    La Verde, R; Manai, A

    1983-08-25

    The IATA regulations on the scheduled flight transportation of sick passengers is presented and the problems involved illustrated. Among other recommendations it is suggested that collaboration with the patients' doctors in filling up the MEDIF form is essential for the sick passenger's comfort and safety.

  17. Visible and Viable: The Role of Images in Instruction and Communication. Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (18th, Commerce, Texas, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    Presentations at the International Visual Literacy Association conference are grouped under five topics, a prologue, and an epilogue: (1) Prologue--"Writing About Visual Literacy" (Roberts A. Braden); (2) Visible Language--four papers concerning picture books, the Macintosh and Laserwriter, the design of library signs, and visual literacy and…

  18. Growth and nutritional status, and their association with lung function: a study from the international Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Cohort.

    PubMed

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Spycher, Ben D; Maurer, Elisabeth; Belle, Fabiën; Amirav, Israel; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Carr, Siobhan; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Dell, Sharon; Ferkol, Thomas; Haarman, Eric G; Karadag, Bulent; Knowles, Michael; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W; Loebinger, Michael R; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G; Phillipsen, Maria; Sagel, Scott D; Santamaria, Francesca; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Lucas, Jane S; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disease can affect growth and nutrition, which can influence lung function. We investigated height, body mass index (BMI), and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).In this study, based on the international PCD (iPCD) Cohort, we calculated z-scores for height and BMI using World Health Organization (WHO) and national growth references, and assessed associations with age, sex, country, diagnostic certainty, age at diagnosis, organ laterality and lung function in multilevel regression models that accounted for repeated measurements.We analysed 6402 measurements from 1609 iPCD Cohort patients. Height was reduced compared to WHO (z-score -0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.06) and national references (z-score -0.27, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.21) in male and female patients in all age groups, with variation between countries. Height and BMI were higher in patients diagnosed earlier in life (p=0.026 and p<0.001, respectively) and closely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity z-scores (p<0.001).Our study indicates that both growth and nutrition are affected adversely in PCD patients from early life and are both strongly associated with lung function. If supported by longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that early diagnosis with multidisciplinary management and nutritional advice could improve growth and delay disease progression and lung function impairment in PCD. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  19. British American Tobacco ghost-wrote reports on tobacco advertising bans by the International Advertising Association and J J Boddewyn

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R M

    2008-01-01

    In 1983 and 1986, the International Advertising Association (IAA) published an original version and then a revision of a report entitled “Tobacco Advertising Bans and Consumption in 16 Countries,” which were edited by J J Boddewyn, a marketing professor. The reports concluded that tobacco advertising bans have not been accompanied by any significant reduction in tobacco consumption. Opponents of tobacco advertising restrictions trumpeted the IAA reports in print materials, media communications and legislative hearings during the 1980s and beyond. A new analysis of tobacco industry documents and transcripts of tobacco litigation testimony reveals that British American Tobacco ghost-wrote the IAA reports and that the Tobacco Institute (the trade association then representing the major US cigarette manufacturers) helped to arrange for Boddewyn to present the findings to the US Congress and the media. Further research on tobacco industry documents and tobacco litigation transcripts should assess whether tobacco industry sources were responsible for ghost-writing other studies favourable to the industry. PMID:18339800

  20. Report from the International Permafrost Association: carbon pools in permafrost regions

    Treesearch

    Peter Kuhry; Chien-Lu Ping; Edward A.G. Schuur; Charles Tarnocai; Sergey Zimov

    2009-01-01

    The IPA Carbon Pools in Permafrost Regions (CAPP) Project started in 2005, with endorsement of the Earth System Science Partnership (EESP) Global Carbon Project and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Climate and Cryosphere Project. CAPP is also a project of the IPY. The project was launched because there is considerable concern and increased awareness both...

  1. What Is Evidence-Based Reading Instruction? A Position Statement of the International Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    Low achievement in literacy correlates with high rates of school dropout, poverty, and underemployment. The far-reaching effects of literacy achievement have heightened the interest of educators and noneducators alike in the teaching of reading. As the goal is pursued of providing literacy instruction that is most likely to lead to high rates of…

  2. Reachout: Associations of College Unions-International Proceedings of the Forty Eighth Annual Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Madison, WI.

    A wide range of articles concerned with the major work and interests of college unions are organized into six topical areas; (1) philosophical considerations about the purposes and directions of college unions; (2) management and operation of the college union; (3) food service; (4) programming; (5) contemporary society and the college union; and…

  3. Microflora associated with the internal surfaces of rubber and stainless steel milk transfer pipeline.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S J; Gilmour, A

    1987-04-01

    Sterile sections of rubber and stainless steel milk transfer pipeline were inserted sequentially into a milking installation and soiled with fresh raw milk over a period of 5 d. The resultant adherent microbial population was removed and the generic composition of mesophilic and psychotropic types was determined. In all cases Acinetobacter spp. were found to predominate (59.5-75.6%). The generic composition of the raw milk used to soil the milking unit (with inserted pipe section) was determined once during each 5-d soiling period. In general the milk was found to contain a mixed flora in which Gram-positive organisms predominated.

  4. Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes associated with the International Space Station environmental surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Urbaniak, C.; Sielaff, A. Checinska; Frey, K. G.; ...

    2018-01-16

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue. In an effort to minimize this threat to astronauts, who may be immunocompromised and thus at a greater risk of infection from antimicrobial resistant pathogens, a comprehensive study of the ISS “resistome’ was conducted. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and disc diffusion antibiotic resistance assays, 9 biosafety level 2 organisms isolated from the ISS were assessed for their antibiotic resistance. Molecular analysis of AMR genes from 24 surface samples collected from the ISS during 3 different sampling events over a span of a year were analyzed with Ion AmpliSeq™ and metagenomics. Discmore » diffusion assays showed that Enterobacter bugandensis strains were resistant to all 9 antibiotics tested and Staphylococcus haemolyticus being resistant to none. Ion AmpliSeq™ revealed that 123 AMR genes were found, with those responsible for beta-lactam and trimethoprim resistance being the most abundant and widespread. Using a variety of methods, the genes involved in antimicrobial resistance have been examined for the first time from the ISS. Lastly, this information could lead to mitigation strategies to maintain astronaut health during long duration space missions when return to Earth for treatment is not possible.« less

  5. Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes associated with the International Space Station environmental surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaniak, C.; Sielaff, A. Checinska; Frey, K. G.

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue. In an effort to minimize this threat to astronauts, who may be immunocompromised and thus at a greater risk of infection from antimicrobial resistant pathogens, a comprehensive study of the ISS “resistome’ was conducted. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and disc diffusion antibiotic resistance assays, 9 biosafety level 2 organisms isolated from the ISS were assessed for their antibiotic resistance. Molecular analysis of AMR genes from 24 surface samples collected from the ISS during 3 different sampling events over a span of a year were analyzed with Ion AmpliSeq™ and metagenomics. Discmore » diffusion assays showed that Enterobacter bugandensis strains were resistant to all 9 antibiotics tested and Staphylococcus haemolyticus being resistant to none. Ion AmpliSeq™ revealed that 123 AMR genes were found, with those responsible for beta-lactam and trimethoprim resistance being the most abundant and widespread. Using a variety of methods, the genes involved in antimicrobial resistance have been examined for the first time from the ISS. Lastly, this information could lead to mitigation strategies to maintain astronaut health during long duration space missions when return to Earth for treatment is not possible.« less

  6. Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes associated with the International Space Station environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, C; Sielaff, A Checinska; Frey, K G; Allen, J E; Singh, N; Jaing, C; Wheeler, K; Venkateswaran, K

    2018-01-16

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue. In an effort to minimize this threat to astronauts, who may be immunocompromised and thus at a greater risk of infection from antimicrobial resistant pathogens, a comprehensive study of the ISS "resistome' was conducted. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and disc diffusion antibiotic resistance assays, 9 biosafety level 2 organisms isolated from the ISS were assessed for their antibiotic resistance. Molecular analysis of AMR genes from 24 surface samples collected from the ISS during 3 different sampling events over a span of a year were analyzed with Ion AmpliSeq ™ and metagenomics. Disc diffusion assays showed that Enterobacter bugandensis strains were resistant to all 9 antibiotics tested and Staphylococcus haemolyticus being resistant to none. Ion AmpliSeq ™ revealed that 123 AMR genes were found, with those responsible for beta-lactam and trimethoprim resistance being the most abundant and widespread. Using a variety of methods, the genes involved in antimicrobial resistance have been examined for the first time from the ISS. This information could lead to mitigation strategies to maintain astronaut health during long duration space missions when return to Earth for treatment is not possible.

  7. “Live” Formulations of International Association for the properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Gurke, S.

    2017-11-01

    Online publication of IAPWS formulations for calculation of the properties of water and steam is reviewed. The advantages of electronic delivery via Internet over traditional publication on paper are examined. Online calculation can be used with or without formulas or equations printed in traditional publications. Online calculations should preferably free of charge and compatible across multiple platforms (Windows, Android, Linux). Other requirements include availability of multilingual interface, traditional math operators and functions, 2D and 3D graphic capabilities, animation, numerical and symbolic math, tools for solving equation systems, local functions, etc. Using of online visualization tools for verification of functions for calculating thermophysical properties of substances is reviewed. Specific examples are provided of tools for the modeling of the properties of chemical substances, including desktop and online calculation software, downloadable online calculations, and calculations that use server technologies such as Mathcad Calculation Server (see the site of National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”) and SMath (see the site of Knovel, an Elsevier company).

  8. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Canada's Libraries in 2002: A Year of Partnerships; A Golden Celebration: The National Library of Canada at 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Beacher; Adams, Karen G.; Starr, Mary Jane

    2003-01-01

    These three reports discuss international library organization issues, including awards and grants, digital technology, and membership; and Canadian library issues, including federal information policy issues, library services, projected shortage of librarians, mergers, digital divide, and a history of the National Library of Canada. (LRW)

  9. Application of the International Water Association activated sludge models to describe aerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, M; Eskicioglu, C

    2011-12-01

    Batch and semi-continuous flow aerobic digesters were used to stabilize thickened waste-activated sludge at different initial conditions and mean solids retention times. Under dynamic conditions, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids (VSS) and total and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD and PCOD) were monitored in the batch reactors and effluent from the semi-continuous flow reactors. Activated Sludge Model (ASM) no. 1 and ASM no. 3 were applied to measured data (calibration data set) to evaluate the consistency and performances of models at different flow regimes for digester COD and VSS modelling. The results indicated that both ASM1 and ASM3 predicted digester COD, VSS and PCOD concentrations well (R2, Ra2 > or = 0.93). Parameter estimation concluded that compared to ASM1, ASM3 parameters were more consistent across different batch and semi-continuous flow runs with different operating conditions. Model validation on a data set independent from the calibration data successfully predicted digester COD (R2 = 0.88) and VSS (R2 = 0.94) concentrations by ASM3, while ASM1 overestimated both reactor COD (R2 = 0.74) and VSS concentrations (R2 = 0.79) after 15 days of aerobic batch digestion.

  10. Reading Education Policy: A Collection of Articles from the International Reading Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick, Ed.; Edmondson, Jacqueline, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This collection of articles delivers the knowledge and insights one needs to understand policymaking at many levels, by reviewing viewpoints in categories: (1) Policy-driven research; (2) Policy communications research; and (3) Critical policy research. Educators can use this book to learn how to analyze policy issues, engage in policymaking with…

  11. Survey of Ergonomics Databases in Member Countries of the International Ergonomics Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Psychology Salud y Trabajo Journal of Auditory Research Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Journal of Consumer Research Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation...Biological Engineering and Computing World Textile Abstracts Medicina del Lavoro Medicina y Segundad del Trabajo Zeitschrift fi~r Arbeituwisenchaft Mens en ...sources of data will be misinterpreted or missed en - applicability" in selecting subject areas, many data found in tirely. Thus the effectiveness of

  12. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s 30-hour duty period requirement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Methods Retrospective review of interns’ performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Conclusions Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the

  13. "Reachout." Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Associations of College Unions--International (48th, White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, March 21-24, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Ithaca, NY.

    This document presents the speeches and programs that comprised the 48th Annual Conference of the Associations of College Unions-International. The conference was divided into 6 major parts. The first part was concerned with the administrative organization of the college union, taking into consideration the student-faculty partnership organization…

  14. DSM-IV Personality Disorders and Associations with Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Chen, Chiung M.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Ruan, W. June; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although associations between personality disorders and psychiatric disorders are well established in general population studies, their association with liability dimensions for externalizing and internalizing disorders has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between personality disorders (PDs) and lifetime externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders. Methods Data were obtained from the total sample of 34,653 respondents from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drawing on the literature, a 3-factor exploratory structural equation model was selected to simultaneously assess the measurement relations among DSM-IV Axis I substance use and mood and anxiety disorders and the structural relations between the latent internalizing-externalizing dimensions and DSM-IV PDs, adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status. Results Antisocial, histrionic, and borderline PDs were strong predictors for the externalizing factor, while schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PDs had significantly larger effects on the internalizing fear factor when compared to the internalizing misery factor. Paranoid, schizoid, narcissistic, and dependent PDs provided limited discrimination between and among the three factors. An overarching latent factor representing general personality dysfunction was significantly greater on the internalizing fear factor followed by the externalizing factor, and weakest for the internalizing misery factor. Conclusion Personality disorders offer important opportunities for studies on the externalizing-internalizing spectrum of common psychiatric disorders. Future studies based on panic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may elucidate PD associations with the internalizing spectrum of disorders. PMID:23932575

  15. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  16. The accuracy of International Classification of Diseases coding for dental problems not associated with trauma in a hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Rafael L F; Singhal, Sonica; Dempster, Laura; Hwang, Stephen W; Quinonez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits for nontraumatic dental conditions (NTDCs) may be a sign of unmet need for dental care. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the International Classification of Diseases codes (ICD-10-CA) for ED visits for NTDC. ED visits in 2008-2099 at one hospital in Toronto were identified if the discharge diagnosis in the administrative database system was an ICD-10-CA code for a NTDC (K00-K14). A random sample of 100 visits was selected, and the medical records for these visits were reviewed by a dentist. The description of the clinical signs and symptoms were evaluated, and a diagnosis was assigned. This diagnosis was compared with the diagnosis assigned by the physician and the code assigned to the visit. The 100 ED visits reviewed were associated with 16 different ICD-10-CA codes for NTDC. Only 2 percent of these visits were clearly caused by trauma. The code K0887 (toothache) was the most frequent diagnostic code (31 percent). We found 43.3 percent disagreement on the discharge diagnosis reported by the physician, and 58.0 percent disagreement on the code in the administrative database assigned by the abstractor, compared with what it was suggested by the dentist reviewing the chart. There are substantial discrepancies between the ICD-10-CA diagnosis assigned in administrative databases and the diagnosis assigned by a dentist reviewing the chart retrospectively. However, ICD-10-CA codes can be used to accurately identify ED visits for NTDC. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Internal roosting location is associated with differential use of the outdoor range by free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, I C; Weeks, C A; Norman, K I; Knowles, T G; Nicol, C J

    2018-04-01

    1. In commercial free-range systems for laying hens, popholes to the outdoor range are often installed on one side of the house only. In multi-tier systems, it is possible that some individuals fail to access the range due to internal barriers to movement. 2. Five commercial multi-tier flocks from different units were studied. For each flock, two different colour markers were used to distinguish 200 birds roosting near the popholes (NP-Roost) and 200 birds roosting far from the popholes (FP-Roost) at night. The following day, counts of marked birds on the range and inside the house were performed. 3. Significantly more NP-Roost birds were observed in all areas of the outdoor range than FP-Roost birds the next day. Distance of FP area from the popholes was very strongly positively correlated with effect size in the adjacent range area. 4. Additionally, in the indoor area far from the popholes (FP) more FP-Roost birds were observed the next day than NP-Roost birds. In the indoor area near to the popholes (NP) more NP-Roost birds were observed the next day than FP-Roost birds. 5. These results suggest that roosting location is associated with differential range use when popholes are only available on one side of the shed as birds that roosted far from the popholes used the range less.

  18. Dreams and Dynamics. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (22nd, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, September 27-30, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Sigrun Klara, Ed.; And Others

    The themes of the 22nd Annual International Association of School Librarianship conference were: "Building a Picture of Society in the Year 2000"; "Literature--Themes of the '90s Towards the Future"; "Education--Partnerships To Develop Life-Long Learners"; and "Technology into the 21st Century." The…

  19. Incidence and diagnosis of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in the intensive care unit: an international online survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several aspects of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT)—including diagnostic criteria, overlap with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and appropriate treatment regimens—remain poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to survey reported practices in the clinical and microbiological diagnosis of VAT and to evaluate perceptions of the impact of VAT on patient outcomes. Methods We developed a questionnaire consisting of (a) characteristics of the respondent, the ICU, and hospital; (b) current clinical and microbiological diagnostic approach; (c) empirical antibiotic therapy; and (d) the perception of physicians regarding the clinical impact of VAT and its implications. Results A total of 288 ICUs from 16 different countries answered the survey: 147 (51%) from the Latin American (LA) group and 141 (49%) from Spain, Portugal, and France (SPF group). The majority of respondents (n = 228; 79.2%) reported making the diagnosis of VAT based on clinical and microbiological criteria, and 40 (13.9%) by clinical criteria alone. Approximately half (50.3%) of the respondents agreed that patients should receive antibiotics for the treatment of VAT. Out of all respondents, 269 (93.4%) assume that a VAT episode increases ICU length of stay, and this perception is greater in the LA group (97.3%) than in the SPF group (89.4%, P <0.05). Half of the physicians considered that VAT increases the risk of mortality, and this perception is again greater in the LA group (58.5% versus 41.1%, P <0.05). Conclusions Given the possible high incidence of VAT and the perception of its importance as a risk factor for VAP and mortality, a large multicenter international prospective study would be helpful to validate a consensual definition of VAT, determine its incidence, and delineate its impact on subsequent VAP occurrence. PMID:24521533

  20. Neighborhood disadvantage as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and toddler-aged children’s internalizing and externalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Kristin L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Laird, Robert D.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood dangerousness and belongingness were expected to moderate associations between harsh parenting and toddler-aged children’s problem behaviors. Fifty-five predominantly African American mothers participated with their 2-year old children. Neighborhood danger, neighborhood belongingness, and children’s problem behaviors were measured with mothers’ reports. Harsh parenting was measured with observer ratings. Analyses considered variance common to externalizing and internalizing problems, using a total problems score, and unique variance, by controlling for internalizing behavior when predicting externalizing behavior, and vice-versa. Regarding the common variance, only the main effects of neighborhood danger and harsh parenting were significantly associated with total problem behavior. In contrast, after controlling for externalizing problems, the positive association between harsh parenting and unique variance in internalizing problems became stronger as neighborhood danger increased. No statistically significant associations emerged for the models predicting the unique variance in externalizing problems or models considering neighborhood belongingness. PMID:21355648

  1. Perceptions of Visual Literacy. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (21st, Scottsdale, Arizona, October 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 37 papers from 51 authors noted for their expertise in the field of visual literacy. The collection is divided into three sections: (1) "Examining Visual Literacy" (including, in addition to a 7-year International Visual Literacy Association bibliography covering the period from 1983-1989, papers on the perception of…

  2. Literacy: Traditional, Cultural, Technological. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (23rd, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 17-22, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    Themes of the 23rd Annual International Association of School Librarianship conference included "Traditional Literacy,""The Current Status of Libraries,""Literacy in a Technological World," and "Preserving Cultural and Historical Literacy." The following papers were presented at the conference: (1)…

  3. Gender-Related Discourses as Mediators in the Association between Internalization of the Thin-Body Ideal and Indicants of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; Sheahan, Emer E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the gender-related discourses of self-objectification, self-silencing, and anger suppression mediated the association between internalization of the thin-body ideal and body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. We employed a cross-sectional design to study both university (n = 140) and community (n = 76) samples of…

  4. Striving for Excellence. The International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (Atlanta, Georgia, March 4-7, 1992). Research Poster Session Abstract. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Steven C., Comp.

    Eleven abstracts of research projects related to individuals with learning disabilities are compiled in this booklet. The research projects were presented in poster sessions at the March 1992 International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America. Titles and authors of poster sessions include: "Perceptual and Verbal Skills of…

  5. Development of internally controlled duplex real-time NASBA diagnostics assays for the detection of microorganisms associated with bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Eoin; Coughlan, Helena; Higgins, Owen; Boo, Teck Wee; Cormican, Martin; Barrett, Louise; Smith, Terry J; Reddington, Kate; Barry, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Three duplex molecular beacon based real-time Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) assays have been designed and experimentally validated targeting RNA transcripts for the detection and identification of Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae respectively. Each real-time NASBA diagnostics assay includes an endogenous non-competitive Internal Amplification Control (IAC) to amplify the splice variant 1 mRNA of the Homo sapiens TBP gene from human total RNA. All three duplex real-time NASBA diagnostics assays were determined to be 100% specific for the target species tested for. Also the Limits of Detection (LODs) for the H. influenzae, N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae duplex real-time NASBA assays were 55.36, 0.99, and 57.24 Cell Equivalents (CE) respectively. These robust duplex real-time NASBA diagnostics assays have the potential to be used in a clinical setting for the rapid (<60min) specific detection and identification of the most prominent microorganisms associated with bacterial meningitis in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving detection of HIV-associated cognitive impairment: Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale and a Brief Screening Battery

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Kamat, Rujvi; Cherner, Mariana; Umlauf, Anya; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Franklin, Donald; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was developed to screen for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), but it has been used more generally for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study sought to examine the accuracy of the IHDS in a cohort of Brazilian HIV-infected individuals and compare its performance to an alternative screening battery for detecting HAND. Methods 108 participants (including 60 HIV-infected persons), completed the IHDS and a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery of 17 tests. As alternative screening method, all possible three-test combinations from the NP battery were examined and a superiority index (a marker of specificity and sensitivity) was calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity to HAND using the standard IHDS cutpoint of 10 were 36% and 75% respectively. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was accomplished with a modified cutpoint of 11.5, which yielded sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 58%. The top two most sensitive test combinations, compared to the gold standard NP battery, were Trail Making Test A, WAIS-III Digit Symbol (DS) and HVLT-R Total Recall (sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%), and DS, BVMT-R Total Recall and Grooved Pegboard Test-Dominant Hand (sensitivity 94%, specificity 91%). Conclusions Both test combinations can be administered in under 10 minutes and were more accurate than the IHDS in classifying HIV+ participants as NP impaired or unimpaired. These data suggest that demographically corrected T-scores from commonly used NP measures with modest time and material demands can improve identification of patients with HAND who may benefit from a more extensive NP examination. PMID:27828876

  7. Improving Detection of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale and a Brief Screening Battery.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Kamat, Rujvi; Cherner, Mariana; Umlauf, Anya; Ribeiro, Clea E; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Franklin, Donald; Heaton, Robert K; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-03-01

    The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was developed to screen for HIV-associated dementia, but it has been used more generally for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study sought to examine the accuracy of the IHDS in a cohort of Brazilian HIV-infected individuals and compare its performance to an alternative screening battery for detecting HAND. A total of 108 participants (including 60 HIV-infected persons) completed the IHDS and a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery of 17 tests. As alternative screening method, all possible 3-test combinations from the NP battery were examined and a superiority index (a marker of specificity and sensitivity) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity to HAND using the standard IHDS cutpoint of 10 were 36% and 75%, respectively. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was accomplished with a modified cutpoint of 11.5, which yielded sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 58%. The top two most sensitive test combinations, compared with the gold standard NP battery, were Trail Making Test A, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III Digit Symbol and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total Recall (sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%), and Digit Symbol, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised Total Recall and Grooved Pegboard Test-dominant hand (sensitivity 94%, specificity 91%). Both test combinations can be administered in less than 10 minutes and were more accurate than the IHDS in classifying HIV+ participants as NP impaired or unimpaired. These data suggest that demographically corrected T-scores from commonly used NP measures with modest time and material demands can improve identification of patients with HAND who may benefit from a more extensive NP examination.

  8. International Nanny Association (INA) Survey: Results and Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Glenn W.; And Others

    This document reports the findings of a survey of 145 members of the International Nanny Association (INA). Survey results showed that 82.8 percent of respondents attended college, while 21.4 percent received bachelor's or master's degrees. Many of the nannies had taken classes or training in child care. Most nannies found their job placement…

  9. Survey of New Horizons International Music Association Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Don

    2009-01-01

    This study analysed survey responses from 1652 New Horizons International Music Association (NHIMA) musicians in the United States and Canada to better understand older adults' experiences in making music. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) ascertain the extent of NHIMA musicians' musical backgrounds and their current involvement in…

  10. Identifying core nursing sensitive outcomes associated with the most frequently used North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International nursing diagnoses for patients with cerebrovascular disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Kim, Youngae; Park, Sang Youn

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the core nursing sensitive outcomes according to the most frequently used five North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International for patients with cerebrovascular disease using the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A cross-sectional survey design was used. First, nursing problems were identified through 78 charts review, and then linkages between each of nursing problems and nursing sensitive outcomes were established and validated by an expert group for questionnaires. Second, 80 nurses working in the neurosurgical intensive care unit and neurosurgery departments of five Korean hospitals were asked to evaluate how important each outcome is and how often each outcome used to evaluate patient outcomes using 5-point Likert scale. Although there were some differences in the core outcomes identified for each of the nursing problem, consciousness, cognitive orientation, neurologic status and communication were considered the most critical nursing sensitive outcomes for patients suffering cerebrovascular disease. Core nursing sensitive outcomes of patients suffering cerebrovascular disease using NOC were identified to measure the effectiveness of nursing care. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Associations between quality indicators of internal medicine residency training programs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several residency program characteristics have been suggested as measures of program quality, but associations between these measures are unknown. We set out to determine associations between these potential measures of program quality. Methods Survey of internal medicine residency programs that shared an online ambulatory curriculum on hospital type, faculty size, number of trainees, proportion of international medical graduate (IMG) trainees, Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores, three-year American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE) first-try pass rates, Residency Review Committee-Internal Medicine (RRC-IM) certification length, program director clinical duties, and use of pharmaceutical funding to support education. Associations assessed using Chi-square, Spearman rank correlation, univariate and multivariable linear regression. Results Fifty one of 67 programs responded (response rate 76.1%), including 29 (56.9%) community teaching and 17 (33.3%) university hospitals, with a mean of 68 trainees and 101 faculty. Forty four percent of trainees were IMGs. The average post-graduate year (PGY)-2 IM-ITE raw score was 63.1, which was 66.8 for PGY3s. Average 3-year ABIM-CE pass rate was 95.8%; average RRC-IM certification was 4.3 years. ABIM-CE results, IM-ITE results, and length of RRC-IM certification were strongly associated with each other (p < 0.05). PGY3 IM-ITE scores were higher in programs with more IMGs and in programs that accepted pharmaceutical support (p < 0.05). RRC-IM certification was shorter in programs with higher numbers of IMGs. In multivariable analysis, a higher proportion of IMGs was associated with 1.17 years shorter RRC accreditation. Conclusions Associations between quality indicators are complex, but suggest that the presence of IMGs is associated with better performance on standardized tests but decreased duration of RRC-IM certification. PMID:21651768

  12. VisionQuest: Journeys toward Visual Literacy. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (28th, Cheyenne, Wyoming, October, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 59 selected papers from the 1996 International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) conference. Topics include: learning to think visually; information design via the Internet; a program for inner-city at-risk children; dubbing versus subtitling television programs; connecting advertisements and classroom reading through…

  13. INTERNATIONAL APPROACH TO LEARNING DISABILITIES OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH, ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES, INC. (3RD, TULSA, OKLAHOMA, MARCH 3-5, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MESIROW, LOUISE

    SELECTED PRESENTATIONS (27) OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES ARE PRESENTED. PAPERS FROM GENERAL SESSIONS DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING TOPICS--LEARNING DISABILITIES, A SCREENING SCALE, DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIATION, ETIOLOGY, AND READING. OTHER TOPIC AREAS INCLUDE MEDICATION, THE…

  14. International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (3rd, Auckland, New Zealand, November 25-27, 1992). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Gan Che, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight papers presented at the Third International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (AAIR) are published in this journal issue. They represent the diversity and richness of the field of Planning in the Public Sector" (Jack Smith); (2) "Futures Planning for Tertiary Education: Curricula for the 21st…

  15. The international union of psychological science and the politics of membership: psychological associations in South Africa and the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Dumont, K; Louw, J

    2001-11-01

    This article examines the origins and the development of psychological associations in the German Democratic Republic and the Republic of South Africa and the ways membership in the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS)--founded in 1951--figured in the process. The political regimes in these 2 countries had difficulties of their own in achieving a standing in the international community and, as a result, psychologists faced significant dilemmas in gaining legitimacy for the discipline. Membership in the IUPsyS served an important function in gaining legitimacy for the discipline in both countries, but it also contradicted legitimizing strategies that involved the countries' distinctive political and social structures. Membership in the IUPsyS was sufficiently important for psychologists to try to strike a compromise between different legitimation strategies.

  16. Paternal Absence and International Migration: Stressors and Compensators Associated with the Mental Health of Mexican Teenagers of Rural Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; de Snyder, V. Nelly Salgado; Romero, Martha; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mexico-U.S. migration creates situations that may cause psychological distress. The purpose of this research project was to study the impact of father's physical absence due to international migration (FPAIM) on adolescent offspring of rural immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico. Stressors and compensators were studied from the adolescent's…

  17. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  18. American Association on Mental Retardation's "Definition, Classification, and System of Supports" and Its Relation to International Trends and Issues in the Field of Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the 2002 American Association on Mental Retardation's (AAMR's) "Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports" (the 2002 System) and discusses its relationship to salient international trends and several scientific and judgmental issues currently impacting the field of intellectual disabilities (ID). Five…

  19. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  20. Factors Associated with Medical Knowledge Acquisition During Internal Medicine Residency

    PubMed Central

    Zeger, Scott L.; Kolars, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Knowledge acquisition is a goal of residency and is measurable by in-training exams. Little is known about factors associated with medical knowledge acquisition. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of learning habits on medical knowledge acquisition. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS Cohort study of all 195 residents who took the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) 421 times over 4 years while enrolled in the Internal Medicine Residency, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MEASUREMENTS Score (percent questions correct) on the IM-ITE adjusted for variables known or hypothesized to be associated with score using a random effects model. RESULTS When adjusting for demographic, training, and prior achievement variables, yearly advancement within residency was associated with an IM-ITE score increase of 5.1% per year (95%CI 4.1%, 6.2%; p < .001). In the year before examination, comparable increases in IM-ITE score were associated with attendance at two curricular conferences per week, score increase of 3.9% (95%CI 2.1%, 5.7%; p < .001), or self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource 20 minutes each day, score increase of 4.5% (95%CI 1.2%, 7.8%; p = .008). Other factors significantly associated with IM-ITE performance included: age at start of residency, score decrease per year of increasing age, −0.2% (95%CI −0.36%, −0.042%; p = .01), and graduation from a US medical school, score decrease compared to international medical school graduation, −3.4% (95%CI −6.5%, −0.36%; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS Conference attendance and self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource had statistically and educationally significant independent associations with knowledge acquisition that were comparable to the benefit of a year in residency training. PMID:17468889

  1. Profiles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms associated with bullying victimization.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Meridith; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; North, Kari

    2018-06-01

    This study identified profiles of internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (delinquency and violence against peers) symptoms among bullying victims and examined associations between bullying victimization characteristics and profile membership. The sample consisted of 1196 bullying victims in grades 8-10 (M age  = 14.4, SD = 1.01) who participated in The Context Study in three North Carolina counties in Fall 2003. Five profiles were identified using latent profile analysis: an asymptomatic profile and four profiles capturing combinations of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Associations between bullying characteristics and membership in symptom profiles were tested using multinomial logistic regression. More frequent victimization increased odds of membership in the two high internalizing profiles compared to the asymptomatic profile. Across all multinomial logistic regression models, when the high internalizing, high externalizing profile was the reference category, adolescents who received any type of bullying (direct, indirect, or dual) were more likely to be in this category than any others. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  3. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2013-01-01

    the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  4. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

    2013-01-01

    Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2)-4.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.

  5. Limited Internal Radiation Exposure Associated with Resettlements to a Radiation-Contaminated Homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

    2013-01-01

    Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12–30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers’ resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309–1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1–18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10-2-4.1 x 10-2 mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

  6. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  7. Ephrinb1 and Ephrinb2 Are Associated with Interleukin-7 Receptor α and Retard Its Internalization from the Cell Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongyu; Wu, Zenghui; Qi, Shijie; Jin, Wei; Han, Bing; Wu, Jiangping

    2011-01-01

    IL-7 plays vital roles in thymocyte development, T cell homeostasis, and the survival of these cells. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) on thymocytes and T cells is rapidly internalized upon IL-7 ligation. Ephrins (Efns) are cell surface molecules and ligands of the largest receptor kinase family, Eph kinases. We discovered that T cell-specific double gene knock-out (dKO) of Efnb1 and Efnb2 in mice led to reduced IL-7Rα expression in thymocytes and T cells, and that IL-7Rα down-regulation was accelerated in dKO CD4 cells upon IL-7 treatment. On the other hand, Efnb1 and Efnb2 overexpression on T cell lymphoma EL4 cells retarded IL-7Rα down-regulation. dKO T cells manifested compromised STAT5 activation and homeostatic proliferation, an IL-7-dependent process. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Efnb1 and Efnb2 interacted physically with IL-7Rα. Such interaction likely retarded IL-7Rα internalization, as Efnb1 and Efnb2 were not internalized. Therefore, we revealed a novel function of Efnb1 and Efnb2 in stabilizing IL-7Rα expression at the post-translational level, and a previously unknown modus operandi of Efnbs in the regulation of expression of other vital cell surface receptors. PMID:22069310

  8. Illnesses Associated with Freshwater Recreation During International Travel.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Daniel L; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2018-05-22

    International travel, adventure travel, and eco-tourism are increasing over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize the spectrum of infections associated with recreational freshwater activities and international travel. Recreational water activities can be associated with a wide range of infections. Acute febrile illnesses due to leptospirosis and schistosomiasis are not uncommon in travelers following extensive freshwater exposure. Aeromonas and other water-associated pathogens are important to consider in a traveler presenting with a skin and soft tissue infection. Recreational water activities are often associated with diarrheal illnesses, especially in children, and the range of enteric pathogens includes bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella species and the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis. Infections due to free-living amebas though rare can lead to fulminant central nervous system infections. A diverse range of infections may be associated with freshwater exposure, and it is important that these entities are considered in a returning traveler presenting with an acute illness.

  9. Congenital absence of the bilateral internal carotid artery: a review of the associated (ab)normalities from a newborn status to the eighth decade of life.

    PubMed

    Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Vlajković, Slobodan; Radenković, Goran

    2018-01-01

    Due to the fact that the internal carotid artery (ICA) is responsible for nourishing two thirds of the brain volume, our aim was to inspect the morphofunctional consequences of the bilateral lack of this artery. In order to examine this condition, we referred to both the library archive of our Faculty of Medicine and electronic databases of anatomical and clinical reports that included the following keywords: "absence," "aplasia," or "agenesis" in combination with "internal carotid artery," "common carotid artery," or only "carotid artery." We found 60 recorded cases of the bilateral ICA absence in the subjects of newborn status to the eighth decade of life, which had been discovered in 20 countries. The following ten parameters were described: the embryological base, terminology, history, incidence, general data, differential diagnosis, collateral circulation, the associated vascular aplasia and/or other variants, pathophysiology, and the importance in praxis. This review noted all the cases of the bilateral ICA aplasia published for the past 104 years. Although there were 11.6% of cases of the associated cerebral aneurysms and 1-4 cases of 16 other diseases, approximately one quarter of the cases was without any pathology.

  10. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  11. Diabetes mellitus in older people: position statement on behalf of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), the European Diabetes Working Party for Older People (EDWPOP), and the International Task Force of Experts in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alan; Morley, John E; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leo; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Bayer, Tony; Zeyfang, Andrej; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Vischer, Ulrich; Woo, Jean; Chapman, Ian; Dunning, Trisha; Meneilly, Graydon; Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel; Gutierrez Robledo, Luis Miguel; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gadsby, Roger; Schernthaner, Guntram; Lorig, Kate

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent metabolic condition in ageing societies associated with high levels of morbidity, multiple therapies, and functional deterioration that challenges even the best of health care systems to deliver high-quality, individualized care. Most international clinical guidelines have ignored the often-unique issues of frailty, functional limitation, changes in mental health, and increasing dependency that characterize many aged patients with diabetes. A collaborative Expert Group of the IAGG and EDWPOP and an International Task Force have explored the key issues that affect diabetes in older people using a robust method comprising a Delphi process and an evidence-based review of the literature. Eight domains of interest were initially agreed and discussed: hypoglycemia, therapy, care home diabetes, influence of comorbidities, glucose targets, family/carer perspectives, diabetes education, and patient safety. A set of "consensus" statements was produced in each domain of interest. These form a foundation for future policy development in this area and should influence the clinical behavior and approach of all health professionals engaged in delivering diabetes care to older people. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  13. Potential for the international spread of middle East respiratory syndrome in association with mass gatherings in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-07-17

    A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts.

  14. The Mediating Roles of Rejection Sensitivity and Proximal Stress in the Association Between Discrimination and Internalizing Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Dyar, Christina; Feinstein, Brian A; Eaton, Nicholas R; London, Bonita

    2018-01-01

    The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination. Drawing on minority stress theory, we tested potential mediating effects using indirect effects structural equation modeling in a sample of 300 sexual minority women. Results indicated that the indirect effect of discrimination on internalizing symptoms (a latent variable indicated by depression and anxiety symptoms) through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress (a latent variable indicated by preoccupation with stigma, concealment motivation, and difficulty developing a positive sexual identity) was significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of discrimination on rejection-based proximal stress through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity on internalizing symptoms through rejection-based proximal stress were also significant. These findings indicate that sexual orientation rejection sensitivity plays an important role in contributing to rejection-based proximal stress and internalizing symptoms among sexual minority women.

  15. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  16. The development of pain medicine in Italy and the rest of Europe 40 years after the first International Association for the Study of Pain Congress.

    PubMed

    Varrassi, Giustino; Paladini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Professor Giustino Varrassi and Antonella Paladini speak to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Professor Giustino Varrassi is Full Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine in the LUdeS University, Valletta, Malta. He graduated at the Medical School of the University 'La Sapienza' (Rome, Italy) in 1973, and became board certified in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care in 1976 and in Pneumology in 1978, both in the same Medical School. He is currently President of the European League Against Pain and of the Paolo Procacci Foundation, and is a founding member of both of these. He is also a member of the World Institute of Pain, and a member of the Board of the Associazione Italiana per lo Studio del Dolore. He has been an invited speaker at more than 500 congresses (national and international), mainly in obstetric anesthesia and pain medicine. He is also the author of approximately 500 papers, published in international and national scientific journals, and 46 book chapters, mainly on obstetric anesthesia and pain medicine. He is the editor of 31 books and congress proceedings, including a textbook on obstetric anesthesia. He has also been the organizer of around 40 congresses, including European and World congresses on Pain Medicine. Professor Antonella Paladini is an Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the L'Aquila University, Italy. She has recently been nominated as Associate Professor of Anesthesiology in the LUdeS University, in Valletta, Malta. She graduated in medicine at L'Aquila University in 1989, and has got her Board Certification with laude in Anesthesia in 1992 and served as anesthetist in few teaching hospitals, mainly in cardiac surgery departments. Since 2000, she is in charge of the L'Aquila University, and has addressed her interests toward pain medicine. In 2004, she got the Board Certificate in Pain Medicine, with laude, in the University of Verona. She has a huge scientific production, with over 60 papers published in

  17. Extracranial-intracranial bypass in medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the intracranial segments of the internal carotid artery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yabo; Wang, Zhong; Han, Qingdong

    2018-06-01

    Tumor resection and extracranial-intracranial bypass concerning medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of intracranial segments has been rarely presented. Effective treatment as to the complex lesions may be complicated. Tumor resection and cerebrovascular protection should be both taken into consideration. We presented one case of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery of intracranial segments. The patient suffered hyperthyroidism, mirror-image dextrocardia and congenital heart disease atrial septal defect simultaneously. Before the neurosurgical treatment , the colleagues of department of cardiac surgery, anesthesiology and respiratory medicine agreed on our plan of resecting the tumor following the comprehensive evaluation of basal clinical conditions in the patient. For reducing the bleeding intraoperatively, the interventional branch performed digital subtraction angiography(DSA) and found collateral anastomosis between the supplying vessels of left middle meningeal arteries and anterior choroid arteries. No preoperative interventional embolization was determined considering the risk of cerebral ischemia. The following subtotal resection of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma and left extracranial-intracranial bypass were carried out. Additionally, ipsilateral decompressive craniectomy was done. Post-operative imaging Computed tomography (CT), Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) indicated subtotal resection of tumor and bypass patency. The patient was discharged with the right limbs of muscle strength of grade IV. The muscle strength of the patient returned to grade V after 6 months of follow-up. Comprehensive treatment of tumor resection and extracranial-intracranial bypass concerning medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery of intracranial segments is

  18. Analysis of the association between millennium development goals 4 & 5 and the physician workforce across international economic strata.

    PubMed

    Morley, Christopher P; Wang, Dongliang; Mader, Emily M; Plante, Kyle P; Kingston, Lindsey N; Rabiei, Azadeh

    2017-07-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5. Data for each variable of interest were obtained from the World Bank's Millennium Development Goals and World Development Indicators databases for 208 countries and territories from 2004 to 2014, representing a ten-year period for which the most information is available. We analyzed the relationships between MDG outcomes and PDL, controlling for national income levels and other covariates, using linear mixed model regression. Dependent variables were logarithmically transformed to meet assumptions necessary for multivariate analysis. In unadjusted models, an increase of every one physician per 1000 population (one unit change in PDL) lowered the risk of not being vaccinated for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) to 29.3% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 22.2%-38.7%) and for not receiving diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccination rate decreased to 38.5% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 28.7% - 51.7%). Maternal mortality rate decreased to 76.6% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 74.3% - 79.0%), neonatal mortality decreased to 58.8% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 54.8% - 63.2%) and under-5 mortality rate decreased to 52.1% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 48.0% - 56.4%), with every one-unit change in PDL. Adjusted models tended to reflect unadjusted risk assessments. The maintenance and improvement of the health workforce is a vital consideration when assessing how to achieve

  19. What Variables Are Associated With the Outcome of Arthroscopic Lysis and Lavage Surgery for Internal Derangement of the Temporomandibular Joint?

    PubMed

    Haeffs, Tyler H; D'Amato, Lindsay N; Khawaja, Shehryar N; Keith, David A; Scrivani, Steven J

    2018-04-26

    Arthroscopic lysis and lavage surgery (AS) is an effective modality that can decrease pain and increase maximum interincisal opening (MIO) in patients with internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, some patients remain in pain or have limited mandibular range of motion despite AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness, prevalence of adverse effects, and predictors of response to TMJ AS in patients with TMJ arthralgia and ID. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data of patients who had undergone AS by a single surgeon (D.A.K.) from September 2010 to April 2015 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA). Variables, including demographic data, medical history, and clinical presentation, were extracted and analyzed. Criteria for surgical success were defined as a postoperative MIO of at least 35 mm and a postoperative pain level no higher than 3 on an 11-point Likert-type numeric verbal pain rating scale. Appropriate descriptive and analytic statistics were computed and significance was set at a P value less than .05. Of the 247 participants, 226 (91.5%) were women. The mean age of the sample was 38 ± 15.4 years. Successful surgical outcome was achieved in 62.3% of patients. Based on logistic regression analysis, higher initial mean pain score and concurrent use of benzodiazepines were the only variables that predicted an unsuccessful surgical outcome (P < .001; P = .005). Adverse effects were reported by 13.4% of patients, the most common being postoperative increase in pain (13.4%), temporary malocclusion (1.2%), and temporary paresthesia in the preauricular region (0.4%). The results from this study indicate that in patients with ID of the TMJ unresponsive to noninvasive treatments, high initial pain scores and concurrent use of benzodiazepines are correlated with an unsuccessful outcome after AS. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  20. Association study of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene and bipolar affective disorder using family-based internal controls.

    PubMed

    Rietschel, M; Schorr, A; Albus, M; Franzek, E; Kreiner, R; Held, T; Knapp, M; Müller, D J; Schulze, T G; Propping, P; Maier, W; Nöthen, M M

    2000-06-12

    The tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene encodes for the rate-limiting enzyme of the serotonin metabolism and, therefore, has to be considered a major candidate for association studies in affective disorders. Recently, an association between this gene and bipolar affective disorder has been reported in a French population. We sought to replicate this finding in a German sample. Allele frequencies of a biallelic polymorphism (A218C) of the TPH gene were determined in 95 bipolar I patients and their parents. Preferential transmission of alleles from heterozygous parents to bipolar offspring was tested with the "transmission disequilibrium test" (TDT), which eliminates the contribution of population stratification to an association finding. Our sample yielded a power >90% to detect the originally reported effect. Neither allele 218A nor allele 218C were preferentially transmitted from heterozygous parents to bipolar offspring. Our results, therefore, do not support the hypothesis that the TPH gene is involved in the etiology of bipolar disorder.

  1. Mediating Effects of Social Support and Internalized Homonegativity on the Association Between Population Density and Mental Health Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria N.; Mirzayi, Chloe; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Depression negatively impacts the health and well-being of gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little is known about the contexts in which rural GBM live relative to those living in urban areas and their overall mental health. The aim of this study was to examine associations between population density and depressive symptoms and the role of internalized homonegativity and social support as potential mediators. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 1071 GBM (mean age = 40.24) was enrolled. Participants provided their zip codes, which were categorized according to population density and rank-normalized. Results: In a path analysis model adjusted for race/ethnicity, college education, age, and relationship status, higher population density was significantly associated with increased social support (B = 0.11, P = 0.002) and decreased internalized homonegativity (B = −0.06, P < 0.001). In turn, lower social support (B = −2.93, P < 0.001) and greater internalized homonegativity (B = 4.93, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms. The indirect effects of population density on depression through social support (B = −0.33, P < 0.001) and internalized homonegativity (B = −0.31, P < 0.001) were statistically significant, suggesting evidence for mediation of the effects. Conclusions: These results indicate that living in less inhabited areas acts on depressive symptoms through mechanisms of lower social support and higher internalized homonegativity. These findings suggest that social contexts in which GBM live can affect mental health outcomes and indicate the need for further support and inclusion of GBM, especially in less inhabited areas. PMID:28792886

  2. Mediating Effects of Social Support and Internalized Homonegativity on the Association Between Population Density and Mental Health Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Cain, Demetria N; Mirzayi, Chloe; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    Depression negatively impacts the health and well-being of gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little is known about the contexts in which rural GBM live relative to those living in urban areas and their overall mental health. The aim of this study was to examine associations between population density and depressive symptoms and the role of internalized homonegativity and social support as potential mediators. A nationally representative sample of 1071 GBM (mean age = 40.24) was enrolled. Participants provided their zip codes, which were categorized according to population density and rank-normalized. In a path analysis model adjusted for race/ethnicity, college education, age, and relationship status, higher population density was significantly associated with increased social support (B = 0.11, P = 0.002) and decreased internalized homonegativity (B = -0.06, P < 0.001). In turn, lower social support (B = -2.93, P < 0.001) and greater internalized homonegativity (B = 4.93, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms. The indirect effects of population density on depression through social support (B = -0.33, P < 0.001) and internalized homonegativity (B = -0.31, P < 0.001) were statistically significant, suggesting evidence for mediation of the effects. These results indicate that living in less inhabited areas acts on depressive symptoms through mechanisms of lower social support and higher internalized homonegativity. These findings suggest that social contexts in which GBM live can affect mental health outcomes and indicate the need for further support and inclusion of GBM, especially in less inhabited areas.

  3. The costs associated with adverse event procedures for an international HIV clinical trial determined by activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Victoria B; Omer, Saad B; Hussain, Hamidah; Mugasha, Christine; Musisi, Maria; Mmiro, Francis; Musoke, Philippa; Jackson, J Brooks; Guay, Laura A

    2007-12-01

    To determine costs for adverse event (AE) procedures for a large HIV perinatal trial by analyzing actual resource consumption using activity-based costing (ABC) in an international research setting. The AE system for an ongoing clinical trial in Uganda was evaluated using ABC techniques to determine costs from the perspective of the study. Resources were organized into cost categories (eg, personnel, patient care expenses, laboratory testing, equipment). Cost drivers were quantified, and unit cost per AE was calculated. A subset of time and motion studies was performed prospectively to observe clinic personnel time required for AE identification. In 18 months, there were 9028 AEs, with 970 (11%) reported as serious adverse events. Unit cost per AE was $101.97. Overall, AE-related costs represented 32% ($920,581 of $2,834,692) of all study expenses. Personnel ($79.30) and patient care ($11.96) contributed the greatest proportion of component costs. Reported AEs were predominantly nonserious (mild or moderate severity) and unrelated to study drug(s) delivery. Intensive identification and management of AEs to conduct clinical trials ethically and protect human subjects require expenditure of substantial human and financial resources. Better understanding of these resource requirements should improve planning and funding of international HIV-related clinical trials.

  4. "It runs in my family …": The association of perceived family history with body dissatisfaction and weight bias internalization among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Miriam H; Street, Richard L; Persky, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Aspects of poor body acceptance (BA), such as internalized weight bias and dissatisfaction with one's shape and size, are the strongest predictors of disordered eating and are associated with reduced engagement in healthy behaviors. Perceiving oneself as having a family history of overweight (PFH) could boost BA by increasing attributions for inherited, biological causes of weight. A community sample of 289 women who were overweight from the Washington, DC metropolitan area who were dissatisfied with their current weight (68% Black; 32% White) enrolled in this study in 2012. PFH of overweight was associated with decreased internalized weight bias among white women and marginally increased body shape satisfaction generally. The relationship between PFH and BA was not explained by biological attributions for weight. Perceptions that overweight runs in one's family can be protective with respect to BA. This is suggestive of the potential benefit of integrating family-based approaches into weight management interventions.

  5. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Debourdeau, P; Farge, D; Beckers, M; Baglin, C; Bauersachs, R M; Brenner, B; Brilhante, D; Falanga, A; Gerotzafias, G T; Haim, N; Kakkar, A K; Khorana, A A; Lecumberri, R; Mandala, M; Marty, M; Monreal, M; Mousa, S A; Noble, S; Pabinger, I; Prandoni, P; Prins, M H; Qari, M H; Streiff, M B; Syrigos, K; Büller, H R; Bounameaux, H

    2013-01-01

    Although long-term indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) and loss of the CVC, there is lack of consensus on management of CVC-related thrombosis (CRT) in cancer patients and heterogeneity in clinical practices worldwide. To establish common international Good Clinical Practices Guidelines (GCPG) for the management of CRT in cancer patients. An international working group of experts was set up to develop GCPG according to an evidence-based medicine approach, using the GRADE system. For the treatment of established CRT in cancer patients, we found no prospective randomized studies, two non-randomized prospective studies and one retrospective study examining the efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). One retrospective study evaluated the benefit of CVC removal and two small retrospective studies were on thrombolytic drugs. For the treatment of symptomatic CRT, anticoagulant treatment (AC) is recommended for a minimum of 3 months; in this setting, LMWHs are suggested. VKAs can also be used, in the absence of direct comparisons of these two types of anticoagulants in this setting [Guidance]. The CVC can be kept in place if it is functional, well-positioned and non-infected and there is good resolution under close surveillance; whether the CVC is kept or removed, no standard approach in terms of AC duration has been established [Guidance]. For the prophylaxis of CRT in cancer patients, we found six randomized studies investigating the efficacy and safety of VKA vs. placebo or no treatment, one on the efficacy and safety of unfractionnated heparin, six on the value of LMWH, one double-blind randomized and one non randomized study on thrombolytic drugs and six meta-analyses of AC and CVC thromboprophylaxis. Type of catheter (open-ended like the Hickman(®) catheter vs. closed-ended catheter with a valve like the Groshong(®) catheter), its position (above, below or at the

  6. Severe role impairment associated with mental disorders: Results of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jordi; Mortier, Philippe; Auerbach, Randy P; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Vilagut, Gemma; Cuijpers, Pim; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ebert, David D; Ennis, Edel; Gutiérrez-García, Raul A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hasking, Penelope; Lochner, Christine; Nock, Matthew K; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-05-30

    College entrance is a stressful period with a high prevalence of mental disorders. To assess the role impairment associated with 12-month mental disorders among incoming first-year college students within a large cross-national sample. Web-based self-report surveys assessing the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders and health-related role impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale) were obtained and analyzed from 13,984 incoming first-year college students (Response = 45.5%), across 19 universities in eight countries. Impairment was assessed in the following domains: home management, work (e.g., college-related problems), close personal relationships, and social life. Mean age of the sample was 19.3 (SD = 0.59) and 54.4% were female. Findings showed that 20.4% of students reported any severe role impairment (10% of those without a mental disorder vs. 42.9% of those with at least one disorder, P < 0.01). In bivariate analyses, panic disorder, and mania were associated most frequently with severe impairment (60.6% and 57.5%, respectively). Students reporting three or more mental disorders had almost fivefold more frequently severe impairment relative to those without mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression showed that major depression (OR = 4.0; 95%CI = 3.3, 4.8), generalized anxiety (OR = 3.9; 95%CI = 3.1, 4.8), and panic disorder (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.4, 4.2) were associated with the highest odds of severe impairment. Only minimal deviations from these overall associations were found across countries. Mental disorders among first-year college students are associated with substantial role impairment. Providing preventative interventions targeting mental disorders and associated impairments is a critical need for institutions to address. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sex differences in the association between internalizing symptoms and hair cortisol level among 10-12 year-old adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingyun; Pan, Fada; Ren, Lingling; Xiao, Jing; Tao, Fangbiao

    2018-01-01

    Although numerous studies have described the relationship between HPA axis dysregulation and internalizing symptoms among adolescents, research using hair cortisol concentrations in pre- and young adolescent samples has not been reported. We investigated the association of self-reported internalizing symptoms with cortisol concertration in hair among pre- and young adolescents aged 10-12 years. Forty-six boys and 39 girls supplied a hair sample of at least 3 cm in length for an analysis of this period (3 months) cortisol excretion. Saliva cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) also was assessed. The study found a positive association between ratings of depressive symptoms and cumulative levels of hair cortisol only in boys. Furthermore, higher ratings of anxiety symptoms were associated with lower hair cortisol concertration and lower saliva cortisol reactivity among girls. This study provides the first evidence for the notion that depressive symptoms in boys are associated with long-term cortisol concertration in hair, whereas anxiety symptoms in girls are associated with HPA-axis hypoactivity, when hair cortisol concentrations and saliva cortisol reactivity to acute stress are assessed concurrently.

  8. Selected Monographs from the Association for Experiential Education International Conference (26th, Incline Village, Nevada, November 5-9, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Experiential Education, Boulder, CO.

    This document contains 20 edited presentations, each in a two-page digest-like format, from the 1998 conference of the Association for Experiential Education (AEE). Presentations are: (1) "Adapting Equipment and Teaching Methods for Persons with Disabilities" (Cindy Dillenschneider); (2) "Adventure Programming and Facilitating When You Don't Know…

  9. Association analysis of the monoamine oxidase A gene in bipolar affective disorder by using family-based internal controls

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Eggermann, K.; Propping, P.

    1995-10-01

    It is well accepted that association studies are a major tool in investigating the contribution of single genes to the development of diseases that do not follow simple Mendelian inheritance pattern (so-called complex traits). Such major psychiatric diseases as bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia clearly fall into this category of diseases. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  10. International Ergonomics Association Activities and Constituent Societies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    science, home economics, psychology and social science. The research papers presented at the annual meeting reflect this broad range of interests...of health of the Polish population, general problems of social and human development, as well as ergonomic issues in architecture, design, and the...Ergonomics Society C. N. Ong Department of Social Medicine and Public Health National University of Singapore Lower Kent Ridge Road Singapore 0511

  11. Measles associated with international travel in the region of the Americas, Australia and Europe, 2001-2013: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jost, M; Luzi, D; Metzler, S; Miran, B; Mutsch, M

    2015-01-01

    Travel volumes are still increasing resulting in a more interconnected world and fostering the spread of infectious diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relevance of travel-related measles, a highly transmissible and vaccine-preventable disease. Between 2001 and 2013, surveillance and travel-related measles data were systematically reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines with extraction of relevant articles from Medline, Embase, GoogleScholar and from public health authorities in the Region of the Americas, Europe and Australia. From a total of 960 records 44 articles were included and they comprised 2128 imported measles cases between 2001 and 2011. The proportion of imported cases in Europe was low at 1-2%, which reflects the situation in a measles-endemic region. In contrast, imported and import-related measles accounted for up to 100% of all cases in regions with interrupted endemic measles transmission. Eleven air-travel related reports described 132 measles index cases leading to 47 secondary cases. Secondary transmission was significantly more likely to occur if the index case was younger or when there were multiple infectious cases on board. Further spread to health care settings was found. Measles cases associated with cruise ship travel or mass gatherings were sporadically observed. Within both, endemic and non-endemic home countries, pretravel health advice should assess MMR immunity routinely to avoid measles spread by nonimmune travelers. To identify measles spread as well as to increase and sustain high vaccination coverages joint efforts of public health specialists, health care practitioners and travel medicine providers are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Consensus Statement on Optimizing Management of EGFR Mutation-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Status in 2016.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daniel S W; Yom, Sue S; Tsao, Ming S; Pass, Harvey I; Kelly, Karen; Peled, Nir; Yung, Rex C; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Yatabe, Yasushi; Unger, Michael; Mack, Philip C; Wynes, Murry W; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Weder, Walter; Yankelevitz, David; Herbst, Roy S; Gandara, David R; Carbone, David P; Bunn, Paul A; Mok, Tony S K; Hirsch, Fred R

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) represent one of the most frequent "actionable" alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Typified by high response rates to targeted therapies, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now established first-line treatment options and have transformed the treatment paradigm for NSCLC. With the recent breakthrough designation and approval of the third-generation EGFR TKI osimertinib, available systemic and local treatment options have expanded, requiring new clinical algorithms that take into account individual patient molecular and clinical profiles. In this International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer commissioned consensus statement, key pathologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations, such as optimal choice of EGFR TKI and management of brain metastasis, are discussed. In addition, recommendations are made for clinical guidelines and research priorities, such as the role of repeat biopsies and use of circulating free DNA for molecular studies. With the rapid pace of progress in treating EGFR-mutant NSCLC, this statement provides a state-of-the-art review of the contemporary issues in managing this unique subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short Communications Prepared for the Second Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (Warsaw, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

    Presented are 24 brief papers prepared by members of the Institute of Defectology in the Soviet Union for a congress on the scientific study of mental deficiency held in Warsaw in 1970. Major papers have the following titles: "Principal Directions of the Study of Anomalous Children in the U.S.S.R.", "Etiopathogenesis and…

  14. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors' contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors.

  15. School Psychology: How Universal Are Ethical Principles Approved by International Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Jean L.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…

  16. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Amirian, E Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R; Olson, Sara H; Scheurer, Michael E; Il'yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N; McCoy, Lucie S; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2016-02-01

    Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4,533 cases and 4,171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis ORs, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared with not having respiratory allergies (mOR, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biologic mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Examining the Conditions Under Which Internalized Homophobia Is Associated with Substance Use and Condomless Sex in Young MSM: the Moderating Role of Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex. Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency. IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  18. Phonemic Awareness and the Teaching of Reading. A Position Statement from the Board of Directors of the International Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This position paper considers the complex relation between phonemic awareness and reading. The paper seeks to define phonemic awareness (although there is no single definition), stating that it is typically described as an insight about oral language and in particular about the segmentation of sounds that are used in speech communication. It also…

  19. Report from the International Permafrost Association: state of permafrost in the first decade of the 21st century

    Treesearch

    J. Brown; V.E. Romanovsky

    2008-01-01

    Recent assessments have considered present-day and future responses of permafrost terrain to climate change; included are the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) and United Nations Environment Programme assessments (Romanovsky et al., 2007), the on-going National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) annual...

  20. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women (IHVN-W): Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese internalized homophobia (IH) scale, for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n=1187), or as bisexual (n=641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n=353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscales’ associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the Minority Stress Model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  1. Evaluation of the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) staging revisions in thymic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Jianxin; Fan, Limin; Yang, Jun; Hu, Dingzhong; Zhao, Heng

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) launched a worldwide Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) staging proposal for the next edition of thymic tumours. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the proposed new staging system specific to the thymic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (TWDNC). From November 2003 to July 2014, 61 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study with pathologically confirmed TWDNC in Shanghai Chest Hospital. Clinical and pathological data were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Validity evaluation was addressed by Cox proportional hazards regression model, after adjusting for potential confounders and visually assessing the distinction of curves generated based on the staging system of Masaoka-Koga and the proposed TNM ones. Thymic carcinoids made up 4% of total thymic tumours in our institution. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and the disease-free survival (DFS) rate were 72 and 41%, respectively. Neither Masaoka-Koga staging system nor the proposed TNM system showed ordered appropriateness visually in survival curves and the prognostic demarcation between stages was poor on both OS and DFS. The IASLC/ITMIG suggested that the TNM and Masaoka-Koga staging systems fail to predict the clinical course of TWDNC patients. Collaborative effort is needed in the future staging validation as ITMIG recommended. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. The favorable impact of CEBPA mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia is only observed in the absence of associated cytogenetic abnormalities and FLT3 internal duplication.

    PubMed

    Renneville, Aline; Boissel, Nicolas; Gachard, Nathalie; Naguib, Dina; Bastard, Christian; de Botton, Stéphane; Nibourel, Olivier; Pautas, Cécile; Reman, Oumedaly; Thomas, Xavier; Gardin, Claude; Terré, Christine; Castaigne, Sylvie; Preudhomme, Claude; Dombret, Hervé

    2009-05-21

    Mutations of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) gene have been associated with a favorable outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but mainly in those with a normal karyotype. Here, we analyzed the impact of associated cytogenetic abnormalities or bad-prognosis fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) in 53 patients with CEBPA(+) de novo AML treated in the Acute Leukemia French Association trials. We found that only those with a normal karyotype and no FLT3-ITD displayed the expected favorable outcome. In this context, relapse-free, disease-free, and overall survival were significantly longer than in corresponding patients without the CEBPA mutation (P = .035, .016, and .047, respectively). This was not observed in the context of an abnormal karyotype or associated FLT3-ITD. Furthermore, after adjustment on age, trial, and mutation type, these features were independently predictive of shorter overall survival in the subset of patients with CEBPA(+) AML (multivariate hazard ratio = 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.7; and 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-8.2; with P = .034 and .05, for abnormal karyotype and FLT3-ITD, respectively).

  3. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors’ contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors. PMID:27322645

  4. The IAPG: International Association for Promoting Geoethics: a scientific platform for widening the debate on problems of ethics applied to the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, Peter; Brocx, Margaret; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Errami, Ezzoura; Greco, Roberto; Kieffer, Susan W.; Daji Limaye, Shrikant; Peppoloni, Silvia; Silva, Elizabeth; Tinti, Stefano; Wang, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Geoethics consists of the research and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviours and practices regarding the Geosphere. Geoethics also deals with problems related to risk management and mitigation of geohazards. One of the most important goals of the Geoethics is to foster the proper and correct dissemination of results of scientific studies and other information on risks. Moreover, Geoethics aims to improve the relationships between the scientific community, mass media and public and aims to organize effective teaching tools to develop awareness, values and responsibility within the population. Geoethics should become part of the social knowledge and an essential point of reference for every action affecting land, water and atmosphere usage that is taken by stake-holders and decision-makers. Although Geoethics is a young discipline, it provides a forum for open discussion inside the Geosciences on the social and cultural role that Geoscientists can play in society. First, Geoethics represents an opportunity for Geoscientists to become more conscious of their responsibilities in conducting their activity, highlighting the ethical, cultural and economic repercussions that their behavioral choices may have on society. From this point of view Geoethics, at this stage of its development, is primarily an attitude of thinking: through consideration of geoethical questions, Geoscientists have the opportunity to ask questions about themselves, their skills, the quality of their work and the contribution they can provide to the healthy progress of humanity. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.iapg.geoethics.org) is a new multidisciplinary, scientific platform for widening the debate on problems of Ethics applied to the Geosciences, through international cooperation and for encouraging the involvement of geoscientists on Geoethics themes. The IAPG was founded to increase the awareness inside the scientific

  5. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Olson, Sara H.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Il’yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Lau, Ching C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Merrell, Ryan T.; Davis, Faith G.; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. Methods The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4533 cases and 4171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis odds ratios, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Results Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared to not having respiratory allergies (mOR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. Conclusions A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Impact As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biological mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. PMID:26908595

  6. Risk factors associated with smoking behaviour in recreational venues: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Li, Q; Dong, L; Sun, B; Chen, J; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the determinants of smoking behaviour in recreational venues and to provide scientific bases for establishing smoke-free measures applying to these locations. Methods The International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey—a face-to-face cross-sectional survey of representative adult smokers from six cities (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Changsha and Yinchuan) was conducted between April and August 2006. A total of 4815 smokers were selected using multistage sampling methods, and final analyses were conducted on 2875 smokers who reported patronising recreational venues at least once in the last six months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors influencing the smoking behaviour within recreational settings. Outcome measure Whether a smoker reported smoking in recreational venues during the last 6 months. Results 84% subjects reported smoking in recreational venues. Analyses showed that smoke-free laws had been exempted, 32.0% of the patrons reporting bans on smoking in these locations. The following factors were significant predictors of smoking in recreational venues: absence of bans on smoking, support for non-bans, being aged 18–24 years, positive smoking-related attitudes, low number of health effects reported and not living in Beijing. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of informing Chinese smokers about the active smoking and passive smoking harmfulness in both building support for smoke-free laws and in reducing smokers’ desire to smoke within recreational venues. They also point to the importance of good enforcement of smoke-free laws when implemented. Such strategies could also serve to de-normalise smoking in China, a key strategy for reducing smoking in general. PMID:19671537

  7. A resolution commemorating the 80th anniversary of the Daughters of Penelope, a preeminent international women's association and affiliate organization of the American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association (AHEPA).

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME

    2009-04-29

    Senate - 03/26/2010 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. [French translation of "An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction" published in Int Urogynecol J 2010;21(1):5-26].

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, R; Haylen, B T; Deffieux, X; Hermieu, J F; Wagner, L; Amarenco, G; Labat, J J; Leroi, A M; Billecocq, S; Letouzey, V; Fatton, B

    2016-03-01

    Given its increasing complexity, the terminology for female pelvic floor disorders needs to be updated in addition to existing terminology of the lower urinary tract. To do this, it seems preferable to adopt a female-specific approach and build on a consensus based on clinical practice. This paper summarizes the work of the standardization and terminology committees of two international scientific societies, namely the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS). These committees were assisted by many external expert referees. A ranking into relevant major clinical categories and sub-categories was developed in order to allocate an alphanumeric code to each definition. An extensive process of 15 internal and external reviews was set up to study each definition in detail, with decisions taken collectively (consensus). Terminology was developed for female pelvic floor disorders, bringing together more than 250 definitions. It is clinically based and the six most common diagnoses are defined. The emphasis was placed on clarity and user-friendliness to make this terminology accessible to practitioners and trainees in all the specialties involved in female pelvic floor disorders. Imaging investigations (ultrasound, radiology, MRI) exclusively for women have been added to the text, relevant figures have also been included to complete the text and help clarify the meaning. Regular reviews are planned and are also required to keep the document up-to-date and as widely acceptable as possible. The work conducted led to the development of a consensual terminology of female pelvic floor disorders. This document has been designed to provide substantial assistance in clinical practice and research. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Work and Training Conditions of Young German Physicians in Internal Medicine - Results of a Second Nationwide Survey by Young Internists from the German Society of Internal Medicine and the German Professional Association of Internists.

    PubMed

    Raspe, Matthias; Vogelgesang, Anja; Fendel, Johannes; Weiß, Cornelius; Schulte, Kevin; Rolling, Thierry

    2018-04-01

     Medical specialty training is the basis for career development of young internists and it is vital for the delivery of high-quality medical care. In 2014 the young internists of two professional bodies in Germany conducted a survey among their young members and described major factors influencing training and working conditions. We present the results of a follow-up survey to describe changes of these factors over time. An additional focus is set on the difficulties of balancing medical career and family.  In the end of 2016 we conducted an online-based survey of all members in training of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and the Professional Association of German Internists (BDI). The questionnaire used in the 2014 survey was modified and items investigating the balance between career and family were added.  A total of 1587 questionnaires were returned and analysed. Mayor findings did not change over time. Psychosocial strain remains very high among medical trainees in internal medicine. A structured training curriculum and meaningful feedback are associated with lower psychosocial strain and higher work satisfaction. Internists - and here especially women - with children experience the daily balance of medical career and family as extremely challenging.  These results demonstrate that there is still a serious need for adjusting training and working conditions of young internists in Germany. Especially the role and increasing importance of female physicians has to be recognized by enabling a successful integration of medical career and family. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Internal Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  11. Part-time careers in academic internal medicine: a report from the association of specialty professors part-time careers task force on behalf of the alliance for academic internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Linzer, Mark; Warde, Carole; Alexander, R Wayne; Demarco, Deborah M; Haupt, Allison; Hicks, Leroi; Kutner, Jean; Mangione, Carol M; Mechaber, Hilit; Rentz, Meridith; Riley, Joanne; Schuster, Barbara; Solomon, Glen D; Volberding, Paul; Ibrahim, Tod

    2009-10-01

    To establish guidelines for more effectively incorporating part-time faculty into departments of internal medicine, a task force was convened in early 2007 by the Association of Specialty Professors. The task force used informal surveys, current literature, and consensus building among members of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine to produce a consensus statement and a series of recommendations. The task force agreed that part-time faculty could enrich a department of medicine, enhance workforce flexibility, and provide high-quality research, patient care, and education in a cost-effective manner. The task force provided a series of detailed steps for operationalizing part-time practice; to do so, key issues were addressed, such as fixed costs, malpractice insurance, space, cross-coverage, mentoring, career development, productivity targets, and flexible scheduling. Recommendations included (1) increasing respect for work-family balance, (2) allowing flexible time as well as part-time employment, (3) directly addressing negative perceptions about part-time faculty, (4) developing policies to allow flexibility in academic advancement, (5) considering part-time faculty as candidates for leadership positions, (6) encouraging granting agencies, including the National Institutes of Health and Veterans Administration, to consider part-time faculty as eligible for research career development awards, and (7) supporting future research in "best practices" for incorporating part-time faculty into academic departments of medicine.

  12. Assisted dying in dementia: a systematic review of the international literature on the attitudes of health professionals, patients, carers and the public, and the factors associated with these.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Emily; Stott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Assisted death and dementia is a controversial topic that, in recent years, has been subject to considerable clinical, ethical and political debate. This paper reviews the international literature on attitudes towards assisted dying in dementia and considers the factors associated with these. A systematic literature search was conducted in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Excerpta Medica Database, PsychINFO and Web of Science between 1992 and August 2013. Electronic and hand searches identified 118 potential relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria and were screened using a quality assessment tool. Health professionals hold more restrictive views towards assisted dying, which appear less affected by their cultural background, than the public, patients and carers. However, opinions within each population vary according to dementia severity and issues of capacity, as well as differing according to factors such as age, ethnicity, gender and religion of those surveyed. There also appears to be a trend towards more accepting attitudes over time. Sociodemographic factors can influence attitudes towards assisted dying. The impact of these, however, may also differ according to the population surveyed. The findings from this review can contribute to current debates and inform clinical practice and future research in this area. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reports by the Members of the Institution of Defectology of the APS USSR/Moscow/to the First Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

    Presented are 14 reports given by members of the Institute of Defectology in Moscow to the First Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency held in Montpellier, France, in 1967. The papers have the following titles: "The Soviet Education Scheme for Mentally Retarded Children", "Main…

  14. Risk factors associated with post–kidney transplant malignancies: an article from the Cancer-Kidney International Network

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vinay; Riella, Leonardo V; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT In kidney transplant recipients, cancer is one of the leading causes of death with a functioning graft beyond the first year of kidney transplantation, and malignancies account for 8–10% of all deaths in the USA (2.6 deaths/1000 patient-years) and exceed 30% of deaths in Australia (5/1000 patient-years) in kidney transplant recipients. Patient-, transplant- and medication-related factors contribute to the increased cancer risk following kidney transplantation. While it is well established that the overall immunosuppressive dose is associated with an increased risk for cancer following transplantation, the contributive effect of different immunosuppressive agents is not well established. In this review we will discuss the different risk factors for malignancies after kidney transplantation. PMID:29942495

  15. Risk factors associated with post-kidney transplant malignancies: an article from the Cancer-Kidney International Network.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Ben; Nair, Vinay; Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Riella, Leonardo V; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2018-06-01

    In kidney transplant recipients, cancer is one of the leading causes of death with a functioning graft beyond the first year of kidney transplantation, and malignancies account for 8-10% of all deaths in the USA (2.6 deaths/1000 patient-years) and exceed 30% of deaths in Australia (5/1000 patient-years) in kidney transplant recipients. Patient-, transplant- and medication-related factors contribute to the increased cancer risk following kidney transplantation. While it is well established that the overall immunosuppressive dose is associated with an increased risk for cancer following transplantation, the contributive effect of different immunosuppressive agents is not well established. In this review we will discuss the different risk factors for malignancies after kidney transplantation.

  16. Young Children's Behavioral Inhibition Mediates the Association between Maternal Negative Affectivity and Internalizing Problems: Observations, Parent-Report, and Moderation of Associations by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Haolei; Gagne, Jeffrey Robert

    2018-01-01

    Employing a multi-method approach, we investigated observed and parent-rated child behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal reports of their own negative affectivity (NA) as predictors of young children's internalizing problems. Participants were 201 children who were siblings between 2.5 and 5.5 years of age (mean = 3.86, standard deviation =…

  17. Patient Factors But Not the Use of Novel Anticoagulants or Warfarin Are Associated With Internal Jugular Vein Access-Site Hematoma After Right Heart Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Dasa, Osama; Shafiq, Qaiser; Ruzieh, Mohammed; Alhazmi, Luai; Al-Dabbas, Maen; Ammari, Zaid; Khouri, Samer; Moukarbel, George

    2017-12-01

    Right heart catheterization (RHC) is routinely performed to assess hemodynamics. Generally, anticoagulants are held prior to the procedure. At our center, anticoagulants are continued and ultrasound guidance is always used for internal jugular vein access. A micropuncture access kit is used to place a 5 or 6 Fr sheath using the modified Seldinger technique. Manual compression is applied for 10-15 min and the patient is observed for at least 2 hours after the procedure. In a retrospective analysis, we investigated the risk of bleeding complications associated with RHC via the internal jugular vein in patients with and without full anticoagulation. Our catheterization laboratory database was searched for adult patients who underwent RHC by a single operator between January 2012 and December 2015. A total of 571 patients were included in the analysis. Baseline characteristics, labs, relevant invasive hemodynamics, co-morbid conditions, and incidence of access-site hematoma are presented. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed using IBM SPSS v. 23.0 software. Statistically significant associations with access-site hematoma were observed with body mass index (P=.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.1), right atrial pressure (P=.03; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9), and dialysis dependence (P<.01; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). There was no association of access-site hematoma with the use of anticoagulants (P>.99). The incidence of internal jugular vein access-site hematoma is small when using careful access techniques for RHC even with the continued use of novel oral anticoagulants and warfarin. Patient characteristics and co-morbid conditions are related to bleeding complications.

  18. The CARE International Evaluation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 American Evaluation Association conference in Atlanta featured a session on strategies to promote monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). At that time, there was a lengthy list of proposed initiatives to be undertaken in CARE. With the perspective of hindsight and reviewing the…

  19. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS)

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. Research design and methods In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011–2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3–6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Results Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. Conclusions In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU. PMID:28123754

  20. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    PubMed

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011-2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3-6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU.

  1. Stress Responsivity and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders: Transdiagnostic Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions are Associated with Contrasting Stress Appraisal Biases

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher C.; Starr, Lisa R.; Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Hammen, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Biased stress appraisals critically relate to the origins and temporal course of many—perhaps most—forms of psychopathology. We hypothesized that aberrant stress appraisals are linked directly to latent internalizing and externalizing traits that, in turn, predispose to multiple disorders. A high-risk community sample of 815 adolescents underwent semistructured interviews to assess clinical disorders and naturalistic stressors at ages 15 and 20. Participants and blind rating teams separately evaluated the threat associated with acute stressors occurring in the past year, and an appraisal bias index (i.e., discrepancy between subjective and team-rated threat) was generated. A two-factor (Internalizing and Externalizing) latent variable model provided an excellent fit to the diagnostic correlations. After adjusting for the covariation between the factors, adolescents’ threat overestimation prospectively predicted higher standing on Internalizing, whereas threat underestimation prospectively predicted elevations on Externalizing. Cross-sectional analyses replicated this pattern in early adulthood. Appraisals were not related to the residual portions of any diagnosis in the latent variable model, suggesting that the transdiagnostic dimensions mediated the connections between stress appraisal bias and disorder entities. We discuss implications for enhancing the efficiency of emerging research on the stress response and speculate how these findings, if replicated, might guide refinements to psychological treatments for stress-linked disorders. PMID:27819469

  2. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  3. Carrot yellow leaf virus is associated with carrot internal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ian P; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots.

  4. The International and Comparative Librarianship Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewe, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Describes the objectives, development, and activities of the British Library Association's International and Comparative Librarianship Group. The desirability of establishing similar groups within other national library associations is discussed. (RAA)

  5. Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.

    PubMed

    Hill, Colin; Guarner, Francisco; Reid, Gregor; Gibson, Glenn R; Merenstein, Daniel J; Pot, Bruno; Morelli, Lorenzo; Canani, Roberto Berni; Flint, Harry J; Salminen, Seppo; Calder, Philip C; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2014-08-01

    An expert panel was convened in October 2013 by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to discuss the field of probiotics. It is now 13 years since the definition of probiotics and 12 years after guidelines were published for regulators, scientists and industry by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the WHO (FAO/WHO). The FAO/WHO definition of a probiotic--"live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host"--was reinforced as relevant and sufficiently accommodating for current and anticipated applications. However, inconsistencies between the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation Report and the FAO/WHO Guidelines were clarified to take into account advances in science and applications. A more precise use of the term 'probiotic' will be useful to guide clinicians and consumers in differentiating the diverse products on the market. This document represents the conclusions of the ISAPP consensus meeting on the appropriate use and scope of the term probiotic.

  6. A Report on the 30th Annual Conference of the International Association of Scientific and Technological University Libraries (IATUL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Manorama

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report on the 30th IATUL Annual Conference held in Leuven, Belgium, 1-4 June, 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The paper summarises the major themes of the conference as well as giving some specific details of developments at the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India, which supplement the author's…

  7. The Third General Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy - Special sessions of auroral processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of timing magnetic substorms, the rapid fluctuations of aurorae, electromagnetic and electrostatic instabilities observed on the field lines of aurorae, the auroral microstructure, and the relationship of currents, electric field and particle precipitation to auroral form are discussed. Attention is given to such topics as D-perturbations as an indicator of substorm onset, the role of the magnetotail in substorms, spectral information derived from imaging data on aurorae, terrestrial kilometric radiation, and the importance of the mirror force in self-consistent models of particle fluxes, currents and potentials on auroral field lines.

  8. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 1: Key ethical requirements and progress toward the definition of an international regulatory framework.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Flanagan, Enda B; Pierson, Richard N; Sykes, Megan; Vanderpool, Harold Y

    2009-01-01

    The outstanding results recently obtained in islet xenotransplantation suggest that porcine islet clinical trials may soon be scientifically appropriate. Before the initiation of such clinical studies, however, it is essential that a series of key ethical and regulatory conditions are satisfied. As far as ethics is concerned, the fundamental requirements have been previously reported in a position paper of the Ethics Committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association. These include aspects related to the selection of adequately informed, appropriate recipients; animal breeding and welfare; safety issues and the need for a favorable risk/benefit assessment based on strong efficacy data in relevant xenotransplantation studies in the primate. As most diabetic patients are not at risk of short-term mortality without islet transplantation, only a small subset of patients could currently be considered for any type of islet transplant. However, there are potential advantages to xenotransplantation that could result in a favorable benefit-over-harm determination for islet xenotransplantation in this subpopulation and ultimately in a broader population of diabetic patients. With regard to regulatory aspects, the key concepts underlying the development of the regulatory models in existence in the United States, Europe and New Zealand are discussed. Each of these models provides an example of a well-defined regulatory approach to ensure the initiation of well-regulated and ethically acceptable clinical islet xenotransplantation trials. At this stage, it becomes apparent that only a well-coordinated international effort such as that initiated by the World Health Organization, aimed at harmonizing xenotransplantation procedures according to the highest ethical and regulatory standards on a global scale, will enable the initiation of clinical xenotransplantation trials under the best auspices for its success and minimize any risk of failure.

  9. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN Adult Study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Lars B; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Davey, Rachel; Troelsen, Jens; van Dyck, Delfien; Mitáš, Josef; Schofield, Grant; Sugiyama, Takemi; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo; Adams, Marc; Frank, Larry; Sallis, James F

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18-66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation. We found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks. Across 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear

  10. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Lars B.; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Davey, Rachel; Troelsen, Jens; van Dyck, Delfien; Mitáš, Josef; Schofield, Grant; Sugiyama, Takemi; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Reis, Rodrigo; Adams, Marc; Frank, Larry; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. Methods This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18–66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation. Results We found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks. Conclusion Across 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all

  11. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting of the International Association for Statistical Education (1st, Perugia, Italy, August, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelli, Lina, Ed.; Cicchitelli, Giuseppe, Ed.

    This volume contains papers on computing and television as well as on the rapidly growing area of electronic communication among teachers and between teachers and students. Data analysis is now an important strand in school curricula in many nations. Many of the contributors discuss statistics in the schools from various perspectives. University…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The International Communication Division of the proceedings contains the following 18 papers: "Spy or Scapegoat: A News Framing Study of the 'New York Times'' Coverage of the Wen Ho Lee Case" (Jia Lin & Junhao Hong); "Individual Perceptions of International Correspondents in the Middle East: An Obstacle to Fair News?" (Dina…

  13. A report from the European Association for the Study of the Liver's 50th International Liver Congress (April 22-26 - Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-04-01

    While Vienna's Prater park offers a varied selection of options, from theme parks to lush gardens and prairies to enjoy the sun, the nearby Messe Wien convention center was the focus of attention in April 2015 for all the scientists, researchers and clinicians interested in viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and a variety of other liver diseases. Treatments and potential new therapeutic strategies for these hepatopathies were discussed during the 50th International Liver Congress organized by the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Echoing epidemiological facts and a high social interest for hepatitis C virus infection, new findings with investigational and potential new therapies for the disease centered much of the attention at the conference. Nevertheless, new research was also reported related to potential improvements in how other liver diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma and a range of inflammatory and immune-mediated liver diseases, including rare hereditary diseases that should never be forgotten. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  15. Socialization and Selection Effects in the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Thin-Ideal Internalization: A Co-Twin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; O’Connor, Shannon; Thompson, J. Kevin; Klump, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8–15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. PMID:26859605

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (78th, Washington, DC, August 9-12, 1995). International Communications Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "Mobile Satellite Communications--From Obscurity to Overkill" (Patricia T. Whalen); "Does Television Cultivate the Image of America in Japan?" (Shinichi Saito); "Linking International News to U.S. Interests: A Content…

  17. International Doctoral Graduates from China and South Korea: A Trend Analysis of the Association between the Selectivity of Undergraduate and That of US Doctoral Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin; Roh, Jin-young

    2017-01-01

    This study explores whether patterns of doctorate attainment among Chinese and Korean international students in the USA have changed over time, both in terms of quantity (i.e., number of international students) and quality (i.e., the selectivity of the undergraduate and doctoral institutions), and whether these changes reflect the improvements in…

  18. Dietary restraint of 5-year-old girls: Associations with internalization of the thin ideal and maternal, media, and peer influences.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; McLean, Siân A; Gregg, Karen J

    2015-12-01

    Understanding socio-cultural factors associated with the development of dieting tendencies is important for preventing future disordered eating. We explored individual and socio-cultural factors associated with weight-focussed dietary restraint tendencies (described as dietary restraint) in 5-year-old girls. Participants were 111 5-year-old girls and 109 of their mothers. Girls were interviewed about their dietary restraint, body image, appearance ideals, positive weight bias (attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures), and peer conversations. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing dietary restraint and appearance ideals, as well as measures reporting on their daughter's media exposure and peer appearance interest. Thirty-four percent of girls reported at least a moderate level of dietary restraint. While most girls were satisfied with their body size, half showed some internalization of the thin ideal. Girls' dietary restraint was correlated with weight bias favoring thinner bodies, and greater internalization of the thin ideal, media exposure, and appearance conversations with peers. Media exposure and appearance conversations were the strongest predictors of dietary restraint. These cross-sectional findings suggest that the socio-cultural environment of young girls may be important in the very early development of unhealthy dieting tendencies. Longitudinal research is necessary to identify whether these are prospective risk factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1984. Management and Technology Division. Section on Information Technology and Joint Meeting of the Round Table Audiovisual Media, the International Association for Sound Archives, and the International Association for Music Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six papers on information technology, the development of information systems for Third World countries, handling of sound recordings, and library automation were presented at the 1984 IFLA conference. They include: (1) "Handling, Storage and Preservation of Sound Recordings under Tropical and Subtropical Climatic Conditions" (Dietrich…

  20. Substance Use Among Nurses and Nursing Students: A Joint Position Statement of the Emergency Nurses Association and the International Nurses Society on Addictions.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Crowley, Melanie

    Alcohol and other substance use by nurses potentially places patients, the public, and nurses themselves at risk for serious injury or death. Nursing students are also at risk for problems related to substance use. When viewed and treated as a chronic medical illness, treatment outcomes for substance use disorders are comparable with those of other diseases and can result in lasting benefits. Professional monitoring programs that employ an alternative-to-discipline approach have been shown to be effective in the treatment of health professionals with substance use disorders and are considered a standard for recovery, with high rates of completion and return to practice. It is the position of the Emergency Nurses Association and the International Nurses Society on Addictions that 1. health care facilities provide education to nurses and other employees regarding alcohol and other drug use and establish policies, procedures, and practices to promote safe, supportive, drug-free workplaces; 2. health care facilities and schools of nursing adopt alternative-to-discipline approaches to treating nurses and nursing students with substance use disorders, with stated goals of retention, rehabilitation, and reentry into safe, professional practice; 3. drug diversion, in the context of personal use, is viewed primarily as a symptom of a serious and treatable disease and not exclusively as a crime; and 4. nurses and nursing students are aware of the risks associated with substance use, impaired practice, and drug diversion and have the responsibility and means to report suspected or actual concerns.

  1. Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

    PubMed

    Wall, Clare R; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2018-03-07

    Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m² lower than the never group ( p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of -0.079 kg/m². In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6-7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.

  2. A Multiattributes Approach for Ranking PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    In its plan to combat the PhD shortage crisis, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB; 2003) has called for the development of PhD program rankings to serve as incentives for academic institutions to invest more in PhD programs, thereby counterbalancing the disproportionate influence of master of business…

  3. Program Assessment: Getting to a Practical How-To Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Lorraine R.; Corbitt, Gail; Adams, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International's assurance of learning (AoL) standards require that schools develop a sophisticated continuous-improvement process. The authors review various assessment models and develop a practical, 6-step AoL model based on the literature and the authors' AoL-implementation…

  4. The International System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Maurice A.

    Designed as a unit for an international relations course, this systems approach paper outlines a learning method which contributes to the student's awareness that the United States is only one of many actors in the world. It also makes the student aware that there are limitations on the U. S. individual actions because of this interdependence and…

  5. Sociocultural and Familial Factors Associated with Weight Bias Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, Rebecca L.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Shaw Tronieri, Jena; Chao, Ariana M.; Alamuddin, Naji; Bakizada, Zayna M.; Pinkasavage, Emilie; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI) are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. Methods Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black) completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics. Participant height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Results Linear regression results (controlling for demographics, BMI, and depression) showed that stigmatizing experiences from family and work predicted greater WBI. Experiencing weight stigma at work was associated with WBI above and beyond the effects of other sources of stigma. Participants who reported higher BMIs for their mothers had lower levels of WBI. Conclusion Experiencing weight stigma from family and at work may heighten WBI, while having a mother with a higher BMI may be a protective factor against WBI. Prospective research is needed to understand WBI's developmental course and identify mechanisms that increase or mitigate its risk. PMID:29656285

  6. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  7. Prognostic value of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification in stage IB lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, C-h; Wang, W; Wei, Y; Hu, H-d; Zou, J; Yan, J; Yu, L-k; Yang, R-s; Wang, Y

    2015-10-01

    Patients with pathological stage IB lung adenocarcinoma have a variable prognosis, even if received the same treatment. This study investigated the prognostic value of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) lung adenocarcinoma classification in resected stage IB lung adenocarcinoma. We identified 276 patients with pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma who had undergone surgical resection at the Nanjing Chest Hospital between 2005 and 2010. The histological subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS international multidisciplinary lung adenocarcinoma classification. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and patients' prognosis. Two hundred and seventy-six patients with pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma had an 86.2% 5-year overall survival (OS) and 80.4% 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Patients with micropapillary and solid predominant tumors had a significantly worse OS and DFS as compared to those with other subtypes predominant tumors (p = 0.003 and 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the new classification was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS of pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma (p = 0.009 and 0.003). Our study revealed that the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification was an independent prognostic factor of pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma. This new classification is valuable of screening out high risk patients to receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Sex-specific associations between body mass index, waist circumference and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus: a pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Ai; Cook, Michael Blaise; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Murray, Liam; Corley, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is a precursor lesion of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer that, in the USA, has increased in incidence over 600% during the past 40 years. Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma are much more common among men than among women; this finding is unexplained and most earlier studies lacked sufficient numbers of women to evaluate sex-specific risk factors. We leveraged the power of an international consortium to assess sex-specific relationships between body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference and Barrett's oesophagus. Four case-control studies provided a total of 1102 cases (316 women, 786 men) and 1400 population controls (436 women, 964 men) for analysis. Study-specific estimates, generated using individual participant data, were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Waist circumference was significantly associated with Barrett's oesophagus, even after adjustment for BMI; persons in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of waist circumference had approximately 125% and 275% increases in the odds of Barrett's oesophagus among men and women, respectively (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.65, I(2)=57; OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.47 to 9.56, I(2)=0). In contrast, there was no evidence of a significant association between BMI and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus, with or without adjustment for waist circumference. Waist circumference, independent of BMI, was found to be a risk factor for Barrett's oesophagus among both men and women. Future studies examining the biological mechanisms of this association will extend our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of Barrett's oesophagus.

  9. Assessing the International Landscape

    Cancer.gov

    On April 11th, 2018 the NCI Center for Research Strategy, in coordination with CGH, hosted the Annual Meeting of the International Cancer Research Partnership (ICRP). The meeting marked 18 years of a successful partnership, representing 124 organizations that fund cancer research projects in 145 countries.

  10. Internalized stigma among psychiatric outpatients: Associations with quality of life, functioning, hope and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Lau, Ying Wen; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Satghare, Pratika; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lim, Susan; Poh, Chee Lien; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-12-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine the prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical correlates of internalized stigma and (ii) explore the association between internalized stigma and quality of life, general functioning, hope and self-esteem, among a multi-ethnic Asian population of patients with mental disorders. This cross-sectional, survey recruited adult patients (n=280) who were seeking treatment at outpatient and affiliated clinics of the only tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Internalized stigma was measured using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. 43.6% experienced moderate to high internalized stigma. After making adjustments in multiple logistic regression analysis, results revealed there were no significant socio-demographic or clinical correlates relating to internalized stigma. Individual logistic regression models found a negative relationship between quality of life, self-esteem, general functioning and internalized stigma whereby lower scores were associated with higher internalized stigma. In the final regression model, which included all psychosocial variables together, self-esteem was the only variable significantly and negatively associated with internalized stigma. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role internalized stigma plays in patients with mental illness, and the impact it can have on psychosocial aspects of their lives. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity and internalizing and externalizing symptoms are emotion specific

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Christine K.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Ram, Nilam

    2015-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing disorders are often, though inconsistently in studies of young children, associated with low baseline levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RSA is thus considered to reflect the capacity for flexible and regulated affective reactivity and a general propensity for psychopathology. However, studies assessing RSA reactivity to emotional challenges tend to report more consistent associations with internalizing than with externalizing disorders, although it is unclear whether this is a function of the type of emotion challenges used. In the present study, we examined whether baseline RSA was associated with internalizing and/or externalizing severity in a sample of 273 young children (ages 5–6) with elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Following motivation-based models of emotion, we also tested whether RSA reactivity during withdrawal-based (fear, sadness) and approach-based (happiness, anger) emotion inductions was differentially associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, respectively. Baseline RSA was not associated with externalizing or internalizing symptom severity. However, RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges was associated differentially with each symptom domain. As expected, internalizing symptom severity was associated with greater RSA withdrawal (increased arousal) during fearful and sad film segments. Conversely, externalizing symptom severity was related to blunted RSA withdrawal during a happy film segment. The use of theoretically derived stimuli may be important in characterizing the nature of the deficits in emotion processing that differentiate the internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology. PMID:23233122

  12. Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes.

    PubMed

    Mur, Lina; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2012-08-30

    The uncontrolled presence of African swine fever (ASF) in Russian Federation (RF) poses a serious risk to the whole European Union (EU) pig industry. Although trade of pigs and their products is banned since the official notification in June 2007, the potential introduction of ASF virus (ASFV) may occur by other routes, which are very frequent in ASF, and more difficult to control, such as contaminated waste or infected vehicles. This study was intended to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction into the EU through three types of transport routes: returning trucks, waste from international ships and waste from international planes, which will be referred here as transport-associated routes (TAR). Since no detailed and official information was available for these routes, a semi-quantitative model based on the weighted combination of risk factors was developed to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction by TAR. Relative weights for combination of different risk factors as well as validation of the model results were obtained by an expert opinion elicitation. Model results indicate that the relative risk for ASFV introduction through TAR in most of the EU countries (16) is low, although some countries, specifically Poland and Lithuania, concentrate high levels of risk, the returning trucks route being the analyzed TAR that currently poses the highest risk for ASFV introduction into the EU. The spatial distribution of the risk of ASFV introduction varies importantly between the analyzed introduction routes. Results also highlight the need to increase the awareness and precautions for ASF prevention, particularly ensuring truck disinfection, to minimize the potential risk of entrance into the EU. This study presents the first assessment of ASF introduction into the EU through TAR. The innovative model developed here could be used in data scarce situations for estimating the relative risk associated to each EU country. This simple methodology provides a rapid and easy to

  13. GLOBE Observer and the Association of Science & Technology Centers: Leveraging Citizen Science and Partnerships for an International Science Experiment to Build Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek Kohl, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Murphy, T.

    2016-12-01

    For more that 20 years, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program has sought to increase environment literacy in students by involving them in the process of data collection and scientific research. In 2016, the program expanded to accept observations from citizen scientists of all ages through a relatively simple app. Called GLOBE Observer, the new program aims to help participants feel connected to a global community focused on advancing the scientific understanding of Earth system science while building climate literacy among participants and increasing valuable environmental data points to expand both student and scientific research. In October 2016, GLOBE Observer partnered with the Association of Science & Technology Centers (ASTC) in an international science experiment in which museums and patrons around the world collected cloud observations through GLOBE Observer to create a global cloud map in support of NASA satellite science. The experiment was an element of the International Science Center and Science Museum Day, an event planned in partnership with UNESCO and ASTC. Museums and science centers provided the climate context for the observations, while GLOBE Observer offered a uniform experience and a digital platform to build a connected global community. This talk will introduce GLOBE Observer and will present the results of the experiment, including evaluation feedback on gains in climate literacy through the event.

  14. Cross-mapping the ICNP with NANDA, HHCC, Omaha System and NIC for unified nursing language system development. International Classification for Nursing Practice. International Council of Nurses. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. Home Health Care Classification. Nursing Interventions Classification.

    PubMed

    Hyun, S; Park, H A

    2002-06-01

    Nursing language plays an important role in describing and defining nursing phenomena and nursing actions. There are numerous vocabularies describing nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes in nursing. However, the lack of a standardized unified nursing language is considered a problem for further development of the discipline of nursing. In an effort to unify the nursing languages, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) has proposed the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) as a unified nursing language system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inclusiveness and expressiveness of the ICNP terms by cross-mapping them with the existing nursing terminologies, specifically the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) taxonomy I, the Omaha System, the Home Health Care Classification (HHCC) and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Nine hundred and seventy-four terms from these four classifications were cross-mapped with the ICNP terms. This was performed in accordance with the Guidelines for Composing a Nursing Diagnosis and Guidelines for Composing a Nursing Intervention, which were suggested by the ICNP development team. An expert group verified the results. The ICNP Phenomena Classification described 87.5% of the NANDA diagnoses, 89.7% of the HHCC diagnoses and 72.7% of the Omaha System problem classification scheme. The ICNP Action Classification described 79.4% of the NIC interventions, 80.6% of the HHCC interventions and 71.4% of the Omaha System intervention scheme. The results of this study suggest that the ICNP has a sound starting structure for a unified nursing language system and can be used to describe most of the existing terminologies. Recommendations for the addition of terms to the ICNP are provided.

  15. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, D F; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40–48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was established with the aim to identify genetic risk variants of cannabis use. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of 13 cohorts (N=32 330) and four replication samples (N=5627). In addition, we performed a gene-based test of association, estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and explored the genetic correlation between lifetime cannabis use and cigarette use using LD score regression. No individual SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Nonetheless, gene-based tests identified four genes significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use: NCAM1, CADM2, SCOC and KCNT2. Previous studies reported associations of NCAM1 with cigarette smoking and other substance use, and those of CADM2 with body mass index, processing speed and autism disorders, which are phenotypes previously reported to be associated with cannabis use. Furthermore, we showed that, combined across the genome, all common SNPs explained 13–20% (P<0.001) of the liability of lifetime cannabis use. Finally, there was a strong genetic correlation (rg=0.83; P=1.85 × 10−8) between lifetime cannabis use and lifetime cigarette smoking implying that the SNP effect sizes of the two traits are highly correlated. This is the largest meta-analysis of cannabis GWA studies to date, revealing important new insights into the genetic pathways of lifetime cannabis use. Future functional studies should explore the impact of the identified genes on the biological mechanisms of cannabis use. PMID:27023175

  16. Medical insurance claims associated with international business travel.

    PubMed Central

    Liese, B; Mundt, K A; Dell, L D; Nagy, L; Demure, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Preliminary investigations of whether 10,884 staff and consultants of the World Bank experience disease due to work related travel. Medical insurance claims filed by 4738 travellers during 1993 were compared with claims of non-travellers. METHODS: Specific diagnoses obtained from claims were analysed overall (one or more v no missions) and by frequency of international mission (1, 2-3, or > or = 4). Standardised rate of claims ratios (SSRs) for each diagnostic category were obtained by dividing the age adjusted rate of claims for travellers by the age adjusted rate of claims for non-travellers, and were calculated for men and women travellers separately. RESULTS: Overall, rates of insurance claims were 80% higher for men and 18% higher for women travellers than their non-travelling counterparts. Several associations with frequency of travel were found. SRRs for infectious disease were 1.28, 1.54, and 1.97 among men who had completed one, two or three, and four or more missions, and 1.16, 1.28, and 1.61, respectively, among women. The greatest excess related to travel was found for psychological disorders. For men SRRs were 2.11, 3.13, and 3.06 and for women, SRRs were 1.47, 1.96, and 2.59. CONCLUSIONS: International business travel may pose health risks beyond exposure to infectious diseases. Because travellers file medical claims at a greater rate than non-travellers, and for many categories of disease, the rate of claims increases with frequency of travel. The reasons for higher rates of claims among travellers are not well understood. Additional research on psychosocial factors, health practices, time zones crossed, and temporal relation between travel and onset of disease is planned. PMID:9282127

  17. Medical insurance claims associated with international business travel.

    PubMed

    Liese, B; Mundt, K A; Dell, L D; Nagy, L; Demure, B

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary investigations of whether 10,884 staff and consultants of the World Bank experience disease due to work related travel. Medical insurance claims filed by 4738 travellers during 1993 were compared with claims of non-travellers. Specific diagnoses obtained from claims were analysed overall (one or more v no missions) and by frequency of international mission (1, 2-3, or > or = 4). Standardised rate of claims ratios (SSRs) for each diagnostic category were obtained by dividing the age adjusted rate of claims for travellers by the age adjusted rate of claims for non-travellers, and were calculated for men and women travellers separately. Overall, rates of insurance claims were 80% higher for men and 18% higher for women travellers than their non-travelling counterparts. Several associations with frequency of travel were found. SRRs for infectious disease were 1.28, 1.54, and 1.97 among men who had completed one, two or three, and four or more missions, and 1.16, 1.28, and 1.61, respectively, among women. The greatest excess related to travel was found for psychological disorders. For men SRRs were 2.11, 3.13, and 3.06 and for women, SRRs were 1.47, 1.96, and 2.59. International business travel may pose health risks beyond exposure to infectious diseases. Because travellers file medical claims at a greater rate than non-travellers, and for many categories of disease, the rate of claims increases with frequency of travel. The reasons for higher rates of claims among travellers are not well understood. Additional research on psychosocial factors, health practices, time zones crossed, and temporal relation between travel and onset of disease is planned.

  18. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys.

    PubMed

    Springvloet, L; Willemsen, M C; Mons, U; van den Putte, B; Kunst, A E; Guignard, R; Hummel, K; Allwright, S; Siahpush, M; de Vries, H; Nagelhout, G E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P < 0.001). Noticing anti-tobacco information was associated with more negative smoking-related attitudes (β = 0.05, P < 0.001) and more quit intentions (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001). Among smokers without a quit intention at baseline, a positive association was found for noticing anti-tobacco information at baseline with follow-up quit intention (OR = 1.14, P = 0.003). No other longitudinal associations were found. No educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001) and not among moderate educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

  20. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    PubMed

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  1. Investigation on the suitability of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus in China.

    PubMed

    Shang, M; Lin, L; Ma, L; Yin, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes of Chinese women diagnosed with gestational hyperglycaemia by the well-established American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, with those women meeting the newer criteria established by International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). The study subjects consisted of 6,201 pregnant Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy who had received prenatal care and delivered between December 2008 and December 2011. Women who were screened positive with 1 h glucose load of ≥ 7.8 mmol/l underwent a diagnostic 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. Gestational hyperglycaemia was diagnosed using the ADA criteria and re-diagnosed according to the IADPSG criteria. The correlation between the incidences of adverse pregnant outcomes with gestational hyperglycaemia was analysed. In total, 570 patients (9.19% of 6,201) met the ADA criteria and 676 (10.90% of 6,201) met the IADPSG criteria. The 518 patients who met both standards showed a reduced caesarean section rate, as compared with 158 patients who only met the IADPSG standard and received no intervention (71.2% vs 79.7%, p < 0.05). The IADPSG-only group also had a higher rate of macrosomia and pre-eclampsia than the control group. The IADPSG criteria identified a group of women previously classified as normal according to the ADA criteria, but revealing poor pregnancy outcomes and requiring management. Therefore, we conclude that the IADPSG criteria are more suitable for the diagnosis of gestational hyperglycaemia in China.

  2. The associations between unhealthy behaviours, mental stress, and low socio-economic status in an international comparison of representative samples from Thailand and England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is a recognised determinant of health status, and the association may be mediated by unhealthy behaviours and psychosocial adversities, which, in developed countries, both aggregate in low socioeconomic sectors of the population. We explored the hypothesis that unhealthy behavioural choices and psychological distress do not both aggregate in low socioeconomic status groups in developing countries. Methods Our study is based on a cross-sectional comparison between national population samples of adults in England and Thailand. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) or three anxiety-oriented items from the Kessler scale (K6). Socioeconomic status was assessed on the basis of occupational status. We computed a health-behaviour score using information about smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Results The final sample comprised 40,679 participants. In both countries and in both genders separately, there was a positive association between poor health-behaviour and high psychological distress, and between high psychological distress and low socioeconomic status. In contrast, the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health-behaviour was positive in both English men and women, flat in Thai men, and was negative in Thai women (likelihood ratio test P <0.001). Conclusion The associations between socioeconomic status, behavioural choices, and psychological distress are different at the international level. Psychological distress may be consistently associated with low socioeconomic status, whereas poor health-behaviour is not. Future analyses will test whether psychological distress is a more consistent determinant of socioeconomic differences in health across countries. PMID:24555674

  3. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P < 0.001). Noticing anti-tobacco information was associated with more negative smoking-related attitudes (β = 0.05, P < 0.001) and more quit intentions (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001). Among smokers without a quit intention at baseline, a positive association was found for noticing anti-tobacco information at baseline with follow-up quit intention (OR = 1.14, P = 0.003). No other longitudinal associations were found. No educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001) and not among moderate educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group. PMID:26324396

  4. Improving AACSB Assurance of Learning with Importance-Performance and Learning Growth: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, James W.; McCrohan, Kevin F.

    2017-01-01

    Two fallacious assumptions can mislead assurance of learning (AoL) loop closing. Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business guidance states that learning goals should reflect the outcomes most valued by the program, but evidence shows that schools assign equal priorities to the skills selected. The second false assumption is that…

  5. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Glenn R; Hutkins, Robert; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Prescott, Susan L; Reimer, Raylene A; Salminen, Seppo J; Scott, Karen; Stanton, Catherine; Swanson, Kelly S; Cani, Patrice D; Verbeke, Kristin; Reid, Gregor

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances, applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract, and diverse categories other than food. The requirement for selective microbiota-mediated mechanisms was retained. Beneficial health effects must be documented for a substance to be considered a prebiotic. The consensus definition applies also to prebiotics for use by animals, in which microbiota-focused strategies to maintain health and prevent disease is as relevant as for humans. Ultimately, the goal of this Consensus Statement is to engender appropriate use of the term 'prebiotic' by relevant stakeholders so that consistency and clarity can be achieved in research reports, product marketing and regulatory oversight of the category. To this end, we have reviewed several aspects of prebiotic science including its development, health benefits and legislation.

  6. Career Progression Systems in the Internal Labor Market of the Foodservice Industry and the Role of the National Restaurant Association. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leonard; Pezzullo, Caroline

    The lack of visible career paths was universally recognized as a major factor leading to the extraordinarily high rate of turnover and absenteeism in the foodservice industry. The report evaluates the potential of a National Trade Association as a vehicle for improvements in this area and focuses on National Restaurant Association (NRA) efforts in…

  7. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T.; Arviset, C.; Crichton, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of projects and coordinates international collaboration. The IPDA conducts a number of focused projects to enable interoperability, construction of compatible archives, and the operation of the IPDA as a whole. These projects have helped to establish the IPDA and to move the collaboration forward. A key project that is currently underway is the implementation of the PDS4 data standard. Given the international focus, it has been critical that the PDS and the IPDA collaborate on its development. Also, other projects have been conducted successfully, including developing the IPDA architecture and corresponding requirements, developing shared registries for data and tools across international boundaries, and common templates for supporting agreements for archiving and sharing data for international missions. Several projects demonstrating interoperability across

  8. Diagnostic utility of the HIV dementia scale and the international HIV dementia scale in screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders among Spanish-speaking adults

    PubMed Central

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J.; Smith, Kimberly; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Hardy, David J.; Levine, Andrew J.; Al-Kharafi, Hussah T.; Yamakawa, Cristina; Goodkin, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Given that neurocognitive impairment is a frequent complication of HIV-1 infection in Spanish-speaking adults, the limited number of studies assessing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in this population raises serious clinical concern. In addition to being appropriately translated, instruments need to be modified, normed, and validated accordingly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the diagnostic utility of the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to screen for HAND in Spanish-speaking adults living with HIV infection. Participants were classified as either HAND (N = 47) or No-HAND (N = 53) after completing a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic analyses found the HDS (AUC = .706) was more sensitive to detecting HAND than the IHDS (AUC = .600). Optimal cutoff scores were 9.5 for the HDS (PPV = 65.2%, NPV = 71.4%) and 9.0 for the IHDS (PPV = 59.4%, NPV = 59.1%). Canonical Correlation Analysis found the HDS converged with attention and executive functioning. Findings suggest that while the IHDS may not be an appropriate screening instrument with this population, the HDS retains sufficient statistical validity and clinical utility to screen for HAND in Spanish-speaking adults as a time-efficient and cost-effective measure in clinical settings with limited resources. PMID:27712132

  9. Excitatory Cerebellar Nucleocortical Circuit Provides Internal Amplification during Associative Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyu; Proietti-Onori, Martina; Lin, Zhanmin; Ten Brinke, Michiel M; Boele, Henk-Jan; Potters, Jan-Willem; Ruigrok, Tom J H; Hoebeek, Freek E; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2016-02-03

    Closed-loop circuitries between cortical and subcortical regions can facilitate precision of output patterns, but the role of such networks in the cerebellum remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterize the role of internal feedback from the cerebellar nuclei to the cerebellar cortex in classical eyeblink conditioning. We find that excitatory output neurons in the interposed nucleus provide efference-copy signals via mossy fibers to the cerebellar cortical zones that belong to the same module, triggering monosynaptic responses in granule and Golgi cells and indirectly inhibiting Purkinje cells. Upon conditioning, the local density of nucleocortical mossy fiber terminals significantly increases. Optogenetic activation and inhibition of nucleocortical fibers in conditioned animals increases and decreases the amplitude of learned eyeblink responses, respectively. Our data show that the excitatory nucleocortical closed-loop circuitry of the cerebellum relays a corollary discharge of premotor signals and suggests an amplifying role of this circuitry in controlling associative motor learning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States' National Basketball Association's Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-09

    If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. [A Case of Ruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Associated with Acute Subdural Hematoma, Extending from the Interhemispheric Space to the Posterior Fossa].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Yoshimura, Shouta; Somagawa, Chika; Hiu, Takeshi; Ono, Tomonori; Ushijima, Ryujirou; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden severe headache without a history of head trauma. CT and MRI revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) extending from the right interhemispheric space to the posterior fossa bilaterally, with a small amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage that was predominantly localized to the left side of the basal cistern. CT angiogram demonstrated a long protruding ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (IC/PC AN) with a posteroinferior projection, associated with a small bleb located near the tentorial edge close to the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process, for which she received clipping surgery. Though rare, IC/PC AN could cause pure or nearly pure ASDH in the above-mentioned distribution. Therefore, in patients with such ASDH, especially without a history of head injury or precise information regarding the situation at the time of onset, urgent imaging evaluation and early intervention are essential to prevent devastating re-rupture events.

  12. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Minneapolis, MN, January 8-11, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.

    The 40 papers from this international conference addressed the major theme of facilitating science literacy for all teachers and students. Papers include the following: (1) "Confronting the Gender Gap in Science and Mathematics: The Sisters in Science Program" (P. Hammrich); (2) Teaching Instructional Materials for Science Educators with…

  13. Association between surgical indications, operative risk, and clinical outcome in infective endocarditis: a prospective study from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Vivian H; Park, Lawrence P; Athan, Eugene; Delahaye, Francois; Freiberger, Tomas; Lamas, Cristiane; Miro, Jose M; Mudrick, Daniel W; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Pericas, Juan M; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Nacinovich, Francisco; Rizk, Hussien; Krajinovic, Vladimir; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hurley, John P; Hannan, Margaret M; Wang, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    Use of surgery for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) as related to surgical indications and operative risk for mortality has not been well defined. The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-PLUS (ICE-PLUS) is a prospective cohort of consecutively enrolled patients with definite IE from 29 centers in 16 countries. We included patients from ICE-PLUS with definite left-sided, non-cardiac device-related IE who were enrolled between September 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. A total of 1296 patients with left-sided IE were included. Surgical treatment was performed in 57% of the overall cohort and in 76% of patients with a surgical indication. Reasons for nonsurgical treatment included poor prognosis (33.7%), hemodynamic instability (19.8%), death before surgery (23.3%), stroke (22.7%), and sepsis (21%). Among patients with a surgical indication, surgical treatment was independently associated with the presence of severe aortic regurgitation, abscess, embolization before surgical treatment, and transfer from an outside hospital. Variables associated with nonsurgical treatment were a history of moderate/severe liver disease, stroke before surgical decision, and Staphyloccus aureus etiology. The integration of surgical indication, Society of Thoracic Surgeons IE score, and use of surgery was associated with 6-month survival in IE. Surgical decision making in IE is largely consistent with established guidelines, although nearly one quarter of patients with surgical indications do not undergo surgery. Operative risk assessment by Society of Thoracic Surgeons IE score provides prognostic information for survival beyond the operative period. S aureus IE was significantly associated with nonsurgical management. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A multiple choice testing program coupled with a year-long elective experience is associated with improved performance on the internal medicine in-training examination.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Bradley R; Warm, Eric J; Schauer, Daniel P; Holmboe, Eric; Rouan, Gregory W

    2011-11-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (IM-ITE) assesses the content knowledge of internal medicine trainees. Many programs use the IM-ITE to counsel residents, to create individual remediation plans, and to make fundamental programmatic and curricular modifications. To assess the association between a multiple-choice testing program administered during 12 consecutive months of ambulatory and inpatient elective experience and IM-ITE percentile scores in third post-graduate year (PGY-3) categorical residents. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred and four categorical internal medicine residents. Forty-five residents in the 2008 and 2009 classes participated in the study group, and the 59 residents in the three classes that preceded the use of the testing program, 2005-2007, served as controls. A comprehensive, elective rotation specific, multiple-choice testing program and a separate board review program, both administered during a continuous long-block elective experience during the twelve months between the second post-graduate year (PGY-2) and PGY-3 in-training examinations. We analyzed the change in median individual percent correct and percentile scores between the PGY-1 and PGY-2 IM-ITE and between the PGY-2 and PGY-3 IM-ITE in both control and study cohorts. For our main outcome measure, we compared the change in median individual percentile rank between the control and study cohorts between the PGY-2 and the PGY-3 IM-ITE testing opportunities. After experiencing the educational intervention, the study group demonstrated a significant increase in median individual IM-ITE percentile score between PGY-2 and PGY-3 examinations of 8.5 percentile points (p < 0.01). This is significantly better than the increase of 1.0 percentile point seen in the control group between its PGY-2 and PGY-3 examination (p < 0.01). A comprehensive multiple-choice testing program aimed at PGY-2 residents during a 12-month continuous long-block elective experience is associated with

  15. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  16. Association analysis of 9,560 prostate cancer cases from the International Consortium of Prostate Cancer Genetics confirms the role of reported prostate-cancer associated SNPs for familial disease

    PubMed Central

    Teerlink, Craig C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Rinckleb, Antje; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Egrot, Christophe; Cussenot, Olivier; Foulkes, William D.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Severi, Gianluca; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Ray, Anna M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Lange, Ethan M.; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Isaacs, William B.; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Carpten, John; Bailey-Wilson, Joan; Whittemore, Alice S.; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Catalona, William J.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Jin, Guangfu; Lu, Lingyi; Xu, Jianfeng; Camp, Nicola J.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous GWAS studies have reported significant associations between various common SNPs and prostate cancer risk using cases unselected for family history. How these variants influence risk in familial prostate cancer is not well studied. Here, we analyzed 25 previously reported SNPs across 14 loci from prior prostate cancer GWAS. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) previously validated some of these using a family-based association method (FBAT). However, this approach suffered reduced power due to the conditional statistics implemented in FBAT. Here, we use a case-control design with an empirical analysis strategy to analyze the ICPCG resource for association between these 25 SNPs and familial prostate cancer risk. Fourteen sites contributed 12,506 samples (9,560 prostate cancer cases, 3,368 with aggressive disease, and 2,946 controls from 2,283 pedigrees). We performed association analysis with Genie software which accounts for relationships. We analyzed all familial prostate cancer cases and the subset of aggressive cases. For the familial prostate cancer phenotype, 20 of the 25 SNPs were at least nominally associated with prostate cancer and 16 remained significant after multiple testing correction (p≤1E−3) occurring on chromosomal bands 6q25, 7p15, 8q24, 10q11, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, and Xp11. For aggressive disease, 16 of the SNPs had at least nominal evidence and 8 were statistically significant including 2p15. The results indicate that the majority of common, low-risk alleles identified in GWAS studies for all prostate cancer also contribute risk for familial prostate cancer, and that some may be contribute risk to aggressive disease. PMID:24162621

  17. New Hopes, New Horizons: The Challenges of Diversity in Education. Proceedings of the Biennial International Conference of the International Association of Special Education (5th, Capetown, South Africa, August 3-8, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Greg, Ed.; Minner, Sam, Ed.; Islam, Mohammad, Ed.; Hawthorne, Deborrah, Ed.

    This collection of 64 papers from a 1997 international conference of special educators focuses on the challenges of diversity in education. Topics of the papers include: (1) assessment strategies for individuals with autism; (2) self-determination strategies for at-risk youth with learning, behavior, and emotional disabilities; (3) developing…

  18. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although apple (Malus x domestica) is of economic importance, little information is available about the transriptomic profiling of postharvest disorders, particularly internal browning. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with development of flesh browning durin...

  19. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  20. Blueprints: Framework for the Future. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of College Unions-International (65th, San Diego, California, March 24-27, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy T., Ed.; Hahn, Laurel Markey, Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1985 conference of College Unions-International cover college union staff development, better management, and student development. Paper titles and authors are as follows: "Leadership and the One-Minute Manager" (Kenneth Blanchard); "Current Legal Issues in Personnel" (Donna Colianni); "Congruence…

  1. Eyes on the Future: Converging Images, Ideas, and Instruction. Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (27th, Chicago, Illinois October 18-22, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 47 selected papers from the 1995 International Visual Literacy Association (IVLA) conference. Topics include: the cultural significance of tombstone iconography; the predicted impact of multimedia on education and entertainment; the effects of digital imaging on the art of photography; visual representation of the structure…

  2. The Challenge To Be Relevant in the 21st Century: Abstracts and Full Text Documents of Papers and Demos Given at the [International Association of Technological University Libraries] IATUL Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, June 1-5, 1998), Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Technological Univ. Libraries, Gothenburg (Sweden).

    This proceedings of the 1998 conference of the International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL) contains the full text of the following papers: "A Library Ready for 21st Century Services: The Case of the University of Science and Technology (UST) Library, Kumasi, Ghana" (Helena Rebecca Asamoah-Hassan);…

  3. Expanding Reading Interest, Response, Achievement; Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North Carolina Council of the International Reading Association (7th, Greensboro, North Carolina, March 13-14, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culyer, Richard C., III, Ed.

    This volume presents papers given at the Seventh Annual Conference on Reading of the North Carolina Council of the International Reading Association. General-session addresses include "Reading: The Fassport to the 80s" by Lewis C. Dowdy, "Developing the Habit of Reading Success" by William K. Durr, "Neither Simple-Minded nor Muddle-Headed Be" by…

  4. Outcomes of Global Education: External and Internal Change Associated with Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy; Thompson, Don

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of external and internal changes associated with collegiate study abroad experiences. A brief review of the research literature is included along with recent research that sheds light on potential mechanisms associated with study abroad-related change. Recommendations for enhancing outcomes associated with study…

  5. Special Medical Conditions Associated with Catatonia in the Internal Medicine Setting: Hyponatremia-Inducing Psychosis and Subsequent Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Novac, Andrei A; Bota, Daniela; Witkowski, Joanne; Lipiz, Jorge; Bota, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of catatonia in the psychiatry consultation service is not infrequent. Usually, the patient either presents to the Emergency Department or develops catatonia on the medical floor. This condition manifests with significant behavioral changes (from mildly decreased speech output to complete mutism) that interfere with the ability to communicate. After structural brain disorders are excluded, one of the diagnoses that always should be considered is catatonia. However, the causes of catatonia are numerous, ranging from psychiatric causes to a plethora of medical illnesses. Therefore, it is not surprising that there are many proposed underlying mechanisms of catatonia and that controversy persists about the etiology of specific cases. There are only 6 reports of hyponatremia-induced catatonia and psychosis in the literature. Here, we present the case of a 30-year-old woman with catatonia and psychosis induced by hyponatremia, and we use this report to exemplify the multitude of biologic causes of catatonia and to propose a new way to look at the neuroanatomical basis of processing, particularly the vertical processing systems we believe are involved in catatonia. PMID:25102520

  6. Towards the 21st Century: Books and Media for the Millennium. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference, International Association of School Librarianship (21st, Belfast, Northern Ireland, July 20-24, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    This collection contains 13 selected papers presented at the 1992 conference of the International Association of School Librarianship. Titles are as follows: (1) "The Difference of Literature: Writing for the Future of Young Adults" (Aidan Chambers); (2) "Managing School Library Change" (Peggy Heeks); (3) "The Power of…

  7. Effects Associated with Leadership Program Participation in International Students Compared to Domestic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Daniel A.; Rosch, David M.

    2016-01-01

    International student enrollment in the U.S. higher education system has recently experienced profound growth. This research examines leadership-oriented differences between international and domestic students and focuses on their growth in capacity associated with participation in co-curricular leadership programs. Similarly-sized gains emerged…

  8. A resolution to commend the American Sail Training Association for advancing international goodwill and character building under sail.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kerry, John F. [D-MA

    2009-05-21

    Senate - 03/10/2010 Resolution agreed to in Senate with an amendment and an amended preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. [Master trainer concept "structured specialist further education" : A joint project of the German Professional Associations of Internal Medicine, Surgeons and Orthopedic/Trauma Surgeons].

    PubMed

    Siebolds, M; Ansorg, J; Dittmar, R; Hennes, N; Radau, T; Ruff, S; Denkinger, M D

    2017-10-01

    The quality requirements in the practice of postgradual medical further education below the normal level of the further education regulations is a barely developed scientific field in Germany. A systematic use of internationally accepted scientific evidence barely exists. This research and development project was initiated in 2001 in order to be able to implement a practical but evidence-based model compatible with the existing structure of postgradual medical education. This project has been supported since 2013 by the Professional Associations of Internal Medicine (BDI), Surgeons (BDC) and Orthopedic and Trauma surgeons (BVOU). The development phase of this complex intervention was based on three stages involving stakeholder interviews from relevant groups, the identification of a theoretical model for the construction and systematic literature reviews to identify the relevant evidence. The basic model for structured specialist further education developed included the creation and implementation of a simple core curriculum for every department, a tool for systematic feedback within the framework of the annual further education interviews and a simple clinical assessment to evaluate the actual clinical performance of physicians in further education. A pilot test of this model was carried out in 150 specialist departments in Germany and continually developed. The project shows that such a program can be systematically developed and pilot studies can be carried out. The central problems in implementation involve the traditional informal further education culture, which as a rule does not implement a systematic elicitation of the state of learning continuously distributed over the whole period of further education and the practical testing of competence development.

  10. Navigating the River: He Waka Eke Noa. Proceedings of the 2011 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Petone, New Zealand, November 30-December 2, 2011). Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Mervyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The 10 articles in this 7th volume comprise the refereed proceedings of the 2011 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. In Chapter 1, Cath Fraser and Pam Simpson ("Offshore-onshore: How international students' expectations of the New Zealand academic environment compare to their lived…

  11. Impact of an International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach on catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult intensive care units in the Philippines: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings.

    PubMed

    Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Berba, Regina; Rosenthal, Victor D; Villanueva, Victoria D; Tolentino, María Corazon V; Genuino, Glenn Angelo S; Consunji, Rafael J; Mantaring, Jacinto Blas V

    2013-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multidimensional infection control approach on the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates in adult intensive care units (AICUs) in two hospitals in the Philippines that are members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. This was a before-after prospective active surveillance study to determine the rates of CAUTI in 3183 patients hospitalized in 4 ICUS over 14,426 bed-days. The study was divided into baseline and intervention periods. During baseline, surveillance was performed using the definitions of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN). During intervention, we implemented a multidimensional approach that included: (1) a bundle of infection control interventions, (2) education, (3) surveillance of CAUTI rates, (4) feedback on CAUTI rates, (5) process surveillance and (6) performance feedback. We used random effects Poisson regression to account for the clustering of CAUTI rates across time. We recorded 8720 urinary catheter (UC)-days: 819 at baseline and 7901 during intervention. The rate of CAUTI was 11.0 per 1000 UC-days at baseline and was decreased by 76% to 2.66 per 1000 UC-days during intervention [rate ratio [RR], 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.53; P-value, 0.0001]. Our multidimensional approach was associated with a significant reduction in the CAUTI rates in the ICU setting of a limited-resource country. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association Between Internalized HIV-Related Stigma and HIV Care Visit Adherence.

    PubMed

    Rice, Whitney S; Crockett, Kaylee B; Mugavero, Michael J; Raper, James L; Atkins, Ghislaine C; Turan, Bulent

    2017-12-15

    Internalized HIV-related stigma acts as a barrier to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but its effects on other HIV care continuum outcomes are unclear. Among 196 HIV clinic patients in Birmingham, AL, we assessed internalized HIV-related stigma and depressive symptom severity using validated multi-item scales and assessed ART adherence using a validated single-item measure. HIV visit adherence (attended out of total scheduled visits) was calculated using data from clinic records. Using covariate-adjusted regression analysis, we investigated the association between internalized stigma and visit adherence. Using path analytic methods with bootstrapping, we tested the mediating role of depressive symptoms in the association between internalized stigma and visit adherence and the mediating role of visit adherence in the association between internalized stigma and ART adherence. Higher internalized stigma was associated with lower visit adherence (B = -0.04, P = 0.04). Black (versus white) race and depressive symptoms were other significant predictors within this model. Mediation analysis yielded no indirect effect through depression in the association between internalized stigma and visit adherence (B = -0.18, SE = 0.11, 95% confidence interval: -0.44 to -0.02) in the whole sample. Supplemental mediated moderation analyses revealed gender-specific effects. Additionally, the effect of internalized stigma on suboptimal ART adherence was mediated by lower visit adherence (B = -0.18, SE = 0.11, 95% confidence interval: -0.44 to -0.02). Results highlight the importance of internalized HIV stigma to multiple and sequential HIV care continuum outcomes. Also, findings suggest multiple intervention targets, including addressing internalized stigma directly, reducing depressive symptoms, and promoting consistent engagement in care.

  13. Internal audit consider the implications.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  14. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  15. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  16. [An exploratory study on the diagnostic cutoff value of International HIV-associated Dementia Scale in minority ethnic groups with different educational levels, in Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting-ting; Feng, Qi-ming; Liang, Hao; Tang, Xian-yan; Wei, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Using Intelligence Scale of Mini Mental State Estimated (MMSE) as the gold standard to determine the relevance of International HIV-associated Dementia Scale (IHDS) in minority ethnic areas in Guangxi populations with different cultural values. Corresponding boundary value related to the authenticity and reliability on IHDS were also evaluated. 200 patients with HIV infection were randomly selected from the minority ethnic groups in Guangxi. For each infected person, MMSE and IHDS blind scale were tested at the same period. Using the results from MMSE scale test as the gold standard, ROC curve and IHDS scale in Guangxi minority populations with different education levels which related to the diagnosis of dementia-HIV values were determined. The value of a specific sector under the IHDS sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency coefficients was also evaluated. When considering the infected person did not differ on their educational level, the IHDS scale diagnostic cutoff appeared as 8.25, while IHDS sensitivity as 0.925, specificity as 0.731 and Kappa as 0.477 (P < 0.001). When considering the extent of cultural differences did influence the prevalence of infection, the different education groups showed different IHDS diagnostic cutoff values. People with high school, secondary school or higher education levels, the IHDS diagnosis appeared to be 8.25, when sensitivity was 0.917, specificity was 0.895 and Kappa was 0.722 (P < 0.001). People with only primary education level, the IHDS appeared to be 7.25. When sensitivity was 0.875, specificity was 0.661 and Kappa was 0.372 (P < 0.001). The IHDS diagnostic sector in Guangxi minority groups was lower than the internationally recommended level of diagnostic cutoff value (IHDS ≤ 10 points). When using IHDS to perform the HIV related dementia screening program, in the minority areas of Guangxi, culture context, the degree and difference of HIV infection should be considered, especially in using IHDS diagnostic

  17. Thinness and muscularity internalization: Associations with disordered eating and muscle dysmorphia in men.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Patrycja; Murray, Stuart B; Brown, Tiffany; Gonzales Iv, Manuel; Blashill, Aaron J

    2018-04-01

    The tripartite influence model of body image identifies internalization of societal body ideals as a risk factor for developing body dissatisfaction, and subsequent disordered eating behavior. In men, internalization of two dimensions of body image ideals, thinness and muscularity, is associated with body dissatisfaction and eating concerns. However, it is unknown how thinness and muscularity internalization interact in predicting muscle dysmorphia and disordered eating in men. Data were collected online from 180 undergraduate men, with ages ranging from 18 to 33 years (19.6, SD = 2.6). Regression models were used to test the interactive effects of thinness and muscularity internalization on (a) muscle dysmorphia symptoms and (b) disordered eating. Subsequent simple slope analyses probed effects at the mean, and ±1 standard deviation of thinness internalization. Muscularity and thinness internalization were independently positively related to muscle dysmorphia symptoms and disordered eating. Additionally, a significant interaction revealed that muscularity internalization was increasingly related to muscle dysmorphia symptoms as thinness internalization decreased. Men who internalized the muscular ideal had higher levels of muscle dysmorphia when they did not highly internalize the thin ideal. However, greater internalization of both the muscularity and thin ideal independently may be most relevant in the development of disordered eating in men. Future research is needed to explore variability in experiences of muscle dysmorphia compared with disordered eating in males. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The uncontrolled presence of African swine fever (ASF) in Russian Federation (RF) poses a serious risk to the whole European Union (EU) pig industry. Although trade of pigs and their products is banned since the official notification in June 2007, the potential introduction of ASF virus (ASFV) may occur by other routes, which are very frequent in ASF, and more difficult to control, such as contaminated waste or infected vehicles. This study was intended to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction into the EU through three types of transport routes: returning trucks, waste from international ships and waste from international planes, which will be referred here as transport-associated routes (TAR). Since no detailed and official information was available for these routes, a semi-quantitative model based on the weighted combination of risk factors was developed to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction by TAR. Relative weights for combination of different risk factors as well as validation of the model results were obtained by an expert opinion elicitation. Results Model results indicate that the relative risk for ASFV introduction through TAR in most of the EU countries (16) is low, although some countries, specifically Poland and Lithuania, concentrate high levels of risk, the returning trucks route being the analyzed TAR that currently poses the highest risk for ASFV introduction into the EU. The spatial distribution of the risk of ASFV introduction varies importantly between the analyzed introduction routes. Results also highlight the need to increase the awareness and precautions for ASF prevention, particularly ensuring truck disinfection, to minimize the potential risk of entrance into the EU. Conclusions This study presents the first assessment of ASF introduction into the EU through TAR. The innovative model developed here could be used in data scarce situations for estimating the relative risk associated to each EU country. This simple methodology

  19. Parental internalizing problems in a community sample: association with child psychosocial problems.

    PubMed

    Spijkers, Willem; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-02-01

    Offspring of depressed, anxious and stressed parents are at increased risk of developing mental disorders. However, most studies investigating this association concentrate on clinical symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine the association between parental internalizing problems (symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress) and child psychosocial problems in a community sample, crude and adjusted for potential confounders (such as child gender, parental educational level, ethnicity) and whether parental concerns affect this association. Preceding a routine health examination, cross-sectional data were obtained from a representative sample of 9453 parents of children aged 9-11 years (response 65%). Measures of parental internalizing problems (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), child psychosocial problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Total Difficulties Score), background characteristics and parental concerns were completed by the parents. Parental internalizing problems were associated with child psychosocial problems in crude analysis and after adjustment for child, parent and family characteristics [β = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.14]. Parental concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems were also strongly associated with child psychosocial problems. After adjustment for these parental concerns, the association of parental stress with child psychosocial problems remained, while the association of parental depression and anxiety symptoms with child psychosocial problems lost statistical significance. As in clinical samples, parental internalizing problems in a community sample are associated with child psychosocial problems. Parental concerns on the child seem to affect this association. Further research is needed on the mechanisms affecting this association.

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (74th, Boston, Massachusetts, August 7-10, 1991). Part IX: International Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Media section of the proceedings contains the following 17 papers: "West German Media Coverage of the United States and Soviet Union, 1983-1988" (Jeffrey L. Griffin); "Shakti: The Power of the Mother. The Violent Nurturer in Ancient Indian Text and Modern Commercial Cinema" (Jawahara K. Saidulla);…

  1. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for review, interrupted tetrahedral framework structures are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is allowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundance in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemical symbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely on Si:Al ratio except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration, and over-hydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of a zeolite. Newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr.-Ba: chabazite-Ca.-Na.-K; clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca: dachiardite-Ca, -Na; erionite-K, -Ca: faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Na: paulingite-K. -Ca; phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -Ka; stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data. IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry; unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral species, and three of doubtful status. Herschelite, leonhardite, svetlozarite, and wellsite are discredited as mineral species names. Obsolete and

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication Division section of the proceedings contains the following 21 papers: "The European Press and the Euro: Media Agenda-Setting in a Cross-National Environment" (Olaf Werder); "Factors Affecting the Internet Adoption by Thai Journalists: A Diffusion of Innovation Study" (Anucha Thirakanont and…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IV: International Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "Testing the Interaction of the Third-Person Effect and Spiral of Silence in a Political Pressure Cooker: The Case of Hong Kong" (Lars Willnat); "The Use of Small State Variables in Research on Coverage of Foreign Policy:…

  4. Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Sletner, Line; Vangen, Siri; Vange, Siri; Torper, Johan L; Nakstad, Britt; Voldner, Nanna; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Mosdøl, Annhild; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Vårdal, Mari H; Holme, Ingar; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2012-02-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recently proposed new criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared prevalence rates, risk factors, and the effect of ethnicity using the World Health Organization (WHO) and modified IADPSG criteria. This was a population-based cohort study of 823 (74% of eligible) healthy pregnant women, of whom 59% were from ethnic minorities. Universal screening was performed at 28±2 weeks of gestation with the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous plasma glucose (PG) was measured on site. GDM was diagnosed as per the definition of WHO criteria as fasting PG (FPG) ≥7.0 or 2-h PG ≥7.8 mmol/l; and as per the modified IADPSG criteria as FPG ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l. OGTT was performed in 759 women. Crude GDM prevalence was 13.0% with WHO (Western Europeans 11%, ethnic minorities 15%, P=0.14) and 31.5% with modified IADPSG criteria (Western Europeans 24%, ethnic minorities 37%, P< 0.001). Using the WHO criteria, ethnic minority origin was an independent predictor (South Asians, odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.97); Middle Easterners, OR 2.13 (1.12-4.08)) after adjustments for age, parity, and prepregnant body mass index (BMI). This increased OR was unapparent after further adjustments for body height (proxy for early life socioeconomic status), education and family history of diabetes. Using the modified IADPSG criteria, prepregnant BMI (1.09 (1.05-1.13)) and ethnic minority origin (South Asians, 2.54 (1.56-4.13)) were independent predictors, while education, body height and family history had little impact. GDM prevalence was overall 2.4-times higher with the modified IADPSG criteria compared with the WHO criteria. The new criteria identified many subjects with a relatively mild increase in FPG, strongly associated with South Asian origin and prepregnant overweight.

  5. The role of the Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in the management and protection of Spain's groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, Emilio; Llamas, M.-Ramón; Villarroya, Fermín

    Spain is a relatively large European country (ca. 500,000km2) with extensive semiarid areas in which there exists a large number of good aquifers. In some areas, these aquifers are intensively developed and are the most important sources of fresh water. Nevertheless, groundwater development and protection has rarely been duly considered by the Spanish Water Administration, despite the pressure to remedy this situation by various groups of experts, some of them members of the Water Administration. The Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) has been very active during the last decade in promoting activities to spread groundwater science, technology, and management in Spain and outside, mostly in Latin America, and in trying to orient water policy toward issues of groundwater. These activities include mainly the organization of technical and scientific meetings on current topics such as groundwater in the new Water Act, overexploitation, groundwater in water-resources planning, groundwater pollution, natural-recharge estimation and others. The impact of these activities on the recent water policy of Spain seems significant, and the experience gained may be applicable to other countries. Résumé L'Espagne est un pays européen assez étendu (500,000km2 environ), où existent des zones semi-arides possédant de nombreux aquifères intéressants. Dans certaines régions, ces aquifères sont intensivement exploités et constituent les sources essentielles d'eau douce. Cependant, l'exploitation et la protection des eaux souterraines ont rarement été prises en compte de façon correcte par l'Administration Espagnole de l'Eau, malgré les pressions exercées pour remédier à la situation par différents groupes d'experts, dont certains sont membres de l'Administration de l'Eau. Le Comité Espagnol de l'Association Internationale des Hydrogéologues (AIH) a été particulièrement actif au cours de ces dix dernières années pour

  6. Diet quality as measured by the Diet Quality Index-International is associated with prospective changes in body fat among Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Maximova, Katerina; Ekwaru, John Paul; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Henderson, Mélanie; Paradis, Gilles; Tremblay, Angelo; Veugelers, Paul

    2017-02-01

    To quantify the association of dietary quality with prospective changes in adiposity. Children participating in the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth) study underwent examination at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Dietary quality was assessed by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQII) using three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls at baseline. The DQII has four main categories: dietary adequacy, variety, moderation and overall balance. Fat mass index (FMI; [fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), central FMI (CFMI; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), percentage body fat (%BF; [total fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) and percentage central BF (%CBF; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Children were selected from schools in the greater Montreal, Sherbrooke and Quebec City metropolitan areas between 2005 and 2008, Quebec, Canada. A total of 546 children aged 8-10 years, including 244 girls and 302 boys. Regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity and Tanner stage revealed that every 10-unit improvement in overall DQII score was associated with lower gain in CFMI (β=-0·08; 95 % CI -0·17, -0·003) and %BF (β=-0·55; 95 % CI -1·08, -0·02). Each unit improvement in dietary adequacy score was associated with lower gain in FMI (β=-0·05; 95 % CI -0·08, -0·008), CFMI (β=-0·03; 95 % CI -0·05, -0·007), %BF (β=-0·15; 95 % CI -0·28, -0·03) and %CBF (β=-0·09; 95 % CI -0·15, -0·02). Promotion of dietary quality and adequacy may reduce weight gain in childhood and prevent chronic diseases later in life.

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). International Communications Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The international communications section of the Proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Spinning Stories: Latin America and the World Wide Web" (Eliza Tanner); "Private-Enterprise Broadcasting and Accelerating Dependency: Case Studies from Nigeria and Uganda" (Folu Folarin Ogundimu); "The Transitional Media System…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). International--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International--Part II section of the Proceedings contains the following 20 papers: "An Economic Imperative: Privatization as Reflected in Business Reporting in the Middle East. Egypt as a Case Study" (Leonard Ray Teel, Hussein Amin, Shirley Biagi, and Carolyn Crimmins); "Broadcasting in South Africa: The Politics of Educational…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (80th, Chicago, Illinois, July 30-August 2, 1997): International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International section of the Proceedings contains the following 16 papers: "A 'Pernicious New Strain of the Old Nazi Virus' and an 'Orgy of Tribal Slaughter': A Comparison of U.S. News Magazine Coverage of the Crises in Bosnia and Rwanda" (Melissa A. Wall); "Information Sources, Teenage Pregnancy, and Contraception Use in Kenya:…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The International Communication Division of the proceedings contains the following 18 papers: "Press Freedom in Asia: New Paradigm Needed in Building Theories" (Jiafei Yin); "Entertainment East and West: A Comparison of Prime-Time U.S. and Asian TV Content Using the Methodology of the National Television Violence Study" (Anne…

  11. The Association between Serum Biomarkers and Disease Outcome in Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: Results of Two International Observational Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Richard T.; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcello H.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Wentworth, Deborah; Lane, H. Clifford; Dewar, Robin; Rupert, Adam; Metcalf, Julia A.; Pett, Sarah L.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Bruguera, Jose Maria; Angus, Brian; Cummins, Nathan; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment were analyzed in two international observational cohort studies. Methods Among patients with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, odds ratios (ORs) estimated by logistic regression were used to summarize the associations of biomarkers measured at enrollment with worsened disease outcome or death after 14 days of follow-up for those seeking outpatient care (FLU 002) or after 60 days for those hospitalized with influenza complications (FLU 003). Biomarkers that were significantly associated with progression in both studies (p<0.05) or only in one (p<0.002 after Bonferroni correction) were identified. Results In FLU 002 28/528 (5.3%) outpatients had influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection that progressed to a study endpoint of complications, hospitalization or death, whereas in FLU 003 28/170 (16.5%) inpatients enrolled from the general ward and 21/39 (53.8%) inpatients enrolled directly from the ICU experienced disease progression. Higher levels of 12 of the 25 markers were significantly associated with subsequent disease progression. Of these, 7 markers (IL-6, CD163, IL-10, LBP, IL-2, MCP-1, and IP-10), all with ORs for the 3rd versus 1st tertile of 2.5 or greater, were significant (p<0.05) in both outpatients and inpatients. In contrast, five markers (sICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-α, D-dimer, and sVCAM-1), all with ORs for the 3rd versus 1st tertile greater than 3.2, were significantly (p≤.002) associated with disease progression among hospitalized patients only. Conclusions In patients presenting with varying severities of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, a baseline elevation in several biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulation, or

  12. The association between serum biomarkers and disease outcome in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection: results of two international observational cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Davey, Richard T; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Losso, Marcello H; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Wentworth, Deborah; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin; Rupert, Adam; Metcalf, Julia A; Pett, Sarah L; Uyeki, Timothy M; Bruguera, Jose Maria; Angus, Brian; Cummins, Nathan; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment were analyzed in two international observational cohort studies. Among patients with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, odds ratios (ORs) estimated by logistic regression were used to summarize the associations of biomarkers measured at enrollment with worsened disease outcome or death after 14 days of follow-up for those seeking outpatient care (FLU 002) or after 60 days for those hospitalized with influenza complications (FLU 003). Biomarkers that were significantly associated with progression in both studies (p<0.05) or only in one (p<0.002 after Bonferroni correction) were identified. In FLU 002 28/528 (5.3%) outpatients had influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection that progressed to a study endpoint of complications, hospitalization or death, whereas in FLU 003 28/170 (16.5%) inpatients enrolled from the general ward and 21/39 (53.8%) inpatients enrolled directly from the ICU experienced disease progression. Higher levels of 12 of the 25 markers were significantly associated with subsequent disease progression. Of these, 7 markers (IL-6, CD163, IL-10, LBP, IL-2, MCP-1, and IP-10), all with ORs for the 3(rd) versus 1(st) tertile of 2.5 or greater, were significant (p<0.05) in both outpatients and inpatients. In contrast, five markers (sICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-α, D-dimer, and sVCAM-1), all with ORs for the 3(rd) versus 1(st) tertile greater than 3.2, were significantly (p≤.002) associated with disease progression among hospitalized patients only. In patients presenting with varying severities of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, a baseline elevation in several biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulation, or immune function strongly predicted

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 15 selected papers: "'News Aid', the New Aid: A Case Study of Cambodia" (J. L. Clarke); "Development of Public and Private Broadcasting in Post-Communist Estonia: 1991-1996" (Max V. Grubb); "Revealing and Repenting South Korea's Vietnam…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). International--Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International--Part I section of the Proceedings contains the following 20 papers: "Hollywood Attracts South Korean Capital" (Doobo Shim); "Worldview Differences of Natural Resources between Spain and Costa Rica: A Content Analysis of On-Line Newspapers" (Lorena Corbin); "Can the Leopard Change Its Spots:…

  15. Year of the Oceans: Science of Information Handling. [Proceedings of the] Annual Conference of the International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (10th, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, October 2-5, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, R. L., Ed.; Ford, R. T., Ed.

    International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) conferences provide a format for libraries and information specialists to discuss common interests and concerns so that services and information can be made available to scientists, administrators, engineers, educators and students in the discipline of marine…

  16. Computers and Reading: 1984-1989. Selections from "Micro Missive," the Newsletter of MicroSIG, The Special Interest Group for Microcomputers in Reading of the International Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest

    This publication is a collection of eight articles and ten software reviews written by the author for "Micro Missive" since 1984. "Micro Missive" is a quarterly newsletter that has regularly informed International Reading Association members of new developments in computer-based instruction and reading/language arts through articles, software…

  17. Examining Temporal Associations between Perceived Maternal Psychological Control and Early Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55%…

  18. Correlations Between Ratings on the Resident Annual Evaluation Summary and the Internal Medicine Milestones and Association With ABIM Certification Examination Scores Among US Internal Medicine Residents, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Karen E; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Hess, Brian; Lipner, Rebecca S; Holmboe, Eric S; Hood, Sarah; Iobst, William; Hamstra, Stanley J; McDonald, Furman S

    2016-12-06

    US internal medicine residency programs are now required to rate residents using milestones. Evidence of validity of milestone ratings is needed. To compare ratings of internal medicine residents using the pre-2015 resident annual evaluation summary (RAES), a nondevelopmental rating scale, with developmental milestone ratings. Cross-sectional study of US internal medicine residency programs in the 2013-2014 academic year, including 21 284 internal medicine residents (7048 postgraduate-year 1 [PGY-1], 7233 PGY-2, and 7003 PGY-3). Program director ratings on the RAES and milestone ratings. Correlations of RAES and milestone ratings by training year; correlations of medical knowledge ratings with American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores; rating of unprofessional behavior using the 2 systems. Corresponding RAES ratings and milestone ratings showed progressively higher correlations across training years, ranging among competencies from 0.31 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.33) to 0.35 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.37) for PGY-1 residents to 0.43 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.45) to 0.52 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.54) for PGY-3 residents (all P values <.05). Linear regression showed ratings differed more between PGY-1 and PGY-3 years using milestone ratings than the RAES (all P values <.001). Of the 6260 residents who attempted the certification examination, the 618 who failed had lower ratings using both systems for medical knowledge than did those who passed (RAES difference, -0.9; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.8; P < .001; milestone medical knowledge 1 difference, -0.3; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.3; P < .001; and medical knowledge 2 difference, -0.2; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.2; P < .001). Of the 26 PGY-3 residents with milestone ratings indicating deficiencies on either of the 2 medical knowledge subcompetencies, 12 failed the certification examination. Correlation of RAES ratings for professionalism with residents' lowest professionalism milestone ratings was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0

  19. The use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of internal root resorption associated with chronic apical periodontitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Perlea, Paula; Nistor, Cristina Coralia; Iliescu, Mihaela Georgiana; Iliescu, Alexandru Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Internal root resorption is a consequence of chronic pulp inflammation. Later on, the pulp necrosis followed by a chronic apical periodontitis is installed. Hence, usually, in clinical practice, both lesions have to be simultaneously managed. Conventional periapical radiograph is mandatory in diagnosis. Improving the diagnosis and management of both lesions, cone beam computed tomography proves to be more reliable than conventional radiography.

  20. Abnormal glucose tolerance post-gestational diabetes mellitus as defined by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Saunders, Jean A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Gillespie, Paddy; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Neill, Ciarán; O'Shea, P M; Dunne, F P

    2016-10-01

    An increase in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence has been demonstrated across many countries with adoption of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria. Here, we determine the cumulative incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance among women with previous GDM, and identify clinical risk factors predicting this. Two hundred and seventy women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM were prospectively followed up for 5years (mean 2.6) post-index pregnancy, and compared with 388 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy. Cumulative incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance (using American Diabetes Association criteria for impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes) was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method of survival analysis. Cox regression models were constructed to test for factors predicting abnormal glucose tolerance. Twenty-six percent of women with previous GDM had abnormal glucose tolerance vs 4% with NGT, with the log-rank test demonstrating significantly different survival curves (P<0.001). Women meeting IADPSG, but not the World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 criteria, had a lower cumulative incidence than women meeting both sets of criteria, both in the early post-partum period (4.2% vs 21.7%, P<0.001) and at longer-term follow-up (13.7% vs 32.6%, P<0.001). Predictive factors were glucose levels on the pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test, family history of diabetes, gestational week at testing, and BMI at follow-up. The proportion of women developing abnormal glucose tolerance remains high among those with IADPSG-defined GDM. This demonstrates the need for continued close follow-up, although the optimal frequency and method needs further study. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Fourfold increase in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus after adoption of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Evelyn A; Massaro, Nadine; Streckeisen, Simone; Manegold-Brauer, Gwendolin; Schoetzau, Andreas; Schulzke, Sven M; Winzeler, Bettina; Hoesli, Irene; Lapaire, Olav

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the influence of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) guidelines for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on GDM prevalence in a cohort from a Swiss tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study involving all pregnant women who were screened for GDM between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. From 2008 until 2010 (period 1), a two-step approach with 1-h 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) was used, followed by fasting, 1- and 2-h glucose measurements after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in case of a positive GCT. From 2010 until 2013 (period 2), all pregnant women were tested with a one-step 75 g OGTT according to new IADPSG guidelines. In both periods, women with risk factors could be screened directly with a 75 g OGTT in early pregnancy. Overall, 647 women were eligible for the study in period 1 and 720 in period 2. The introduction of the IADPSG criteria resulted in an absolute increase of GDM prevalence of 8.5% (3.3% in period 1 to 11.8% in period 2). The adoption of the IADPSG criteria resulted in a considerable increase in GDM diagnosis in our Swiss cohort. Further studies are needed to investigate if the screening is cost effective and if treatment of our additionally diagnosed GDM mothers might improve short-term as well as long-term outcome.

  2. Does accreditation by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) ensure greater compliance with animal welfare laws?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Justin R; Chandna, Alka; Borch, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Accreditation of nonhuman animal research facilities by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) is widely considered the "gold standard" of commitment to the well being of nonhuman animals used in research. AAALAC-accredited facilities receive preferential treatment from funding agencies and are viewed favorably by the general public. Thus, it bears investigating how well these facilities comply with U.S. animal research regulations. In this study, the incidences of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) at AAALAC-accredited facilities were evaluated and compared to those at nonaccredited institutions during a period of 2 years. The analysis revealed that AAALAC-accredited facilities were frequently cited for AWA noncompliance items (NCIs). Controlling for the number of animals at each facility, AAALAC-accredited sites had significantly more AWA NCIs on average compared with nonaccredited sites. AAALAC-accredited sites also had more NCIs related to improper veterinary care, personnel qualifications, and animal husbandry. These results demonstrate that AAALAC accreditation does not improve compliance with regulations governing the treatment of animals in laboratories.

  3. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered fear circuitry and increased internalizing symptoms by late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Herringa, Ryan J.; Birn, Rasmus M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Burghy, Cory A.; Stodola, Diane E.; Davidson, Richard J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Maltreatment during childhood is a major risk factor for anxiety and depression, which are major public health problems. However, the underlying brain mechanism linking maltreatment and internalizing disorders remains poorly understood. Maltreatment may alter the activation of fear circuitry, but little is known about its impact on the connectivity of this circuitry in adolescence and whether such brain changes actually lead to internalizing symptoms. We examined the associations between experiences of maltreatment during childhood, resting-state functional brain connectivity (rs-FC) of the amygdala and hippocampus, and internalizing symptoms in 64 adolescents participating in a longitudinal community study. Childhood experiences of maltreatment were associated with lower hippocampus–subgenual cingulate rs-FC in both adolescent females and males and lower amygdala–subgenual cingulate rs-FC in females only. Furthermore, rs-FC mediated the association of maltreatment during childhood with adolescent internalizing symptoms. Thus, maltreatment in childhood, even at the lower severity levels found in a community sample, may alter the regulatory capacity of the brain’s fear circuit, leading to increased internalizing symptoms by late adolescence. These findings highlight the importance of fronto–hippocampal connectivity for both sexes in internalizing symptoms following maltreatment in childhood. Furthermore, the impact of maltreatment during childhood on both fronto–amygdala and –hippocampal connectivity in females may help explain their higher risk for internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. PMID:24191026

  4. Association Between Study Quality and Publication Rates of Medical Education Abstracts Presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Beckman, Thomas J; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Reed, Darcy A; Wang, Amy T

    2015-08-01

    Studies reveal that 44.5% of abstracts presented at national meetings are subsequently published in indexed journals, with lower rates for abstracts of medical education scholarship. We sought to determine whether the quality of medical education abstracts is associated with subsequent publication in indexed journals, and to compare the quality of medical education abstracts presented as scientific abstracts versus innovations in medical education (IME). Retrospective cohort study. Medical education abstracts presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) 2009 annual meeting. Publication rates were measured using database searches for full-text publications through December 2013. Quality was assessed using the validated Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Overall, 64 (44%) medical education abstracts presented at the 2009 SGIM annual meeting were subsequently published in indexed medical journals. The MERSQI demonstrated good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation range, 0.77-1.00) for grading the quality of medical education abstracts. MERSQI scores were higher for published versus unpublished abstracts (9.59 vs. 8.81, p = 0.03). Abstracts with a MERSQI score of 10 or greater were more likely to be published (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.47-6.89, p = 0.003). ). MERSQI scores were higher for scientific versus IME abstracts (9.88 vs. 8.31, p < 0.001). Publication rates were higher for scientific abstracts (42 [66%] vs. 37 [46%], p = 0.02) and oral presentations (15 [23%] vs. 6 [8%], p = 0.01). The publication rate of medical education abstracts presented at the 2009 SGIM annual meeting was similar to reported publication rates for biomedical research abstracts, but higher than publication rates reported for medical education abstracts. MERSQI scores were associated with higher abstract publication rates, suggesting that attention to measures of quality--such as sampling, instrument validity, and data analysis

  5. The International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Associations Between Procrastination and Internalizing/Externalizing Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Gustavson, Daniel E; du Pont, Alta; Hatoum, Alexander S; Hyun Rhee, Soo; Kremen, William S; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2017-09-01

    Recent work on procrastination has begun to unravel the genetic and environmental correlates of this problematic behavior. However, little is known about how strongly procrastination is associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and the extent to which shared genetic/environmental factors or relevant personality constructs (e.g., fear of failure, impulsivity, and neuroticism) can inform the structure of these associations. The current study examined data from 764 young adult twins who completed questionnaires assessing procrastination and personality and structured interviews regarding psychopathology symptoms. Results indicated that procrastination was positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing latent variables, and that these correlations were driven by shared genetic influences. Moreover, the association between procrastination and internalizing was accounted for by fear of failure and neuroticism, whereas the association between procrastination and externalizing was primarily explained by impulsivity. The role of procrastination in psychopathology is discussed using a framework that highlights common and broadband-specific variance.

  7. How is the Department of Veterans Affairs addressing the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education intern work hour limitations? Solutions from the Association of Veterans Affairs Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Amanda V; Tarpley, John L; Berger, David H; Wilson, Mark A; Livingston, Edward H; Kibbe, Melina R

    2012-11-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented new intern work-hour regulations in July 2011 that have unique implications for surgical training at Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Implementation of these new regulations required profound restructuring of trainee night coverage systems at many VA medical centers. This article offers approaches and potential solutions to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education regulations used by different surgery programs throughout the country that are applicable to the VA training environment. The information contained in this article was derived from the opinion of a panel of academic surgical leaders in the VA system and responses to a survey that was sent to national VA surgical leaders. The most common solution chosen by the VA centers was hiring physician extenders (37%). The most common type of extender was a nonphysician extender, that is, nurse practitioner or physician assistant (70%), followed by a surgical hospitalist (33%), and surgical resident moonlighter (24%). Other common solutions included the following: night float for residents (22%) or interns (19%), establishing early versus late shifts (19%), or establishing cross-institutional or disciplinary coverage (19%). The public expects the medical community to produce safe, experienced surgeons, while demanding they are well rested and directly supervised at all times. The ability to meet these expectations can be challenging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Marin-Webb, Victor; Jessen, Heiko; Kopp, Ute; Jessen, Arne B; Hahn, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations' demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective. To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population. We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria. The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia). The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94%) and specificity (86%). The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a similar economic development. The study confirms

  9. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on new Minerals and Mineral names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for this review, structures containing an interrupted framework of tetrahedra are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is allowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundant in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemicalsymbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix, except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely on the ratio Si:Al except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration, and overhydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of a zeolite. newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr, -Ba, chabazite-Ca, -Na, -K, clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca, dachiardite-Ca, -Na, erionite-Na, erionite-Na, -K, -Ca, faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Mg, ferrierite-Mg, -K, -Na, gmelinite-Na, -Ca, -K, heulandite-Ca, -Na, -K, -Sr, levyne-Ca, -Na, paulingite-K, -Ca, phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -K, and stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data, IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry, unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral species

  10. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: Report of the Subcommittee on Zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for this review, structures containing an interrupted containing an interrupted framework of tetrahedra are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is alloowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundant in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemical symbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix, except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely in Si:Al ratio except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration and over-hydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of zeolite. Newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr, -Ba; chabazite-Ca, -Na, -K; clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca; dechiardite-Ca, -Na; erionite-Na, -K, -Ca,; faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Mg; ferrierite-Mg, -K, -Na; gmelinite-Na, -Ca, -K; heulandite-Ca, -Na, -K, -Sr; levyne-Ca, -Na; paulingite-K, -Ca; phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -K stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data, IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry, unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral

  11. Language and the International Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the issue of unilinguism and linguistic pluralism on the international scene. The need for international communication where English is the dominant force and efforts to preserve cultural equality are seen as compelling reasons for promotion of an international language such as Esperanto. (AMH)

  12. Validation of prostate cancer risk-related loci identified from genome-wide association studies using family-based association analysis: evidence from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG).

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangfu; Lu, Lingyi; Cooney, Kathleen A; Ray, Anna M; Zuhlke, Kimberly A; Lange, Ethan M; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Camp, Nicola J; Teerlink, Craig C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Stanford, Janet L; Wiley, Kathleen E; Isaacs, Sarah D; Walsh, Patrick C; Foulkes, William D; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Severi, Gianluca; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Rinckleb, Antje; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Egrot, Christophe; Cussenot, Olivier; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Whittemore, Alice S; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Catalona, William J; Zheng, S Lilly; Ostrander, Elaine A; Isaacs, William B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2012-07-01

    Multiple prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci have been discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on case-control designs. However, GWAS findings may be confounded by population stratification if cases and controls are inadvertently drawn from different genetic backgrounds. In addition, since these loci were identified in cases with predominantly sporadic disease, little is known about their relationships with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC). The association between seventeen reported PCa susceptibility loci was evaluated with a family-based association test using 1,979 hereditary PCa families of European descent collected by members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, with a total of 5,730 affected men. The risk alleles for 8 of the 17 loci were significantly over-transmitted from parents to affected offspring, including SNPs residing in 8q24 (regions 1, 2 and 3), 10q11, 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11. In subgroup analyses, three loci, at 8q24 (regions 1 and 2) plus 17q12, were significantly over-transmitted in hereditary PCa families with five or more affected members, while loci at 3p12, 8q24 (region 2), 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11 were significantly over-transmitted in HPC families with an average age of diagnosis at 65 years or less. Our results indicate that at least a subset of PCa risk-related loci identified by case-control GWAS are also associated with disease risk in HPC families.

  13. Validation of prostate cancer risk-related loci identified from genome-wide association studies using family-based association analysis: evidence from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guangfu; Lu, Lingyi; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Ray, Anna M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Camp, Nicola J.; Teerlink, Craig C.; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Foulkes, William D.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Severi, Gianluca; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Rinckleb, Antje; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Egrot, Christophe; Cussenot, Olivier; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Whittemore, Alice S.; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Catalona, William J.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Isaacs, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci have been discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on case–control designs. However, GWAS findings may be confounded by population stratification if cases and controls are inadvertently drawn from different genetic backgrounds. In addition, since these loci were identified in cases with predominantly sporadic disease, little is known about their relationships with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC). The association between seventeen reported PCa susceptibility loci was evaluated with a family-based association test using 1,979 hereditary PCa families of European descent collected by members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, with a total of 5,730 affected men. The risk alleles for 8 of the 17 loci were significantly over-transmitted from parents to affected offspring, including SNPs residing in 8q24 (regions 1, 2 and 3), 10q11, 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11. In subgroup analyses, three loci, at 8q24 (regions 1 and 2) plus 17q12, were significantly over-transmitted in hereditary PCa families with five or more affected members, while loci at 3p12, 8q24 (region 2), 11q13, 17q12 (region 1), 17q24 and Xp11 were significantly over-transmitted in HPC families with an average age of diagnosis at 65 years or less. Our results indicate that at least a subset of PCa risk-related loci identified by case–control GWAS are also associated with disease risk in HPC families. PMID:22198737

  14. Comparisons of guardianship laws and surrogate decision-making practices in China, Japan, Thailand and Australia: a review by the Asia Consortium, International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Joshua; Peisah, Carmelle; Narumoto, Jin; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; O'Neill, Nick; Jiang, Tao; Ogano, Shoichi; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Yuka; Chiu, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce was established to promote the autonomy, proper access to care, and dignity of persons with decision-making disabilities (DMDs) across nations. The Asia Consortium of the taskforce was established to pursue these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper is part of the Asia Consortium's initiative to promote understanding and advocacy in regard to surrogate decision-making across the region. The current guardianship laws are compared, and jurisdictional variations in the processes for proxy decision-making to support persons with DMDs and other health and social needs in China, Japan, Thailand, and Australia are explored. The different Asia-Pacific countries have various proxy decision-making mechanisms in place for persons with DMDs, which are both formalized according to common law, civil law, and other legislation, and shaped by cultural practices. Various processes for guardianship and mechanisms for medical decision-making and asset management exist across the region. Processes that are still evolving across the region include those that facilitate advanced planning as a result of the paucity of legal structures for enduring powers of attorney (EPA) and guardianship in some regions, and the struggle to achieve consensual positions in regard to end-of-life decision-making. Formal processes for supporting decision-making are yet to be developed. The diverse legal approaches to guardianship and administration must be understood to meet the challenges of the rapidly ageing population in the Asia-Pacific region. Commonalities in the solutions and difficulties faced in encountering these challenges have global significance.

  15. Brain mechanisms associated with internally directed attention and self-generated thought.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Beaty, Roger E; Fink, Andreas; Koschutnig, Karl; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2016-03-10

    Internal cognition like imagination and prospection require sustained internally directed attention and involve self-generated thought. This fMRI study aimed to disentangle the brain mechanisms associated with attention-specific and task-specific processes during internally directed cognition. The direction of attention was manipulated by either keeping a relevant stimulus visible throughout the task, or by masking it, so that the task had to be performed "in the mind's eye". The level of self-directed thought was additionally varied between a convergent and a divergent thinking task. Internally directed attention was associated with increased activation in the right anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL), bilateral lingual gyrus and the cuneus, as well as with extended deactivations of superior parietal and occipital regions representing parts of the dorsal attention network. The right aIPL further showed increased connectivity with occipital regions suggesting an active top-down mechanism for shielding ongoing internal processes from potentially distracting sensory stimulation in terms of perceptual decoupling. Activation of the default network was not related to internally directed attention per se, but rather to a higher level of self-generated thought. The findings hence shed further light on the roles of inferior and superior parietal cortex for internally directed cognition.

  16. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  17. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants’ health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants’ social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3–6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  18. Key priorities in the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection: a survey of European and other international infection prevention experts.

    PubMed

    Dettenkofer, Markus; Humphreys, Hilary; Saenz, Henri; Carlet, Jean; Hanberger, Håkan; Ruef, Christian; Widmer, Andreas; Wolkewitz, Martin; Cookson, Barry

    2016-12-01

    Prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) are important within and beyond Europe. However, it is unclear which areas are considered important by HCAI prevention and control professionals. This study assesses the priorities in the prevention and control of HCAI as judged by experts in the field. A survey was conducted by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases focussing on seven topics using SurveyMonkey ® . Through a newsletter distributed by email, about 5000 individuals were targeted throughout the world in February and March 2013. Participants were asked to rate the importance of particular topics from one (low importance) to ten (extraordinary importance), and there was no restriction on giving equal importance to more than one topic. A total of 589 experts from 86 countries participated including 462 from Europe (response rate: 11.8 %). Physicians accounted for 60 % of participants, and 57 % had ten or more years' experience in this area. Microbial epidemiology/resistance achieved the highest priority scoring with 8.9, followed by surveillance 8.2, and decolonisation/disinfection/antiseptics with 7.9. Under epidemiology/resistance, highly resistant Gram-negative bacilli scored highest (9.0-9.2). The provision of computerised healthcare information systems for the early detection of outbreaks was accorded the top priority under surveillance. The prevention of surgical site and central line infections ranked highest under the category of specific HCAI and HCAI in certain settings. Differences between regions are described. These findings reflect the concerns of experts in HCAI prevention and control. The results from this survey should inform national and international agencies on future action and research priorities.

  19. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Cecilia S; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4-9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers' state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents' verbal intelligence was controlled for. Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers' AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure-insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents' verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent states-of-mind of adoptive mothers on the attachment

  20. High-Resolution Analysis by Whole-Genome Sequencing of an International Lineage (Sequence Type 111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Metallo-Carbapenemases in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; Wright, Laura; Underwood, Anthony; Witney, Adam A; Chan, Yuen-Ting; Al-Shahib, Ali; Arnold, Catherine; Doumith, Michel; Patel, Bharat; Planche, Timothy D; Green, Jonathan; Holliman, Richard; Woodford, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on 87 isolates of sequence type 111 (ST-111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected between 2005 and 2014 from 65 patients and 12 environmental isolates from 24 hospital laboratories across the United Kingdom on an Illumina HiSeq instrument. Most isolates (73) carried VIM-2, but others carried IMP-1 or IMP-13 (5) or NDM-1 (1); one isolate had VIM-2 and IMP-18, and 7 carried no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis divided the isolates into distinct clusters; the NDM-1 isolate was an outlier, and the IMP isolates and 6/7 MBL-negative isolates clustered separately from the main set of 73 VIM-2 isolates. Within the VIM-2 set, there were at least 3 distinct clusters, including a tightly clustered set of isolates from 3 hospital laboratories consistent with an outbreak from a single introduction that was quickly brought under control and a much broader set dominated by isolates from a long-running outbreak in a London hospital likely seeded from an environmental source, requiring different control measures; isolates from 7 other hospital laboratories in London and southeast England were also included. Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated that all the isolates shared a common ancestor dating back ∼50 years (1960s), with the main VIM-2 set separating approximately 20 to 30 years ago. Accessory gene profiling revealed blocks of genes associated with particular clusters, with some having high similarity (≥95%) to bacteriophage genes. WGS of widely found international lineages such as ST-111 provides the necessary resolution to inform epidemiological investigations and intervention policies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Variations in daily cigarette consumption on work days compared with nonwork days and associations with quitting: findings from the international tobacco control four-country survey.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jae; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    We explore whether reported daily cigarette consumption differs between work days and nonwork days and whether variation in consumption between work days and nonwork days influences quitting and abstinence from smoking. We also explore whether effects are independent of measures of addiction and smoking restrictions at work and home. Data were from 5,732 respondents from the first five waves of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, occurring between 2002 and 2006. Respondents were current smokers employed outside the home. Variation in daily cigarette consumption on work days compared with nonwork days at one wave was used to predict the likelihood of making an attempt and the likelihood of maintaining a quit attempt for at least a month at the next wave. Generalized estimating equations were used to combine data for multiple waves. Just under half reported smoking more on a nonwork day, a little over a third reported no difference, and around one fifth reported smoking more on a work day. Controlling for possible confounding factors, smoking more on a work day was associated with making quit attempts. Among people who made a quit attempt, variation in consumption did not consistently predict one month's abstinence, being positive in Australia, but negative in the United Kingdom. Those who smoke more on work days try to quit more. Country differences for success may be related to the extent of bans on smoking, with those smoking more on work days more likely to succeed where bans in workplaces and public places were more prevalent, such as Australia at the time.

  2. Health and well-being factors associated with international business travel.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Justin D; Joines, Ron; Cunningham-Hill, Mark; Xu, Baowei

    2010-01-01

    International travel by US business travelers is continuing to increase with the globalization of the economy. The objective of this study was to determine if the frequency and duration of international business travel is associated with differences in travelers' health and well-being. This study expands our limited knowledge of the impact of long-haul travel on healthy lifestyle choices and traveler's perceptions of their health and well-being. 12,942 unique health risk appraisal (HRA) records of US employees of a multinational corporation were analyzed according to self-reported (objective and subjective) travel history and lifestyle habits. Comparing 2,962 international travelers and 9,980 non-travelers, international business travel was significantly associated with a lower body mass index, lower blood pressure, excess alcohol consumption, sleep deprivation, and diminished confidence to keep up with the pace of work. This study demonstrated both positive and negative associations on the health risks and well-being of a large sample of US-based international business travelers from an US multinational company. This study identifies targeted areas for pretrip screening and counseling to proactively address potential negative effects of travel and may assist in the design of corporate travel health and employee assistance programs. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  3. Patient characteristics, resource use and outcomes associated with general internal medicine hospital care: the General Medicine Inpatient Initiative (GEMINI) retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Amol A.; Guo, Yishan; Kwan, Janice L.; Lapointe-Shaw, Lauren; Rawal, Shail; Tang, Terence; Weinerman, Adina; Cram, Peter; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Hwang, Stephen W.; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Shadowitz, Steven; Upshur, Ross; Reid, Robert J.; Razak, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The precise scope of hospital care delivered under general internal medicine services remains poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, medical conditions, health outcomes and resource use of patients admitted to general internal medicine at 7 hospital sites in the Greater Toronto Area. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving all patients who were admitted to or discharged from general internal medicine at the study sites between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2015. Clinical data from hospital electronic information systems were linked to administrative data from each hospital. We examined trends in resource use and patient characteristics over the study period. Results: There were 136 208 admissions to general internal medicine involving 88 121 unique patients over the study period. General internal medicine admissions accounted for 38.8% of all admissions from the emergency department and 23.7% of all hospital bed-days. Over the study period, the number of admissions to general internal medicine increased by 32.4%; there was no meaningful change in the median length of stay or cost per hospital stay. The median patient age was 73 (interquartile range [IQR] 57-84) years, and the median number of coexisting conditions was 6 (IQR 3-9). The median acute length of stay was 4.6 (IQR 2.5-8.6) days, and the median total cost per hospital stay was $5850 (IQR $3915-$10 061). Patients received at least 1 computed tomography scan in 52.2% of admissions. The most common primary discharge diagnoses were pneumonia (5.0% of admissions), heart failure (4.7%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4.1%), urinary tract infection (4.0%) and stroke (3.6%). Interpretation: Patients admitted to general internal medicine services represent a large, heterogeneous, resource-intensive and growing population. Understanding and improving general internal medicine care is essential to promote a high

  4. Patient characteristics, resource use and outcomes associated with general internal medicine hospital care: the General Medicine Inpatient Initiative (GEMINI) retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol A; Guo, Yishan; Kwan, Janice L; Lapointe-Shaw, Lauren; Rawal, Shail; Tang, Terence; Weinerman, Adina; Cram, Peter; Dhalla, Irfan A; Hwang, Stephen W; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Shadowitz, Steven; Upshur, Ross; Reid, Robert J; Razak, Fahad

    2017-12-11

    The precise scope of hospital care delivered under general internal medicine services remains poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, medical conditions, health outcomes and resource use of patients admitted to general internal medicine at 7 hospital sites in the Greater Toronto Area. This was a retrospective cohort study involving all patients who were admitted to or discharged from general internal medicine at the study sites between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2015. Clinical data from hospital electronic information systems were linked to administrative data from each hospital. We examined trends in resource use and patient characteristics over the study period. There were 136 208 admissions to general internal medicine involving 88 121 unique patients over the study period. General internal medicine admissions accounted for 38.8% of all admissions from the emergency department and 23.7% of all hospital bed-days. Over the study period, the number of admissions to general internal medicine increased by 32.4%; there was no meaningful change in the median length of stay or cost per hospital stay. The median patient age was 73 (interquartile range [IQR] 57-84) years, and the median number of coexisting conditions was 6 (IQR 3-9). The median acute length of stay was 4.6 (IQR 2.5-8.6) days, and the median total cost per hospital stay was $5850 (IQR $3915-$10 061). Patients received at least 1 computed tomography scan in 52.2% of admissions. The most common primary discharge diagnoses were pneumonia (5.0% of admissions), heart failure (4.7%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4.1%), urinary tract infection (4.0%) and stroke (3.6%). Patients admitted to general internal medicine services represent a large, heterogeneous, resource-intensive and growing population. Understanding and improving general internal medicine care is essential to promote a high-quality, sustainable health care system. Copyright 2017

  5. Standardizing Clinically Meaningful Outcome Measures Beyond HbA1c for Type 1 Diabetes: A Consensus Report of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, JDRF International, The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the T1D Exchange.

    PubMed

    Agiostratidou, Gina; Anhalt, Henry; Ball, Dana; Blonde, Lawrence; Gourgari, Evgenia; Harriman, Karen N; Kowalski, Aaron J; Madden, Paul; McAuliffe-Fogarty, Alicia H; McElwee-Malloy, Molly; Peters, Anne; Raman, Sripriya; Reifschneider, Kent; Rubin, Karen; Weinzimer, Stuart A

    2017-12-01

    To identify and define clinically meaningful type 1 diabetes outcomes beyond hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) based upon a review of the evidence, consensus from clinical experts, and input from researchers, people with type 1 diabetes, and industry. Priority outcomes include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, time in range, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). While priority outcomes for type 1 and type 2 diabetes may overlap, type 1 diabetes was the focus of this work. A Steering Committee-comprising representatives from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, JDRF International, The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the T1D Exchange-was the decision-making body for the Type 1 Diabetes Outcomes Program. Their work was informed by input from researchers, industry, and people with diabetes through Advisory Committees representing each stakeholder group. Stakeholder surveys were used to identify priority outcomes. The outcomes prioritized in the surveys were hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, time in range, DKA, and PROs. To develop consensus on the definitions of these outcomes, the Steering Committee relied on published evidence, their clinical expertise, and feedback from the Advisory Committees. The Steering Committee developed definitions for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, time in range, and DKA in type 1 diabetes. The definitions reflect their assessment of the outcome's short- and long-term clinical impact on people with type 1 diabetes. Knowledge gaps to be addressed by future research were identified. The Steering Committee discussed PROs and concluded that further type 1 diabetes-specific development is needed. The Steering Committee recommends use of the defined clinically meaningful outcomes beyond HbA 1c in the research, development, and evaluation of type 1 diabetes

  6. Coronal Flux Rope Catastrophe Associated With Internal Energy Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Youqiu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic energy during the catastrophe was predominantly studied by the previous catastrophe works since it is believed to be the main energy supplier for the solar eruptions. However, the contribution of other types of energies during the catastrophe cannot be neglected. This paper studies the catastrophe of the coronal flux rope system in the solar wind background, with emphasis on the transformation of different types of energies during the catastrophe. The coronal flux rope is characterized by its axial and poloidal magnetic fluxes and total mass. It is shown that a catastrophe can be triggered by not only an increase but also a decrease of the axial magnetic flux. Moreov