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Sample records for aalborg university denmark

  1. Sustainable Development: Assessing the Gap between Preaching and Practice at Aalborg University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel; Jorgensen, Tine Herreborg; Lehmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to discuss the contradiction between signing an agreement to work for sustainable universities and the lack of practical commitment in one case, namely at Aalborg University (AAU). Focus is placed both on the University's core processes such as education, research and outreach; on the necessary inputs and outputs related…

  2. The Construction of Teaching Roles at Aalborg University Centre, 1970-1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servant-Miklos, Virginie F. C.; Spliid, Claus M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a historical analysis of the development of teaching roles at Aalborg University Centre in its first 10 years. The research highlights three processes through which the interpretation of the new "supervisor" roles was constructed within the problem-oriented, project-based educational model of AUC. First, the authors…

  3. The Aalborg University PO-PBL Model from a Socio-Cultural Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Carola; Ravn, Ole; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Aalborg University has been developing a new pedagogical model in higher education: The Project Oriented-Problem Based Learning (PO-PBL). In particular, the Faculty of Engineering and Science has developed a pedagogical proposal that introduces students to a different type of learning. One of the theoretical frameworks…

  4. NREL Partners with Technical University of Denmark on Renewable Energy

    Science.gov Websites

    System | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL Technical University of Denmark NREL Partners with Technical University of Denmark on Renewable Energy System NREL is working in partnership with the Technical University of Denmark for the Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

  5. Towards Universal Design Hotels in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research project 'Accessible Hotel Rooms' that studies the balance between the experience of supply and demand regarding accessibility features in Danish hotel rooms, this paper demonstrates factors having an influence on Universal Design hotels in Denmark. The research project was financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. Different notions in the hotel sector of the current supply and demand for Universal Design hotel rooms are identified, as well as future demand. Despite supplying accessible rooms, some hotels do not advertise their accessibility features on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view of demand. Another important factor is Corporate Social Responsibility, which can be regarded as a strategy or platform towards Universal Design hotels.

  6. Applying the Kanban method in problem-based project work: a case study in a manufacturing engineering bachelor's programme at Aalborg University Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balve, Patrick; Krüger, Volker; Tolstrup Sørensen, Lene

    2017-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has proven to be highly effective for educating students in an active and self-motivated manner in various disciplines. Student projects carried out following PBL principles are very dynamic and carry a high level of uncertainty, both conditions under which agile project management approaches are assumed to be highly supportive. The paper describes an empirical case study carried out at Aalborg University Copenhagen involving students from two different semesters of a Bachelor of Science programme. While executing the study, compelling examples of how PBL and the agile project management method Kanban blend could be identified. A final survey reveals that applying Kanban produces noticeable improvements with respect to creating, assigning and coordinating project tasks. Other improvements were found in group communication, knowledge about the work progress with regards to both the individual and the collective and the students' way of continuously improving their own teamwork.

  7. Strategic planning of the master programme in health informatics at Aalborg University: targeting and updating the programme, to meet explicit customer needs.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, C; Bygholm, A; Hejlesen, O

    1998-06-01

    Education is essentially giving people new skills and qualifications to fulfil certain tasks. In planning and managing educational programmes it is crucial to know what skills and what qualifications are needed to carry out the tasks in question, not to mention the importance of knowing what tasks are relevant to carry out. The programme in health informatics at Aalborg University produces health informatics professionals. The students are developing skills in solving informatics problems in health care organisations. The programme has been running for 3 years now and to maintain the perception of the aim for the programme a number of activities have been launched. In the following, the programme will be presented, the activities to obtain information on how to keep the programme targeted and updated will be described and the changes that are going to be introduced will be outlined.

  8. [Publication activity at Aalborg Hospital].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jens Peter; Skrubbeltrang, Conni; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-04-26

    In 2003 Aalborg Hospital became part of Aarhus University Hospital and in that context focus on research activities was increased. This article investigates whether the increased focus has led to changes in the quantity and/or quality of research publications in the following period. All scientific articles published by Aalborg Hospital in the period 2002-2008, as well as information about author affiliations comprise the data material for the analysis. Different levels of journal groups are created based on Journal Performance Indicators combined with peer-reviewing as a measure of publication quality, awarding publications in highly esteemed journals a higher score than those published in less recognized journals. Together with the number of publications, a measure of research quality and quantity is thereby achieved. This method is compared to the more traditional journal impact factor method. Data show an increase in total publications per year while the mean number of points per publication decreases during the period. Results also show a relation between the score level of publications and the number of collaborations for the publication, i.e. large collaborations are more frequently published in top journals. The study shows that the increased focus on research has led to increased publication activity without loss of quality, as the decrease in points per publication is associated with the increased mean number of collaborators. The results indicate that the method would benefit from a revision to facilitate clearer conclusions.

  9. University Governance in Denmark: From Democracy to Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a Danish research council-funded project aimed at exploring a comprehensive package of management reforms in higher education instituted in Denmark since 2003. The reforms attempt to change not only the way institutions are governed but the very notion of democracy and engagement in higher education. In short,…

  10. Using English as a Medium of Instruction at University Level in Denmark: The Lecturer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, Charlotte; Denver, Louise; Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2014-01-01

    More than 25% of the master's degrees in Denmark are taught using English as a medium of instruction (EMI), but not all university lecturers feel they have the appropriate academic English proficiency to meet the standard required. Based on interviews conducted at the Copenhagen Business School (CBS), this article sheds light on the challenges…

  11. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: Aarhus University Clinical Trial Candidate Database, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nørrelund, Helene; Mazin, Wiktor; Pedersen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is facing a reduction in clinical trial activity as the pharmaceutical industry has moved trials to low-cost emerging economies. Competitiveness in industry-sponsored clinical research depends on speed, quality, and cost. Because Denmark is widely recognized as a region that generates high quality data, an enhanced ability to attract future trials could be achieved if speed can be improved by taking advantage of the comprehensive national and regional registries. A "single point-of-entry" system has been established to support collaboration between hospitals and industry. When assisting industry in early-stage feasibility assessments, potential trial participants are identified by use of registries to shorten the clinical trial startup times. The Aarhus University Clinical Trial Candidate Database consists of encrypted data from the Danish National Registry of Patients allowing an immediate estimation of the number of patients with a specific discharge diagnosis in each hospital department or outpatient specialist clinic in the Central Denmark Region. The free access to health care, thorough monitoring of patients who are in contact with the health service, completeness of registration at the hospital level, and ability to link all databases are competitive advantages in an increasingly complex clinical trial environment.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects in Denmark | Concentrating Solar Power |

    Science.gov Websites

    ;alphabetical by project name. You can browse a project profile by clicking on the project name. Aalborg CSP-Brà NREL Denmark Concentrating solar power (CSP) projects in Denmark are listed belowâ€"

  13. Teaching Power Electronics with a Design-Oriented, Project-Based Learning Method at the Technical University of Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhe; Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Power electronics is a fast-developing technology within the electrical engineering field. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying design-oriented project-based learning to switch-mode power supply design in a power electronics course at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Project-based learning (PBL) is known…

  14. Postgraduate education on electro-active polymers at Southern Denmark University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard W.

    2009-03-01

    A recently introduced elective to the Master's of Science in Mechatronics program at Southern Denmark University, entitled 'Mechatronics: Design and Build' concentrates on some of the interdisciplinary aspects of Mechatronics Engineering. The 'Motion Control of Mechatronic Devices' is the main theme of this elective. Within this 'theme' the modelling, identification and compensation of nonlinear effects such as friction, stiction and hysteresis are considered. One of the most important components of the elective considers 'Smart Materials' and their use for actuation purposes. The theory, modelling and properties of piezoceramics. magneto- and electro- rheological fluids and dielectric electro active polymers (DEAP) are introduced in the 'Smart Materials' component. This paper initially reviews the laboratory experiments that have been developed for the dielectric electro active polymer section of the 'Mechatronics: Design and Build' elective. In lectures the students are introduced to the basic theory and fabrication of tubular actuators, that use DEAP material based on smart compliant electrode technology. In the laboratory the students to (a) carry out a series of experiments to characterise the tubular actuators, and (b) design a closed-loop position controller and test the performance of the controlled actuator for both step changes in desired position and periodic input reference signals. The last part of this contribution reviews some of the DEAP-based demonstration devices that been developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S using their PolyPowerTM material which utilizes smart compliant electrode technology.

  15. Students' drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ladekjær Larsen, Eva; Smorawski, Gitte Andsager; Kragbak, Katrine Lund; Stock, Christiane

    2016-04-29

    High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines and limiting consumption during the introduction week primarily due to avoiding social exclusion of students who do not drink. Some international students perceived the level of consumption as too high and distinguished between situations where they perceived drinking as unusual. The study showed that alcohol is a central part of students' lives. When developing and implementing alcohol policies on campus, seeking student input in the process and addressing alcohol policies in the larger community will likely improve the success of the policies.

  16. Gender in physics in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine; Nordström, Birgitta; Bearden, Ian; Grage, Mette M.-L.

    2013-03-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10% of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark.

  17. Survey of the State-of-the-Art and Likely Future Trends of University Management in Europe: Denmark-Ireland-Norway-Sweden-United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, G.; Prosser, E.

    Trends in university management in Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were studied as part of a larger study of European universities. The survey instrument collected information on basic facts on the institution, the organizational system, the decision-making system, the administrative structure, management techniques and…

  18. Is Drop-Out from University Dependent on National Culture and Policy? The Case of Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troelsen, Rie; Laursen, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    National cultures are known to influence educational institutions and practices in many ways. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that drop-out from university is also influenced by differences in national cultures. In this article, we compare drop-out from Danish universities with drop-out from European universities. Based on Danish national…

  19. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Teaching Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics at Three Levels--Experience from the Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Michelsen, Michael L.; Clement, Karsten H.

    2009-01-01

    According to so-called "Bologna model," many technical universities in Europe have divided their educations into separate 3-year Bachelor and 2-year Master programs (followed by an optional Ph.D. study). Following the "Bologna model," DTU has recently transformed its 5-year engineering education into a 3-year Bachelor (B.Sc.)…

  1. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Plasticity at the Micron Scale, Technical University of Denmark, 21 25 Mark 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    This special issue constitutes the Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Plasticity at the Micron Scale, held at the Technical University of Denmark, 21-25 May 2006. The purpose of this symposium was to gather a group of leading scientists working in areas of importance to length scale dependent plasticity. This includes work on phenomenological strain gradient plasticity models, studies making use of discrete dislocation models, and even atomic level models. Experimental investigations are central to all this, as all the models focus on developing an improved understanding of real observed phenomena. The opening lecture by Professor N A Fleck, Cambridge University, discussed experimental as well as theoretical approaches. Also, recent results for the surface roughness at grain boundaries were presented based on experiments and crystal plasticity modelling. A number of presentations focused on experiments for metals at a small length scale, e.g. using indenters or a small single crystal compression test. It was found that there are causes of the size effects other than the geometrically necessary dislocations related to strain gradients. Several lectures on scale dependent phenomenological plasticity theories discussed different methods of incorporating the characteristic material length. This included lower order plasticity theories as well as higher order theories, within standard plasticity models or crystal plasticity. Differences in the ways of incorporating higher order boundary conditions were the subject of much discussion. Various methods for discrete dislocation modelling of plastic deformation were used in some of the presentations to obtain a more detailed understanding of length scale effects in metals. This included large scale computations for dislocation dynamics as well as new statistical mechanics approaches to averaging of dislocation plasticity. Furthermore, at a somewhat larger length scale, applications of scale dependent plasticity to

  2. Studies in the Major Modern Languages (English, German, French) at University Level in Denmark by 1980/81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay

    This is a descriptive outline of the language situation in the Danish education system. The introductory material discusses the reason for foreign language study. A major reason is that Denmark is a small country with a difficult native language for speakers of other languages to learn. Therefore, the Danish population is exposed to foreign…

  3. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  4. Temporal Trends in Clinical and Pathological Characteristics for Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy Between 1995 and 2013 at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, and Stanford University Hospital, United States.

    PubMed

    Loft, Mathias Dyrberg; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Kjaer, Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Ferrari, Michelle; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Brasso, Klaus; Brooks, James D; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2017-09-06

    To analyze how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and practice patterns has affected trends in tumor characteristics in men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) in the United States and Denmark. Unlike in the United States, PSA screening has not been recommended in Denmark. We performed an observational register study using pre- and postoperative data on 2168 Danish patients from Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, and 2236 patients from Stanford University Hospital, Stanford, CA, who underwent RP between 1995 and 2013. Patients were stratified according to Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment-Postsurgical (CAPRA-S) risk groups and D'Amico risk classification and were clustered into 4 time periods (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2013). Temporal trends in the proportions of patients of a given variable at the 2 institutions were evaluated with Cochran-Armitage test for trends and chi-square testing. A total of 4404 patients were included. Temporal changes in preoperative PSA, age, grade, and stage was found in both cohorts. Median preoperative PSA declined in both cohorts, while median age increased, with the Danish cohort showing the greatest changes in both PSA and age. In both cohorts, there was a trend for higher-risk preoperative features before RP over time. In 2010-2013, 27.7% and 21.8% of the patients were in the D'Amico high-risk group at Copenhagen and Stanford, respectively. Despite recommendation against PSA screening in Denmark, Danish men undergoing RP at Rigshospitalet to a considerable extent now resemble American men undergoing RP at Stanford. At both sites, there is continued trend to reduce the number of men undergoing RP for low-risk prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is a small Northern European country with an extensive welfare state and a strong commitment to maintaining a universal healthcare system. Like the other countries in the Nordic region, Denmark has a long tradition of democratically governed local and regional governments with extensive responsibilities in organizing welfare state services. The Danish healthcare system has demonstrated an ability to increase productivity, while at the same time maintaining a high level of patient satisfaction. Ongoing reforms have contributed to these results, as well as a firm commitment to innovation and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison.

  6. Gas Dispersion Coefficients in Variably Saturated and Differently Textured Porous Media Muhammad Naveed (1), Shoichiro Hamamoto (1), Ken Kawamoto (1,2), Toshihiro Sakaki (3), Per Moldrup (4), and Toshiko Komatsu (1,2) (1) Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan (2) Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan (3) Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA (4) Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, M.; Kawamoto, K.; Hamamoto, S.; Sakaki, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2010-12-01

    The transport and fate of gases in the soil are governed by gas advection, diffusion and dispersion phenomena. Among three gas transport phenomena, gas dispersion is least understood. Main objective of this study is to investigate the gas dispersion phenomena, emphasising on the effect of moisture content, sand particle shape, particle size, particle size distribution, and scale dependency on gas dispersion. One dimensional laboratory column experiments, in an apparatus consisting of an acrylic column attached to inlet and outlet chambers (Hamamoto et al., SSAJ, 2009), were conducted for the measurements of gas dispersion coefficient (DH). Various types of sands (Narita and Toyoura sands from Japan, and Granusils and Accusands from United States) and glass beads with variable moisture contents were used as porous media. Shape of the sand particles were characterized in terms of sphericity and roundness. The changes in the oxygen concentration within the soil column and in the inlet and outlet chambers were monitored. In addition the air pressure at inlet and middle of the soil column was also monitored to ensure the uniform density of porous media along the column. The measured breakthrough curves were fitted with the analytical solution of the advection dispersion equation to determine dispersion coefficients. The measured dispersion coefficient (DH) showed linear increase with pore velocity (u0). Measured dispersivity (λ= DH/u0) increases with decrease in air filled porosity induced by adding moisture contents in sands. Its values varies from 0 to 3 cm on decreasing air filled porosity from 0.50 (air dry) to 0.25 (field capacity). Shape of the sand particles has no significant effect on gas dispersion. When gas dispersion phenomena was studied on different shape of the sand particles at various air filled porosities, it was found that for angular sand particles initially gas dispersivity increases more rapidly as compared to rounded sand particles and finally both attains nearly same values at field capacity. Particle size has no significant effect on gas dispersion but particle size distribution has considerable effect on it. For the same sand when a coefficient of uniformity (Uc) increases from 1 to 4, gas dispersivity increases by 1.5 times. Gas dispersion coefficient was measured with two different sized columns and it was found that there is no effect of diameter and length of the column on gas dispersion for sandy soils. Therefore it can be concluded that only air filled porosity and particle size distribution should be considered for modeling the gas dispersivity in porous media.

  7. Play Spaces in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Edna; Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the variety of play spaces found in urban areas in Denmark: in banks, stores and individual businesses, neighborhood parks and small pocket playgrounds, specialized adventure and traffic playgrounds with supervised activities, and commercial amusement parks. (CM)

  8. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  9. What's Happening in Denmark?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Corey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in alumni relations in a country, Denmark, where few are willing to bear the institution's logo. The author likens his journey to that of Lewis and Clark, who introduced the rest of America to the western part of North America. And just like them, the author and his colleague experienced unforeseen…

  10. Spotlight on VET Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data on the vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. VET plays a key role in the Danish strategy for lifelong learning and meeting the challenges of globalisation and technological change. The Danish education and training system comprises a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory…

  11. Education Policy Outlook: Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pont, Beatriz; Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Albiser, Etienne; Yee, Hyo Jeong; Skalde, Annette; Zapata, Juliana; Fraccola, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Denmark is part of the new Education Policy Outlook series, which will present comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the substantial comparative and sectorial policy knowledge base available within the OECD, the series will result in a biennial publication…

  12. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  13. EDITORIAL: Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Paul; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-06-01

    This is not the usual Editor-in-Chief letter, namely one that focuses on the accomplishments of the journal—and for ERL they have been numerous this year—but a recognition of the critical time that we are now in when it comes to addressing not only global climate change, but also the dialog between science and politics. In recognition of the many 'tipping points' that we now confront—ideally some of them positive social moments—as well as the clear scientific conclusion that environmental tipping points are points of long-lasting disruption, this paper takes a different form than I might have otherwise written. While the scientific body of knowledge around global environmental change mounts, so too, do the hopeful signs that change can happen. The election of Barack Obama is unquestionably one such sign, witnessed by the exceptional interest that his story has brought not only to US politics, but also to global views of the potential of the United States, as well as to the potential role of science and investigation in addressing pressing issues. In light of these inter-related issues, reproduced here—largely due to the efforts of Paul Baer to transcribe a remarkable conversation—is a dialog not only on the science of global warming and the potential set of means to address this issue, but also on the interaction between research, science and the political process. The dialog itself is sufficiently important that I will dispense with the usual discussion of the exciting recognition that ERL has received with an ISI rating (a factor rapidly increasing), the high levels of downloads of our papers (for some articles over 5000 and counting), and the many news and scientific publications picking up ERL articles (in recent days alone Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and The Economist). This conversation was the concluding plenary session of the 10-12 March International Association of Research Universities (IARU) Conference on Climate Change

  14. GPR Use and Activities in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Academic work on GPR in Denmark is performed both by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the University of Copenhagen (KU). The work at DTU includes development of antennas and systems, e.g. an airborne ice-sounder GPR system (POLARIS) that today is in frequent use for monitoring of ice thickness in Greenland. DTU often collaborates with ESA (European Space Agency) regarding electromagnetic development projects. At KU there is an ongoing work with GPR applied to water resources. The main objective is to study flux of water and matter across different hydrological domains. There are several recent publications from KU describing research for data analysis and modelling as well as hydro geophysical applications. Also the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) performs frequent geological mapping with GPR. There have been mainly two actors on the Danish commercial market for several years: FalkGeo and Ramboll. Falkgeo has been active for many years acquiring data for several different applications such as archeology, utilities and roads. Their equipment pool comprises both a multichannel Terravision system form GSSI and a 2D system from Mala Geoscience with a comprehensive range of antennas. Ramboll has performed GPR surveys for two decades mainly with 2D systems from GSSI. In recent years Ramboll has also obtained a system with RTA antennas from Mala Geoscience and a multichannel system from 3D-Radar. These systems have opened markets both for deeper geological mapping and for shallow mapping. The geological mapping with the Mala system has often been combined with resistivity imaging (CVES) and refraction seismic. The 3D system has been applied in airports and on road for mapping of layer thicknesses, delamination and for control of asphalt works. Other areas comprise bridge deck evaluation and utility mapping. Ramboll also acts as client advisor for BaneDanmark, a state owned company who operates and develops the Danish state railway network

  15. Educational and Vocational Guidance in Denmark. Education in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This report sketches educational and vocational guidance in Denmark. It begins with a historical account of developments in the areas of career and school counseling. Outlined next are guidance programs at the following levels: folkeskole, gymnasium and studenterkursus (upper secondary education), higher preparatory examination, vocational school,…

  16. Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tverborgvik, Torill; Clausen, Lene Björk; Thorsted, Brian Larsen; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    In light of the Danish government's goal of 95% of every cohort achieving higher education by 2015, we investigate educational mobility in Denmark. Following 800,000 Danes and their parents, we found that children of parents with only basic education had a three-times-higher risk of achieving only basic education, compared with the children of…

  17. [Measles are eliminated in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Julie Aaberg; Krause, Tyra Grove; Andersen, Peter Henrik

    2018-03-19

    Measles vaccination has led to a significant fall in the number of measles cases and measles-related deaths worldwide. However, many countries still struggle to eliminate the disease. To obtain elimination, a minimum of 95% vaccination coverage for both of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines is necessary as well as an efficient surveillance system and timely public health response. Presenting data on reported cases and vaccination coverage in the latest 20 years, this article describes how measles are eliminated in Denmark and recommends, how the Danish measles surveillance system can be further improved to maintain the status.

  18. Applying the Kanban Method in Problem-Based Project Work: A Case Study in A Manufacturing Engineering Bachelor's Programme at Aalborg University Copenhagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balve, Patrick; Krüger, Volker; Tolstrup Sørensen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has proven to be highly effective for educating students in an active and self-motivated manner in various disciplines. Student projects carried out following PBL principles are very dynamic and carry a high level of uncertainty, both conditions under which agile project management approaches are assumed to be highly…

  19. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address bn@geus.dk The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  20. Who Cares for the Children? Denmark's Unique Public Child-Care Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polakow, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    U.S. working mothers wrestle daily with a child-care crisis characterized by unavailable infant care, high costs, and inadequate access and regulation. In Denmark, high-quality child care is a guaranteed entitlement for every child. Other benefits include paid parental leaves, single-parent allowances, housing subsidies, and universal health care.…

  1. Caught between Internationalisation and Immigration: The Case of Nepalese Students in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marketisation and national profiling of Denmark as an attractive country for foreign students has resulted in an increasing number of students from poor countries in the global South, including Nepal, being admitted to Danish colleges and universities. The influx of students from these countries has led to several accusations against…

  2. The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED)

    Cancer.gov

    The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database is one of two large prescription registries in Denmark and covers a stable population that is representative of the Danish population as a whole.

  3. Increase in incidence of hyperthyroidism predominantly occurs in young people after iodine fortification of salt in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2006-10-01

    To prevent goiter and nodular hyperthyroidism, iodine fortification (IF) of salt was introduced in Denmark in 1998. We prospectively registered all new cases of overt hyperthyroidism in two areas of Denmark before and for the first 6 yr after iodine fortification. We used a computer-based register of all new cases of hyperthyroidism in two population subcohorts with moderate iodine deficiency (Aalborg, n = 310,124) and mild iodine deficiency (Copenhagen, n = 225,707), respectively. Data were obtained 1) before IF (1997-1998); 2) during voluntary IF (1999-2000); 3) during the early (2001-2002) period of mandatory IF; and 4) during the late (2003-2004) period with mandatory IF. The overall incidence rate of hyperthyroidism increased [baseline, 102.8/100,000/year; voluntary IF, 122.8; early mandatory IF, 140.7; late mandatory IF, 138.7 (P for trend <0.001)]. Hyperthyroidism increased in both sexes (P < 0.001) and in all age groups: 0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and 60+ yr (P for trend <0.001). The increase was relatively highest in young adults aged 20-39 yr: late mandatory IF (percent increase from baseline), age 20-39, 160%, P < 0.001; age 40-59, 29%, P < 0.01; age 60+ yr, 13%, P = not significant. Even a cautious iodization of salt results in an increase in the incidence rate of hyperthyroidism. Contrary to current concepts, many of the new cases were observed in young subjects, and are presumably of autoimmune origin. Furthermore, monitoring is expected to show a decrease in the number of elderly subjects suffering from nodular hyperthyroidism.

  4. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark: Application of EPSI methodology.

    PubMed

    Shahsavar, Tina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and managing customers' satisfaction are key features to benefit from today's competitive environment. In higher education context, only a few studies are available on satisfaction and loyalty of the main customers who are the students, which signifies the need to investigate the field more thoroughly. The aim of this research is to measure the strength of determinants of students' satisfaction and the importance of antecedents in students' satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark. Our research model is the modification of European Performance Satisfaction Index (EPSI), which takes the university's image direct effects on students' expectations into account from students' perspective. The structural equation model of student satisfaction and loyalty has been evaluated using partial least square path modelling. Our findings confirm that the EPSI framework is applicable on student satisfaction and loyalty among Danish universities. We show that all the relationships among variables of the research model are significant except the relationship between quality of software and students' loyalty. Results further verify the significance of antecedents in students' satisfaction and loyalty at Danish universities; the university image and student satisfaction are the antecedents of student loyalty with a significant direct effect, while perceived value, quality of hardware, quality of software, expectations, and university image are antecedents of student satisfaction. Eventually, our findings may be of an inspiration to maintain and improve students' experiences during their study at the university. Dedicating resources to identified important factors from students' perception enable universities to attract more students, make them highly satisfied and loyal.

  5. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  6. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark: Application of EPSI methodology

    PubMed Central

    Shahsavar, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and managing customers’ satisfaction are key features to benefit from today’s competitive environment. In higher education context, only a few studies are available on satisfaction and loyalty of the main customers who are the students, which signifies the need to investigate the field more thoroughly. The aim of this research is to measure the strength of determinants of students’ satisfaction and the importance of antecedents in students’ satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark. Our research model is the modification of European Performance Satisfaction Index (EPSI), which takes the university’s image direct effects on students’ expectations into account from students’ perspective. The structural equation model of student satisfaction and loyalty has been evaluated using partial least square path modelling. Our findings confirm that the EPSI framework is applicable on student satisfaction and loyalty among Danish universities. We show that all the relationships among variables of the research model are significant except the relationship between quality of software and students’ loyalty. Results further verify the significance of antecedents in students’ satisfaction and loyalty at Danish universities; the university image and student satisfaction are the antecedents of student loyalty with a significant direct effect, while perceived value, quality of hardware, quality of software, expectations, and university image are antecedents of student satisfaction. Eventually, our findings may be of an inspiration to maintain and improve students’ experiences during their study at the university. Dedicating resources to identified important factors from students’ perception enable universities to attract more students, make them highly satisfied and loyal. PMID:29240801

  7. [Multiresistant tuberculosis in Denmark 1993-1996].

    PubMed

    Viskum, K; Kok-Jensen, A

    1998-05-18

    Infections with multiresistant tubercle bacilli have also become a problem in the rich part of the world. The reasons are lack of compliance in patients with life style problems and ineffectiveness of the health system due to lack of fundings. During a four year period, 1993-1996 ten patients were seen in Denmark with tuberculosis due to multiresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nine were infected abroad, one developed MDR-TB during treatment in Denmark. It is possible to cure these patients, but it is expensive and takes a long time. In the future more cases created within Denmark are likely to be seen due to lack of funding for the tuberculosis programme and, depending on immigration, further cases created abroad are expected.

  8. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Soren P.

    This monograph examines vocational education and training (VT) in Denmark. Section 1 presents background information/framework data on the following: Denmark's political and administrative structure; population, employment, and unemployment; and the Danish economy. In section 2, the history of VT in Denmark is traced from before 1870 to the…

  9. The Seeds of Social Change from Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    N.F.S. Grundtvig was a priest, historian, poet, and founder of the Danish Folk High School. He believed that education for adults should be geared to adults and wanted schools to be independent of the church. Grundtvig was among the first to call for Denmark's schools to use the native Danish language. Grundtvig believed that each group or culture…

  10. Denmark's Boernehavens: A Place to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    During the author's trips to Denmark as an instructor of American college students studying abroad, he led groups to visit several "boernehavens," which are the Danish equivalents of U.S. preschools for children ages 3 to 5. Danish society values confident individuals who can take initiative when faced with challenges and opportunities.…

  11. Vocational Training of Young Migrants in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koefoed, Else

    A study looked at the overall situation of the immigrant population, and young immigrants in particular, and analyzed such problem areas as the transition from school to working life and the inadequacies of initial training with relation to the situation in Denmark. The study identified the following problem areas: (1) problems relating to the…

  12. Skrammellegepladsen: Denmark's first adventure play area

    Treesearch

    Amanda Rae O' Connor; James F. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy of the adventure playground movement and particularly the goals of the original adventure playground, Skrammellegepladsen in Copenhagen, Denmark. We then present a case study investigation of the ways that Skrammellegepladsen is used, the perceptions of the users, and the extent that the play area embodies its original philosophy. The...

  13. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrete; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-02-01

    In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them according to the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). All deaths of women with a registered pregnancy within 12 months prior to the death were identified by comparing the Danish medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). All cases were classified using the UK CEMD classification. Cases of maternal death were further evaluated by an audit group. 311 cases were classified. 92 deaths (29.6%) occurred 42 days), 1 woman died from a direct obstetric cause, 46 from indirect causes, and 172 from fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark.

  14. Towards a Danish LIS University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbo, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the development of LIS (library and information science) research in Denmark since 1985, when research became one of the main activities of the Royal School of Library and Information Science. Outlines the development of the school from a professional school to a university institution, including political, economic, and professional…

  15. EDITORIAL: The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páll Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2012-03-01

    AndersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Pia BomholtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hafliði P GíslasonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Haraldur Páll GunnlaugssonAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark John HansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Britta JohansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Volodymyr KhranovskyyLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Arne Nylandsted LarsenAarhus University, Denmark Helge MalmbekkUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik Stensrud MarsteinInstitute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway Antonio MartiUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Torben MølholtUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Sveinn ÓlafssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Thomas PedersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Thomas Garm PedersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Dirch Hjorth PetersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Vincent QuemenerUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Henry RadamsonKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Bahman RaeissiUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Jonatan SlotteAalto University, Aalto, Finland Xin SongUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Einar Örn SveinbjörnssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Mikael SyväjärviLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Chi Kwong TangUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik V ThomsenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Christian UhrenfeldtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hans Ulrik UlriksenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Muhammad UsmanKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Lasse VinesUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Ulrich WahlUnidade de Física e Aceleradores, Sacavém, Portugal Helge WemanNTNU, Trondheim, Norway Gerd WeyerAarhus University, Denmark

  16. Interoperability after deployment: persistent challenges and regional strategies in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The European Union has identified Denmark as one of the countries who have the potential to provide leadership and inspiration for other countries in eHealth implementation and adoption. However, Denmark has historically struggled to facilitate data exchange between their public hospitals' electronic health records (EHRs). Furthermore, state-led projects failed to adequately address the challenges of interoperability after deployment. Changes in the organizational setup and division of responsibilities concerning the future of eHealth implementations in hospitals took place, which granted the Danish regions the full responsibility for all hospital systems, specifically the consolidation of EHRs to one system per region. The regions reduced the number of different EHRs to six systems by 2014. Additionally, the first version of the National Health Record was launched to provide health care practitioners with an overview of a patient's data stored in all EHRs across the regions and within the various health sectors. The governance of national eHealth implementation plays a crucial role in the development and diffusion of interoperable technologies. Changes in the organizational setup and redistribution of responsibilities between the Danish regions and the state play a pivotal role in producing viable and coherent solutions in a timely manner. Interoperability initiatives are best managed on a regional level or by the authorities responsible for the provision of local health care services. Cross-regional communication is essential during the initial phases of planning in order to set a common goal for countrywide harmonization, coherence and collaboration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  17. Cancer in printing workers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E; Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Andersen, I; Hink, M; Olsen, E; Møller, U L; Silfverberg, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the cancer incidence in printing workers in Denmark. METHODS--The cohort of 15,534 men and 3593 women working in the printing industry in 1970 were followed up for death, emigrations, and incident cancer cases until the end of 1987. Their cancer incidence was compared with that of all economically active people in Denmark. The smoking and drinking habits reported by members of the printing trade unions at a survey in 1972 were compared with habits reported by members of other trade unions. RESULTS--Lung, bladder, renal pelvis, and primary liver cancers were in excess among the printing workers. The excess risks of lung cancer among the factory workers in newspaper and magazine production, of bladder cancer in typographers in printing establishments, of renal pelvis cancer in typographers and lithographers, and of primary liver cancer among lithographers and bookbinders exceeded those expected based on the reported smoking and drinking habits. CONCLUSION--Our results indicate, in line with a previous study from Manchester, that work with rotary letterpress printing was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The inconsistent results from studies on bladder cancer in printing workers may point to a risk confined to a certain subgroup. The sixfold risk of primary liver cancer in Danish lithographers warrants studies in other countries. PMID:8535493

  18. Maternal deaths in Denmark 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrethe; Aarre, Annette; Nielsen, Karen Marie; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-01-01

    To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records. Denmark 2002-2006. Women who died during a pregnancy or within 42 days after a pregnancy. Maternal deaths were identified by notification from maternity wards and data from the Danish National Board of Health. A national audit committee assessed hospital records of direct and indirect deaths. Maternal mortality ratio, causes of death and suboptimal care. In the study period, 26 women died during pregnancy or within 42 days from direct or indirect causes, leading to a maternal mortality ratio of 8.0/100,000 live births. Causes of death were cardiac disease, thromboembolism, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, Streptococcus A infections, suicide, amniotic fluid embolism, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, asthma and diabetes. Our method proved valid and can be used for future research. Causes of death could be identified and learning points from the assessments could form the basis of focused education and guidelines. Future complementary 'near miss' studies and cooperation with other countries with comparable health systems are expected to improve the benefits of the enquiries, contributing to improved management of life-threatening conditions in pregnancy and childbirth.

  19. Library Services to the Homebound Elderly in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Gyda Skat

    The number of elderly people in Denmark continues to grow, which means there is an increasing need for special library services to those elderly who are not able to come to the library because of physical or mental limitations. This paper uses the practices of Sollerod Public Libraries (Sollerod, Denmark) to frame the discussion of the following:…

  20. Denmark's Master of Public Governance Program: Assessment and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Carsten; Pedersen, Anne Reff

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on Denmark's Master of Public Governance and its assessments and lessons learned. Denmark is seen to have an efficient economy and public sector, a digitalized public service delivery system, and an advanced work-life balance. The Danish government invested substantial resources into developing a Master of Public Governance…

  1. Drugs in injured drivers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, I M; Steentoft, A; Johansen, S S; Klitgaard, N A; Larsen, L B; Hansen, L B

    2005-06-10

    As part of the project Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing (IMMORTAL) under the European Commission's Transport RTD Programme of the 5th Framework Programme [I.M. Bernhoft, Drugs in accidents involved drivers in Denmark, D-R4.3 of the project Impaired Motorists, Methods Of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing (IMMORTAL), , 2005], a study regarding drugs in accident-involved drivers was carried out in Denmark. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to collect and analyse samples from injured drivers for the presence of drugs; (2) to give an indication whether drugs may have contributed to traffic accidents; and (3) to get information on the drug-positive drivers and their drug use. This paper focuses on objective 1. Injured drivers who were treated in hospital were asked to give a saliva sample, a blood sample or both. The samples were screened for the following substances: opiates, amphetamines, methamphetamines, incl. MDMA (ecstasy), cannabinoids and metabolites, cocaine and metabolites and benzodiazepines. Screenings were carried out by means of Cozart Microplate EIA kit. Positive screenings were confirmation analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In total, 26 out of 330 patients were confirmed positive for one or more of the six drug groups. However, three patients were excluded from the survey for various reasons. Of the remaining 23 drug-positive patients 15 were found positive for one drug group, and in five of these cases alcohol was present in a concentration over the legal limit in Denmark (0.05%). The other eight patients were found positive for two drug groups, and in four of these cases, alcohol was also present in a concentration over the legal limit. Alcohol was found both in combinations with medicinal drugs, with illegal drugs and with both. Based on the saliva or blood concentrations, we estimate that there is a

  2. A case of standardization? Implementing health promotion guidelines in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2016-09-01

    Guidelines are increasingly used in an effort to standardize and systematize health practices at the local level and to promote evidence-based practice. The implementation of guidelines frequently faces problems, however, and standardization processes may in general have other outcomes than the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion policies and interventions and were structured according to risk factors such as alcohol, smoking and physical activity. This article examines the process of implementation of the new Danish health promotion guidelines. The article is based on qualitative interviews and participant observation, focusing on the professional practices of health promotion officers in four local governments as well as the field of Danish health promotion more generally. The analysis highlights practices and episodes related to the implementation of the guidelines and takes inspiration from Timmermans and Epstein's sociology of standards and standardization. It remains an open question whether or not the guidelines lead to more standardized policies and interventions, but we suggest that the guidelines promote a risk factor-oriented approach as the dominant frame for knowledge, reasoning, decision making and priority setting in health promotion. We describe this process as a case of epistemic standardization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Work injuries among migrant workers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Biering, Karin; Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2017-03-01

    Work migration into Denmark has increased during the recent decades, especially after the enlargement of the European Union (EU) in 2004. Whether or not migrant workers experience more work injuries than the native workforce has been debated and results are conflicting, most likely due to methodological difficulties and cultural disparities. We set out to meet these challenges using population-based work injury registers, targeting a specific and representative region in Denmark. This population-based study used data on work injuries from an emergency department (ED) and reported injuries from the ED's catchment area to the Danish Working Environment Authority during 11 years. We calculated incidences of work injury for groups of migrant workers compared with native Danes and adjusted incidence rate ratios based on information on the complete working population. The incidences of work injuries among migrant workers from the new EU countries and from the rest of the world were higher compared with Danish workers and workers from the old EU countries and other Western countries. Especially migrants older than 30 years and in low-risk industries were at higher risk. Workers who had migrated recently were at even higher risk. We found increased risk of work injuries among migrant workers. Studying migrants in registers is a methodological challenge as some migrants are not registered, for legal or illegal reasons; thus, only a selected group is studied, but this may most likely underestimate the risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Profiling drunk driving recidivists in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Drunk drivers are a menace to themselves and to other road users, as drunk driving significantly increases the risk of involvement in road accidents and the probability of severe or fatal injuries. Although injuries and fatalities related to road accidents have decreased in recent decades, the prevalence of drunk driving among drivers killed in road accidents has remained stable, at around 25% or more during the past 10 years. Understanding drunk driving, and in particular, recidivism, is essential for designing effective countermeasures, and accordingly, the present study aims at identifying the differences between non-drunk drivers, drunk driving non-recidivists and drunk driving recidivists with respect to their demographic and socio-economic characteristics, road accident involvement and other traffic and non-traffic-related law violations. This study is based on register-data from Statistics Denmark and includes information from 2008 to 2012 for the entire population, aged 18 or older, of Denmark. The results from univariate and multivariate statistical analyses reveal a five year prevalence of 17% for drunk driving recidivism, and a significant relation between recidivism and the drunk drivers' gender, age, income, education, receipt of an early retirement pension, household type, and residential area. Moreover, recidivists are found to have a higher involvement in alcohol-related road accidents, as well as other traffic and, in particular, non-traffic-related offences. These findings indicate that drunk driving recidivism is more likely to occur among persons who are in situations of socio-economic disadvantage and marginalisation. Thus, to increase their effectiveness, preventive measures aiming to reduce drunk driving should also address issues related to the general life situations of the drunk driving recidivists that contribute to an increased risk of drunk driving recidivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. National survey of emergency departments in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wen, Leana S; Anderson, Philip D; Stagelund, Søren; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2013-06-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are the basic unit of emergency medicine, but often differ in fundamental features. We sought to describe and characterize EDs in Denmark. All EDs open 24/7 to the general public were surveyed using the National ED Inventories survey instrument (http://www.emnet-nedi.org). ED staff were asked about ED characteristics with reference to the calendar year 2008. Twenty-eight EDs participated (82% response). All were located in hospitals. Less than half [43%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24-63%] were independent departments. Thirty-nine percent (95% CI 22-59%) had a contiguous layout, with medical and surgical care provided in one area. The vast majority of EDs saw both adults and children; only 10% saw adults only and none saw children only. The median number of annual visits was 32 000 (interquartile range, 14 700-47 000). The majority (68%, 95% CI 47-89%) believed that their ED was at good balance or capacity, with 22% responding that they were under capacity and 9% reporting overcapacity. Technological resources were generally available, with the exception of dedicated computed tomography scanners and negative-pressure rooms. Almost all common emergencies were identified as being treatable 24/7 in the EDs. Although there is some variation in their layout and characteristics, most Danish EDs have a high degree of resource availability and are able to treat common emergencies. As Denmark seeks to reform emergency care through ED consolidation, this national survey helps to establish a benchmark for future comparisons.

  6. Societal costs of diabetes mellitus in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sortsø, C; Green, A; Jensen, P B; Emneus, M

    2016-07-01

    To provide comprehensive real-world evidence on societal diabetes-attributable costs in Denmark. National register data are linked on an individual level through unique central personal registration numbers in Denmark. All patients in the Danish National Diabetes Register in 2011 (N = 318 729) were included in this study. Complication status was defined according to data from the Danish National Hospital Register. Diabetes-attributable costs were calculated as the difference between costs of patients with diabetes and the expected costs given the annual resource consumption of the diabetes-free population. Societal costs attributable to diabetes were estimated to be at least 4.27 billion EUR in 2011, corresponding to 14,349 EUR per patient-year. A twofold higher healthcare resource usage was found for patients with diabetes as compared with the diabetes-free population. Attributable costs, grouped according to different components, were 732 million EUR for primary and secondary care services, 153 million EUR for pharmaceutical drugs, 851 million EUR for nursing services, 1.77 billion EUR in lost productivity and 761 million EUR for additional costs. A steep increase in diabetes-attributable costs was found for patients with major complications compared with patients without complications across all cost components. For attributable healthcare costs this increase was estimated to be 6,992 EUR per person-year after controlling for potential confounders. Nearly half of the total costs of patients with diabetes can be attributed directly to their diabetes. The majority of costs are incurred among patients with major complications pointing to the importance of secondary preventive efforts among patients with diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  7. Towards 50% wind electricity in Denmark: Dilemmas and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Paul-Frederik

    2016-05-01

    Electricity and heat supply systems are essential contributors to a fossil-free future in Denmark. The combined production of heat and power (CHP) and the production of wind energy are already well developed in Denmark. Combined heat and power covers about 40% of the demand for space heating in Denmark, and the production of wind energy is supposed to exceed 50% of the demand for electricity by 2020. The changing electricity and heat production has some consequences already now: i) Decreasing wholesale prices in Denmark and in other countries. ii) Thermal power plants are closing down. Denmark is no longer self-sufficient with electricity under all conditions. iii) The electricity production pattern does not match the demand pattern. The result is that the neighbouring countries must absorb the variations from wind and solar power. Essential challenges: i) The future of combined heat and power in Denmark is uncertain. ii) Denmark will need new backup capacity for filling the gaps in wind power and solar cell output. iii) Flexible electricity consumers are supposed to contribute to balancing the future power systems. There is still a long way to go before the Smart Grid visions are implemented in large scale. iv) The transformation of the power system will create new risks of power failures.

  8. Mapping telemedicine efforts: surveying regional initiatives in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being supported using telemedicine systems? All data were surveyed from the Telemedicinsk Landkort, a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. The results of this study suggest that a growing numbers of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations exist in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. The results of this study provide a timely picture of the factors that are shaping the telemedicine landscape of Denmark and suggest potential strategies to help policymakers increase and improve national telemedicine deployment.

  9. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    Luef, Stefan Møller; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included. Incidence rates were estimated following stratification by gender and age. The development in the incident rates was examined. Overall, 2,957 victims were included. The overall incidence rate was 8.5 per 10,000 population/year (14.6 and 2.7 for males and females, respectively). The rates did not change significantly in the study period. Most victims were injured with bottles/glass and blunt weapons (44.8% versus 28.2%), whereas 24% were injured with sharp weapons and 3% with firearms. Most lesions were sustained to the head/neck (56.1%) and to the upper limbs (26.2%). A total of 182 (6.1%) victims had lesions that were considered severe. The mortality rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase in the study period. Additionally, no evidence of an increased proportion of severe injuries was found. Women had a seven-fold higher mortality than males. none. not relevant.

  10. Agents of Internationalisation? Danish Universities' Practices for Attracting International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosneaga, Ana; Agergaard, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Universities are increasingly urged to take new responsibilities as agents of internationalisation as the globalisation of higher education intensifies the competition for international students and leads to transformation of national and European policy landscapes. Drawing on the case study of two leading universities in Denmark, this paper…

  11. Talent Development as a University Mission: The Quadruple Helix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz B.; Thorn, Kristian; Olesen, Jeppe Dorup; Huey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the rationale behind making talent development at the PhD, post-doctoral and early career levels an equal fourth pillar of the university's mission, alongside the more traditional pillars of the triple helix. Using Denmark and Aarhus University as a case study, the paper describes how increased institutional…

  12. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  13. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-04-01

    The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased focus on the protection of groundwater and Natura 2000 sites. In particular, the implementation of Natura 2000 in Danish legislation has increased the demands on many farms. In its rulings on appealed cases, the Nature Protection Board of Appeal has strengthened its demands, and this is mirrored in screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved, and that the main cause for this is not EIA regulations as such, but the positive role which the implementation of the Natura 2000 objectives has played in this development. However, it was also found that the formulation of demands varies greatly between the counties, thus often resulting in ambiguity and leaving room for quite different practices in different counties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  15. Employment insecurity and employees' health in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We use register data for Denmark (IDA) merged with the Danish Work Environment Cohort Survey (1995, 2000, and 2005) to estimate the effect of perceived employment insecurity on perceived health for a sample of Danish employees. We consider two health measures from the SF-36 Health Survey Instrument: a vitality scale for general well-being and a mental health scale. We first analyse a summary measure of employment insecurity. Instrumental variables-fixed effects estimates that use firm workforce changes as a source of exogenous variation show that 1 additional dimension of insecurity causes a shift from the median to the 25th percentile in the mental health scale and to the 30th in that of energy/vitality. It also increases by about 6 percentage points the probability to develop severe mental health problems. Looking at single insecurity dimensions by naïve fixed effects, uncertainty associated with the current job is important for mental health. Employability has a sizeable relationship with health and is the only insecurity dimension that matters for the energy and vitality scale. Danish employees who fear involuntary firm internal mobility experience worse mental health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Genetics of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Christiansen, Peter; Jørgensen, Niels; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Juul, Anders; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-07-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder characterized by incomplete/absent puberty caused by deficiency or defective action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The phenotypic features of patients with CHH vary from genital hypoplasia and absent puberty to reversal of HH later in life. We examined the genetics and clinical features of CHH in Denmark. Forty-one male patients were screened for mutations in KAL1, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, GNRHR, TAC3, TACR3, and KISS1R. CHD7 was screened in two patients with hearing loss. In 12 patients, a molecular genetic cause for CHH was found. Four patients had mutations in KAL1 (C105VfsX13, C53X, ex5-8del, R257X), and five in FGFR1 (G97S, R209C, A512V, R646W, and c.1614C>T, (p.I538I), predicted to affect splicing). All 9 had severe HH (cryptorchidism and/or micropenis), and 2 had cleft lip/palate. One patient with a previously reported homozygous R262Q mutation in GNRHR displayed fascinating temporal variation in his phenotype. Two patients with hearing loss had CHD7 mutations (c.7832_7841del (p.K2611MfsX25) and c.2443-2A>C), confirming that CHH patients with CHARGE syndrome-associated features should be screened for mutations in CHD7. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark and Finland.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Perälä, Jussi; Dahl, Helle Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To compare domestic cannabis cultivation in Denmark and Finland to describe national characteristics in small-scale cannabis growing. A Web survey conducted among small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark (June to November 2008) and Finland (May to June 2009). Current cannabis growers (Denmark, 401; Finland, 1,054). Comparisons in regard to social background, growing history, practices, purposes and motives of growing, and perceptions of risks. Cannabis was cultivated primarily for own use, but sharing with friends and avoiding criminal circles also were significant motives for growing. Finnish growers prioritized indoor cultivation, whereas the Danes were more in favor of open-air plantations. Risks of getting caught by the police were observed to be greater in Finland. Growing for medical purposes was twice as prevalent in Finland as in Denmark. Cannabis growing is a stronger and more novel phenomenon in Finland than in Denmark, but both countries have been influenced by international trends. Finnish and Danish small-scale cannabis cultivators can be considered to be ideologically oriented lifestyle growers. Differences in the magnitude of the phenomenon may reflect differences in the availability and quality of cannabis in national drug markets. The Internet had promoted the spreading of the trend. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Head circumference growth among extremely preterm infants in Denmark has improved during the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of extremely preterm and low birth weight infants is still evolving and improving. In this study, we evaluated if growth has improved from birth to two years of corrected age (CA) among extremely low birth weight (BW) and preterm born infants in Denmark. This was an observational study with comparison of head circumference (HC), weight and length growth in two Danish cohorts of extremely preterm (gestational age (GA) < 28 weeks) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW with a BW < 1,000 g) infants (A: 1994-1995 and B: 2004-2008). Infants in cohort A (n = 198) and B (n = 64) had a median GA and BW of 27 + 2 weeks and 948 g in A, and 27 + 3 weeks and 934 g in B. At discharge, infants in B compared with A had increased more in HC (p = 0.000), length (p = 0.008) and weight (p = 0.000). At two years CA, HC was still significantly larger in cohort B than A (p = 0.03), while no significant difference was recorded for length or weight. Growth during hospitalisation seems to have improved among extremely preterm and low birth weight infants from 1994-1995 to 2004-2008. This may be a result of improved nutrition in combination with improved intensive care during hospitalisation. Collection of data in the 2004-2008 cohort was supported by the Institute of Regional Health Services Research, the Egmont Foundation and the University of Southern Denmark. Collection of data from birth to two years of age in the 1994-1995 cohort was without financial support. For the 1994-1995 study, all eight regional Research Ethics Committees in Denmark at that time approved the study. The 2004-2008 study was approved by the Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics, and handling of data and registrations were approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency.

  19. High-frequency fluctuations in Denmark Strait transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, T. W. N.

    2010-07-01

    Denmark Strait ocean current transport exhibits quasi-regular fluctuations immediately south of the sill with periods of 2-4 days. The transport variability is similar to the mean transport itself. Using a circulation model we explore prospects to monitor the fluctuations. The model has realistic transport and shows water leaving Denmark Strait in equivalent-barotropic cyclones that are nearly geostrophic and correlate with sea-surface height (SSH). Existing satellite altimeter observations of SSH have adequate space/time sampling to reconstruct the transport fluctuations using a regression developed from the model results, but measurement error overwhelms the signal. From the model results, the pending Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide-swath altimeter appears accurate enough, and with good-enough coverage, to allow the transport fluctuations to be reconstructed. Bottom pressure recorders at the exit of the Denmark Strait can also reproduce the transport variability.

  20. [Iodine fortification of salt and thyroid disease in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Perrild, Hans; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Knudsen, Nils; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Vejberg, Pernille

    2011-12-12

    Until 2000 Denmark was iodine deficient with moderate deficiency in the western part and mild deficiency in the eastern part. The occurrence of goitre and autonomous hyperthyroidism was high, and pregnancy was associated with a reduction in thyroid function. After cautious mandatory iodization of household salt and salt used for bread production, the iodine intake in Denmark is now low normal. The DanThyr monitoring has shown a transient increase in hyperthyroidism followed by a decrease, and goitre is becoming less common. Hypothyroidism has become more common, and this has to be followed.

  1. Differences in survival on chronic dialysis treatment between ethnic groups in Denmark: a population-wide, national cohort study.

    PubMed

    van den Beukel, Tessa O; Hommel, Kristine; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Heaf, James G; Siegert, Carl E H; Honig, Adriaan; Jager, Kitty J; Dekker, Friedo W; Norredam, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In Western countries, black and Asian dialysis patients experience better survival compared with white patients. The aim of this study is to compare the survival of native Danish dialysis patients with that of dialysis patients originating from other countries and to explore the association between the duration of residence in Denmark before the start of dialysis and the mortality on dialysis. We performed a population-wide national cohort study of incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark (≥18 years old) who started dialysis between 1995 and 2010. In total, 8459 patients were native Danes, 344 originated from other Western countries, 79 from North Africa or West Asia, 173 from South or South-East Asia and 54 from sub-Saharan Africa. Native Danes were more likely to die on dialysis compared with the other groups (crude incidence rates for mortality: 234, 166, 96, 110 and 53 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Native Danes had greater hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality compared with the other groups {HRs for mortality adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics: 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.54]; 2.22 [95% CI 1.51-3.23]; 1.79 [95% CI 1.41-2.27]; 2.00 [95% CI 1.10-3.57], respectively}. Compared with native Danes, adjusted HRs for mortality for Western immigrants living in Denmark for ≤10 years, >10 to ≤20 years and >20 years were 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.71), 0.56 (95% CI 0.39-0.82) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.04), respectively. For non-Western immigrants, these HRs were 0.42 (95% CI 0.27-0.67), 0.52 (95% CI 0.33-0.80) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.66), respectively. Incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark originating from countries other than Denmark have a better survival compared with native Danes. For Western immigrants, this survival benefit declines among those who have lived in Denmark longer. For non-Western immigrants, the survival benefit largely remains over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  2. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Peer Hull; Petersen, James Hopner

    The impact of developments in work organizations on the skilling process in Denmark was studied through a macro analysis of available statistical information about the development of workplace training in Denmark and case studies of three Danish firms. The macro analysis focused on the following: Denmark's vocational training system; the Danish…

  3. Self-perceived need for interpreter among immigrants in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Harpelund, Lars; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-07-01

    Starting in June 2011, immigrants who have lived for more than 7 years in Denmark have to pay a user-fee for interpreters in GP consultations and when hospitalised. We do not know yet how many immigrants will be affected by this amendment to the Danish Health Act and which socioeconomic factors characterise the immigrants who might be affected. To shed light on this, we investigated self-perceived need for interpreter (SNI) in GP consultations among participants from the largest non-Western immigrant groups in Denmark, the association between socioeconomic factors and SNI, and the characteristics of the immigrants potentially affected by the act amendment. Survey data on 2866 immigrants from former Yugoslavia, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, and Turkey, linked to registry information on socioeconomic factors were examined. We compared unadjusted proportions of SNI by country of birth. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between SNI and socioeconomic factors. Overall, 20% of immigrants living longer than 3 years in Denmark and 15% after 7 years reported a need for interpretation in their encounters with GPs. Of the latter group, the majority were outside the labour force (72.3%) and reported poor health (56%). Sex, age, length of stay, education, employment and household income were important factors for SNI. The amendment to the Health Act will primarily affect immigrants with modest household income, poor health and who are outside the labour force, thereby contributing and creating ethnic and social inequalities in access to health care in Denmark.

  4. Genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA among Enterobius vermicularis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Mario Rodrıguez; Röser, Dennis; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Olsen, Annette; Nejsum, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Despite being the most prevalent nematode infections of man in Western Europe and North America, our knowledge of the genetic variability in Enterobius vermicularis is fragmented. We here report on a genetic study of pinworms in Denmark, performed using the cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) gene, with DNA extracted from individual eggs collected from clinical (human) samples. We collected cellophane-tape-test samples positive for pinworm eggs from 14 Departments of Clinical Microbiology in Denmark and surface-sterilized the eggs using a 1% hypochlorite solution before performing conventional PCR. Twenty-two haplotypes were identified from a total of 58 Danish patients. Cluster analysis showed that all Danish worms grouped together with human samples from Germany and Greece and with samples from Japanese chimpanzees designated as 'type B'. Analysis of molecular variance showed no significant difference or trends in geographical distribution of the pinworms in Denmark, and several haplotypes were identical or closely related to samples collected in Germany, Greece and Japan. However, worms from the 4 countries were found to belong to different populations, with Fst values in the range of 0·16 to 0·47. This study shows pinworms in Denmark to be a homogenous population, when analysed using the cox1 mitochondrial gene.

  5. Day Care for Children in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leira, Arnlaug

    Based on information gathered in 1986, this report describes day care in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The focus of the report is on structural aspects of day care, including provision, management and finances, and questions concerning supply, demand, and distribution. Part I provides an introduction to the report and discusses the Scandinavian…

  6. Rural life in the city: the chalet garden in Denmark

    Treesearch

    Amy Damin; James F. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    Allotment gardens with small cottages make a rural lifestyle partially available in urban areas. Temporary living quarters, combined with the tending of annual and perennial plants, let urbanites coexist with nature for a few months out of the year. This paper investigates the history and social life these gardens play in Denmark. A particular garden, Sano near...

  7. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  8. The Development of Educational Accountability in China and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Zou, Yihuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the concept of accountability has attracted more and more attention in public governance and management. The management of education is no exception. This article presents and discusses the evolution and current status of educational accountability in two different national contexts, China and Denmark. Two main sectors of…

  9. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Short Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency. Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial…

  10. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y.; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Jørgensen, Frank G.; Als, Thomas D.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hultman, Christina M.; Kjærgaard, Peter C.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. PMID:27535931

  11. National Tests in Denmark: CAT as a Pedagogic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandall, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This article describes standardised testing in Denmark and the protections guaranteed to avoid "high stakes". It explains the use of computer-based "adaptive tests" which adjust to an appropriate level for each student. It is an abbreviated version of an article from 2011 in the "Journal for Applied Testing…

  12. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  13. Earnings among Young and Mature Danish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the association between graduation age and earnings among university graduates in Denmark, which is a country with one of the oldest student populations in the world. Exploiting a rich data-set from administrative registers, the current study is able to track labour market career for a longer period of time and to control for…

  14. When and Why Do University Managers Use Publication Incentive Payments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opstrup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Pay-for-performance schemes have become a widespread management strategy in the public sector. However, not much is known about the rationales that trigger the adoption of performance-related pay provisions. This article examines managerial and organisational features of university departments in Denmark that use publication incentive payments.…

  15. Seasonality in twin birth rates, Denmark, 1936-84.

    PubMed

    Bonnelykke, B; Søgaard, J; Nielsen, J

    1987-12-01

    A study was made of seasonality in twin birth rate in Denmark between 1977 and 1984. We studied all twin births (N = 45,550) in all deliveries (N = 3,679,932) during that period. Statistical analysis using a simple harmonic sinusoidal model provided no evidence for seasonality. However, sequential polynomial analysis disclosed a significant fit to a fifth order polynomial curve with peaks in twin birth rates in May-June and December, along with troughs in February and September. A falling trend in twinning rate broke off in Denmark around 1970, and from 1970 to 1984 an increasing trend was found. The results are discussed in terms of possible environmental influences on twinning.

  16. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.

  17. Denmark. A Study of the Educational System of Denmark and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions in the United States. PIER World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolston, Valerie A.; Dickey, Karlene N.

    This volume offers a full country study of the structure and content of the educational system of Denmark, together with a formal set of placement recommendations for Danish students wishing to study in the United States. Chapter 1 introduces the volume with descriptions of Denmark and its people, government, the government's role in education,…

  18. Gendered Time-Crunch and Work Factors in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Being crunched for time is an important aspect of life quality. Although Denmark is a country known for gender-equality, on average mothers are more time-crunched than fathers. We show this using a representative sample of Danish dual-earner couples with at least one child aged 0-10 years. We analyze the determinants of time-crunch in relation to…

  19. Ophthalmic nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Andrea V; Houben, Eline; Hallas, Jesper; Overbeek, Jetty A; Pottegård, Anton; Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Arana, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    To describe nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark with reference to its approved indications. For context, we also describe the use of ketorolac and diclofenac. We identified users in the PHARMO Database Network (the Netherlands, 2008-2013) and the Danish national health registers (Denmark, 1994-2014). We described prevalence of cataract surgery and duration of use in patients with cataract surgery with and without diabetes. In the Netherlands, 9530 nepafenac users (mean age, 71 years; 60% women) contributed 12 691 therapy episodes, of which 21% had a recently recorded cataract surgery. Of 2266 episodes in adult non-diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 60% had one bottle dispensed (treatment duration ≤21 days). Of 441 episodes in adult diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 90% had up to two bottles dispensed (≤60 days). Denmark had 60 403 nepafenac users (mean age, 72 years; 58% women) and 73 648 episodes (41% had recorded cataract surgery). Of 26 649 nepafenac episodes in adult non-diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 92% had one bottle dispensed. Of 3801 episodes in adult diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 99.8% had up to two bottles dispensed. Use patterns of nepafenac, ketorolac and diclofenac were roughly similar in the Netherlands, but not in Denmark. Less than half of therapy episodes were related to cataract surgery; around 90% of episodes with surgery were within the approved duration. Underrecording of ophthalmic conditions and procedures was a challenge in this study. © 2017 The Authors Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. A Cost Analysis of Day Care in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden G.

    A cost analysis of day care in Denmark was initiated to determine what day care services cost, who pays for them, and how these costs relate to the quality of day care services. Some of the findings are: (1) group day care is considerably more expensive for children 0-3 years of age than for children 3-7 years of age; (2) group day care centers…

  1. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by Statistics Denmark using the total birth cohort of all children born in 1984. The response rate was 63% leaving a total effective sample size of 2980. A structured residential or telephone interview enquired about a range of respondents maltreatment experiences. Results: Maltreatment is experienced by a significant proportion of Danish children. The reported prevalence rates were; physical neglect (3.0%), emotional abuse (5.2%), physical abuse (5.4%) and sexual abuse (3.4%). All trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of females compared to males with the exception of physical abuse and all trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of children given child-protection status. Conclusions: Female children and children who are given child protection status are those most at risk for experiencing maltreatment in Denmark. However, variability in prevalence rates of maltreatment across studies is problematic. Methodological variations and variation in abuse definitions may be partly attributable. PMID:24155769

  2. Contact allergy to chlorhexidine in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Garvey, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant in the healthcare setting and in cosmetic products. A high prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy was reported in Denmark in the 1980s (2.0-5.4% of patients patch tested). It is unknown whether the prevalence is still high, which products cause the contact allergy, and whether accidental re-exposure occurs in some patients. To estimate the prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark; to investigate whether patch testing with both chlorhexidine diacetate and chlorhexidine digluconate is necessary; to investigate how many patients have combined immediate-type allergy and contact allergy; and to identify which products cause chlorhexidine contact allergy, and whether patients are accidentally re-exposed. This was a retrospective study including all patients patch tested with chlorhexidine during 2003-2013 at the Department of Dermato-Allergology at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte (n = 8497). All patients with a positive patch test reaction to chlorhexidine were sent a questionnaire comprising questions about the cause of the allergy and re-exposure. Overall, 1.0% (n = 82) of all patients patch tested with chlorhexidine were positive. A decrease in the prevalence was observed over time, most likely because of lowering of the test concentration from 1.0 to 0.5% in 2008. Of the 82 patients, 28 (0.3%) had positive test reactions to both chlorhexidine salts, 43 (0.5%) had a positive test reaction only to chlorhexidine diacetate, and 11 (0.1%) had a positive test reaction to chlorhexidine digluconate. Three patients were both patch test-positive and prick test-positive. A known cause of the allergy was reported by 19 patients (40%) in the questionnaire: the products used in the healthcare setting were mainly reported, but some reported cosmetic products. Accidental re-exposure was reported by 15 patients (32%), of whom 13 reported symptoms. The prevalence of chlorhexidine

  3. Effect of European Clinical Trials Directive on academic drug trials in Denmark: retrospective study of applications to the Danish Medicines Agency 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Louise; Håkansson, Cecilia; Bach, Karin Friis; Dalhoff, Kim; Andreasen, Per Buch; Petersen, Lene Grejs; Andersen, Elin; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2008-01-05

    To determine the impact of the European Union's Clinical Trials Directive on the number of academic drug trials carried out in Denmark. Retrospective review of applications for drug trials to the Danish Medicines Agency, 1993-2006. Applications for drug trials for alternate years were classified as academic or commercial trials. A random subset of academic trials was reviewed for number of participants in and intended monitoring of the trials. Academic and commercial drug trials showed an identical steady decline from 1993 to 2006 and no noticeable change after 2004 when good clinical practice became mandatory for academic trials. The Clinical Trials Directive introduced in May 2004 to ensure good clinical practice for academic drug trials was not associated with a decline in research activity in Denmark; presumably because good clinical practice units had already been in place in Danish universities since 1999. With such an infrastructure academic researchers can do drug trials under the same regulations as drug companies.

  4. Incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Denmark, 1978-2007.

    PubMed

    Fuglede, N B; Brinck-Claussen, U Ø; Deltour, I; Boesen, E H; Dalton, S O; Johansen, C

    2011-08-01

    Incidence rates of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been increasing markedly worldwide. The ongoing debate about possible overdiagnosis remains unresolved. To determine the population-based incidence of CMM in Denmark between 1978 and 2007 and to analyse sex-, site- and extent of disease-specific changes in incidence rates of CMM over time. We used the virtually complete nationwide Danish Cancer Register in this population-based study, which contains data on 25,851 cases reported in Denmark between 1978 and 2007. We calculated age-standardized (world standard population) incidence rates per 100,000 person-years and age-specific rates. The age-standardized incidence rates increased from 6·5 to 14·4 among men and from 8·6 to 18·9 among women. During the last 5 years of the study period, a sudden marked increase was seen in women of all ages and in men aged 65 years or older. The most marked site-specific change was in the incidence of melanoma on the trunk in both men and women. An increase in the rates of disease with regional spread was seen during the last 10 years of observation. The incidence rate of CMM more than doubled in Denmark between 1978 and 2007. The increases in both site-specific incidence rates and CMM with regional spread suggest an association with risk behaviour, such as intermittent sun exposure, although possible overdiagnosis must be taken into account in evaluating the implications of the increase. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  5. The interaction between legalization of abortion and contraception in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, P C

    1979-01-01

    Trends in fertility, abortion, and contraceptive practice in Denmark were analyzed, using previously compiled official statistics; the conclusion was drawn that easy access to abortion may contribute toward a decline in contraceptive practice depending on the level of contraceptive practice in the population and on the degree of confidence the population has in available contraceptive methods. In October 1973 Denmark passed a law permitting women to obtain free abortion on demand. The number of legal abortions increased from 16,500 in 1973 to 28,000 in 1975. This marked increase was not attributable to a decline in illegal abortion since that annual number had declined from 5,000 to 1,000 prior to the passage of the 1973 abortion on demand law. The increase in abortion observed from 1973-1975 was accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of oral contraceptive cycles sold. Annual sales decreased from 3.9 million cycles to 2.6 million. It was difficult to access the factors responsible for this decline. Although IUD insertions increased during this period, the increase could not adequately compensate for the reduction in oral contraceptive sales. The decline in oral contraceptive sales occurred at about the time the negative side effects associated with the pill received widespread news coverage. Some of the decline in pill usage was probably due to fear of side effects, but abortion availability also encouraged women to be more lax about taking the pill and encouraged them to rely on less effective methods of contraception. Tables provide data for Denmark in reference to: 1) number of legal abortions and the abortion rates for 1940-1977; 2) distribution of abortions by season, 1972-1977; 3) abortion rates by maternal age, 1971-1977; 4) oral contraceptive and IUD sales for 1977-1978; and 5) number of births and estimated number of abortions and conceptions, 1960-1975.

  6. Prevalence of hip osteoarthritis in chiropractic practice in Denmark: a descriptive cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Erik; Christensen, Henrik W; Overgaard, Søren; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA) and first-time diagnosis of hip OA in consecutive patients presenting to chiropractic practices in Denmark and to report the components of the initial treatment rendered by the chiropractic practitioner. A total of 2000 patient records and 1000 radiographs were reviewed retrospectively in 20 chiropractic clinics throughout Denmark. Information obtained included patients' primary complaint, physical examination and radiographic findings of hip OA, and treatment. Subsequently, the 20 clinics participated in a prospective survey where they collected equivalent information over a 2-week period. Retrospective review of records revealed that 1.4% of patients in Danish chiropractic practice had signs of clinical hip OA. Of these, 59% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA. Prospective data collection revealed that 3.4% of new patients had signs of clinical hip OA. Fifty-four percent of these demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA, and of these 70% were diagnosed as having OA of the hip for the first time. Initial treatment involved manual treatment and advice on over-the-counter pain medication and/or supplements. Of all 1000 retrospectively reviewed radiographs in patients 40 years or older, 19.2% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA. Osteoarthritis of the hip is diagnosed and managed in primary care chiropractic practice in Denmark; however, it is likely underdiagnosed. In those newly presenting to chiropractic practitioners, first-time diagnosis with clinical and radiographic signs of hip OA appears to be common. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Awareness of sunburn in childhood, use of sunbeds and change of moles in Denmark, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hajdarevic, Senada; Hvidberg, Line; Lin, Yulan; Donnelly, Conan; Gavin, Anna; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Runesdotter, Sara; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is increasing rapidly in Northern Europe. To reduce incidence and mortality through earlier diagnosis, public awareness of MM is important. Thus, we aim to examine awareness of risk factors and a symptom of MM, and how awareness varies by country and socio-demographic factors in Denmark, Northern Ireland (NI), Norway and Sweden. Population-based telephone interviews using the 'Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer' measure were conducted in 2011 among 8355 adults ≥50 years as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 2. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In these four countries, lowest awareness was found for 'sunburn in childhood' (63%), whereas awareness was high for 'use of sunbeds' (91%) and 'mole change' (97%). Lack of awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 1.38 (1.28-1.48)] but less prevalent among respondents from Northern Ireland (NI) [PR = 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and Sweden [PR = 0.86 (0.79-0.93)] compared with respondents from Denmark. Lack of awareness of 'use of sunbeds' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 2.99 (2.39-3.74)], Sweden [PR = 1.57 (1.22-2.00)], and NI [PR = 1.65 (1.30-2.10)] compared with respondents form Denmark. Being a man, age ≥70, living alone, and having lower education, were each independently associated with lack of MM-awareness. The results indicate relatively low awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' as a risk factor for MM, and important disparities in MM-awareness across countries and socio-demographic groups. Improved and more directed initiatives to enhance public MM-awareness, particularly about 'sunburn in childhood', are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. [Track and trigger systems in Denmark - small country, great variations].

    PubMed

    Lønnee, Mads; Bukan, Ramin Brandt; Waldau, Tina; Møller, Ann Merete; Bukan, Katrine Brandt

    2018-05-07

    A track and trigger (TAT) system and mobile emergency team (MET) can aid observation and care for admitted patients in the hospital ward. We have examined the literature and find evidence, though not strong, that the introduction of TAT and MET systems reduce hospital mortality. However, in Denmark, many different TAT systems are used, and several hospitals do not have MET. We believe, that a standardised national TAT system could encourage interregional research and the investigation of system compliance, cost-benefit and impact on intensive care unit admissions.

  9. eHealth in Denmark: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today.

  10. The “Health Benefit Basket” in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Ankjaer-Jensen, Anni; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bent

    2005-01-01

    Until 2007, when the new legislation on health care becomes effective, the right to receive free health care services in Denmark, or “health benefits,” are described in a comprehensive set of legislation, including laws, executive orders and legal guidelines. This contribution provides an overview of the current main legislation regulating the Danish “health benefit basket” and describes the regulatory mechanisms for the provision of curative care at Danish hospitals and primary health care offices. Although the services are both financed and planned by the counties, they differ substantially in the way that benefits are regulated. PMID:16270211

  11. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-05

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated.

  12. Health policy in Denmark: leaving the decentralized welfare path?

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten; Christiansen, Terkel

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we investigate developments in Danish health care policy. After a short presentation of its historical roots, we focus on the decades after the administrative reform of 1970, which shaped the current decentralized public health care system. Theories of path dependency and institutional inertia are used to explain the relative stability in the overall structure, and theories of policy process and reform are used to discuss gradual changes within the overall framework. Although comprehensive reforms have not taken place in Denmark, many gradual changes may pave the way for more radical changes in the future. The political climate currently seems to be more favorable toward structural reform than in the past.

  13. The Basic Courses for the Study of Religions at the University of Southern Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  14. Placement Supervision of Pedagogue Students in Denmark: The Role of University Colleges and Early Childhood Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jytte Juul

    2015-01-01

    The article examines Danish pedagogue students' supervision during their placement periods in early childhood settings. Throughout the long history of Danish pedagogue education, discourses relating to the placement element have been located either within a "work" paradigm or a "scholastic" paradigm. These two understandings of…

  15. Nationwide Drinking Water Sampling Campaign for Exposure Assessments in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Hansen, Birgitte; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2018-01-01

    Nationwide sampling campaign of treated drinking water of groundwater origin was designed and implemented in Denmark in 2013. The main purpose of the sampling was to obtain data on the spatial variation of iodine concentration and speciation in treated drinking water, which was supplied to the majority of the Danish population. This data was to be used in future exposure and epidemiologic studies. The water supply sector (83 companies, owning 144 waterworks throughout Denmark) was involved actively in the planning and implementation process, which reduced significantly the cost and duration of data collection. The dataset resulting from this collaboration covers not only iodine species (I−, IO3−, TI), but also major elements and parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, DOC, TC, TN, F−, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and a long list of trace elements (n = 66). The water samples represent 144 waterworks abstracting about 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supply about 2.5 million Danes (45% of all Danish residents). This technical note presents the design, implementation, and limitations of such a sampling design in detail in order (1) to facilitate the future use of this dataset, (2) to inform future replication studies, or (3) to provide an example for other researchers. PMID:29518987

  16. [Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden].

    PubMed

    Dezileaux, Barbara; Martinez, Florie

    2016-06-01

    Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Project compares quantitatively outpatient drug prescriptions in France, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained from national databases; the unit of measurement was defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants. The five most prescribed drug classes were compared in each country in 2009, then benzodiazepines and antibiotics from 2006 to 2012. A literature review was focused on the context of prescriptions for each country. In 2009, the five most prescribed drug classes in the four countries represented seven classes in total. France was not the biggest prescriber of drugs, but from 2006 to 2012 benzodiazepines and antibiotics were prescribed much more in France than in the other countries. The evolution of prescriptions was different for each country, and very stable in France. In 2009, France was not the biggest drugs consumer of all classes, but was characterized by high prescriptions in some classes. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of cohort smoking intensities in Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Barendregt, Jan J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the general framework of the smoking epidemic. METHODS: We use lung cancer mortality as an indicator for smoking intensity and employ an age-cohort model to accommodate the long-lasting and cumulative effects. RESULTS: Dutch males have higher risks than Danish males, but the risks for the younger cohorts have been declining faster in the Netherlands than in Denmark. Danish women have about twice the risk of Dutch women, and in both countries the risks for the younger cohorts are increasing. The smoking epidemic began at about the same time in Denmark and the Netherlands. Dutch males, however, seem to have smoked more but to have given up smoking more quickly than Danish males. Danish females were quicker to take up smoking than Dutch females. CONCLUSIONS: Within the general framework of the smoking epidemic, differences in timing and levels can produce large differences between countries. For the purposes of assessing smoking-related risks, including projections, the smoking epidemic framework therefore has to be tailored to each study population. PMID:11884970

  18. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment.

  19. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health..., Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark, and the... regulations in ``Subpart--Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products,'' Sec. Sec...

  20. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  1. The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

  2. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  3. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Martin Eggert

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark was evaluated through consultations with various bodies, including the following: Denmark's Ministry of Labor and Ministry of Education, Danish Employer's Confederation, Confederation of Danish Industry, Danish Confederation of Trade Unions, Association of County Councils, and…

  4. Medicine, natural philosophy, and the influence of Melanchthon in reformation Denmark and Norway.

    PubMed

    Fink-Jensen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, all intellectual pursuits in Europe were colored by the religious conditions of the age. Accordingly, investigations into nature were unable to avoid issues dealing with the workings of divine power. The reestablishment of the University of Copenhagen after the Reformation of 1536 in the joint kingdom of Denmark and Norway prompted the formulation of an official Lutheran program for the study of medicine and natural philosophy (including anatomy). This program was wholly based on the ideas of the German reformer Philip Melanchthon, the aim being to apply knowledge of, for example, anatomy in support of the newly reformed Lutheran society. Thus, the crown and the church officially sanctioned Melanchthon's thoughts on natural philosophy as a means to apprehend, first, the majestic glory of divine providence; second, that man was truly created and assigned his place by God; and third, that it was demanded of all men and women that they submit themselves to the will of God and the laws of the public authorities.

  5. Implementation of team training in medical education in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, H T; Østergaard, D; Lippert, A

    2004-10-01

    In the field of medicine, team training aiming at improving team skills such as leadership, communication, co-operation, and followership at the individual and the team level seems to reduce risk of serious events and therefore increase patient safety. The preferred educational method for this type of training is simulation. Team training is not, however, used routinely in the hospital. In this paper, we describe a framework for the development of a team training course based on need assessment, learning objectives, educational methods including full-scale simulation and evaluations strategies. The use of this framework is illustrated by the present multiprofessional team training in advanced cardiac life support, trauma team training and neonatal resuscitation in Denmark. The challenges of addressing all aspects of team skills, the education of the facilitators, and establishment of evaluation strategies to document the effect of the different types of training on patient safety are discussed.

  6. Implementation of team training in medical education in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, H T; Østergaard, D; Lippert, A

    2008-10-01

    In the field of medicine, team training aiming at improving team skills such as leadership, communication, co-operation, and followership at the individual and the team level seems to reduce risk of serious events and therefore increase patient safety. The preferred educational method for this type of training is simulation. Team training is not, however, used routinely in the hospital. In this paper, we describe a framework for the development of a team training course based on need assessment, learning objectives, educational methods including full-scale simulation and evaluations strategies. The use of this framework is illustrated by the present multiprofessional team training in advanced cardiac life support, trauma team training and neonatal resuscitation in Denmark. The challenges of addressing all aspects of team skills, the education of the facilitators, and establishment of evaluation strategies to document the effect of the different types of training on patient safety are discussed.

  7. Actinobaculum schaalii, a Common Uropathogen in Elderly Patients, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anders; Hansen, Thomas M.; Søby, Karen M.; Prag, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Actinobaculum schaalii can cause urinary tract infections and septicemia but is difficult to identify by cultivation. To obtain a fast diagnosis and identify A. schaalii, we developed a TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Routine urine samples were obtained from 177 hospitalized patients and 75 outpatients in Viborg County, Denmark, in 2008–2009. The PCR detected A. schaalii in 22% of samples from patients >60 years of age. This assay showed that A. schaalii is more common than implied by routine cultivation. In 90% of PCR-positive urine samples, other common uropathogens were identified. This finding suggests that A. schaalii is a common, undetected, bacterial pathogen. Our results suggest that A. schaalii may be a more common pathogen than previously thought, especially in patients with unexplained chronic urinary tract infections, who are often treated with trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin, to which A. schaalii is resistant. PMID:20031046

  8. Health hazards to waste management workers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, T

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the Danish investigations of garbage recycling workers (GRW) in the beginning of the 90ties. The studies are summarized here showing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, from occupational asthma to gastrointestinal and skin symptoms. From the Danish experiences it seems that under normal circumstances with a good hygiene and use of the proper protective equipment by an educated work force, garbage handling induces a small but significant risk of occupational asthma. The majority of the asthma cases we have experienced in Denmark have been due to a poor perception of the risks related to organic dust exposure. However, there is still an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as chest tightness and toxic alveolitis. Furthermore gastrointestinal and skin symptoms are more frequent among GRW compared to other blue-collar workers.

  9. Implementation of team training in medical education in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, H; Ostergaard, D; Lippert, A

    2004-01-01

    In the field of medicine, team training aiming at improving team skills such as leadership, communication, co-operation, and followership at the individual and the team level seems to reduce risk of serious events and therefore increase patient safety. The preferred educational method for this type of training is simulation. Team training is not, however, used routinely in the hospital. In this paper, we describe a framework for the development of a team training course based on need assessment, learning objectives, educational methods including full-scale simulation and evaluations strategies. The use of this framework is illustrated by the present multiprofessional team training in advanced cardiac life support, trauma team training and neonatal resuscitation in Denmark. The challenges of addressing all aspects of team skills, the education of the facilitators, and establishment of evaluation strategies to document the effect of the different types of training on patient safety are discussed. PMID:15465962

  10. Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen; Holst, René; Tümer, Zeynep

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to quantify the occurrence of the congenital eye malformations anophthalmia (AO), microphthalmia (MO) and coloboma among liveborn infants in Denmark, and to estimate the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in this group of patients. A cohort of patients born in 1995-2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry (DCCR). We identified 415 patients with MO/AO/coloboma in the DNPR. The total number of live births from 1995-2012 was 1,174,299, and the average birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma was 3.6/10,000 live births and of MO/AO was 1.2/10,000 live births. Extra-ocular abnormalities were observed in 32.1% of MO/AO cases and 21.7% of coloboma cases. Chromosome analysis was performed in 36.1% of the cohort, and 14.7% of cases had an abnormal karyotype. In 8.7% of the cohort, a chromosome microarray analysis was performed, and in 44.4% of cases, a possibly pathogenic copy number variation was observed. The birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma in Denmark has been steady at 3.6/10,000 live births during the last 17 years. The rate of syndromic cases was lower compared to other studies. A relatively high rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations was observed, suggesting an important role for cytogenetic analysis in this group of patients.

  11. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.

    2017-04-01

    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  12. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thykier, C.

    1992-07-01

    by the young new King Christian IV. Almost all of Tycho Brahe's privileges given to him by the late King Frederik II were taken from him. Shortly after that, he gathered his family and assistants and went to Rostock, from where he wrote a letter to Christian IV saying that he would contemplate returning to Denmark if the king would give him back his privileges. Christian very sternly answered the astronomer that if he should hope to return to Denmark he had to act like a servant. Tycho was too proud to go down to his knees for the king and never returned. So the reason for Tycho's acceptance of the invitation by Emperor Rudolf to come to Prague was that Christian IV would not continue the very considerable financial support to Tycho of about one percentage of the state income. The latest historical research has indicated that a "camarilla" of enemies stood behind Christian IV's aversion against Tycho. Tycho was not merely an astronomer, but also an astrologer and alchemist. As far as we know he never tried to make gold; his alchemic experiments were of medical character. This was not legal without permission from the Church and the University. Both the clergy and the doctors of the university envied the great scientist because princes and learned people preferred to visit Tycho at his "private university" on the island of Hven instead of visiting the University of Copenhagen. A new theory about Tycho's death has appeared. It has always been told that he died of a burst urinary bladder because he drank too much at parties. According to forensic medicine, however, this cannot be true. Tycho lived for some time after he became ill, and a bursted bladder would cause sudden death. A more plausible explanation would be that Tycho poisoned himself with his very strong medicines containing heavy metals like mercury and arsenic.

  13. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  14. The existential dimension in general practice: identifying understandings and experiences of general practitioners in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. Setting General practice setting in Denmark. Subjects Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Results Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients’ multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key pointsAlthough integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP–patient encounter.The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects.The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life

  15. Prevaccination epidemiology of herpes zoster in Denmark: Quantification of occurrence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sigrun A J; Vestergaard, Mogens; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Pedersen, Lars; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2017-10-09

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. Unfortunately, formulation of recommendations on routine immunization is hampered by a lack of data on disease burden, since most countries do not record cases of HZ in the general population. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify HZ based on routinely collected registry data and used it to quantify HZ occurrence and risk factors in Denmark prior to marketing of the HZ vaccine. We included patients aged ≥40years with a first-time systemic Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, or Famciclovir prescription or a hospital-based HZ diagnosis in the Danish nationwide health registries during 1997-2013. In a validation substudy (n=176), we computed the proportion of persons with HZ among patients who redeemed antiviral prescriptions. In a cohort study, we computed age-specific rates of HZ (45,297,258 person-years). In a case-control study, we then computed odds ratios (ORs) for common chronic diseases and immunosuppressive factors among HZ cases (n=189,025) vs. matched population controls (n=945,111). Medical record review confirmed HZ in 87% (95% confidence interval: 79-93%) of persons ≥40years who dispensed antivirals at doses recommended for HZ. HZ rates increased from 2.15/1000 person-years in 40-year-olds to 9.45/1000 person-years in 95-year-olds. Rates were highest in women. HZ was diagnosed during hospitalization among 3.5%. As expected, persons with severe immunosuppressive conditions had the highest ORs of HZ (between 1.82 and 4.12), but various autoimmune diseases, asthma, chronic kidney disease, and inhaled glucocorticoids were also associated with increased ORs (between 1.06 and 1.64). This algorithm is a valid tool for identifying HZ in routine healthcare data. It shows that HZ is common in Denmark, especially in patients with certain chronic conditions. Prioritized vaccination of such high-risk patients might be an option in countries considering

  16. Emergence of vanA Enterococcus faecium in Denmark, 2005-15.

    PubMed

    Hammerum, Anette M; Baig, Sharmin; Kamel, Yasmin; Roer, Louise; Pinholt, Mette; Gumpert, Heidi; Holzknecht, Barbara; Røder, Bent; Justesen, Ulrik S; Samulioniené, Jurgita; Kjærsgaard, Mona; Østergaard, Claus; Holm, Anette; Dzajic, Esad; Søndergaard, Turid Snekloth; Gaini, Shahin; Edquist, Petra; Alm, Erik; Lilje, Berit; Westh, Henrik; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    To describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in Denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical E. faecium isolates from 2015. During 2005-14, all clinical VRE isolates were tested for the presence of vanA/B/C genes by PCR. In 2015, all clinical VRE isolates were whole-genome sequenced. From the WGS data, the presence of van genes and MLST STs were extracted in silico . Core-genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis was performed for the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates. During 2005-15, 1043 vanA E. faecium , 25 vanB E. faecium , 4 vanA E. faecalis and 28 vanB E. faecalis were detected. The number of VRE was <50 isolates/year until 2012 to > 200 isolates/year in 2013-15. In 2015, 368 vanA E. faecium and 1 vanB E. faecium were detected along with 1 vanA E. faecalis and 1 vanB E. faecalis . cgMLST subdivided the 368 vanA E. faecium isolates into 33 cluster types (CTs), whereas the vanB E. faecium isolate belonged to a different CT. ST203-CT859 was most prevalent (51%), followed by ST80-CT14 (22%), ST117-CT24 (6%), ST80-CT866 (4%) and ST80-CT860 (2%). Comparison with the cgMLST.org database, previous studies and personal communications with neighbouring countries revealed that the novel cluster ST203-CT859 emerged in December 2014 and spread to the south of Sweden and the Faroe Islands during 2015. VRE increased in Denmark during 2005-15 due to the emergence of several vanA E. faecium clones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Self-reported needs for improving the supervision competence of PhD supervisors from the medical sciences in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-10-23

    Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors' self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. The Scientific Ethical Committee for the Capital Region of Denmark. Number: H-3-2010-101, date: 2010.09.29.

  18. Exploratory research session on the quantization of the gravitational field. At the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Copenhagen, Denmark, June-July 1957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Bryce S.

    2017-06-01

    During the period June-July 1957 six physicists met at the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark to work together on problems connected with the quantization of the gravitational field. A large part of the discussion was devoted to exposition of the individual work of the various participants, but a number of new results were also obtained. The topics investigated by these physicists are outlined in this report and may be grouped under the following main headings: The theory of measurement. Topographical problems in general relativity. Feynman quantization. Canonical quantization. Approximation methods. Special problems.

  19. Whose Parallellingualism? Overt and Covert Ideologies in Danish University Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultgren, Anna Kristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the study of multilingualism in the workplace by analysing top-down language policies advocating parallellingualism at Denmark's eight universities. Parallellingualism, a key concept in Nordic language policy, has been suggested as a way to ensure an equitable balance between English and the Nordic language(s)…

  20. The tragedy of becoming tired of living: Youth and young adults' suicide in Greenland and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Larissa; Gulis, Gabriel

    2018-06-01

    Suicide is a tremendous public health issue and worldwide the second leading cause of death among young people. In 2015, Greenland had the highest burden of disease due to self-harm with loss of 2,952.97 disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants, more than six times as many as Denmark. What are possible reasons for Greenland's higher youth suicide rate compared to Denmark, despite being one kingdom of Denmark? Mixed methods in the form of qualitative, semi-structured interviews, the analysis of available data for 2003-2016 and a literature review were conducted with the aim to answer this question. Several exposures cause this difference, most significantly adverse effects of the colonial past, such as social issues and experienced traumas in Greenland compared to its former coloniser Denmark. The ongoing burden of youth suicide in Greenland requires enhanced actions of all stakeholders involved in suicide prevention, intervention and postvention.

  1. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  2. Parent University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Hoyt S.

    A description of the Parent University program of the San Rafael (California) City Schools is presented. The Parent University is described as a 1-day event in which parents are offered a variety of seminars and workshops on topics in education and parenting. Materials included in this document are: (1) an overview of the second annual Parent…

  3. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  4. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  5. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore;…

  6. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wiese Simonsen, K; Steentoft, A; Bernhoft, I M; Hels, T; Rasmussen, B S; Linnet, K

    2013-01-10

    This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18%) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit, which is 0.53g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphetamine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgonine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13%) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1% of seriously injured drivers

  7. Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  8. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  9. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads; Glümer, Charlotte; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-09-01

    There are no previous epidemiologic studies on concurrent headache and sleep problems (HSP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HSP in Denmark, broadly characterize those with HSP, and examine associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were retrieved from national registers. Prevalence proportions were adjusted for stratified sampling and non-response. Regression analyses examined associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. Of 68,518 respondents, 16.3% reported only headache, 21.1% only sleep problems, and 18.1% HSP with 2.6% being severely affected. Prevalence was higher among women and the middle-aged. Severe HSP was associated with low socioeconomic position, non-Western ethnicity, unhealthy lifestyle, high stress and anxiety/depression. Those with HSP had substantially reduced quality of life; more so than those having only headache or only sleep problems. HSP is a highly prevalent condition. Lifestyle modification, stress reduction, and screening for concurrent depression and anxiety may play important roles in management. The high prevalence of HSP suggests a common pathophysiological mechanism. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008).

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D; Carlsen, Berit C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-02-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory ingredient labelling on cosmetic products. To investigate the development in the prevalence of preservative allergy in Denmark over a 24-year period (1985-2008) and to challenge the prediction made by Dillarstone. A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 18179). Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. The development of preservative allergy mirrored those of other European patch test centres. The development was not dependent on sex or age group. The prevalence was higher among women and those aged 41-60 years. Formaldehyde allergy was persistently prevalent over the study years. The overall prevalence of preservative allergy increased significantly (P(trend) = 0.001), mainly because of patch testing with additional preservatives in recent years. Dillarstone's prediction was confirmed as the prevalence of contact allergy to individual preservatives remained relatively stable. However, the overall burden of preservative allergy seemed to increase. Introduction of new preservatives may add to the burden of contact allergy.

  11. Usher syndrome in Denmark: mutation spectrum and some clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Dad, Shzeena; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Grønskov, Karen; Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Brox, Vigdis; Nilssen, Øivind; Roux, Anne-Françoise; Rosenberg, Thomas; Jensen, Hanne; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2016-09-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous deafness-blindness syndrome, divided into three clinical subtypes: USH1, USH2 and USH3. Mutations in 21 out of 26 investigated Danish unrelated individuals with USH were identified, using a combination of molecular diagnostic methods. Before Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) became available mutations in nine individuals (1 USH1, 7 USH2, 1 USH3) were identified by Sanger sequencing of USH1C , USH2A or CLRN1 or by Arrayed Primer EXtension (APEX) method. Mutations in 12 individuals (7 USH1, 5 USH2) were found by targeted NGS of ten known USH genes. Five novel pathogenic variants were identified. We combined our data with previously published, and obtained an overview of the USH mutation spectrum in Denmark, including 100 unrelated individuals; 32 with USH1, 67 with USH2, and 1 with USH3. Macular edema was observed in 44 of 117 individuals. Olfactory function was tested in 12 individuals and found to be within normal range in all. Mutations that lead to USH1 were predominantly identified in MYO7A (75%), whereas all mutations in USH2 cases were identified in USH2A . The MYO7A mutation c.93C>A, p.(Cys31*) accounted for 33% of all USH1 mutations and the USH2A c.2299delG, p.(Glu767Serfs*21) variant accounted for 45% of all USH2 mutations in the Danish cohort.

  12. On the Nature of the Mesoscale Variability in Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickart, Robert; von Appen, Wilken; Mastropole, Dana; Valdimarsson, Hedinn; Vage, Kjetil; Jonsson, Steingriumur; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-04-01

    The dense overflow through Denmark Strait is the largest contributor to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. As such, it is important to understand the sources of water feeding the overflow and how the water negotiates the sill as it passes into the Irminger Sea. Here we use a large collection of shipboard hydrographic transects occupied across the strait, together with 6-years of mooring data from the sill, to investigate the water masses and mesoscale variability of the overflow water. Two dominant types of mesoscale features were identified, referred to as a "bolus" and a "pulse". The former is a large lens of weakly stratified water corresponding to a slight increase in along-strait velocity. The latter is a thin layer with greater stratification and strongly enhanced along-strait flow. The boluses, which are often noted in the historical literature, are associated with cyclonic circulation, while pulses, which have not been previously identified, are associated with anti-cyclonic circulation. Both features result in increased transport of overflow water. It is argued that these fluctuations at the sill trigger energetic variability downstream in the Deep Western Boundary Current.

  13. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  14. A Riccati model for Denmark Strait overflow variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käse, R. H.

    2006-10-01

    A controlled volume box model of the western basins of the Nordic Seas for water denser than 1027.8 kg m-3 is constructed, where accumulation in volume ($\\frac{dV}{dt) is driven by net imbalances between prescribed net inflow from the northern, eastern and top boundaries (Qs) and hydraulically limited outflow through the Denmark Strait. The resulting Riccati equation is solved analytically for filling and flushing experiments with constant Qs and numerically for stochastic forcing Qs(t). For small perturbations to Qs with white noise spectrum, the overflow response is red noise with a time scale between 5 and 15 years depending on the mean interface height and area. For Qs proportional to the NAO index, the overflow is positively correlated with the NAO. A 140 years integration reveals variations in the overflow between 2.5 Sv in the 1970s and a maximum of 4 Sv in the 1990s. Hydraulic transport calculations from hydrographic data north of Iceland show good agreement with the model hindcast.

  15. Einstein's Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  16. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  17. Dignity as an empirical lifeworld construction-in the field of surgery in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tina Seidelin; Delmar, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Patient dignity is a complex yet central phenomenon. Disrespect for dignity can mean retention of sick role, loss of self-care and control, decreased participation and therefore influence healing. At the same time, nurses have an obligation to respect dignity, and patients expect it. In clinical practice, with the focus on efficiency and economy, dignity can be compromised. The surgical patient may be particularly vulnerable to loss of dignity, when focus is solely on surgical procedure, efficiency, and productivity. The aim of the article is to describe the characteristics of the importance of dignity perceived by four surgical patients at a university hospital in Denmark. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach of Van Manen is used to analyse and interpret data collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviews explored the lived experience with two women and two men who had undergone a surgical intervention in a Danish vascular surgery department. The thematic analysis led to the basic theme: "To be an important person" illustrated by the themes: "Being a co-player," "Over exposure," and "To swallow the bitter pill." The findings provide a better understanding of patient's perspective of dignity, which is characterized by a complex interaction of several factors. Nurses should be concerned with balancing expectations, values, and opinions to maintain dignity in nursing and create a common platform for collaboration. This collaboration makes it possible for patients to be involved and have a voice in relation to nursing, treatment, and administering of time even though it could be at the expense of the terms of the system.

  18. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-07-01

    In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, between September 1998 and June 2013 were invited to participate. During the study period, 68 395 pregnant women filled in a self-administered questionnaire at gestational week 11 (median). From 1998, questions on binge drinking included data on the number of binge episodes (≥5 drinks on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time of filling in the questionnaire. From 1998 to 2013 the proportion of women reporting no alcohol intake increased from 31.2 to 83.3% (p < 0.001), the main decline occurring between 1998 and 2007. The proportion of binge drinkers decreased (p < 0.001) but remained more stable across the period. The decline in the proportion of pregnant women consuming alcohol occurred independently of official recommendations. Increasing national and international awareness may partly explain the changes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather.

    PubMed

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus E; Thyssen, Jacob P; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2010-12-01

    A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products. To reproduce the results by analysing data from the period 1992-2009 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The temporal development in the occurrence of chromate contact allergy and assumed causative exposures were investigated. A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 8483), and medical charts from patients with chromate allergy (n = 231) were reviewed. Comparisons were made using the χ(2) -test. A test of the reproducibility of the TRUE Test® was also performed. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. No significant changes in the prevalence or exposure sources of chromate allergy during 1992-2009 were identified. Leather shoes (24.4%) were the most frequent exposure sources in chromate allergy, and were mainly registered in women, although the difference between men and women was not significant (P = 0.07). Cement and leather glove exposure occurred significantly more often in men than in women (P = 0.002). Foot dermatitis (40.3%) was the most frequent anatomical location, apart from hand eczema (60.6%). The reproducibility of the TRUE Test® was 93.3%. Apart from hand eczema, the most frequent clinical picture of chromate allergy was foot dermatitis caused by leather shoe exposure. A tendency for an increasing prevalence of chromate contact allergy from 1997 was shown, but no significant change was detectable. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. The effect of leprotic infection on the risk of death in medieval rural Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kelmelis, K Saige; Price, Michael Holton; Wood, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Paleopathological studies of leprosy in Danish skeletal collections show that many individuals suffered from this stigmatized disease during the Middle Ages. This study examines the risk of death associated with leprotic infection in individuals from the Danish rural cemetery of Øm Kloster (AD 1172-1536). Specifically, we modeled the influence of leprotic infection on age-specific mortality accounting also for sex and social status (lay person / monastic). The sample consisted of 311 adult individuals from the Øm Kloster skeletal collection housed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (ADBOU). We modeled morbidity and mortality using a three-state illness-death model with the following parameterizations for the three transition hazards: (1) nonlesioned to lesioned: constant; (2) nonlesioned to dead: Gompertz-Makeham; and (3) lesioned to dead: Gompertz-Makeham, directly proportional to the hazard of the well to dead transition. The mortality hazard of lesioned individuals exceeded that of nonlesioned individuals by a factor of 1.4 (40%) across all individuals, 1.7 for females, 1.0 for males, 1.3 for lay persons, and 1.7 for monastics. Overall, 15% of the sample died with skeletal manifestations of leprosy, though it is likely that a higher percentage of the population carried the bacterium. This study improves understanding of past health and population dynamics focusing on a chronic infectious disease. The methods employed could informatively be applied to larger analyses of community health from skeletal collections by incorporating more than one disease into the multistate model and inferring individual frailty using various skeletal markers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark.

    PubMed

    Myrup, Charlotte; Westergaard, Tine; Schnack, Tine; Oudin, Anna; Ritz, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-02

    Immigrant studies offer insights into the relative importance of environment and genes in disease etiology. There is considerable variation in testicular cancer incidence worldwide. We investigated testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark, a high-incidence country, to evaluate the relative influence of genes and environment and the potential timing of action of environmental factor(s). A cohort of 2.1 million men who were born since 1930 and lived in Denmark between 1968 and 2003 was established based on information in the Danish Civil Registration System, which included their immigration histories. Cancer histories were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Testicular cancer risk was estimated as rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on log-linear Poisson regression. Overall, 4216 testicular cancer cases occurred during 43 million person-years of follow-up in 2.1 million men. These included 166 cases among 344,444 direct immigrants to Denmark and 13 cases among 56,189 men born in Denmark to immigrant parents. These first- and second-generation immigrants had RRs of testicular cancer of 0.37 (95% CI = 0.31 to 0.43) and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.51 to 1.53), respectively, compared with men born in Denmark of parents born in Denmark. The rate in first-generation immigrants was not modified by age at immigration or duration of stay and reflected that in the country of origin. The testicular cancer risk in first-generation immigrants was lower than that in native-born Danes and reflected that in the countries of origin, whereas the risk in second-generation immigrants was similar to that in natives of Denmark. Together these findings argue for a substantial influence of environmental factors limited to the period early in life, most probably to the period in utero.

  2. Comparison of sick leave patterns between Norway and Denmark in the health and care sector: a register study.

    PubMed

    Krane, Line; Fleten, Nils; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Jensen, Chris; Johnsen, Roar; Braaten, Tonje

    2013-11-01

    Sickness absence is of considerable concern in both Norway and Denmark. Labour Force Surveys indicate that absence in Norway is about twice that in Denmark and twice that of the mean reported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This study compares absence patterns according to age, percentage of employment, and occupation between municipal employees in the health and care sectors in two municipalities in Norway and Denmark. Data recorded in the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway and Aarhus, Denmark were extracted for the years 2004 and 2008, revealing 3498 and 7751 employee-years, respectively. We calculated absence rates together with number of sick leave episodes, and their association with the above-mentioned covariates. Gender-specific comparative descriptive statistics and negative binomial regression analysis were performed. The sickness absence rate in women was 11.3% in Norway (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-11.4) and 7.0% in Denmark (95% CI 7.0-7.1) whereas mean number of sick leave episodes among women was 2.4 in Denmark, compared to 2.3 in Norway (p = 0.02). Young employees in Denmark had more sick leave episodes than in Norway. Proportion of absentees was higher in Denmark compared to Norway (p < 0.0001). The finding of that more employees in Denmark have more frequent, but shorter sick leave episodes compared to Norway, for whatever reasons, may indicate that more frequent sick leaves episodes prevent higher sick leaves rates.

  3. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979].

    PubMed

    Manniche, E

    1982-10-01

    History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role.

  5. Occupational and recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate

    2017-05-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj ) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj 0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj 0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.

  6. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  7. Impacts of 21st century climate changes on flora and vegetation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Flemming; Nygaard, Bettina; Wind, Peter; Borchsenius, Finn; Normand, Signe; Balslev, Henrik; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we examined the potential impacts of predicted climatic changes on the flora and vegetation in Denmark using data from a digital database on the natural vegetation of Europe. Climate scenarios A2 and B2 were used to find regions with present climatic conditions similar to Denmark's climate in the year 2100. The potential natural vegetation of Denmark today is predominantly deciduous forest that would cover more than 90% of the landscape. Swamps, bogs, and wet forest would be found under moist or wet conditions. Dwarf shrub heaths would be naturally occurring on poor soils along the coast together with dune systems and salt-marsh vegetation. When comparing the natural vegetation of Denmark to the vegetation of five future-climate analogue areas, the most obvious trend is a shift from deciduous to thermophilous broadleaved forest currently found in Southern and Eastern Europe. A total of 983 taxa were recorded for this study of which 539 were found in Denmark. The Sørensen index was used to measure the floristic similarity between Denmark and the five subregions. Deciduous forest, dwarf shrub heath, and coastal vegetation were treated in more detail, focusing on potential new immigrant species to Denmark. Finally, implications for management were discussed. The floristic similarity between Denmark and regions in Europe with a climate similar to what is expected for Denmark in year 2100 was found to vary between 48-78%, decreasing from North to South. Hence, it seems inevitable that climate changes of the magnitudes foreseen will alter the distribution of individual species and the composition of natural vegetation units. Changes, however, will not be immediate. Historic evidence shows a considerable lag in response to climatic change under natural conditions, but little is known about the effects of human land-use and pollution on this process. Facing such uncertainties we suggested that a dynamic strategy based on modeling, monitoring and adaptive

  8. Quantum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhanov, V. F.

    2016-10-01

    In March 2013, following an accurate processing of available measurement data, the Planck Scientific Collaboration published the highest-resolution photograph ever of the early Universe when it was only a few hundred thousand years old. The photograph showed galactic seeds in sufficient detail to test some nontrivial theoretical predictions made more than thirty years ago. Most amazing was that all predictions were confirmed to be remarkably accurate. With no exaggeration, we may consider it established experimentally that quantum physics, which is normally assumed to be relevant on the atomic and subatomic scale, also works on the scale of the entire Universe, determining its structure with all its galaxies, stars, and planets.

  9. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah Friis; Jørgensen, Lars Christian; Cordoba, Gloria; Llor, Carl; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) it is a challenge to identify who should be treated with antibiotics. According to international guidelines, antibiotics should be prescribed to patients with suspected pneumonia while acute bronchitis is considered a viral infection and should, generally, not be treated with antibiotics. Overdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients with LRTIs may lead to antibiotic overprescribing. To investigate the prevalence of presumed pneumonia in patients with LRTI in two countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates (Denmark and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2,698 patients with LRTI were included. In Denmark, 47% of the patients with LRTI were classified with a diagnosis of pneumonia compared with 11% in Spain. In Spain, fever and a positive x-ray weighted significantly more in the diagnosis of pneumonia than in Denmark. Danish GPs, however, attached more importance to dyspnoea/polypnoea and C-reactive protein levels >50mg/L. None of the other typical symptoms of pneumonia had a significant influence. Our results indicate that GPs' diagnostic criteria for pneumonia differ substantially between Denmark and Spain. The high prevalence of pneumonia among Danish patients with LRTI may indicate overdiagnosis of pneumonia which, in turn, may lead to antibiotic overprescribing.

  10. Changes in private alcohol importation after alcohol tax reductions and import allowance increases in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Bloomfield, Kim

    2010-01-01

    AIMS This paper examines changes in alcohol import in Denmark between 2003 and 2006, after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on October 1, 2003 and travellers’ allowances for alcohol import were increased on January1, 2004. Additionally, the paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers and analyse the relation between the distance to the German border and import behaviour, as Germany is the main alcohol import country for Denmark. DATA Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark, from 2003 to 2006, were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews, using random digit dialing. RESULTS While the percentage of people who imported alcohol fell over time, the amount of alcohol purchased rose for those who did import. Distance to the German border was inversely related to the likelihood of importing and the level of imported amounts. Heavy drinkers and those with higher incomes were more likely to import, and heavy drinkers imported higher amounts than moderate drinkers or abstainers. CONCLUSION Distance of residence from the German border, socio-economic status and drinking behaviour are related to private alcohol import in Denmark. Policy changes resulted in a shift to fewer people importing higher amounts of alcohol so that the overall import level did not change substantially. PMID:21532978

  11. Energy drink consumption and the relation to socio-demographic factors and health behaviour among young adults in Denmark. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Stiegler's University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mark Featherstone proposes to explore Bernard Stiegler's work through the lens of the politics of education and in particular the idea of the university, which becomes a pharmacological space of, on the one hand, utopian possibility, and, on the other hand, dystopian limitation, destruction, and death in his recent "States of…

  13. University Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Martin

    This publication explores a diverse collection of new university buildings. Ranging from the design of vast new campuses, such as that by Wilford and Stirling at Temasek, Singapore, through to the relatively modest yet strategically important, such as the intervention by Allies and Morrison at Southampton, this book examines the new higher…

  14. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-25

    Michel Pentz was born in South Africa and came to CERN in 1957 as a physicist and president of the Association of Personnel. He is also the founder of the Antiapartheid Movement in Geneva and helped found the Open University in Great Britain. He speaks about pedagogical, cultural and national contexts in which the method can be applied.

  15. Universal Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Afrocentrism terms the pluralistic experience of modern society dislocating and disruptive. Afrocentrists would reimpose a solidarity and cohesion that the ethnic communities cannot themselves maintain. Advocates discredit the content and universality of Western civilization by liberating students from rationality, the scientific method, economic…

  16. New Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The public-private alliance signals a future in which self-serving agreements could become the coin of the realm. Such a future would be a betrayal of the historical promise of public universities to innovate in ways that expand access to higher education. Given the rise of market-based models in educational policy circles, the threat of the…

  17. Public health research in Denmark in the years 1995--2005.

    PubMed

    Gulis, G; Eriksen, M L; Aro, A R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the number of publications (in Danish) and research projects (including grey literature) either carried out or ongoing within the field of public health in Denmark, using the same criteria as the SPHERE project, but looking at Danish research databases. The Danish research database served as the main resource for the study supported by national research reports. There is an increasing trend in the number of public health research projects and publications. Compared with public health research projects published in English there are differences in some categories. Overall, public health research in Denmark seems to contribute around 4.8%-6.5% of the total amount of health research. Public health research has a relatively low share of overall health research in Denmark.

  18. Prevalence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and geographic atrophy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sedeh, Farnam Barati; Scott, Daniel Andrew Richard; Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2017-11-01

    In Denmark, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness. To better understand current and future challenges, we estimated and projected the annual number of patients with neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy in Denmark from 2016 to 2060. Detailed age- and gender-stratified prevalence estimates of neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy in a Scandinavian population were identified and applied to age- and gender-stratified population numbers provided by Statistics Denmark. Prevalence estimates were calculated for each year from 2016 to 2060. Future forecasts were provided by Statistics Denmark and based on calculations by the Danish Institute for Economic Modelling and Forecasting. We estimated that there are currently ~30,000 patients with neovascular AMD and ~21,000 patients with geographic atrophy in Denmark. The majority of these patients are persons aged ≥ 85 years. For neovascular AMD, the number of patients will grow to ~33,000 in 2020, ~58,000 in 2040 and ~72,000 in 2060. For geographic atrophy, the number of patients will grow to ~23,000 in 2020, ~41,000 in 2040, and ~50,000 in 2060. We expect a steady growth in the prevalence of neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy in Denmark due to an ageing population. These numbers emphasise the importance of disease prevention, careful planning of health service activities and continuing research. none. not relevant. Articles published in the DMJ are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  19. Holographic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Sunil

    2012-03-01

    Theory of relativity prohibits faster-than-light communication; we assume information must be transmitted from the sender to the receiver for it to be communicated; however, experimental evidences presented in this paper show waves, be it electromagnetic waves or sound waves, do not carry and communicate information. Information can be communicated instantly without violating of law of causality. Law of causality only suggests that every effect has a cause; it does not suggest cause must precede the effect. This paradigm-shifting paper fully backed up by overwhelming experimental evidences and observations directly from nature shows universe is a hologram and information becomes available across the universe as soon as it is produced.

  20. The Scandinavian Fantasy: The Sources of Intergenerational Mobility in Denmark and the US

    PubMed Central

    Landersø, Rasmus; Heckman, James J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of differences in social mobility between the U.S. and Denmark. Measured by income mobility, Denmark is a more mobile society, but not when measured by educational mobility. There are pronounced nonlinearities in income and educational mobility in both countries. Greater Danish income mobility is largely a consequence of redistributional tax, transfer, and wage compression policies. While Danish social policies for children produce more favorable cognitive test scores for disadvantaged children, these do not translate into more favorable educational outcomes, partly because of disincentives to acquire education arising from the redistributional policies that increase income mobility. PMID:28649168

  1. University lobbying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  2. Popularization of Science in Denmark in Relation to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Dorte

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of channels through which the cause of science is being promoted and the special efforts being made to involve females in science and technology. Topics include the background of science popularization, tradition, innovation, television programs, science museums, the role of universities, youth activities, computers, and…

  3. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana Carolina Lopes; Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Larsen, Lars Erik; Toft, Nils

    2015-12-21

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been a cause for great concern to the Danish pig industry since it was first diagnosed in 1992. The causative agent of PRRS is an RNA virus which is divided into different genotypes. The clinical signs, as well as its morbidity and mortality, is highly variable between herds and regions. Two different genotypes of PRRS virus (PRRSV) are found in Denmark: type 1 and type 2. Approximately 40% of Danish swine herds are seropositive for one or both PRRSV types. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal trend and spatial distribution of PRRSV in Danish swine herds from 2007 to 2010, based on type-specific serological tests from the PRRS surveillance and control program in Denmark using the results stored in the information management system at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Vet). The average monthly seroprevalence of PRRSV type 1 was 9% (minimum of 5%; maximum of 13%) in breeding herds, and 20% (minimum of 14%; maximum of 26%) in production herds; PRRSV type 2 had an average seroprevalence of 3% (minimum of 1%; maximum of 9%) in breeding herds and of 9% (minimum of 5%; maximum of 13%) within production herds. The seroconversion rate followed a similar and consistent pattern, being higher for type 1 than for type 2 for both PRRSV types. Regarding the spatiotemporal results, the relative risk distribution maps changed over time as a consequence of the changes in PRRSV seroprevalence, suggesting a general decline in the extent of areas with higher relative risk for both type 1 and 2. Local spatial analysis results demonstrated the existence of statistically significant clusters in areas where the relative risk was higher for both herds. PRRSV type 1 seroprevalence was constantly higher than for PRRSV type 2 in both herd types. Significant spatial clusters were consistently found in Denmark, suggesting that PRRSV is endemic in these areas. Furthermore, relative

  4. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a discussion with Svend Brinkmann, Günter Mey, Luca Tateo, and Anete Strand.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In May 2014, a workshop on "The future of qualitative research in psychology" took place at Aalborg University (Denmark), Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann (Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, an emphasis was made that we need to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher in the process of scientific knowledge production. Finally, a re-focus on experience as the genuine object of psychological research, as well as a transdisciplinary approach to our understanding of human psychological functioning within a socially co-constructed, biological, as well as material world was discussed.

  5. From Apprenticeships to Higher Vocational Education in Denmark--Building Bridges While the Gap Is Widening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2017-01-01

    Upper secondary vocational education in Denmark is based on the apprenticeship model, which is recognised as a valuable route to employment for young people, who are not aiming for higher education. However, the apprenticeship model has a major weakness: it does not provide eligibility for higher education. The purpose of this article is to…

  6. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's learning? The…

  7. Negotiating Policy in an Age of Globalization: Exploring Educational "Policyscapes" in Denmark, Nepal, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explore processes of policy implementation with respect to an ongoing empirical study in three very different sites: (1) Denmark; (2) Nepal; and (3) China. Rather than treat these investigations in the traditional manner of separate and contained national case studies, the author attempts to create a "policyscape"…

  8. Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Chriél, Mariann; Isbrand, Anastasia; Jensen, Tim K.

    2017-01-01

    From a migrating golden jackal (Canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in Denmark. We identified Rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. This bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite syndrome among humans. PMID:29148376

  9. Shakespeare, Chekhov and the Emergence of the Transcultured Self in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimenko, Svetlana

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses ways in which theatre practices reflect the dynamics of historical development seen from the perspective of transculturation (Epstein, 1995). The analysis is centred on modes of appropriation of Shakespeare and Chekhov in Denmark. The argument relies on a broader statistical investigation into repertoire development, but…

  10. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  11. Denmark's National Family Guidance Program: A Preventive Mental Health Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden

    This document describes Denmark's 10-year (1965-75) program of cost-effective provision of social services to crisis families with children under the Danish 1964 Child and Youth Welfare Act. The program, voluntary and open to all families, provided preventive psychosocial services for children based on a family support system. The background to…

  12. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted in…

  13. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  14. Optimization as a Dispositive in the Production of Differences in Denmark Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this paper is inspired by governmentality studies in education. The key concepts are problematization, formatting technologies, and dispositive. The paper begins with an empirical study conducted in Denmark of forty-four files from educational psychologists and articles from journals concerning schools and education.…

  15. A Cultural and Comparative Perspective on Outdoor Education in New Zealand and "Friluftsliv" in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andkjaer, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The paper is based on a comparative and qualitative case study of "friluftsliv" in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Cultural analysis with a comparative cultural perspective informed the research approach. Configurational analysis was used as an important supplement to focus on cultural patterns linked to bodily movement. It…

  16. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  17. Social Welfare and Minding the Achievement Gap: A View from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the welfare system has evened out the gaps between rich and poor. Schools and child care settings all over the country have an equal level of resources provided by the state, and are financed through taxes. Schools and child care settings in areas with families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) get extra money and resources. All…

  18. Cultural Studies and Foreign Language Teaching in Denmark. ROLIG-papir 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risager, Karen

    A description is provided of foreign language and related cultural education (English, French, and German) in Denmark since the 1950s. The first section gives an overview of the development of Danish society in general since the second world war, and more specifically, of developments in foreign language teaching. The second section briefly…

  19. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  20. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  1. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Method A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Results Life expectancy was 24–28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (−0.8 years) and Sweden (−1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0–5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3–4.8), and suicide (9.3–35.9). Conclusion People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47–53 years (men) and 50–58 years (women) and die 24–28 years earlier than people in the general population. PMID:25243359

  2. Child Advocacy in Denmark: 70 Years of Experience with This "New" Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    Denmark's child advocacy system is made up of local kommune (county) Child and Youth Welfare Committees which watch over the well-being of children. Each child and youth committee serves as an effective advocate for the children of its community in three areas: promotion, protection, and prevention. The committee's responsibility to promote…

  3. "Left to Your Own Devices"--The Missed Potential of Adult Career Guidance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the European Council agreed on a Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. The Resolution promoted lifelong guidance as a policy to support people during the multiple transitions provoked by a more volatile labour market. However, when looking into the guidance policy of Denmark, the Resolution…

  4. Why School Choice Reforms in Denmark Fail: The Blocking Power of the Teacher Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne; Larsen, Kristina R.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates why school choice is exercised to a limited degree by parents despite major government initiatives to enhance diversity, competition and choice in the Danish education system. Denmark has had 20 years of centre-right governments, promoting choice reforms perhaps even more vigorously than the other Nordic countries, yet…

  5. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark: Short Description. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    Denmark has a uniform, nationwide vocational education and training (VET) system that provides qualifications that are valid throughout the country and recognized by employers and trade unions. Initial VET (IVET) includes the following components: VET, including commercial and technical training; basic social and health care training; agricultural…

  6. The Concept of Permanent Education and Its Application in Denmark. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    A report is made to the Secretariat of the Council of Europe of a case study on the introduction of the concept of permanent education in Denmark. The supplies of education, which have been limited to clients in childhhod, adolescence, and yound adulthood, should now be distributed over a lifetime. Economic growth was formerly explained by input…

  7. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Ole

    A study of the food sector in Denmark was limited to the slaughterhouse, dairy, beverages sectors. The food sector was the most important single industry in the Danish economy. It was the largest manufacturing sector, generated one-third of total manufacturing, and comprised approximately 8 percent of the total Danish gross domestic product. It…

  8. The Children's Rights Convention in Denmark: A Status Report on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Per Schultz; Leth, Ingrid; Montgomery, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified by Denmark in 1991 but never incorporated into Danish legislation; instead the State party has chosen a stepwise implementation in legal and social praxis. However, this process mirrors a remarkable reluctance to approve the Convention as a legitimate part of…

  9. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  10. Recapturing the Universal in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The idea of "the university" has stood for universal themes--of knowing, of truthfulness, of learning, of human development, and of critical reason. Through its affirming and sustaining of such themes, the university came itself to stand for universality in at least two senses: the university was neither partial (in its truth criteria) nor local…

  11. Prevalence of urinary incontinence among women and analysis of potential risk factors in Germany and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schreiber Pedersen, Louise; Lose, Gunnar; Høybye, Mette Terp; Elsner, Susanne; Waldmann, Annika; Rudnicki, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent condition that interferes with women's health-related quality of life. Prevalence rates from earlier studies are wide-ranging, due to heterogeneity in methodology, definition of UI and the populations included. We aimed to determine the prevalence of UI and associated risk factors in Germany and Denmark using the same methodology, definition and population. A postal survey was conducted in two regions in Germany and Denmark, including 8000 women aged 18+ years. UI was defined as any complaint of involuntary loss of urine. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic questions and the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF). The response rate in Germany and Denmark was 46.2 and 66.6% (p < 0.001) and the prevalence rate of UI was 48.3 and 46.4% (p = 0.188), respectively. Stress urinary incontinence dominated among younger women, and urgency urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence among women 80+ years in Germany and Denmark, respectively. The subgroup of women with body mass index (BMI) ≥35 had the highest prevalence of UI (67.3%). The subgroup of women with BMI <35 were more likely to have stress urinary incontinence, and the subgroup of women with BMI ≥35 were more likely to have mixed urinary incontinence. UI was significantly associated with age as with BMI, vaginal delivery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and having at least one co-morbidity. Prevalence rates in the two regions in Germany and Denmark were similar, despite significantly different response rates. This difference may reflect various attitudes towards answering a questionnaire, but the response rate on questions concerning UI seemed consistent. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stoeldraijer, Lenny; Bonneux, Luc; van Duin, Coen; van Wissen, Leo; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-02-01

    We formally estimate future smoking-attributable mortality up to 2050 for the total national populations of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands, providing an update and extension of the descriptive smoking-epidemic model. We used smoking prevalence and population-level lung cancer mortality data for England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands, covering the period 1950-2009. To estimate the future smoking-attributable mortality fraction (SAF) we: (i) project lung cancer mortality by extrapolating age-period-cohort trends, using the observed convergence of smoking prevalence and similarities in past lung cancer mortality between men and women as input; and (ii) add other causes of death attributable to smoking by applying a simplified version of the indirect Peto-Lopez method to the projected lung cancer mortality. The SAF for men in 2009 was 19% (44 872 deaths) in England & Wales, 22% (5861 deaths) in Denmark and 25% (16 385 deaths) in the Netherlands. In our projections, these fractions decline to 6, 12 and 14%, respectively, in 2050. The SAF for women peaked at 14% (38 883 deaths) in 2008 in England & Wales, and is expected to peak in 2028 in Denmark (22%) and in 2033 in the Netherlands (23%). By 2050, a decline to 9, 17 and 19%, respectively, is foreseen. Different indirect estimation methods of the SAF in 2050 yield a range of 1-8% (England & Wales), 8-13% (Denmark) and 11-16% (the Netherlands) for men, and 7-16, 12-26 and 13-31% for women. From northern European data we project that smoking-attributable mortality will remain important for the future, especially for women. Whereas substantial differences between countries remain, the age-specific evolution of smoking-attributable mortality remains similar across countries and between sexes. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Socioeconomic status and prognosis of COPD in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the association between length of school education and 5-year prognosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), including exacerbations, hospital admissions and survival. We used sample of general population from two independent population studies: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study. A total of 6,590 individuals from general population of Copenhagen with COPD defined by the Global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria were subdivided into 4 groups based on the length of school education: 1,590 with education < 8 years; 3,131 with education 8-10 years, 1,244 with more than 10 years, but no college/university education and 625 with college/university education. Compared with long education, short education was associated with current smoking (p < 0.001), higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001) and lower forced expiratory volume in the first second in percent of predicted value (FEV1%pred) (p < 0.001). Adjusting for sex, age, FEV1%pred, dyspnea, frequency of previous exacerbations and smoking we observed that shortest school education (in comparison with university education), was associated with a higher risk of COPD exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length of school education, is associated with a poorer clinical prognosis of COPD.

  14. Real time wind farm emulation using SimWindFarm toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topor, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a wind farm emulation solution using an open source Matlab/Simulink toolbox and the National Instruments cRIO platform. This work is based on the Aeolus SimWindFarm (SWF) toolbox models developed at Aalborg university, Denmark. Using the Matlab Simulink models developed in SWF, the modeling code can be exported to a real time model using the NI Veristand model framework and the resulting code is integrated as a hardware in the loop control on the NI 9068 platform.

  15. "Actually, I 'May' Be Clever Enough to Do It". Using Identity as a Lens to Investigate Students' Trajectories towards Science and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Lars Brian; Andersen, Hanne Moeller

    2013-01-01

    We have followed a group of students in the potential pipeline for science through their last years of upper secondary school and in the context of a university mentorship program. The student group is defined by their choice of Mathematics at A-level which is mandatory for admission to tertiary STEM education in Denmark. Rich data (repeated…

  16. Spatial variability of drinking water iodine in Denmark: implications for future policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-05-01

    The iodine-an essential component of human thyroid hormones-is provided to our organisms naturally from the food and water and/or is added artificially to the diet. One of the major natural contributors to the dietary iodine intake in Denmark is the drinking water. Both insufficient or excessive iodine intake can cause health problems however the attention falls mainly on the iodine deficiency (ID). Denmark is classified to have mild ID, which is based on sub-national data only. On a bigger scale, in Europe, about 40% of the general population is estimated to suffer from insufficient iodine intake (based on recent update on the iodine status worldwide). A mandatory addition of iodine to the salt was introduced in 2001 in Denmark to address the population's mild deficiency. One of the components of the Danish monitoring program investigating the effect of the salt iodizing (DanThyr) was based on the geographical variation of drinking water iodine levels. More specifically, the location of the two DanThyr cohort studies was chosen to reflect the low concentrations in the western part of Denmark and higher concentration in the eastern part. However, the knowledge about the spatial variability of iodine in Danish ground- and drinking water at that time was quite limited and misrepresentation of the natural variability is suspected. The presented sampling campaign was completed in 2013, and includes 144 waterworks with annual abstraction of about 175 mio m3 groundwater (~45% of the total groundwater abstraction by all active public and private Danish waterworks). The results show a surprisingly complex spatial pattern concerning both the iodine concentrations and speciation. By estimating the dietary iodine intake from water and comparing it to the WHO recommendations, it becomes possible to recognize potentially deficient/excessive geographical areas. Moreover, it is demonstrated that drinking water iodine levels (major dietary iodine contributor in Denmark) can be

  17. Evaluation of the high resolution DEHM/UBM model system over Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ulas; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ellermann, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    The air pollutant levels over Denmark are simulated using the high resolution DEHM/UBM model system for the years 2006 to 2014. The system employs a hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM; Brandt et al., 2012) that runs on a 150 km x 150 km resolution over the Northern Hemisphere, with nesting capability for higher resolutions over Europe, Northern Europe and Denmark on 50 km x 50 km, 16.7 km x 16.7 km and 5.6 km x 5.6 km resolutions, respectively, coupled to the Urban Background Model (UBM; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) that covers the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km spatial resolution. Over Denmark, the system uses the SPREAD emission model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) that distributes the Danish emissions for all pollutants and all sectors in the national emission database on a 1 km x 1 km resolution grid covering Denmark and its national sea territory. The study will describe the model system and we will evaluate the performance of the model system in simulating hourly and daily ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations against surface measurements from eight monitoring stations. Finally we investigate the spatial variation of air pollutants over Denmark on different time scales. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt et al., 2012. An integrated model study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport. Atmospheric Environment, 53, 156-176. Plejdrup, M.S., Gyldenkærne, S., 2011. Spatial distribution of pollutants to

  18. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  19. Incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Southern part of Denmark from 1995 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jens K; Svendsen, Anders J; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of Denmark from 1995 to 2001. At a rheumatology hospital serving a population of about 200 000 people over the age of 15, medical records were scrutinized. As case definition we used the tree and list format of 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The mean annual incidence rate per 100 000 person years was 40 in females, 21 in males, and 31 in females and males combined. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in Denmark is in accordance with recent studies from North America, the UK, and Northern European countries. The aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown but this study indicates that in these populations the exposure to non-genetic host and environmental aetiological factors is similar. PMID:19088896

  20. Organized medicine and Scandinavian professional unionism: hospital policies and exit options in Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heidenheimer, A J; Johansen, L N

    1985-01-01

    Strikes by junior hospital doctors over the issue of on-call remuneration in Denmark and Sweden in 1981 are analyzed to clarify the impact of public-sector cost-control policies on intra- and interprofessional solidarity within the Scandinavian professional peak associations. The junior doctors' grievances could find expression either through increased "voice" within the medical negotiating machinery, or by pursuing the exit option in having the medical associations quit the peak associations. The article explains why the "exit" option was selected in Denmark, while in Sweden the granting of additional voice helped persuade the medical association to withdraw its exit threat and to remain within the peak association. The two cases are interpreted as presaging a divergence in the paths being taken by the various Scandinavian welfare states.

  1. Work environment satisfaction and employee health: panel evidence from Denmark, France and Spain, 1994-2001.

    PubMed

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2008-02-01

    This paper investigates whether a satisfactory work environment can promote employee health even after controlling for socioeconomic status and life style factors. A dynamic panel model of health is estimated from worker samples from Denmark, France and Spain, employing both self-assessed general health and the presence of a functional limitation. In all three countries and for both types of health measures, a good perceived work environment is found to be a highly significant determinant of worker health even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and minimizing reverse causality. The marginal effect is, however, larger in France and Denmark than in Spain. Several potential explanations for this finding are discussed. Further, a satisfactory working environment is found to be at least as important for employee health as socioeconomic status. Thus, investing in giving workers a satisfying work environment could be a low-cost way of improving employee health.

  2. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis Cases, Denmark, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Björkman, Jonas T; Ethelberg, Steen; Kiil, Kristoffer; Kemp, Michael; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-04-01

    Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002-2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005-2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting the need for more refined discriminatory typing methods to identify outbreaks within frequently occurring L. monocytogenes PFGE types.

  3. Beyond motivation: on what it means to be a sperm donor in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper, analyzing interviews with men that donate their semen in Denmark, explores what it means to be a sperm donor. Breaking with the assumption that men have a specific and clearly identifiable motivation to become sperm donors, this paper leaves the confinement of such an accountable actor model implied in asking for men's motivations to donate semen. Instead, the author describes the experiences of sperm donors to show how the moral, organizational, and biomedical-technological context of sperm donation in Denmark makes for enactments of moral selves as well as specific embodiments of masculinity. Instead of looking for motivations that can be accounted for, the author engages with the question of how donating semen affords men the experience of moral and gendered selves. PMID:25175292

  4. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    PubMed Central

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Bardow, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. Design An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). Primary and secondary outcome measures Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water variables with sialolithiasis incidence as the outcome in search of possible relations among the variables tested. Results The nationwide incidence of hospital-admitted sialolithiasis was 5.5 cases per 100 000 citizens per year in Denmark. Strong relations were found between the incidence of sialolithiasis and the drinking water concentration of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen carbonate, however, in separate models (p<0.001). Analyses also confirmed correlations between drinking water calcium and magnesium and their concentration in saliva whereas this was not the case for hydrogen carbonate. Conclusions Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started

  5. Eureka’s Ministerial Conference (6th) Held in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-13

    projects and the progress reported on the 160 partments and organizations concerned with R&D and existing projects. Small and medium-size companies ...to a new, improved lexicographical standard. Roadacom-Enroute Applied Data Communications Netherlands, Denmark 10.50/48 271/E Developmmcnt of an...to improve road transport efficiency. Fluid Structure Interaction Netherlands, United 0.70/46 274/E Fluid structure interaction applies when dealing

  6. Trends in incidence of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978-2006.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Huusom, Lene Drasbek; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-04-01

    To examine period-, age- and histology-specific trends in the incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark in 1978-2006. Register-based cohort study. Denmark 1978-2006. 5079 women diagnosed with a borderline ovarian tumor in at least one of two nationwide registries (4312 epithelial tumors and 767 non-epithelial/unspecified tumors). Estimation of overall incidence rates and period-, age- and histology-specific incidence rates. Age-adjustment was done using the World Standard POPULATION. To evaluate incidence trends over time, we estimated average annual percentage change and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-linear Poisson models. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates and average annual percentage change. The incidence of epithelial borderline ovarian tumors increased from 2.6 to 5.5 per 100,000 women-years between 1978 and 2006, with an average annual percentage change of 2.6% (95% CI: 2.2-3.0). The median age at diagnosis was 52 years. Women 40 years or older had a higher average annual percentage change than women younger than 40 years. Most tumors were mucinous (49.9%) and serous tumors (44.4%). Women with mucinous tumors were younger at diagnosis (50 years) compared with women with serous tumors (53 years). Women with serous tumors had a higher average annual percentage incidence change than women with mucinous tumors. The incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors increased significantly in Denmark in 1978-2006. In line with results for ovarian cancer, Denmark had a higher incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors compared with the other Nordic countries in 1978-2006. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Current Status for Teaching Nursing Informatics in Denmark, Canada, and Australia.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Inge; Cummings, Elizabeth; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Nursing schools in Denmark, Canada, and Australia are all currently involved in integrating nursing informatics in the nursing bachelor programme. This paper gives a brief update on the current situation of nursing informatics education for bachelor level nurses in each of the three countries. Whilst there are differences in the curriculum in each county, it is important to share knowledge about undergraduate nursing informatics worldwide to ensure consistency.

  8. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust

    2013-10-01

    We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n = 1 674 308) and Quebec (n = 2 291 253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20 to 29 years, whereas rates decreased or remained stable in women aged 35 years and older. The overall increase over time was driven by age-specific PTB rates, although the contribution of younger women was countered by fewer births at this age in both Denmark and Quebec. PTB rates increased among women aged 20 to 29 years, but their contribution to the overall PTB rates was offset by older maternal age over time. Women aged 20 to 29 years should be targeted to reduce PTB rates, as potential for prevention may be greater in this age group.

  9. Psychosocial work environment and its association with socioeconomic status. A comparison of Spain and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Salvador; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Navarro, Albert; Llorens, Clara; Burr, Hermann; Hasle, Peter; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe psychosocial work environment inequalities among wage earners in Spain and Denmark. Data came from the Spanish COPSOQ (ISTAS 21) and the Danish COPSOQ II surveys both performed in 2004-05 and based on national representative samples of employees with a 60% response rate. Study population was 3,359 Danish and 6,685 Spanish women and men. Only identical items from both surveys were included to construct 18 psychosocial scales. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to the European Socioeconomic Classification System. Analysis included ordinal logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis after categorizing all scales. A relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment in both Denmark and Spain was observed, with wider social inequalities in Spain for many scales, describing a strong interaction effect between socioeconomic status and country. Socioeconomic status is related to psychosocial work environment and some adverse psychosocial conditions tend to cluster in lower socioeconomic status groups in both Spain and Denmark. This effect could be modified by a country's characteristics, such as economic and labour market structures, normative regulations and industrial relations including work organization. Hence, preventive strategies to reduce social inequalities in working conditions should consider the combination of actions at the macro and micro levels.

  10. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  11. Study on drug costs associated with COPD prescription medicine in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marie; Anker, Niels; Dollerup, Jens; Poulsen, Peter Bo; Lange, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Spirometric studies of the general population estimate that 430 000 Danes have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is mainly caused by smoking, and smoking cessation is the most important intervention to prevent disease progression. Cost-of-illness studies conclude that the costs associated with COPD in Denmark are significant, but costs of prescription medicine for COPD were not analysed. To analyse the societal costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark. The study was designed as a nationwide retrospective register study of the drug costs (ATC group R03) associated with COPD in the period 2001-2010. Data were retrieved from the Prescription Database, the National Patient Register and the Centralised Civil Register. The population comprised individuals (40+ years) who had at least one prescription of selected R03 drugs and who had been either hospitalised with a COPD diagnosis or had at least one prescription for drugs primarily used for COPD. The study population comprised 166 462 individuals of which 97 916 were alive on 31 December 2010. The average annual drug costs (R03) were DKK 7842 (EUR 1055) per patient in 2010 with total costs of DKK 685 million (EUR 92 million). The average lifetime costs associated with COPD prescription medicine were estimated to be DKK 70 000-75 000 (EUR 9416-10 089) per patient (2010 prices). The costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark are significant. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sex differences in mortality in Denmark during half a century, 1943-92.

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Juel, K

    2000-09-01

    The emphasis of this study is on the relative mortality of 45-74-year-old men and women in Denmark in 1943-92, following economic and political changes that have affected the social meaning of gender over the last 50 years, and which have diminished former sex differences in health behaviour. Sex ratios of total mortality and mortality from major non-sex-specific causes of death were calculated on computerized mortality data from the Danish National Cause of Death Register that covers all deaths in Denmark since 1943. In the early 1940s the sex ratio of all-cause mortality was low, 1.0-1.1, it increased to a peak level in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but has since decreased due to an increase in female mortality and a more favourable trend in male mortality. Gender equality, employment, and economic autonomy may have beneficial health effects on both men and women, but the effects are inconsistent. The trend in smoking is the major explanatory factor for the more recent trends in gender differentials in mortality in Denmark.

  13. Identifying climate analogues for precipitation extremes for Denmark based on RCM simulations from the ENSEMBLES database.

    PubMed

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Funder, S G; Madsen, H

    2015-01-01

    Climate analogues, also denoted Space-For-Time, may be used to identify regions where the present climatic conditions resemble conditions of a past or future state of another location or region based on robust climate variable statistics in combination with projections of how these statistics change over time. The study focuses on assessing climate analogues for Denmark based on current climate data set (E-OBS) observations as well as the ENSEMBLES database of future climates with the aim of projecting future precipitation extremes. The local present precipitation extremes are assessed by means of intensity-duration-frequency curves for urban drainage design for the relevant locations being France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Denmark. Based on this approach projected increases of extreme precipitation by 2100 of 9 and 21% are expected for 2 and 10 year return periods, respectively. The results should be interpreted with caution as the best region to represent future conditions for Denmark is the coastal areas of Northern France, for which only little information is available with respect to present precipitation extremes.

  14. Labour force activity after 65: what explain recent trends in Denmark, Germany and Sweden?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mona; Pedersen, Peder J

    2017-01-01

    In most OECD member countries labour force attachment, has increased in recent years not only in the age groups 60-64 years but also among people 65 years and older. Focus in this paper is on the trend in older workers' labour force participation in Denmark, Germany and Sweden since 2004. Main emphasis is given to people aged 65-69 years eligible for social security retirement programs from age 65. The gender aspect is included to accommodate different trends for women and men. To explain country differences in trends, the importance of changes in retirement policies of relevance for this age group and cohort relevant changes in education and health is examined and discussed. Further, country differences in the impact from education and health is examined. Results show that the largest increase in labour force participation among people aged 65-69 years has taken place in Sweden following by Germany, while the increase in Denmark is rather small. While the increase in Germany mainly seems to be a result of policy reforms, the increase in Sweden appear to be a result of a combination of policy changes and an increasing educational level. Financial incentives seem most important in Germany and only of minor importance in Denmark, where policy changes directed towards individuals above the age of 65 appear to have been too small so far to affect retirement behaviour significantly.

  15. Doctoral prepared nurses in Denmark and their scientific production between 1976 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, A; Hundrup, Y A; Wagner, L

    2008-06-01

    Nursing research in Denmark has evolved over the last 30 years. By 2005, 48 Danish nurses had earned a doctoral degree. The Danish Nurses Organization formalized a strategy for development of nursing research for the period 1999-2002. The strategy was evaluated in 2004. One point in the evaluation was that the nurses' publication of peer-reviewed articles in journals with an Impact Factor did not show in the bibliographic measure used in health sciences. The purpose of this study is to identify the number of Danish nurses holding a doctoral degree by the end of 2005 and to document their scientific production. A descriptive design based on a national register of all nurses in Denmark holding doctoral degrees was used to explore the curricula vitae and publication lists of 38 out of 48 (79%) nurses on the register. Authorship of all 48 graduated nurses was sought in the databases: PubMed and CINAHL. A pattern of growing engagement in publishing peer-reviewed articles was identified among the Danish nurses holding a doctoral degree. Fifty per cent of these doctoral prepared nurses published peer-reviewed papers. The majority apparently pursued a career in health sciences. Nursing as an academic discipline is evolving in Denmark but, with its roots in clinical nursing, scientists may have to be aware of the necessity to prevail as a discipline through scientific production.

  16. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  17. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. National use of thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke via telemedicine in Denmark: a model of budgetary impact and cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Lars; Müskens, Wilhelmina Maria; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Kjølby, Mette; Andersen, Grethe

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the budgetary impact and cost effectiveness of the national use of thrombolysis with alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; rt-PA) for acute ischaemic stroke via telemedicine in Denmark. Computations were based on a Danish health economic model of thrombolysis treatment of acute ischaemic stroke via telemedicine. Cost data for stroke units and satellite clinics were taken from the first practical experiences in Denmark with implementing thrombolysis via telemedical linkage to the Stroke Department at Aarhus University Hospital. Effectiveness data were taken from a published pooled analysis of results from randomized controlled trials of alteplase. The calculations showed that the additional total costs to the hospitals of implementing thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke via telemedicine were approximately $US3.0 (range 2.0-5.8) million per year in the case of five centres and five satellite clinics, or $US3.6 (range 2.4-7.0) million per year based on seven centres and seven satellite clinics. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated to be approximately $US50,000 when taking a short time perspective (1 year), but thrombolysis was dominant (both cheaper and more effective) after as little as 2 years and cost effectiveness improved over longer time scales. The budgetary impact of using thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke via telemedicine depends on the existing capacity and organizational conditions at the local hospitals. The health economic model computations suggest that the macroeconomic costs may balance with savings in care and rehabilitation after as little as 2 years, and that potentially large long-term savings are associated with thrombolysis with alteplase delivered by telemedicine, although the long-term calculations are uncertain.

  19. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and

  20. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2015-07-10

    To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and culture might influence the experiences of chronic pain. Published by the BMJ

  1. Characteristics of children less than 2 years of age undergoing anaesthesia in Denmark 2005-2015: a national observational study.

    PubMed

    Strøm, C; Afshari, A; Lundstrøm, L H; Lohse, N

    2018-04-19

    There are few data available that describe the current anaesthetic management of children. We have analysed anaesthetic practice and peri-operative complications for children in Denmark aged less than two years. We conducted a population-based observational cohort study using the Danish Anaesthesia Database to identify children who received anaesthesia in hospital from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2015. Data were combined with that from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System. Age, sex, height, weight, ASA physical status, days in hospital before anaesthesia, number of anaesthetics per child, indications for anaesthesia, methods of anaesthesia, airway management and complications were all recorded. A total of 17,436 children (64% of whom were male) received 27,653 anaesthetics during the study period. In 58% of cases, the child had an ASA physical status score of 1. Thirty-seven percent had a previous anaesthetic episode. Seventy-nine percent were anaesthetised at a university hospital. The indications for anaesthesia were surgery (70%), diagnostic radiology (16%), non-surgical care (11%) and other indications (3%). General anaesthesia combining intravenous and inhalational agents was the most common approach for surgery (68%) and diagnostic radiology (47%). For non-surgical care, general anaesthesia using inhalational agents was the most common method (42%). Neuraxial blocks were used infrequently. The most common regional anaesthetic nerve block was an infraclavicular brachial plexus block (11%). Peri-operative complications occurred in 1.71% of cases. A large proportion of anaesthetics were conducted in children with comorbidities. Non-surgical indications for anaesthesia were frequent and peri-operative complications were rare. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. University Transportation Survey : Transportation In University Communities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-07-01

    Universities and transit agencies across the United States have been finding innovative new ways of providing and financing mobility services on and around university campuses. Many transit agencies are : providing substantially more service and movi...

  3. Fermilab Today | University Profiles

    Science.gov Websites

    June 21, 2012 University of Chicago June 13, 2012 University of Maryland June 6, 2012 University of Houston May 16, 2012 University of Illinois at Chicago May 9, 2012 Florida State University May 2, 2012

  4. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kunoee, Asja; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.

  5. The challenges of a possible exploitation of shale gas in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Kidmose, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R.; Gravesen, Peter; Schovsbo, Niels H.

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of shale gas has in recent years attracted increasing interest internationally and in Denmark. The potential areas for shale gas extraction from Alum shale in Denmark are defined as areas where Alum shale is at least 20 m thick, gas mature and buried at 1.5 to 7 km depth. Sweet Spots are areas where Alum shale potentially has a high utility value. Sweet Spots are identified and cover an area of approximately 6,800 km2 and are divided into two subareas; where the shale is at 1.5-5 km depth (2,400 km2) or at 5-7 km depth (4,400 km2). The shale in the upper depth interval has the greatest interest, as these areas are localized most accurate as the production from the deep interval is less costly. Many potential risks has been identified by exploitation of unconventional gas, of which groundwater contamination, waste management and radioactive substances are classified as the most important. The international literature reports a water demand with an average of about 18,000 m3 for older wells whereas newer fracking methods have less water usage. Based heron the estimated water consumption is between 20 million to 66 million m3 water in Danish shale gas production well and thus significantly in the total water budget. Consumption of water for shale gas will however be distributed over a number of years. The temporal development in water usage will depend on how quickly the gas wells are developed. The available groundwater resource in Denmark is estimated to about 1 billion m3 / year. Groundwater abstraction has been slightly falling the last decades and is now totally 700 million m3 / year. The use of surface water in Denmark is thus negligible. Although groundwater attraction is only 70 % of the available, the resource is overexploited in many areas due to water consumption is very unevenly distributed varying from region to region. The composition of potential hydraulic fracturing liquids in Denmark is at present unknown, but is expected to be selected

  6. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008.

    PubMed

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, G; Forshell, L P; Jensen, T; Nygard, K; Kapperud, G; Lindstedt, B A; Berglund, T; Wingstrand, A; Petersen, R F; Müller, L; Kjelsø, C; Ivarsson, S; Hjertqvist, M; Löfdahl, S; Ethelberg, S

    2009-03-12

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of the outbreak strain in pork and pigs within the same supply chain led to the identification of pork in various forms as the source. In Norway, ten cases were identified, and the outbreak investigation quickly indicated meat bought in Sweden as the probable source and the Swedish authorities were alerted. Investigations in Sweden identified four human cases and two isolates from minced meat with the distinct profile. Subsequent trace-back of the meat showed that it most likely originated from Denmark. Through international alert from Norway on 19 December, it became clear that the Danish and Norwegian outbreak strains were identical and, later on, that the source of the outbreaks in all three countries could be traced back to Danish pork. MLVA was instrumental in linking the outbreaks in the different countries and tracing the source. This outbreak illustrates that good international communication channels, early alerting mechanisms, inter-sectoral collaboration between public health and food safety authorities and harmonised molecular typing tools are important for effective identification and management of cross-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common.

  7. Survival of patients with colon and rectal cancer in central and northern Denmark, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Ostenfeld, Eva B; Erichsen, Rune; Iversen, Lene H; Gandrup, Per; Nørgaard, Mette; Jacobsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis for colon and rectal cancer has improved in Denmark over the past decades but is still poor compared with that in our neighboring countries. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in colon and rectal cancer survival in the central and northern regions of Denmark. Using the Danish National Registry of Patients, we identified 9412 patients with an incident diagnosis of colon cancer and 5685 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 1998 and 2009. We determined survival, and used Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusting for age and gender. Among surgically treated patients, we computed 30-day mortality and corresponding mortality rate ratios (MRRs). The annual numbers of colon and rectal cancer increased from 1998 through 2009. For colon cancer, 1-year survival improved from 65% to 70%, and 5-year survival improved from 37% to 43%. For rectal cancer, 1-year survival improved from 73% to 78%, and 5-year survival improved from 39% to 47%. Men aged 80+ showed most pronounced improvements. The 1- and 5-year adjusted MRRs decreased: for colon cancer 0.83 (95% confidence interval CI: 0.76-0.92) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.90) respectively; for rectal cancer 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68-0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.89) respectively. The 30-day postoperative mortality after resection also declined over the study period. Compared with 1998-2000 the 30-day MRRs in 2007-2009 were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53-0.87) for colon cancer and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.96) for rectal cancer. The survival after colon and rectal cancer has improved in central and northern Denmark during the 1998-2009 period, as well as the 30-day postoperative mortality.

  8. Handgrip strength and its prognostic value for mortality in Moscow, Denmark, and England

    PubMed Central

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Shkolnikova, Maria; Thinggaard, Mikael; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study compares handgrip strength and its association with mortality across studies conducted in Moscow, Denmark, and England. Materials The data collected by the Study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia, the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was utilized. Results Among the male participants, the age-standardized grip strength was 2 kg and 1 kg lower in Russia than in Denmark and in England, respectively. The age-standardized grip strength among the female participants was 1.9 kg and 1.6 kg lower in Russia than in Denmark and in England, respectively. In Moscow, a one-kilogram increase in grip strength was associated with a 4% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 0.99) reduction in mortality among men and a 10% (HR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.94) among women. Meanwhile, a one-kilogram increase in grip strength was associated with a 6% (HR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.95) and an 8% (HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.90, 0.94) decrease in mortality among Danish men and women, respectively, and with a 2% (HR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97, 0.99) and a 3% (HR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.95, 0.98) reduction in mortality among the English men and women, respectively. Conclusion The study suggests that, although absolute grip strength values appear to vary across the Muscovite, Danish, and English samples, the degree to which grip strength is predictive of mortality is comparable across national populations with diverse socioeconomic and health profiles and life expectancy levels. PMID:28863174

  9. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rasmus B; Danielsen, Signe H; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-10-20

    Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms were included. All horses were assigned a BCS on a scale from 1 to 9 (1 is poor, 5 is moderate and 9 is extremely fat) by their owner and by an experienced person. Two weight tapes were used to assess BW. Girth circumference (GC), neck circumference (NC) and height at withers (HW) were measured, and the GC:HW and NC:HW ratios were calculated. Categorising the horses into four groups, 5.9 % were underweight (BCS 3-4), 70.1 % were optimal (BCS 5-6), 13.8 % were overweight (BCS 7) and 10.2 % were obese (BCS 8-9). The GC:HW and NC:HW ratios increased with increasing BCS, as did the BW estimated with the weight tapes. A GC:HW ratio >1.21 might indicate overweight or obesity in Icelandic horses. Horse owners underestimated the BCS of their horses compared to an experienced person. The results from this study show that 24.0 % of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark are overweight or obese, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.

  10. Comparing sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; O'Meara, Ellen S.; Key, Dustin; Buist, Diana SM; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vejborg, Ilse; Sprague, Brian L.; Lynge, Elsebeth; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of screening mammography differs substantially between the United States (US) and Denmark. We evaluate whether there are differences in screening sensitivity and specificity. We included screens from women screened at age 50-69 years during 1996-2008/2009 in the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) (n=2,872,791), and from two population-based mammography screening programs in Denmark (Copenhagen, n=148,156 and Funen, n=275,553). Women were followed for one year. For initial screens, recall rate was significantly higher in BCSC (17.6%) than in Copenhagen (4.3%) and Funen (3.1%). Sensitivity was fairly similar in BCSC (91.8%) and Copenhagen (90.5%) and Funen (92.5%). At subsequent screens, recall rates were 8.8%, 1.8% and 1.4% in BCSC, Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. The BCSC sensitivity (82.3%) was lower compared to Copenhagen (88.9%) and Funen (86.9%), but when stratified by time since last screen, the sensitivity was similar. For both initial and subsequent screening, the specificity of screening in BCSC (83.2 and 91.6%) was significantly lower than in Copenhagen (96.6 and 98.8%) and Funen. (97.9 and 99.2%). Taking time since last screen into account, American and Danish women had the same probability of having their asymptomatic cancers detected at screening. However, the majority of women free of asymptomatic cancers experienced more harms in terms of false-positive findings in the US than in Denmark. PMID:25944711

  11. Awareness of risk factors for cancer: a comparative study of Sweden and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada; Fischer Pedersen, Anette; Runesdotter, Sara; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-11-23

    Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors. Over 90 % of respondents in both countries recognized smoking, use of sunbeds and ionizing radiation as risk factors for cancer. Lowest awareness (<50 %) was found for HPV-infection, low fruit and vegetable intake and alcohol intake. Swedish respondents reported higher awareness than Danish respondents for ten of the 13 risk factors studied. Respondents from Denmark reported higher awareness only regarding low fruit and vegetable intake and use of sunbeds. Low physical activity was the only risk factor for which there was no difference in awareness between the countries. A decline in awareness was generally seen with increasing age in both countries, but deviating patterns were seen for alcohol intake, red/processed meat, obesity and age 70+. This study supports findings from other European studies that generally demonstrate modest public awareness of many established cancer risk factors. Efforts should be made to improve awareness of the cancer risk factors HPV-infection, low fruit and vegetable intake and alcohol intake, which showed particularly low awareness in both countries. Previous

  12. Variability of the Denmark Strait overflow: Moored time series from 1996-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Valdimarsson, Heã°Inn; Jónsson, SteingríMur

    2012-12-01

    The Denmark Strait overflow provides about half of the total dense water overflow from the Nordic Seas into the North Atlantic Ocean. The velocity of the overflow has been monitored in the Strait with two moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers since 1996 with several interruptions due to mooring losses or instrument failure. So far, overflow transports were only calculated when data from both moorings were available. In this work, we introduce a linear model to fill gaps in the time series when data from only one instrument is available. The mean overflow transport is 3.4 Sv and exhibits a variance of 2.0 Sv2. No significant trend was detected in the time series. The highest variability in the transport is associated with the passage of mesoscale eddies with time scales of 2-10 days (associated with a variance of 1.5 Sv2). Seasonal variability is weak and explains less than 5% of the variance in all time series, which is in contrast to the strong seasonal cycle found in high resolution model simulations. Interannual variability is on the order of 10% of the mean. A relation to atmospheric forcing such as the local wind stress curl, as well as to larger scale phenomena, e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation, is not detected. Since 2005 data from moored temperature, conductivity and pressure recorders have been available as well, monitoring the hydrographic variability at the bottom of Denmark Strait. In recent years the temperature time series of the Denmark Strait overflow revealed a cooling, while the salinity stayed nearly constant.

  13. Ground truth and detection threshold from WWII naval clean-up in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The sea bed below the Danish territorial waters is still littered with unexploded mines and other ammunition from World War II. The mines were air dropped by the RAF and the positions of the mines are unknown. As the mines still pose a potential threat to fishery and other marine activities, the Admiral Danish Fleet under the Danish Navy searches for the mines and destroy them by detonation, where they are found. The largest mines destroyed in this manner in 2012 are equivalent to 800 kg TNT each. The Seismological Service at the National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland is notified by the navy when ammunition in excess of 100 kg TNT is detonated. The notifications include information about position, detonation time and the estimated amount of explosives. The larger explosions are clearly registered not only on the Danish seismographs, but also on seismographs in the neighbouring countries. This includes the large seismograph arrays in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Until recently the information from the Danish navy was only utilized to rid the Danish earthquake catalogue of explosions. But the high quality information provided by the navy enables us to use these ground truth events to assess the quality of our earthquake catalogue. The mines are scattered though out the Danish territorial waters, thus we can use the explosions to test the accuracy of the determined epicentres in all parts of the country. E.g. a detonation of 135 kg in Begstrup Vig in the central part of Denmark was located using Danish, Norwegian and Swedish stations with an accuracy of less than 2 km from ground truth. A systematic study of the explosions will sharpen our understanding of the seismicity in Denmark, and result in a more detailed understanding of the detection threshold. Furthermore the study will shed light on the sensitivity of the network to various seismograph outages.

  14. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination.

    PubMed

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-10-13

    Denmark is one of the countries where Human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination at present includes only girls. However, the burden of HPV-related cancer in men is increasing, which would argue for gender-neutral vaccination. The aim of this study was to examine the burden of HPV-caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening. Data on annual biopsies and conisations were retrieved from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register. Incidences of HPV-related cancers in Denmark were extracted from NORDCAN. Number of HPV-caused cancers was calculated from number of HPV-related cancers and the proportion known to be caused by high-risk (HR) HPV. In cross-sectional surveys in Denmark, one fifth of women and almost one third of men were found to be positive for HR HPV. Per year, 548 HPV-caused cancer cases were diagnosed in women and 234 in men, and twice as many cancers in women as in men were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300-2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV-vaccination is considerably higher in women than in men. HPV-vaccination could reduce the burden of screening on women and on health care resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The geothermal energy potential in Denmark - updating the database and new structural and thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Sparre Andersen, Morten; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Leth Hjuler, Morten; Kristensen, Lars; Mathiesen, Anders; Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of structural, hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. In the framework of a project under the Danish Research program 'Sustainable Energy and Environment' funded by the 'Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation', fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the utilization of geothermal energy in Denmark was compiled, analyzed and re-interpreted. A 3D geological model was constructed and used as structural basis for the development of a national subsurface temperature model. In that frame, all available reflection seismic data were interpreted, quality controlled and integrated to improve the regional structural understanding. The analyses and interpretation of available relevant data (i.e. old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion allowed a consistent correlation of seismic surfaces for whole Denmark and across tectonic features. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 16 geological units from the top pre-Zechstein to the surface were drawn. A new 3D structural geological model was developed with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well-logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal properties of potential geothermal reservoirs and to develop a parameterized numerical 3D conductive subsurface temperature model. Reservoir properties and quality were estimated by integrating petrography and diagenesis studies with porosity-permeability data. Detailed interpretation of the reservoir quality of the geological formations was made by estimating net reservoir sandstone thickness based on well-log analysis, determination of mineralogy including sediment provenance analysis, and burial history data. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 64-84 mW/m2) were determined for the Danish

  16. Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

    2006-08-10

    In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters.

  17. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Son of an Organic Chemist of Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbois, Ronald G.

    2004-04-01

    Once faced with structure reactivity relationships in the context of nucleophilic substitution at sp 3 carbon, introductory organic chemistry students must compare and contrast the various attributes and ramifications of S N 2 versus S N 1 reaction pathways. The dramatic (even melodramatic) way in which some students ask such comparative questions inspired a parody of Hamlet's famous to be or not to be soliloquy. Herein, Hamlet (the son of an organic chemist of Denmark) is the surrogate of any and every student as he uses a thoroughly Shakespearian approach to sorting out some of the key distinguishing features of S N 2 versus S N 1 reactions.

  18. [High levels of industrially produced trans fatty acids in popular fast food - but not in Denmark--secondary publication].

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben; Astrup, Arne V

    2006-04-24

    An intake of trans-fatty acids of 5 grams per day is associated with an increase of 25% in the risk of ischemic heart disease. In 2004 Denmark, as the first country in the world, introduced a limitation on the content of industrially produced trans-fatty acids in foods. The amount in a "high-trans menu" consisting of popular foods was, from 2001 to 2005, reduced in Denmark from 30 g to <1 g. The amount in the same menu bought in countries within and outside the European Union is 20-40 g. During a period of just a few years, Denmark has thus eliminated a risk factor for ischemic heart disease without noticeable side effects for consumers. This risk factor is, however, still present in many other countries.

  19. University Child Care Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti.

    Options for expanding child care services to Eastern Michigan University students, staff, and faculty are presented by the special assistant to the university vice president for university marketing and student affairs. The university's policy statement concerning child care services is considered, along with the relationship of these services to…

  20. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  1. Motivating University Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Paul; Sousa, Celio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said to have made university research less of a…

  2. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated. PMID:15663080

  3. Cumulative risk of bovine mastitis treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Valde, J P; Lawson, L G; Lindberg, A; Agger, J F; Saloniemi, H; Osterås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.

  4. Incidence and prevalence rates of personality disorders in Denmark-A register study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-11-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are prevalent in about one in every 10 adults. Prior to the introduction of the ICD-10 in Denmark, the incidence rate for PD (including schizotypal) among psychiatric patients was approximately 12% and the prevalence rate 14%. The aim of the present clinical epidemiology study is to investigate the use of ICD-10 PD as primary and secondary diagnoses in years 1995, 2000 and 2006, comorbid disorders and their relation to age and gender. The study includes all adult patients admitted to any psychiatric hospital (inpatients and outpatients) in Denmark. Both incidence and prevalence rates of PD diagnoses decrease over the study period. It is evident that all specific diagnoses significantly decrease or remain stable whereas the unspecified and mixed type significantly increases constituting up to 50% of diagnoses. Emotionally unstable PD stands out as the single most prevalent covering around one third of PD diagnoses. A decrease is found in the prevalence of patients receiving a PD diagnosis as a primary diagnosis, but an increase as a secondary diagnosis (most often as comorbid to depression or anxiety disorder). Differences are found in relation to gender and age. PDs are among the most prevalent disorders; however, rates are decreasing in psychiatric settings. There seem to be a rather huge gap between clinical evaluation and research data on prevalence of PDs. Clinicians need more education and sufficient time for in-depth personality assessment of PDs in all patient groups.

  5. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Gitte; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2014-09-15

    Spirocerca lupi causes formation of nodules that may transform into sarcoma in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach of infected canids. In February 2013, post mortem examination of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in Denmark revealed the presence of several nodules containing adult worms of Spirocerca sp. in the stomach and the omentum. The nodules largely consisted of fibrous tissue with infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages with hemosiderin deposition. Parasitological examination by three copromicroscopic methods, sedimentation, flotation with saturated sugar-salt solution, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon. This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recent introduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping partial sequences of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation (7-9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms from other isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences of the current worms compared to other isolates of S. lupi may suggest the presence of a cryptic species within Spirocerca. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility and biochemical patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Vejle area, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lis-Tønder, J; Cybulski, Z

    2009-10-01

    Strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin have been isolated worldwide. Increasing number of N. gonorrhoeae that lack the enzyme proline aminopeptidase (proA-negative N. gonorrhoeae) have been detected in many countries all over the world. This study aims to assess the resistance profiles of N. gonorrhoeae isolates sent to the Department of Clinical Microbiology in Vejle, Denmark, between 2003 and 2007, and to analyse their biochemical patterns. Sixty-two strains of N. gonorrhoeae were retrospectively analysed for their susceptibility to penicillin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. The identification of isolated strains was confirmed using both biochemical and immunological tests. Twenty-one (33.9%) N. gonorrhoeae isolates were resistant to penicillin and 30 (48.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Fifty-six (90.3%) N. gonorrhoeae strains showed API NH biochemical code 10,010 (produced acid from glucose and proline aminopeptidase). Six strains showed code 10,000 that lack the enzyme proline aminopeptidase (proA-negative N. gonorrhoeae). Ceftriaxone should be used as the first-line treatment of gonorrhoea in Vejle community area, Denmark, both for infections with proA-producing and proA-negative N. gonorrhoeae isolates, which circulate in the region.

  7. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  8. A qualitative exploration of oncology nurses' family assessment practices in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Elisabeth; Dieperink, Karin B

    2017-02-01

    The nurses' ability to provide supportive care to the patient and the family is influenced by their family assessment skills, which provide them with understanding of the family needs and strengths. When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, it is the family who provides the long-term support for the patient, and nurses need to understand the family needs in order to provide holistic care. The objective of the present study is to understand the factors that influence nurses' family assessment practices in adult oncology setting in Denmark and Australia. An interpretive qualitative study was conducted guided by the family systems theory. Focus groups were completed with 62 nurses working in adult oncology areas in Denmark and Australia. A thematic analysis and a computer-generated concept mapping were completed to identify themes within the data. Overall, the nurses valued family as part of the patient care and worked to understand the family concerns. However, the family assessment process was unstructured and did not enable holistic family support. Nurses from both countries discussed that experience and ability to engage with the family influenced the nurse's role in family assessment. This study identified that nurses value family as part of patient care, however struggle to assess and support families during oncology care. There is a need for a structured assessment approach and education on family assessment, which could be used across the two countries and possibly internationally.

  9. Mesoscale mixing of the Denmark Strait Overflow in the Irminger Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszalka, Inga M.; Haine, Thomas W. N.; Magaldi, Marcello G.

    2017-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is a major export route for dense waters from the Nordic Seas forming the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, an important element of the climate system. Mixing processes along the DSO pathway influence its volume transport and properties contributing to the variability of the deep overturning circulation. They are poorly sampled by observations, however, which hinders development of a proper DSO representation in global circulation models. We employ a high resolution regional ocean model of the Irminger Basin to quantify impact of the mesoscale flows on DSO mixing focusing on geographical localization and the time-modulation of water property changes. The model reproduces the observed bulk warming of the DSO plume 100-200 km downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. It also reveals that mesoscale variability of the overflow ('DSO-eddies', of 20-30 km extent and a time scale of 2-5 day) modulates water property changes and turbulent mixing, diagnosed with the vertical shear of horizontal velocity and the eddy heat flux divergence. The space-time localization of the DSO mixing and warming and the role of coherent mesoscale structures should be explored by turbulence measurements and factored into the coarse circulation models.

  10. The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990–2001

    PubMed Central

    Mathy, Robin M.; Olsen, Jorn; Mays, Vickie M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Minority sexual orientation has been repeatedly linked to elevated rates of suicide attempts. Whether this translates into greater risk for suicide mortality is unclear. We investigated sexual orientation-related differences in suicide mortality in Denmark during the initial 12-year period following legalization of same-sex registered domestic partnerships (RDPs). Method Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Results Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married. Conclusions Suicide risk appears greatly elevated for men in same-sex partnerships in Denmark. To what extent this is true for similar gay and bisexual men who are not in such relationships is unknown, but these findings call for targeted suicide prevention programs aimed at reducing suicide risk among gay and bisexual men. PMID:20033129

  11. The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001.

    PubMed

    Mathy, Robin M; Cochran, Susan D; Olsen, Jorn; Mays, Vickie M

    2011-02-01

    Minority sexual orientation has been repeatedly linked to elevated rates of suicide attempts. Whether this translates into greater risk for suicide mortality is unclear. We investigated sexual orientation-related differences in suicide mortality in Denmark during the initial 12-year period following legalization of same-sex registered domestic partnerships (RDPs). Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married. Suicide risk appears greatly elevated for men in same-sex partnerships in Denmark. To what extent this is true for similar gay and bisexual men who are not in such relationships is unknown, but these findings call for targeted suicide prevention programs aimed at reducing suicide risk among gay and bisexual men.

  12. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland.

    PubMed

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-02-01

    Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared. Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. Compared with their Danish counterparts, Finnish women and men had higher average relative weight and they were more often obese. There were no country differences in the socio-economic patterning of obesity by educational attainment, but a stronger patterning of obesity by occupational status was found among Danish women. Moreover, non-married women in Denmark were more likely to be obese than their married counterparts. Finns have higher relative weight and they are more often obese than Danes. The social patterning of obesity was similar in both studied countries but stronger in Denmark.

  13. Change in social status and risk of low birth weight in Denmark: population based cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, O.; Olsen, J.; Johansen, A. M.; Christensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of having a low birthweight infant associated with changes in social, environmental, and genetic factors. DESIGN: Population based, historical cohort study using the Danish medical birth registry and Statistic Denmark's fertility database. SUBJECTS: All women who had a low birthweight infant (< 2500 g) (index birth) and a subsequent liveborn infant (outcome birth) in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 (exposed cohort, n = 11,069) and a random sample of the population who gave birth to an infant weighing > or = 2500 g and to a subsequent liveborn infant (unexposed cohort, n = 10,211). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of having a low birthweight infant in the outcome birth as a function of changes in male partner, area of residence, type of job, and social status between the two births. RESULTS: Women in the exposed cohort showed a high risk (18.5%) of having a subsequent low birthweight infant while women in the unexposed cohort had a risk of 2.8%. After adjustment for initial social status, a decline in social status increased the absolute risk of having a low birthweight infant by about 5% in both cohorts, though this was significant only in the unexposed cohort. Change of male partner did not modify the risk of low birth weight in either cohort. CONCLUSION: Having had a low birthweight infant and a decline in social status are strong risk factors for having a low birthweight infant subsequently. PMID:9420490

  14. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Chaine, M; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M; Kristensen, B; Nielsen, J; Andersen, L P; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Engberg, J; Holm, A; Olesen, B; Schønheyder, H C; Østergaard, C; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2017-09-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

  15. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis Cases, Denmark, 2002–20121

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, Jonas T.; Ethelberg, Steen; Kiil, Kristoffer; Kemp, Michael; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002–2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005–2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting the need for more refined discriminatory typing methods to identify outbreaks within frequently occurring L. monocytogenes PFGE types. PMID:26982714

  16. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C; Engkilde, K; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2009-12-01

    Chromium allergy has traditionally been caused by occupational skin contact with cement. In 1983, Danish legislation made the addition of ferrous sulphate compulsory in cement to reduce the water-soluble chromium content to not more than 2 ppm. An effect from this intervention has previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from 3.6% in 1985 to 1% in 1995 (P(trend) < 0.001) but increased to 3.3% in 2007 (P(trend) < 0.001). The frequency of clinically relevant cement exposure decreased significantly among patients with chromium allergy from 12.7% in 1989-1994 to 3.0% (P < 0.01) in 1995-2007, whereas the frequency of relevant leather exposure increased significantly from 24.1% during 1989-1994 to 45.5% during 1995-2007 (P < 0.02). Chromium allergy is currently increasing in Denmark due to leather exposure.

  17. From research to practice: how OPUS treatment was accepted and implemented throughout Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete; Melau, Marianne; Iversen, Tina; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne; Bertelsen, Mette; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Jørgensen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The early phases of psychosis have been hypothesized to constitute a critical period, a window of opportunity. At the same time, the early phases of psychosis are associated with increased risk of unwanted outcome, such as suicidal behaviour and social isolation. This was the background for the emergence of early intervention services, and in Denmark, the OPUS trial was initiated as part of that process. Modified assertive community treatment, together with family involvement and social skills training, constituted the core elements in the original programme. A total of 547 patients with first-episode psychosis were included in the trial. To summarize briefly the results of the OPUS trial: the OPUS treatment was superior to standard treatment in reducing psychotic and negative symptoms and substance abuse, in increasing user satisfaction and adherence to treatment, and in reducing use of bed days and days in supported housing. Moreover, relatives included in the OPUS treatment were less strained and had a higher level of knowledge about schizophrenia and higher user satisfaction. The OPUS treatment was implemented throughout Denmark. Training courses were developed and manuals and books were published. Regional health authorities had access to national grants for implementing early intervention services; as a result, OPUS teams were disseminated throughout the country. The content of the treatment is now further developed, and new elements are being tried out - such as individual placement and support, lifestyle changes, cognitive remediation, specialized treatment for substance abuse and different kinds of user involvement. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Work injuries among drivers in the goods-transport branch in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Hitomi; Cleal, Bryan; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby

    2008-05-01

    Goods-transport drivers in Denmark had an elevated rate of hospital contact due to injury compared with the skilled/semiskilled workforce in general in recent years. There is a need to elucidate the causes of their work injuries. We analyzed the Danish National Work Injury Register for the 10-year period 1993-2002. The vast majority (92.6%) of the work injuries among goods-transport were sustained under non-traffic activities, that is, collecting, loading, unloading, and delivering goods. They fell from height (22.3%), suffered from overexertion (14.2%), got caught between/under objects (12.6%), collided with objects (12.0%), slipped/tripped (10.6%), or got struck by falling objects (9.0%). There is a clear need for efforts to prevent work injuries under non-traffic activities among goods-transport drivers in Denmark. For this end, it is necessary to involve not only the drivers' employers for reinforcement of safety procedures, but also the employers' customers for improvement of the physical environment, in which drivers collect, load, unload, and deliver goods. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cannabis use in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Sven R; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Hagen, Ellen Merete; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Bach, Flemming W; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate recreational and medical cannabis use in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury, including reasons and predictors for use, perceived benefits and negative consequences. Cross-sectional survey in Denmark. A 35-item questionnaire was sent to 1,101 patients with spinal cord injury who had been in contact with a rehabilitation centre between 1990 and 2012. A total of 537 participants completed the questionnaire. Of these, 36% had tried cannabis at least once and 9% were current users. Of current users, 79% had started to use cannabis before their spinal cord injury. The main reason for use was pleasure, but 65% used cannabis partly for spinal cord injury-related consequences and 59% reported at least good effect on pain and spasticity. Negative consequences of use were primarily inertia and feeling quiet/subdued. Lower age, living in rural areas/larger cities, tobacco-smoking, high alcohol intake and higher muscle stiffness were significantly associated with cannabis use. Those who had never tried cannabis reported that they would mainly use cannabis to alleviate pain and spasticity if it were legalized. Cannabis use is more frequent among individuals with spinal cord injury in Denmark than among the general population. High muscle stiffness and various demographic characteristics (lower age, living in rural areas/larger cities, tobacco-smoking and high alcohol intake) were associated with cannabis use. Most participants had started using cannabis before their spinal cord injury. There was considerable overlap between recreational and disability-related use.

  20. A quantitative analysis of biodiversity and the recreational value of potential national parks in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Petersen, Anders Højgård; Strange, Niels; Lund, Mette Palitzsch; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    Denmark has committed itself to the European 2010 target to halt the loss of biodiversity. Currently, Denmark is in the process of designating larger areas as national parks, and 7 areas (of a possible 32 larger nature areas) have been selected for pilot projects to test the feasibility of establishing national parks. In this article, we first evaluate the effectiveness of the a priori network of national parks proposed through expert and political consensus versus a network chosen specifically for biodiversity through quantitative analysis. Second, we analyze the potential synergy between preserving biodiversity in terms of species representation and recreational values in selecting a network of national parks. We use the actual distribution of 973 species within these 32 areas and 4 quantitative measures of recreational value. Our results show that the 7 pilot project areas are not significantly more effective in representing species than expected by chance and that considerably more efficient networks can be selected. Moreover, it is possible to select more-effective networks of areas that combine high representation of species with high ranking in terms of recreational values. Therefore, our findings suggest possible synergies between outdoor recreation and biodiversity conservation when selecting networks of national parks. Overall, this Danish case illustrates that data-driven analysis can not only provide valuable information to guide the decision-making process of designating national parks, but it can also be a means to identify solutions that simultaneously fulfill several goals (biodiversity preservation and recreational values).

  1. The willingness to pay for wait reduction: the disutility of queues for cataract surgery in Canada, Denmark, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Bishai, D M; Lang, H C

    2000-03-01

    We estimate demand curves for a one month reduction in waiting time for cataract surgery based on survey data collected in 1992 in Manitoba, Barcelona, and Denmark. Patients answered, "Would you be willing to pay [Bid, B] to reduce your waiting time for cataract surgery to less than one month?" Controlling for SES and visual status, Barcelonan patients have greater WTP for shortened waiting time than the Danes and Manitobans. We estimate the value (in 1992 $) of lost consumer surplus due to the cataract surgery queue at $128 per patient in Manitoba, $160 in Denmark, and $243 in Barcelona.

  2. Apprentice or Student? The Structures of Construction Industry Vocational Education and Training in Denmark and Sweden and Their Possible Consequences for Safety Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grytnes, Regine; Grill, Martin; Pousette, Anders; Törner, Marianne; Nielsen, Kent J.

    2018-01-01

    There is a notable difference in occupational injury rates in the two Scandinavian countries, Sweden and Denmark, with the latter having a 40% higher rate of fatal occupational injuries in the construction industry. This study explored differences in the vocational education and training (VET) systems between Sweden and Denmark that may be…

  3. University Housing | University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    Science.gov Websites

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z D2L PAWS Email My UW-System About UWM UWM Jobs D2L PAWS Email My UW-System University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee University Housing Powerful

  4. The University Visitor and University Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David M.; Whalley, Peregrine W. F.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the University Visitor, whose traditional function is to mediate conflict within a university and contribute to its governance, is examined in the context of Australian higher education. Medieval English ecclesiastical origins of the office are described, and calls for abolition are examined. It is argued that the office should be…

  5. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Hille, Sandra; Rubæk, Gitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Gertz, Flemming; Jensen, Henning; Feuerback, Peter; Strand, John; Stutter, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Danish Parliament adopted in June 2012 a Buffer Strip Act that required 10 m mandatory buffer strips (BSs) to be established along all watercourses and lakes with a surface area greater than 100 m2 from 1st September 2012. The main reasons for deploying BSs was to reduce nitrate-N leaching and phosphorus (P) loss via surface runoff from adjoining fields from the approximately 50,000 ha of BSs as no farming activities were allowed in the BS concerning use of fertilizer, spreading of manure, spraying with pesticides, etc. Reductions in nutrient losses to watercourses are needed for minimizing the eutrophication effects in lakes and coastal waters. Buffer strips are among the most well studied and frequently adapted mitigation measure for reducing sediment and P losses to surface waters via surface runoff. It has, however, been questioned if BSs can also reduce N losses. The international literature gives an overwhelming support to their functioning for reduction in sediment and especially particulate P losses. However, their functioning for dissolved P and nitrogen is more questionable when comparing studies from the international literature. In Denmark, many farmers were against the introduction of BSs as a general mitigation measure for several reasons. The most used argument in the public debate was that BSs in general are not very efficient for reducing N and P losses to surface waters which was originally the argument behind the BS Act from the Ministries of Environment and Food and Agriculture. A desk study had been made prior to the adaptation of the law that showed 10 m BSs to be able to reduce the N loading with 40-50 kg N ha-1 of BS and 0.04-0.4 kg P ha-1 BS. The total reduction from the BSs established in Denmark in 2012 would then amount to 2,000-2,500 tonnes N and 2-20 tonnes P. The intense public debate in Denmark made the Parliament to adopt a new BS law in June 2014 to be implemented in August 2014 that reduced the total areas with mandatory BSs

  6. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: a new conceptual model for Denmark.

    PubMed

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from <0.2 to 126 μg L(-1) (mean 14.4 μg L(-1), median 11.9 μg L(-1)). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI >40 μg L(-1) originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to >100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI programmes

  7. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C; Abrahamsen, B

    2017-01-01

    This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so far future. The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age-period-cohort (APC) effects during 1987-2010 were evaluated by log-likelihood estimates in Poisson regression models presented as incidence rate ratios (IRR). There were 399,596 hip fractures in SE and 248,773 in DK. Age-standardized hip fracture rate was stable in SE men but decreased in SE women and in DK. Combined period + cohort effects were generally stronger in SE than DK and in women than men. IRR per period ranged from 1.05 to 1.30 in SE and 0.95 to 1.21 in DK. IRR per birth cohort ranged from 1.07 to 3.13 in SE and 0.77 to 1.67 in DK. Relative period effects decreased with successive period in SE and described a convex curve in DK. Relative cohort effects increased with successive birth cohort in both countries but with lower risks for DK women and men and SE women born around the 1930s (age 75-86 years today and responsible for most hip fractures) partly explaining the recent downturn. Men and women born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may reflect differences in general health as evident in known differences in life expectancy, healthcare organization, and prevention such as use of anti-osteoporosis drugs. Analyses indicate that hip

  8. Survival of patients with colon and rectal cancer in central and northern Denmark, 1998–2009

    PubMed Central

    Ostenfeld, Eva B; Erichsen, Rune; Iversen, Lene H; Gandrup, Per; Nørgaard, Mette; Jacobsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The prognosis for colon and rectal cancer has improved in Denmark over the past decades but is still poor compared with that in our neighboring countries. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in colon and rectal cancer survival in the central and northern regions of Denmark. Material and methods Using the Danish National Registry of Patients, we identified 9412 patients with an incident diagnosis of colon cancer and 5685 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 1998 and 2009. We determined survival, and used Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusting for age and gender. Among surgically treated patients, we computed 30-day mortality and corresponding mortality rate ratios (MRRs). Results The annual numbers of colon and rectal cancer increased from 1998 through 2009. For colon cancer, 1-year survival improved from 65% to 70%, and 5-year survival improved from 37% to 43%. For rectal cancer, 1-year survival improved from 73% to 78%, and 5-year survival improved from 39% to 47%. Men aged 80+ showed most pronounced improvements. The 1- and 5-year adjusted MRRs decreased: for colon cancer 0.83 (95% confidence interval CI: 0.76–0.92) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78–0.90) respectively; for rectal cancer 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68–0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73–0.89) respectively. The 30-day postoperative mortality after resection also declined over the study period. Compared with 1998–2000 the 30-day MRRs in 2007–2009 were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53–0.87) for colon cancer and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.37–0.96) for rectal cancer. Conclusion The survival after colon and rectal cancer has improved in central and northern Denmark during the 1998–2009 period, as well as the 30-day postoperative mortality. PMID:21814467

  9. Transgender Surgery in Denmark From 1994 to 2015: 20-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Buk, Liv Johanne; Partoft, Søren; Bonde, Christian; Thomsen, Michael Vestergaard; Tos, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria is a mismatch between a person's biological sex and gender identity. The best treatment is believed to be hormonal therapy and gender-confirming surgery that will transition the individual toward the desired gender. Treatment in Denmark is covered by public health care, and gender-confirming surgery in Denmark is centralized at a single-center with few specialized plastic surgeons conducting top surgery (mastectomy or breast augmentation) and bottom surgery (vaginoplasty or phalloplasty and metoidioplasty). To report the first nationwide single-center review on transsexual patients in Denmark undergoing gender-confirming surgery performed by a single surgical team and to assess whether age at time of gender-confirming surgery decreased during a 20-year period. Electronic patient databases were used to identify patients diagnosed with gender identity disorders from January 1994 through March 2015. Patients were excluded from the study if they were pseudohermaphrodites or if their gender was not reported. Gender distribution, age trends, and surgeries performed for Danish patients who underwent gender-confirming surgery. One hundred fifty-eight patients referred for gender-confirming surgery were included. Fifty-five cases (35%) were male-to-female (MtF) and 103 (65%) were female-to-male (FtM). In total, 126 gender-confirming surgeries were performed. For FtM cases, top surgery (mastectomy) was conducted in 62 patients and bottom surgery (phalloplasty and metoidioplasty) was conducted in 17 patients. For MtF cases, 45 underwent bottom surgery (vaginoplasty), 2 of whom received breast augmentation. The FtM:MtF ratio of the referred patients was 1.9:1. The median age at the time of surgery decreased from 40 to 27 years during the 20-year period. Gender-confirming surgery was performed on 65 FtM and 40 MtF cases at our hospital, and 21 transsexuals underwent surgery abroad. Mastectomy was performed in 62 FtM and bottom surgery in 17 FtM cases

  10. Structures and processes in spontaneous ADR reporting systems: a comparative study of Australia and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Lise; Stenver, Doris Irene; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-10-01

    To explore the organisational structure and processes of the Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems with a view to how information is generated about new ADRs. The Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems. Qualitative analyses of documentary material, descriptive interviews with key informants, and observations were made. We analysed the organisational structure of the Danish and Australian ADR reporting systems with respect to structures and processes, including information flow and exchange of ADR data. The analysis was made based on Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's diamond model, with the components: goals/tasks, social structure, technology and participants, within a surrounding environment. The main differences between the systems were: (1) PARTICIPANTS: Outsourcing of ADR assessments to the pharmaceutical companies complicates maintenance of scientific skills within the Danish Medicines Agency (DKMA), as it leaves the handling of spontaneous ADR reports purely administrative within the DKMA, and the knowledge creation process remains with the pharmaceutical companies, while in Australia senior scientific staff work with evaluation of the ADR report; (2) Goals/tasks: In Denmark, resources are targeted at evaluating Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSUR) submitted by the companies, while the resources in Australia are focused on single case assessment resulting in faster and more proactive medicine surveillance; (3) Social structure: Discussions between scientific staff about ADRs take place in Australia, while the Danish system primarily focuses on entering and forwarding ADR data to the relevant pharmaceutical companies; (4) Technology: The Danish system exchanges ADR data electronically with pharmaceutical companies and the other EU countries, while Australia does not have a system for electronic exchange of ADR data; and (5) ENVIRONMENT: The Danish ADR system is embedded in the routines of cooperation within European

  11. Stress and distress in migration: problems and resources of Turkish women in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mirdal, G M

    1984-01-01

    Data collected through interviews with 72 Turkish female immigrants to Denmark show that migration and the inevitable confrontation with an unfamiliar cultural mileu, create several stress producing situations, which they are unable to cope due to their multiple disadvantage of being poor, uneducated, alien and female. Turkish women began arriving in Denmark after 1973, in order to join male members of their families, when Denmark began experiencing economic recession and rising unemployment. This was responsible for the lukewarm reception they faced in their host country, even from their own relatives. A feeling of uprootedness is common in these women, who, leaving behind the security of their their own society, are constantly exposed to behavior patterns that appear to be in sharp contrast to their own. An unfamiliarity with the implicit structure of the society and rules of conduct can be threatening. Having a job outside the home creates the double burden of working to earn a living and having to take full responsibility for children and the household. On the other hand, not having a job creates an excess of leisure time, due to the availability of time saving gadgets, which is spent indoors with no meanigful activities. Lack of mobility compounds the situation. While proximity to other Turks inbitits freedom for fear of criticism, staying away brings loneliness. Changing concepts of sex roles can be disruptive, especially when roles they are brought up to believe are theirs, are no longer needed. As accompanying wives, they are excessively dependent on their husbands, and are more isolated and overwoked than they would have been in their homeland. All these factors help render the women extremely powerless. The women interviewed attributed their complaints, physical or emotional, to their state as immigrants. Women's complaints, especially if they are psychological in nature, lead to the danger of the women being labelled mentally ill. Despite their general

  12. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  13. The Universe Adventure - Developers

    Science.gov Websites

    The Universe Adventure home | help | links | teachers | developers | credits | glossary | feedback Go Developers This page is meant for developers of the Universe Adventure. It contains various design

  14. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  15. Explaining trends in coronary heart disease mortality in different socioeconomic groups in Denmark 1991-2007 using the IMPACTSEC model.

    PubMed

    Joensen, Albert Marni; Joergensen, Torben; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Johansen, Martin Berg; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Hallas, Jesper; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2018-01-01

    To quantify the contribution of changes in different risk factors population levels and treatment uptake on the decline in CHD mortality in Denmark from 1991 to 2007 in different socioeconomic groups. We used IMPACTSEC, a previously validated policy model using data from different population registries. All adults aged 25-84 years living in Denmark in 1991 and 2007. Deaths prevented or postponed (DPP). There were approximately 11,000 fewer CHD deaths in Denmark in 2007 than would be expected if the 1991 mortality rates had persisted. Higher mortality rates were observed in the lowest socioeconomic quintile. The highest absolute reduction in CHD mortality was seen in this group but the highest relative reduction was in the most affluent socioeconomic quintile. Overall, the IMPACTSEC model explained nearly two thirds of the decline in. Improved treatments accounted for approximately 25% with the least relative mortality reduction in the most deprived quintile. Risk factor improvements accounted for approximately 40% of the mortality decrease with similar gains across all socio-economic groups. The 36% gap in explaining all DPPs may reflect inaccurate data or risk factors not quantified in the current model. According to the IMPACTSEC model, the largest contribution to the CHD mortality decline in Denmark from 1991 to 2007 was from improvements in risk factors, with similar gains across all socio-economic groups. However, we found a clear socioeconomic trend for the treatment contribution favouring the most affluent groups.

  16. Direct Job Creation in the Public Sector. Evaluation of National Experience in Canada, Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines selected public sector direct job creation schemes that were in operation in 1977-1978 in Canada, Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Based on responses to a questionnaire and discussions with officials in the five countries, the information presented in the report is not intended to evaluate any one…

  17. Contesting Discourses about Physical Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of 20 Textbooks Used in Physical Education Teacher Education in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Annemari Munk; Svendsen, Jesper Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates and problematises how contesting discourses about Physical Education (PE) as a school subject are immersed within textbooks used in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in Denmark. The paper considers PETE textbooks as powerful documents that construct and maintain discourses about PE, and at the same time as…

  18. Explaining trends in coronary heart disease mortality in different socioeconomic groups in Denmark 1991-2007 using the IMPACTSEC model

    PubMed Central

    Joergensen, Torben; Bandosz, Piotr; Hallas, Jesper; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano; Capewell, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Aim To quantify the contribution of changes in different risk factors population levels and treatment uptake on the decline in CHD mortality in Denmark from 1991 to 2007 in different socioeconomic groups. Design We used IMPACTSEC, a previously validated policy model using data from different population registries. Participants All adults aged 25–84 years living in Denmark in 1991 and 2007. Main outcome measure Deaths prevented or postponed (DPP). Results There were approximately 11,000 fewer CHD deaths in Denmark in 2007 than would be expected if the 1991 mortality rates had persisted. Higher mortality rates were observed in the lowest socioeconomic quintile. The highest absolute reduction in CHD mortality was seen in this group but the highest relative reduction was in the most affluent socioeconomic quintile. Overall, the IMPACTSEC model explained nearly two thirds of the decline in. Improved treatments accounted for approximately 25% with the least relative mortality reduction in the most deprived quintile. Risk factor improvements accounted for approximately 40% of the mortality decrease with similar gains across all socio-economic groups. The 36% gap in explaining all DPPs may reflect inaccurate data or risk factors not quantified in the current model. Conclusions According to the IMPACTSEC model, the largest contribution to the CHD mortality decline in Denmark from 1991 to 2007 was from improvements in risk factors, with similar gains across all socio-economic groups. However, we found a clear socioeconomic trend for the treatment contribution favouring the most affluent groups. PMID:29672537

  19. National Reading Tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A Comparison of Construct Definitions, Cognitive Targets, and Response Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark,…

  20. Capacity Building: Data- and Research-Informed Development of Schools and Teaching Practices in Denmark and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvortrup, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Based on experiences from a number of large scale data- and research-informed school development projects in Denmark and Norway, led by the author, three hypotheses are discussed: that an effective way of linking research and practice is achieved (1) using a capacity building approach, that is, to collaborate in the practical school context…

  1. Bridging the Gap between Academic and Industrial/Commercial Intelligence. The Case of Denmark: A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Sten C.

    1989-01-01

    The author provides historical background for important Danish educational research, heavily influenced by Marxist thought, from 1968 through 1982. The breakdown of the research activity is explained. The author concludes by arguing that Denmark needs adult development and education centers to continue the research activity. (CH)

  2. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  3. The Role of Learning and Career Guidance for Managing Mid-Career Transitions--Comparing Germany and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.; Barabasch, Antje

    2015-01-01

    In Germany and Denmark, the systems of further education and career guidance are well developed, offering a wide range of services and learning opportunities for targeted, specific and also general skills development. Based on an empirical study with mid-career individuals in both countries, the article investigates how the different systems…

  4. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblauch, Jan; And Others

    Training in Denmark's motor vehicle repair and sales sector was examined in a study that included the following approaches: review of the sector's structure/characteristics, institutional/social context, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements and training, and available initial and continuing vocational education and…

  5. Situation Report--Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Greece, Honduras, Irish Republic, Malta, Romania, Spain, U.S.S.R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Greece, Honduras, Irish Republic, Malta, Romania, Spain, and the U.S.S.R. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and…

  6. National screening guidelines and developments in prenatal diagnoses and live births of Down syndrome in 1973-2016 in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lou, Stina; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S; Lund, Ida C B; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Vogel, Ida

    2018-02-01

    Denmark was the first country in the world to implement a national, free-for-all offer of prenatal screening for Down syndrome to all pregnant women. It has a high uptake (>90%) compared to other countries. Thus, Denmark offers an interesting case for investigating the consequences of implementing comprehensive, national prenatal screening guidelines. The aim of this study was to describe the historical developments in invasive procedures, pre-/postnatal diagnoses of Down syndrome and Down syndrome live births in the period 1973-2016 in Denmark. Data on invasive procedures, pre- and postnatal Down syndrome diagnoses were retrieved from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry. From 1973 to 1993, screening based on maternal age and high-risk indications resulted in a constant increase in invasive procedures. After the introduction of the triple test in 1994, invasive procedures decreased for the first time in 20 years. Following the introduction of an offer of combined screening to all pregnant women in 2004, the number of invasive procedures decreased markedly, while there was a concurrent increase in prenatal diagnoses of Down syndrome. Additionally, the number of Down syndrome live births decreased suddenly and significantly, but subsequently stabilized at 23-35 annual live births. Of these, the majority were diagnosed postnatally. Though prenatal screening technologies constantly improve, it was the introduction of and adherence to national guidelines that resulted in marked shifts in screening procedures and outcome in Denmark. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Socio-Cultural Innovation through and by Public Libraries in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods in Denmark: Concepts and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delica, Kristian; Elbeshausen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Our paper describes three examples of how public libraries in at-risk-neighbourhoods have worked with social innovations in order to develop and strengthen their services for minority groups. The libraries were chosen because they are frontrunners in the field of cultural diversity and social inclusion in Denmark. Method: The…

  8. Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater-Cooler Units in Denmark Related to Isolates from the United States and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik; Jensen, Elsebeth Tvenstrup; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Norman, Anders; Lillebaek, Troels

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater-cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct.

  9. Gambling with the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  10. Entrepreneurship in Finnish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Piia; Paasio, Kaisu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of universities in fostering and promoting entrepreneurship in Finland. In particular it seeks to examine the university-entrepreneurship relationship: its nature and how universities are addressing the entrepreneurship agenda. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a large…

  11. Antimatter in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stigman, G.

    1973-01-01

    The means of detecting the presence of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Both direct, annihilation processes, and indirect, cosmic ray particles, were analyzed. All results were negative and it was concluded that no antimatter exists, if the universe is in fact symmetric. If the universe is not symmetric then matter and antimatter are well separated from each other.

  12. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  13. Regulation of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne; Trigwell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study are twofold: firstly, to explore dimensions in the regulation of teaching in a multidisciplinary sample of university teachers, and secondly, to analyse factors related to the regulation of university teaching. Seventy-three university teachers representing several disciplines participated in the study. These teachers…

  14. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  15. Sierra University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  16. John Carroll University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathleen Lis; Rombalski, Patrick; O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    John Carroll University (JCU) is a Jesuit Catholic institution located in University Heights, approximately 10 miles east of Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1888, the university has a population of 3,400 undergraduates and 800 graduate students. The Division of Student Affairs at JCU comprises 11 units. The mission of the division is the same as that…

  17. The Mobility of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper notes that universities are mobile. That is, models of universities are transferred or borrowed or move around the world and in the process of moving or being moved they tend to change or be changed from the kind of university they were--either in practice or as ideals at the point of origin. To explore these themes the article…

  18. Our Listless Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Students in the best universities do not believe in anything, and those universities are doing nothing about it. The great questions--God, freedom, and immortality--hardly touch the young. The universities have no vision, no view of what a human being must know in order to be considered educated. (MLW)

  19. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  20. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  1. What Are Good Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Raewyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how we can arrive at a concept of the good university. It begins with ideas expressed by Australian Vice-Chancellors and in the "league tables" for universities, which essentially reproduce existing privilege. It then considers definitions of the good university via wish lists, classic texts, horror lists, structural…

  2. The American Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenberg, Donald N.

    1980-01-01

    Some features of the American research university that might account for its success in facilitating research are suggested, and the philosophical foundations of the modern American research university and issues for the future are considered. The major universities of the United States have based their development during the 20th century on the…

  3. UNAIDS director visits Denmark to discuss collaboration on AIDS crisis in Africa.

    PubMed

    1999-10-18

    The executive director of the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Peter Piot, visited Denmark to discuss collaboration on the AIDS crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion focused on the AIDS situation in the country and the need for resources and strategic investments from donor nations to help turn around the crisis. Piot stated that since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 11 million have died of AIDS and another 22 million are infected with HIV in Africa. In his visit, he stated the new international partnership against AIDS in Africa, which comprises African governments, donor countries, pan-African and other international organizations, UNAIDS and its co-sponsors, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. They will be working together in mobilizing governments, civil societies, and companies worldwide in increasing HIV/AIDS care and prevention strategies. Greater vigilance is stressed on the emergency nature of AIDS in many African countries.

  4. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V.; Bonde, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies. PMID:27670387

  5. Bioethics in Denmark. Moving from first- to second-order analysis?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-07-01

    This article examines two current debates in Denmark--assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources--and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general.

  6. Neurotoxicity and LSD treatment: a follow-up study of 151 patients in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jens Knud

    2016-06-01

    LSD was introduced in psychiatry in the 1950s. Between 1960 and 1973, nearly 400 patients were treated with LSD in Denmark. By 1964, one homicide, two suicides and four suicide attempts had been reported. In 1986 the Danish LSD Damages Law was passed after complaints by only one patient. According to the Law, all 154 applicants received financial compensation for LSD-inflicted harm. The Danish State Archives has preserved the case material of 151 of the 154 applicants. Most of the patients suffered from severe side effects of the LSD treatment many years afterwards. In particular, two-thirds of the patients had flashbacks. With the recent interest in LSD therapy, we should consider the neurotoxic potential of LSD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry components - merging of studies from Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Hellberg, Dan; Rustad, Pål

    2018-05-28

    Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study. Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used. Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  8. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V; Bonde, Niels

    2016-09-27

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies.

  9. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. One-shot exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination in Denmark, Spain and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Everyday, we are bombarded with periodic, exogenous appeals and instructions on how to behave. How do these appeals and instructions affect subsequent coordination? Using experimental methods, we investigate how a one-time exogenous instruction affects subsequent coordination among individuals in a lab. Participants play a minimum effort game repeated 5 times under fixed matching with a one-time behavioral instruction in either the first or second round. Since coordination behavior may vary across countries, we run experiments in Denmark, Spain and Ghana, and map cross-country rankings in coordination with known national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. Our results show that exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination, with earlier interventions yielding better coordination than later interventions. We also find that cross-country rankings in coordination map with published national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. PMID:29145411

  11. HOMED-homicides eastern Denmark: an introduction to a forensic medical homicide database.

    PubMed

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels; Theilade, Peter

    2014-11-01

    An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage and an exhaustive list of registered variables it is useful for research purposes, although specific data limitations apply. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. One-shot exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination in Denmark, Spain and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Everyday, we are bombarded with periodic, exogenous appeals and instructions on how to behave. How do these appeals and instructions affect subsequent coordination? Using experimental methods, we investigate how a one-time exogenous instruction affects subsequent coordination among individuals in a lab. Participants play a minimum effort game repeated 5 times under fixed matching with a one-time behavioral instruction in either the first or second round. Since coordination behavior may vary across countries, we run experiments in Denmark, Spain and Ghana, and map cross-country rankings in coordination with known national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. Our results show that exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination, with earlier interventions yielding better coordination than later interventions. We also find that cross-country rankings in coordination map with published national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation.

  13. The work practice of medical secretaries and the implementation of electronic health records in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    The introduction of electronic health records will entail substantial organisational changes to the clinical and administrative staff in hospitals. Hospital owners in Denmark have predicted that these changes will render up to half of medical secretaries redundant. The present study however shows that medical secretaries have a great variety of duties, and often act as the organisational "glue" or connecting thread between other professional groups at the hospital. The aim of this study is to obtain a detailed understanding of the pluralism of work tasks the medical secretaries perform. It is concluded that clinicians as well as nurses depend on medical secretaries, and therefore to reduce the number of secretaries because electronic health record systems are implemented needs very careful thinking, planning and discussion with the other professions involved.

  14. Risk perception and moralization among smokers in the USA and Denmark: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R; Cerban, Bettina M

    2010-11-01

    The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers' description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the USA (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking.

  15. Widespread adoption of information technology in primary care physician offices in Denmark: a case study.

    PubMed

    Protti, Denis; Johansen, Ib

    2010-03-01

    Denmark is one of the world's leading countries in the use of health care technology. Virtually all primary care physicians have electronic medical records with full clinical functionality. Their systems are also connected to a national network, which allows them to electronically send and receive clinical data to and from consultant specialists, hospitals, pharmacies, and other health care providers. Under the auspices of a nonprofit organization called MedCom, over 5 million clinical messages are transferred monthly. One of the most important innovations has been the "one-letter solution," which allows one electronic form to be used for all types of letters to and from primary care physicians; it is used in over 5,000 health institutions with 50 different technology vendor systems.

  16. United States and Denmark: different approaches to health care and family planning.

    PubMed

    David, H P; Morgall, J M; Osler, M; Rasmussen, N K; Jensen, B

    1990-01-01

    The findings of this study suggest that, compared to the United States, Danish health care policies and family planning services delivery systems are, in the aggregate, more conducive to the promotion of effective contraceptive practice, more instrumental in conveying information to high-risk groups, and more successful in reducing the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. One of the major reasons for this difference may stem from the positive and nonambivalent climate of public opinion about sexuality in Denmark and the manner in which health care and family planning services are delivered to all segments of the population regardless of age, income, or location of residence. Research in reproductive behavior is greatly facilitated by the existence of automated population registers.

  17. Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Hajdarevic, Senada; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data show that Denmark has considerably poorer survival from common cancers than Sweden. This may be related to a lower awareness of cancer symptoms and longer patient intervals in Denmark than in Sweden. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare population awareness of three possible symptoms of cancer (unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding and persistent cough or hoarseness); 2) compare anticipated patient interval when noticing any breast changes, rectal bleeding and persistent cough; and 3) examine whether potential differences were noticeable in particular age groups or at particular levels of education in a Danish and Swedish population sample. Method Data were derived from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure were conducted in 2011 among 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 adults in Sweden. Results Danish respondents reported a higher awareness of two of three symptoms (i.e. unexplained lump or swelling and persistent cough or hoarseness) and a shorter anticipated patient interval for two of three symptoms studied (i.e. any breast changes and rectal bleeding) than Swedish respondents. Differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval between these countries were most pronounced in highly educated respondents. Conclusion Somewhat paradoxically, the highest awareness of symptoms of cancer and the shortest anticipated patient intervals were found in Denmark, where cancer survival is lower than in Sweden. Thus, it appears that these differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval do not help explain the cancer survival disparity between Denmark and Sweden.

  18. [Firework injuries in Denmark in the period 1995/1996 to 2006/2007].

    PubMed

    Foged, Thomas; Lauritsen, Jens; Ipsen, Tune; Ibsen, Tune

    2007-12-03

    The purpose of this study was to observe the occurrence and character of firework injuries on the two days around New Year in Denmark over the last decade. Since 1995/1996 all Accident and Emergency Departments in Denmark have registered all contacts where fireworks were the cause of injury on 31st December and 1st January. Data comprised hospital, sex, age, type of firework, diagnosis and final treatment. Follow-up and reminder by phone secured a 100% response rate. The total number of injured patients was 4,447. The number of firework injuries on the 31st of December and 1st of January was reduced by half over the 12-year period. Furthermore, the number of firework injuries caused by illegal fireworks in 2006/2007 was only 10% of the number in 1996/1997. Only 8% of injuries on last New Year's Eve were caused by illegal firewoks compared to almost 50% at the beginning of the period. A similar halving is seen in serious injuries. Roughly one quarter sustained injuries to the eyes, one quarter to the head/neck and 38% to hands. Firework injuries are now half of the level in 1996/1997. Injuries caused by illegal fireworks and serious injuries have shown a downward tendency throughout the period. The actual number of severe injuries from illegal fireworks is now only 10% of the level in the mid-1990s. This reduction can be attributed to preventive campaigns, greater knowledge of the risk of fireworks in general as well as legislation. Continued focus on preventive campaigns, control of fireworks for the general public and control of firework distribution to professionals is recommended.

  19. Economic and health consequences of COPD patients and their spouses in Denmark--1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Jennum, Poul

    2014-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but longitudinal studies of the economic consequences of COPD are scarce. This study evaluated the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses at a national level before and after initial diagnosis. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2010), 171,557 patients with COPD and 86,260 spouses were identified; patients were compared with 664,821, and the spouses with 346,524, all controls were randomly selected and matched for age, gender and residence. Direct and indirect costs, including frequency of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, medication, unemployment benefits and social transfer payments were extracted from national databases for patients, spouses and controls. COPD patients are earning approximately half of that of controls before diagnosis. After diagnosis this effect diminishes due to people getting older and retiring from work (65 years). Total health expenses are more than twice as high in the COPD group regardless of age and gender compared to controls. Spouses of COPD patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and higher socioeconomic costs compared to controls. The employment and income rates of employed spouses of COPD patients were significantly lower compared to controls. This study provides unique data on the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses as well as displaying the serious health consequences for the individual spouse and society. Second, data shows substantial impact of COPD on income level and health expenses regardless of age and gender. It could be speculated that early identification and intervention might contribute to more health and economic equality between patients and controls.

  20. Trends in colorectal cancer survival in northern Denmark: 1985-2004.

    PubMed

    Iversen, L H; Nørgaard, M; Jepsen, P; Jacobsen, J; Christensen, M M; Gandrup, P; Madsen, M R; Laurberg, S; Wogelius, P; Sørensen, H T

    2007-03-01

    The prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) is less favourable in Denmark than in neighbouring countries. To improve cancer treatment in Denmark, a National Cancer Plan was proposed in 2000. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in CRC survival and mortality in four Danish counties. We used hospital discharge registry data for the period January 1985-March 2004 in the counties of north Jutland, Ringkjøbing, Viborg and Aarhus. We computed crude survival and used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusted for age and gender. A total of 19,515 CRC patients were identified and linked with the Central Office of Civil Registration to ascertain survival through January 2005. From 1985 to 2004, 1-year and 5-year survival improved both for patients with colon and rectal cancer. From 1995-1999 to 2000-2004, overall 1-year survival of 65% for colon cancer did not improve, and some age groups experienced a decreasing 1-year survival probability. For rectal cancer, overall 1-year survival increased from 71% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2000-2004. Using 1985-1989 as reference period, 30-day mortality did not decrease after implementation of the National Cancer Plan in 2000, neither for patients with colon nor rectal cancer. However, 1-year mortality for patients with rectal cancer did decline after its implementation. Survival and mortality from colon and rectal cancer improved before the National Cancer Plan was proposed; after its implementation, however, improvement has been observed for rectal cancer only.

  1. Social disparities in diabetes care: a general population study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Sandholdt, Håkon; Ellervik, Christina

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. A cross-sectional population study. The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. We studied 907 patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA 1c , LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect modification of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Middle age (40-65 years), low education level (i.e. basic schooling), and low household income (i.e. less than 21,400 € per year) were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. The association of socioeconomic factors with attainment of individual treatment goals varied. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had elevated blood pressure. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with treatment goals for hyperglycemia. Socioeconomic factors were inconsistently associated with pharmacotherapy. There was no difference in contacts to general practitioners according to SES. In a country with free access to health care, the socioeconomic factors such as middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. KEY POINTS Middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care, especially for lifestyle goals. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had

  2. Social disparities in diabetes care: a general population study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Sandholdt, Håkon; Ellervik, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. Design A cross-sectional population study. Setting The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. Subjects We studied 907 patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. Methods We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect modification of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Results Middle age (40–65 years), low education level (i.e. basic schooling), and low household income (i.e. less than 21,400 € per year) were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. The association of socioeconomic factors with attainment of individual treatment goals varied. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had elevated blood pressure. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with treatment goals for hyperglycemia. Socioeconomic factors were inconsistently associated with pharmacotherapy. There was no difference in contacts to general practitioners according to SES. Conclusions In a country with free access to health care, the socioeconomic factors such as middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. Key points Middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care, especially for lifestyle goals. Patients with low

  3. Trends in Costs of Thyroid Disease Treatment in Denmark during 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Møllehave, Line Tang; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Knudsen, Nils; Ehlers, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2018-03-01

    Iodine fortification (IF) may contribute to changes in costs of thyroid disease treatment through changes in disease patterns. From a health economic perspective, assessment of the development in costs of thyroid disease treatment in the population is pertinent. To assess the trends in annual medicine and hospital costs of thyroid disease treatment during 1995-2015 in Denmark, i.e., before and after the introduction of mandatory IF in 2000. Information on treatments for thyroid disease (antithyroid medication, thyroid hormone therapy, thyroid surgery, and radioiodine treatment) was obtained from nationwide registers. Costs were valued at 2015 prices using sales prices for medicines and the Danish Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) and Danish Ambulatory Grouping System (DAGS) tariffs of surgeries/radioiodine treatments. Results were adjusted for changes in population size and age and sex distribution. The total direct medicine and hospital costs of thyroid disease treatment increased from EUR ∼190,000 per 100,000 persons in 1995 to EUR ∼270,000 per 100,000 persons in 2015. This was mainly due to linearly increased costs of thyroid hormone therapy and increased costs of thyroid surgery since 2008. Costs of antithyroid medication increased slightly and transiently after IF, while costs of radioiodine treatment remained constant. Costs of thyroid hormone therapy and thyroid surgery did not follow the development in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and structural thyroid diseases observed in concurrent studies. The costs of total direct medicine and hospital costs for thyroid disease treatment in Denmark increased from 1995 to 2015. This is possibly due to several factors, e.g., changes in treatment practices, and the direct effect of IF alone remains to be estimated.

  4. Human exposure to carcinogens in ambient air in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauser, P.; Ketzel, M.; Becker, T.; Plejdrup, M. S.; Brandt, J.; Gidhagen, L.; Omstedt, G.; Skårman, T.; Bartonova, A.; Schwarze, P.; Karvosenoja, N.; Paunu, V.-V.; Kukkonen, J.; Karppinen, A.

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of seventeen pollutants (particulate mass fractions PM2.5 and PM10, a range of metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at a resolution of 1 × 1 km2 in ambient air in three Nordic countries. Modelled annual mean air concentrations in 2010 show no exceedances of the EU air quality limit, guideline or target values. The only modelled exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations (0.12 ng/m3, US-EPA IRIS, 2015) occurs for B(a)P in Denmark, for approximately 80% of the Danish population. However, the EU target value threshold of 1 ng/m3 for B(a)P is not exceeded in the modelled values in any parts of Denmark. No emission data for B(a)P were available for the whole domain of the other two considered Nordic countries and important uncertainties are still related to the emissions. Long-range transport is significant for the concentrations of all of the considered pollutants, except for B(a)P that commonly originates mostly from local residential wood combustion. The ambient air concentrations of NOx, SO2, Cd, Cr and Pb also have significant contributions from national sources; 45-65% for NOx and SO2, and for the metals from 15 to 60% in urban areas and from 1 to 20% in rural areas, within the considered Nordic area. High national contributions occur especially in urban air, due to primarily road traffic, residential wood combustion, energy production and industrial point sources. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure.

  5. Healthism in Denmark: State, market, and the search for a "Moral Compass".

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård; Lim, Ming; Askegaard, Søren

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on contemporary responses to public health messages in Denmark, a country whose system of social welfare is, like that of the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, undergoing increasing levels of marketization and privatization. Drawing primarily upon Robert Crawford's analysis of healthism as a neoliberal project, the aim of this article is to develop critical understandings of how individuals respond both bodily and emotionally to ideologies of health and the body in the context of a changing marketplace for the consumption of health and its messages. This article will analyze perceptions and practices of health in Denmark. The findings will then be discussed in relation to dimensions inspired by the work of Crawford, who regards "health" as a "super-value," an outcome of individual security strategies, and mode of citizenship in the marketplace. The article argues that Crawford's discussion does not fully capture the ways in which people use their bodies to valorize themselves. First, the perception of the state is perceived as being aligned with commercial interests. As a consequence, neither state- nor market-based (i.e. commercial health product and service providers) health advice is fully trusted. Instead, the opinions of non-market actors such as peers and friends as well as of alternative practitioners that are considered outside the market since they do not represent corporate interests become more attractive among citizen-consumers who are concerned about their health. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of our findings for theorization of public health and health policy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Acute admissions to medical departments in Denmark: diagnoses and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vest-Hansen, Betina; Riis, Anders Hammerich; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2014-09-01

    Despite extensive research on individual diseases, population-based knowledge about reasons for acute medical admissions remains limited. Our aim was to examine primary diagnoses, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, age, and gender among patients admitted acutely to medical departments in Denmark. In this population-based observational study, 264,265 acute medical patients admitted during 2010 were identified in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP), covering all hospitals in Denmark. Reasons for acute admissions were assessed by primary diagnoses, grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. Additionally, the CCI score, age and gender were presented according to each diagnostic group. Two-thirds of the patients had one of the four following reasons for admission: cardiovascular diseases (19.3%), non-specific Z-diagnoses ("Factors influencing health status and contact with health services") (16.9%), infectious diseases (15.5%), and non-specific R-diagnoses ("Symptoms and abnormal findings, not elsewhere classified") (11.8%). In total, 45% of the patients had a CCI score of one or more and there was a considerable overlap between the patients' chronic diseases and the reason for admission. The median age of the study population was 64 years (IQR 47-77 years), ranging from 46 years (IQR 27-66) for injury and poisoning to 74 years (IQR 60-83) for hematological diseases. Gender representation varied considerably within the diagnostic groups, for example with male predominance in mental disorders (59.0%) and female predominance in diseases of the musculoskeletal system (57.8%). Our study identifies that acute medical patients often present with non-specific symptoms or complications related to their chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scenarios of future lung cancer incidence by educational level: Modelling study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Barendregt, Jan J; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Kunst, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    To model future trends in lung cancer incidence in Denmark by education under different scenarios for cigarette smoking. Lung cancer incidence until 2050 was modelled using Prevent software. We estimated lung cancer incidence under a baseline scenario and under four alternative scenarios for smoking reduction: decreasing initiation rates among the young, increasing cessation rates among smokers, a scenario combining both changes and a levelling-up scenario in which people with low and medium levels of education acquired the smoking prevalence of the highly educated. Danish National Health Interview Surveys (1987-2005) and cancer registry data combined with individual education status from Statistics Denmark were used for empirical input. Under the baseline scenario, lung cancer rates are expected to decrease for most educational groups during the next few decades, but educational inequalities will increase further. Under the alternative scenarios, an additional decrease in lung cancer rates will be observed from 2030 onwards, but only from 2050 onwards it will be observed under the initiation scenario. The cessation and the combined scenarios show the largest decrease in lung cancer rates for all educational groups. However, in none of these scenarios would the relative differences between educational groups be reduced. A modest decrease in these inequalities will be observed under the levelling-up scenario. Our analyses show that relative inequalities in lung cancer incidence rates will tend to increase. They may be reduced to a small extent if the smoking prevalence of people with a low level of education was to converge towards those more highly educated people. An important decrease in lung cancer rates will be observed in all educational groups, however, especially when focusing on both initiation and cessation strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PBL and the Postmodern Condition--Knowledge Production in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ole; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the contemporary conditions for running the Aalborg Problem Based Learning-model (PBL). We try to pinpoint key characteristics of these conditions emphasising Lyotard's conception of knowledge production referred to as the move towards a postmodern condition for knowledge. Through discussions of this alleged condition…

  9. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Laura; Holden, Matthew TG; Lindsay, Heather; Webb, Cerian R; Brown, Derek FJ; Curran, Martin D; Walpole, Enid; Brooks, Karen; Pickard, Derek J; Teale, Christopher; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Edwards, Giles F; Girvan, E Kirsty; Kearns, Angela M; Pichon, Bruno; Hill, Robert LR; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert L; Peacock, Sharon J; Maskell, Duncan J; Holmes, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Animals can act as a reservoir and source for the emergence of novel meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in human beings. Here, we report the discovery of a strain of S aureus (LGA251) isolated from bulk milk that was phenotypically resistant to meticillin but tested negative for the mecA gene and a preliminary investigation of the extent to which such strains are present in bovine and human populations. Methods Isolates of bovine MRSA were obtained from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in the UK, and isolates of human MRSA were obtained from diagnostic or reference laboratories (two in the UK and one in Denmark). From these collections, we searched for mecA PCR-negative bovine and human S aureus isolates showing phenotypic meticillin resistance. We used whole-genome sequencing to establish the genetic basis for the observed antibiotic resistance. Findings A divergent mecA homologue (mecALGA251) was discovered in the LGA251 genome located in a novel staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element, designated type-XI SCCmec. The mecALGA251 was 70% identical to S aureus mecA homologues and was initially detected in 15 S aureus isolates from dairy cattle in England. These isolates were from three different multilocus sequence type lineages (CC130, CC705, and ST425); spa type t843 (associated with CC130) was identified in 60% of bovine isolates. When human mecA-negative MRSA isolates were tested, the mecALGA251 homologue was identified in 12 of 16 isolates from Scotland, 15 of 26 from England, and 24 of 32 from Denmark. As in cows, t843 was the most common spa type detected in human beings. Interpretation Although routine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing will identify S aureus isolates with this novel mecA homologue as meticillin resistant, present confirmatory methods will not identify them as MRSA. New diagnostic guidelines for the detection of MRSA should consider the inclusion of tests for mecALGA251. Funding

  10. A lightweight universe?

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Fan, Xiaohui

    1998-01-01

    How much matter is there in the universe? Does the universe have the critical density needed to stop its expansion, or is the universe underweight and destined to expand forever? We show that several independent measures, especially those utilizing the largest bound systems known—clusters of galaxies—all indicate that the mass-density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion. A promising new method, the evolution of the number density of clusters with time, provides the most powerful indication so far that the universe has a subcritical density. We show that different techniques reveal a consistent picture of a lightweight universe with only ∼20–30% of the critical density. Thus, the universe may expand forever. PMID:9600898

  11. Characteristics and Clinical Outcome of Lyme Neuroborreliosis in a High Endemic Area, 1995-2014: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Knudtzen, Fredrikke Christie; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Jensen, Thøger Gorm; Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur

    2017-10-16

    Despite a well-described symptomatology, treatment delay and sequelae are common in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge about the symptomatology and epidemiology of LNB. We conducted a retrospective study of all LNB cases verified by a positive Borrelia intrathecal antibody index test performed at the Department of Microbiology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from 1995 through 2014. The study included 431 patients; 126 were children. The mean incidence was 4.7 per 100 000 inhabitants per year. The median delay from neurological symptom debut to first hospital contact was 20 days and significantly longer for patients with symptom debut in the winter/early spring. The most common clinical symptoms were painful radiculitis (65.9%), cranial nerve palsy (43.4%), and headache (28.3%). A total of 30.6% were seen in >1 hospital department, and 85.6% were admitted during their course of treatment. Serum Borrelia immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G at the time of positive Borrelia intrathecal antibody index test were negative in 67 patients (15.5%). We found a median treatment delay of 24 days, with no improvement in our 20-year study period. Residual symptoms following treatment were found in 28.1% of patients, and risk of residual symptoms was significantly associated with delay from symptom debut to initiation of treatment. The association between treatment delay and residual symptoms and the lack of improvement in treatment delay during the study period highlight the need for standardized diagnostic routines and a better follow-up for LNB patients. Our findings disprove that all patients with LNB develop positive serum Borrelia antibodies within 6 weeks after infection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  13. Universities Scale Like Cities

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment. PMID:23544062

  14. On universal knot polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Morozov, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a universal knot polynomials for 2- and 3-strand torus knots in adjoint representation, by universalization of appropriate Rosso-Jones formula. According to universality, these polynomials coincide with adjoined colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials at SL and SO/Sp lines on Vogel's plane, respectively and give their exceptional group's counterparts on exceptional line. We demonstrate that [m,n]=[n,m] topological invariance, when applicable, take place on the entire Vogel's plane. We also suggest the universal form of invariant of figure eight knot in adjoint representation, and suggest existence of such universalization for any knot in adjoint and its descendant representations. Properties of universal polynomials and applications of these results are discussed.

  15. Thermodynamics and emergent universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Saumya; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2017-05-01

    We show that in the isentropic scenario, the first-order thermodynamical particle creation model gives an emergent universe solution even when the chemical potential is nonzero. However, there exists no emergent universe scenario in the second-order non-equilibrium theory for the particle creation model. We then point out a correspondence between the particle creation model with barotropic equation of state and the equation of state giving rise to an emergent universe without particle creation in spatially flat FRW cosmology.

  16. From Universal Access to Universal Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2003-01-01

    Panel of five education experts--Elliot Eisner, John Goodlad, Patricia Graham, Phillip Schlechty, and Warren Simons--answer questions related to recent school reform efforts, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, aimed at achieving universal educational proficiency. (PKP)

  17. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  18. Illuminating the Universe's Ignition

    DOE PAGES

    Gedenk, Eric

    2016-06-24

    This paper tells the story of how a research team based at the University of Texas at Austin used supercomputing resources at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory to create the first fully coupled simulation of the reionization of our universe's local group. The team's models helped researchers understand how reionization helped form the universe as we know it today, predict the impact of dwarf galaxies on reionization, and set the stage for simulating larger volumes of the universe in greater detail.

  19. College and University Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA's Green Power Partnership Challenge tracks and recognizes U.S. colleges and universities recognizes the largest single green power users within each participating collegiate athletic conferences.

  20. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's…

  1. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  2. Some economic consequences of an ageing and declining population in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leeson, G W

    1983-01-01

    Figures for 1981 indicate that Denmark has a fertility level of 1.45 which has been below replacement level since 1968. In that same time period, natural increase has decreased from over 27,000 in 1968 to only 1354 in 1980 and a negative natural increase in 1981 with deaths outnumbering births by 3001. Even during the depression in the 1930's, net population increase was between 6-9/1000 with a fertility level which hovered around replacement level. At that time, the number of females in the childbearing ages was enough to provide population growth, whereas the number is much less today. Population increase is only 0.3/1000. The national population projections for Denmark for 1981-2010 assume an increase in the fertility level from 1.45-1.70 by 1991 after which it remains constant. The number of 20-39 year olds increased steadily until 1945 after which there was a decline as the cohorts from periods with low fertility levels entered this age group, but this was again followed by a steady increase to the present day. The number of females aged 0-39 years is expected to decrease in all age groups to the year 2000. Those aged 40-59 increased in numbers from 1920 to the mid 1960s, since then they have decreased in number, but an increase is forcast for the remainder of the century. The number of elderly females also increased steadily from 1930-80, from about 200,000 to over 550,000; this is expected to continue until 1990 when a short-term decline will set in. Regarding the economic and social consequences of these trends, it is shown that the present decline in fertility has its origins in a period of low unemployment and its negative growth while there was still relatively low unemployment and economic growth. In 1973 the unemployed rate was 0.9% of the work force and this rose to 9.2% in 1981. The Danish population has aged from one with 1/4 million people aged 60 and over at the turn of the century to about 1 million of that age today. Also, the aged themselves

  3. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, p<0·0001) and for recurrent depressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L

    2015-12-15

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Point prevalence of wounds and cost impact in the acute and community setting in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Gottrup, F; Henneberg, E; Trangbæk, R; Bækmark, N; Zøllner, K; Sørensen, J

    2013-08-01

    To estimate the wound-care related costs in two hospitals in Denmark. A point-prevalence survey with a focus on resource consumption was carried out during a representative 1-week period in March 20 I 0, in two hospitals in Denmark: Regional Hospital Viborg, in the Viborg Municipality and Hillerod Hospital, in the Horsholm Municipality. Data were collected during a 2-day period for inpatients and outpatients in the hospitals and over a full week in the municipalities. The survey included information on the numbers, types and locations of the wounds, as well as resource consumption related to dressing changes. The estimation of costs was based on representative cost levels, including the salaries of health professionals or nurses and the cost of dressings and hospitalisation provided. In total, 33% (n=830) of inpatients had a wound. The majority of these were surgical/trauma wounds (25%), while pressure ulcers, leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers accounted for 3.3%, 1.7% and 1.6%, respectively. In the municipalities, there was a wound patient prevalence of 2.8 per I 000 population(I I I 000 acute wounds, 0.7/ I 000 pressure ulcers, 0.5/ I 000 leg ulcers and 0.3/ I 000 diabetic foot ulcers).The extrapolated figures for nurse time related to wound care per year was equivalent to I 0 full-time nurse positions in Hillerod Hospital, three in Viborg Hospital, 17 in Viborg Municipality and three in Horsholm Municipality. The total annual costs related to wound care was estimated as €3.6 million for Viborg Hospital, €4.1 million for Hillemd Hospital, € 1.2 million for Viborg Municipality and €232 548 for Horsholm Municipality, accounting for approximately 1.8% (Viborg), 1.6% (Hillerod), 2.4% (Viborg) and1.5% (Horsholm) of the total annual budgets. In the survey, 33% of the patients treated in the hospitals had a wound. Primary costs were defined as hospitalisation costs and nurse time related to dressing changes. Total annual costs of treatment, including

  6. Atmospheric trajectory and heliocentric orbit of the Ejby meteorite fall in Denmark on February 6, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, P.; Borovička, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Haack, H.; Heinlein, D.; Sørensen, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    A very bright bolide illuminated the sky over Denmark and neighboring countries on February 6th, 2016 at 21:07:18-23UT. It terminated by a multiple meteorite fall in the heavily populated area of the western outskirts of Copenhagen. Several meteorites classified as the H5/6 ordinary chondrites have been found shortly after the fall and total recovered mass reached almost 9 kg (Haack, 2016). Although this spectacular bolide has been reported by many casual witnesses, the instrumental records are very scarce, mainly due to bad weather over Denmark and neighboring countries. Despite it we were able to collect five instrumental records taken from different locations which were useful for the analysis of this event. We used three high resolution digital photographic images taken in Germany, one high resolution radiometric light curve taken by the northernmost Czech automated fireball observatory and one video record taken by a surveillance camera on the Danish west coast where a part of the fireball trajectory was recorded. It allowed us to reliably determine basic parameters defining the luminous trajectory of the bolide in the atmosphere and also heliocentric orbit of the initial meteoroid causing this spectacular meteorite fall. We found that this event was caused by a relatively fragile 50 cm meteoroid with initial mass about 250 kg. It entered the atmosphere with velocity of 14.5 km s-1 and quite steep entry angle of 62°. Its luminous flight started at 85.5 km and after 76 km long trajectory it terminated at 18.3 km. The heliocentric orbit of this meteoroid was of Apollo type with low inclination of 1° and perihelion distance just inside the Earth's orbit. It had a relatively large semimajor axis of 2.8 AU and aphelion distance 4.64 AU. It is the second largest aphelion distance among all meteorites with known orbits and the orbit had the same character as that of the Košice meteorite (H5 ordinary chondrite), which fell on February 28, 2010 (Borovička et al

  7. Mapping the lack of public initiative against female genital mutilation in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Gro Møller; Bruhn, Peter James; de Neergaard, Rosanna; Engel, Susanne; Naeser, Vibeke

    2018-04-07

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice prevalent in 35 countries, mainly in Africa, as well as in some Middle Eastern countries and a few Asian countries. FGM comprises all procedures that involve partial or complete resection of, or other injury to, external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM has spread to Western countries due to migration. The European Institute for Gender Equality recommend that FGM be combatted by nationally coordinated efforts through implementation of national action plans, guidelines for professionals as well as comprehensive research in the field. FGM was outlawed in Denmark 2003, but no national actions plan has been implemented. Instead, the task of combatting FGM is currently under the responsibility of local governments in the form of the 98 municipalities. The aim of this study is to investigate the Danish municipalities' efforts to prevent FGM on the local level, and whether these initiatives are in accordance with international recommendations and standards. All 98 Danish municipalities were invited to respond to a questionnaire regarding FGM in their respective municipalities. The inclusion process and questionnaire was designed after a pilot study, which included 29 municipalities. The questionnaire consisted of four overall areas of focus: "action plan", "registration", "information material" and "preventive initiatives". Demographic data were gathered from the 2017 census by Statistics Denmark. Risk countries were defined as countries with a tradition for FGM, identified from the 2016 UNICEF definition. A total of 67 municipalities participated in the study. At the time of census, 1.8% of the Danish population was immigrants with origins in risk countries. A total of 10.4% of the responding municipalities indicated to have implemented a specific action plan against FGM. A total of 7,5% had implemented specific preventive initiatives against FGM. Registration of reported FGM cases were

  8. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-related Disorders in Denmark After the Breivik Attacks in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bertel T; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-11-01

    On 22 July 2011, Anders Breivik killed 77 adults and children in Norway. Having recently documented increases in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the 9/11 attacks, we hypothesized that the Breivik attacks-due to their geographic proximity-would be followed by even larger increases in Denmark. Using population-based data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (1995-2012), we conducted an intervention analysis of the change in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders after the Breivik attacks. The incidence rate increased by 16% over the following 1½ years after the Breivik attacks, corresponding to 2736 additional cases. In comparison, 9/11 was followed by a 4% increase. We also present evidence of a subsequent surge in incidence stimulated by media attention. This study bolsters previous findings on extra-national consequences of terrorism and indicates that geographic proximity and media coverage may exacerbate effects.

  9. Sickness absence patterns and trends in the health care sector: 5-year monitoring of female municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. Methods Data from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway, and Aarhus, Denmark, for 3,181 and 8,545 female employees, respectively. Age-specific comparative statistics on sickness absence rates (number of calendar days of sickness absence/possible working days) and number of sick leave episodes were calculated for each year of the study period. Results There was an overall increasing trend in sickness absence rates in Denmark (P = 0.002), where rates were highest in the 20–29- (P = 0.01) and 50–59-year-old age groups (P = 0.03). Sickness absence rates in Norway were stable, except for an increase in the 20–29-year-old age group (P = 0.004). In both Norway and Denmark, the mean number of sick leave episodes increased (P <0.0001 and P <0.0001, respectively) in all age groups except for the 30–39- and 60–67-year-old age groups. The proportion of employees without sickness absence was higher in Norway than in Denmark. Both short-term and long-term absence increased in Denmark (P = 0.003 and P <0.0001, respectively), while in Norway, only short-term absence increased (P = 0.09). Conclusions We found an overall increase in sickness absence rates in Denmark, while the largest overall increase in sick leave episodes was found in Norway. In both countries, the largest increases were observed among young employees. The results indicate that the two countries are converging in regard to sickness absence measured as rates and episodes. PMID:25005027

  10. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn; Kaplan, George A; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie N

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs). From the national medical birth registries we gathered information on all births from 1987 to 2003. Information on highest completed maternal education and household income in the year preceding birth of the offspring was obtained for 1,012,400 births in Denmark and 499,390 in Finland. We then calculated CIXs for income- and education-related inequality in SGA and preterm birth. The mean household income-related inequality in SGA was -0.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.05, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The maternal education-related inequality in SGA was -0.08 (-0.10, -0.06) in Denmark and -0.07 (-0.08, -0.06) in Finland. The income-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.03 (-0.03, -0.02) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The education-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.05 (-0.07, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) in Finland. In Denmark, the income-related and education-related inequity in SGA increased over time. In Finland, the income-related inequality in SGA birth increased slightly, while education-related inequalities remained stable. Inequalities in preterm birth decreased over time in both countries. Denmark and Finland are examples of nations with free prenatal care and publicly financed obstetric care of high quality. During the period of study there were macroeconomic shocks affecting both countries. However, only small income- and education-related inequalities in SGA and preterm births during the period were observed.

  11. [The University in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Morris B.

    The university reflects the revolution in the world. Large numbers of "find out" students are not goal oriented and are affected by malaise; many approve of the use of violence in certain situations. Part of the revolution must be accepted and part rejected. The university is extremely vulnerable to violence and, unless it is contained, American…

  12. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  13. University Education on Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurki-Suonio, Reino; Benediktsson, Oddur; Bubenko, Janis; Dahlstrand, Ingemar; Gram, Christian; Impagliazzo, John

    Following a session on university education, this panel discussed early Nordic visions and experiences on university computing education, contrasting them to today’s needs and the international development at that time. This report gives short papers by the panelists (their opening statements), and a brief summary (the chair’s interpretation) of the views that were raised in the ensuing discussion.

  14. Universe of constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  15. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market"…

  16. Universal Playground Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This publication presents principles of universal playgrounds, designed to maximize accessibility for all children, with and without disabilities. First, the rationale for the universal playground is given including the importance of play and the value of integration. Next current guidelines for playground design are discussed including safety,…

  17. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  18. Regionalism in Scottish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that Scottish universities are highly local institutions and that over two-fifth of Scottish university students live at home. Attempts to ascertain if this regionalism has relaxed over the past twenty years with student grant regulations, improvement in communications and the increasing affluence of today's society. (Author/RK)

  19. Talent Management for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…

  20. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  1. University Patent Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latker, Norman J.

    The relationship between university research and public need is discussed from both a historical and contemporary perspective. Examples are cited of European experiences in which there has been obvious industrial motivation for research performed by the universities. The author notes that there are no difficulties with the level of government…

  2. Managing Tomorrow's University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Craig L., Ed.

    The issues addressed in this conference report concern budgeting, the resourceful manager, extramural funding, employer-employee interaction, management information systems, and management of the university in the future. Contents include: the keynote address by F. E. Balderston; "University Budgeting in an Era of Scarce Resources," by F. M. Bowen…

  3. Tutors for a University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styler, W. E.

    The pamphlet describes the system developed at Hull University for providing tutors for adult education, and analyzes the use of full-time and part-time tutors. These tutors are responsible for teaching courses, generally shorter in duration than a standard academic course, and geared for adults not in school rather than for university students.…

  4. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  5. The universal propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1993-01-01

    For a general Hamiltonian appropriate to a single canonical degree of freedom, a universal propagator with the property that it correctly evolves the coherent-state Hilbert space representatives for an arbitrary fiducial vector is characterized and defined. The universal propagator is explicitly constructed for the harmonic oscillator, with a result that differs from the conventional propagators for this system.

  6. The University's Governance Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maassen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    One can observe a growing external pressure on universities to become more responsive to society through proactively engaging in various types of competition--competing for students, staff, external funding, and for academic prestige and status. The ensuing reform agendas aim at changing the intra-university governance structures for stimulating…

  7. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  8. Miami University Information Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami Univ., Oxford, OH.

    The 1975 information manual is designed to provide current data on policies, procedures, services, facilities, organization and governance of Miami University and, through the extensive index, quick access to this information. The manual is complementary to the university catalog and directory. Information relating to students is in the Student…

  9. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  10. Family Bonding with Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2010-01-01

    One justification offered for legacy admissions policies at universities is that that they bind entire families to the university. Proponents maintain that these policies have a number of benefits, including increased donations from members of these families. We use a rich set of data from an anonymous selective research institution to investigate…

  11. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  12. Reframing University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In "Universities without Walls: Engaging Our World," Janice Reid provided an excellent survey of the traditions and perspectives that underpin university engagement, and pointed to some of the challenges that remain in genuinely "mainstreaming" this work. In this commentary, Paul Manners offers a further challenge: that those…

  13. The Global Electronic University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsumi, Takeshi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes plans to create a Global University Consortium, i.e., a worldwide educational electronic network of universities, businesses, and governmental, nongovernmental, and community organizations. Topics discussed include quality education; transcultural unity; moral leadership; academic freedom; peace-gaming; participation of less developed…

  14. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  15. University HRD Programs. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of four papers on university human resource development (HRD) programs. "Passions for Excellence: HRD Graduate Programs at United States Universities" (K. Peter Kuchinke) presents an analysis of case studies that reveals convergent and divergent themes related to the genesis of programs and subsequent…

  16. The Kept University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Eyal; Washburn, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Examines the trend of increasing collaboration between American universities and corporations, including issues such as the academic-industrial complex, secrecy and science, the university as a business/commercial enterprise, who controls the research agenda, downsizing the humanities, and on-line marketing of course material. Expresses concerns…

  17. Asylum seekers in Denmark--a study of health status and grade of traumatization of newly arrived asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmannr, Caecilie; Bunch, Vibeke; Jensen, Jean Hald; Hansen, Trine Nørregård; Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Kjaer, Claes; Mannstaedt, Maiken; Oxholm, Annemette; Skau, Jutta; Theilade, Lotte; Worm, Lise; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    An unknown number of asylum seekers arriving in Denmark have been exposed to torture or have experienced other traumatising events in their country of origin. The health of traumatised asylum seekers, both physically and mentally, is affected upon arrival to Denmark, and time in asylum centres leads to further deterioration in health. One hundred forty-two (N=142) newly arrived asylum seekers were examined at Center Sandholm by Amnesty International Danish Medical Group from the 1st of September until the 31st of December 2007. The asylum seekers came from 33 different countries, primarily representing Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Chechnya. Of the asylum seekers, 45 percent had been exposed to torture--approximately one-third within the year of arrival to Denmark. Unsystematic blows, personal threats or threats to family, degrading treatment, isolation, and witnessing torture of others were the main torture methods reported. The majority of the asylum seekers had witnessed armed conflict, persecution, and imprisonment. The study showed that physical symptoms were approximately twice as frequent and psychological symptoms were approximately two to three times as frequent among torture survivors as among non-tortured asylum seekers. However, even the health of non-tortured asylum seekers was affected. Among the torture survivors, 63 percent fulfilled the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 30-40 percent of the torture survivors were depressed, in anguish, anxious, and tearful in comparison to 5-10 percent of the non-tortured asylum seekers. Further, 42 percent of torture survivors had torture-related scars. Torture survivors amid newly arrived asylum seekers are an extremely vulnerable group, hence examination and inquiry about the torture history is extremely important in order to identify this population to initiate the necessary medical treatment and social assistance. Amnesty International Danish Medical group is currently planning a follow

  18. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-02-24

    A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Comparing the application of Health Information Technology in primary care in Denmark and Andalucía, Spain.

    PubMed

    Protti, Denis; Johansen, Ib; Perez-Torres, Francisco

    2009-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Denmark is one, if not the, leading country in terms of the use of information technology by its primary care physicians. Other countries, notably excluding the United States and Canada, are also advanced in terms of electronic medical records in general practitioner offices and clinics. This paper compares the status of primary care physician office computing in Andalucía to that of Denmark by contrasting the functionality of electronic medical records (EMRs) and the ability to electronically communicate clinical information in both jurisdictions. A novel scoring system has been developed based on data gathered from databases held by the respective jurisdictional programs, and interviews with individuals involved in the deployment of the systems. The scoring methodology was applied for the first time in a comparison of the degree of automation in primary care physician offices in Denmark and the province of Alberta in Canada. It was also used to compare Denmark and New Zealand. This paper is the third offering of this method of scoring the adoption of electronic medical records in primary care office settings which hopefully may be applicable to other health jurisdictions at national, state, or provincial levels. Although similar in many respects, there are significant differences between these two relatively autonomous health systems which have led to the rates of uptake of physician office computing. Particularly notable is the reality that the Danish primary care physicians have individual "Electronic Medical Records" while in Andalucía, the primary care physicians share a common record which when secondary care is fully implemented will indeed be an "Electronic Health Record". It is clear that the diffusion of technology, within the primary care physician sector of the health care market, is subject to historical, financial, legal, cultural, and social factors. This tale of two places illustrates the issues, and different

  20. Evolution of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. D.

    The underlying principles and discoveries of cosmology are presented in a qualitative form. The General Theory of Relativity is the basis for the science of the structure of the Universe, and Friedmann in 1922-4 demonstrated that the Universe is either expanding or contracting; Hubble in 1929 provided evidence for expansion. The physical processes of the evolution of the Universe to date have been projected to include origins in a superdense, superhot state with violent reactions between elementary particles. The resulting matter fragmented into the stellar systems and agglomerations presently observed. Observational data of the most distant galaxies now covers a range of 10 Gpc. Current studies focus on the missing matter in the Universe and the mean density of matter, the gravitation of vacuum, relict radiation from the Big Bang, the curvature of space-time, and theories for the earliest moments of the Universe, including pancake theories, the synthesis of light elements, and black and white holes.

  1. Health Effects of Unemployment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 2007-2010: Differing Economic Conditions, Differing Results?

    PubMed

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates short-term health effects of unemployment for individuals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during an economic downturn (2007-2010) that hit the Scandinavian countries with diverging strength. The longitudinal part of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data material is analyzed, and results from generalized least squares estimation indicate that Denmark is the only Scandinavian country in which health status deteriorated among the unemployed. The individual-level (and calendar year) fixed-effect results confirm the negative relationship between unemployment and health status in Denmark. This result is robust across different subsamples, model specifications, and changes in both the dependent and independent variable. Health status deteriorated especially among women and people in prime working age (30-59 years). There is, however, only scant evidence of short-term health effects among the recently unemployed in Norway and Sweden. The empirical findings are discussed in light of: (1) the adequacy of the unemployment insurance system, (2) the likelihood of re-employment for the displaced worker, and (3) selection patterns into and out of employment in the years preceding and during the economic downturn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Trauma facilities in Denmark - a nationwide cross-sectional benchmark study of facilities and trauma care organisation.

    PubMed

    Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C; Frederiksen, Christian A; Laursen, Christian B; Sloth, Erik; Mølgaard, Ole; Knudsen, Lars; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2018-03-27

    Trauma is a leading cause of death among adults aged < 44 years, and optimal care is a challenge. Evidence supports the centralization of trauma facilities and the use multidisciplinary trauma teams. Because knowledge is sparse on the existing distribution of trauma facilities and the organisation of trauma care in Denmark, the aim of this study was to identify all Danish facilities that care for traumatized patients and to investigate the diversity in organization of trauma management. We conducted a systematic observational cross-sectional study. First, all hospitals in Denmark were identified via online services and clarifying phone calls to each facility. Second, all trauma care manuals on all facilities that receive traumatized patients were gathered. Third, anesthesiologists and orthopedic surgeons on call at all trauma facilities were contacted via telephone for structured interviews. A total of 22 facilities in Denmark were found to receive traumatized patients. All facilities used a trauma care manual and all had a multidisciplinary trauma team. The study found three different trauma team activation criteria and nine different compositions of teams who participate in trauma care. Training was heterogeneous and, beyond the major trauma centers, databases were only maintained in a few facilities. The study established an inventory of the existing Danish facilities that receive traumatized patients. The trauma team activation criteria and the trauma teams were heterogeneous in both size and composition. A national database for traumatized patients, research on nationwide trauma team activation criteria, and team composition guidelines are all called for.

  3. "That is why I have trust": unpacking what 'trust' means to participants in international genetic research in Pakistan and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Zainab; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    Trust features prominently in a number of policy documents that have been issued in recent years to facilitate data sharing and international collaboration in medical research. However, it often remains unclear what is meant by 'trust'. By exploring a concrete international collaboration between Denmark and Pakistan, we develop a way of unpacking trust that shifts focus from what trust 'is' to what people invest in relationships and what references to trust do for them in these relationships. Based on interviews in both Pakistan and Denmark with people who provide blood samples and health data for the same laboratory, we find that when participants discuss trust they are trying to shape their relationship to researchers while simultaneously communicating important hopes, fears and expectations. The types of trust people talk about are never unconditional, but involve awareness of uncertainties and risks. There are different things at stake for people in different contexts, and therefore it is not the same to trust researchers in Pakistan as it is in Denmark, even when participants donate to the same laboratory. We conclude that casual references to 'trust' in policy documents risk glossing over important local differences and contribute to a de-politicization of basic inequalities in access to healthcare.

  4. Life in the Universe - Is there anybody out there?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    European Commission for the "European Week of Science and Technology" in November 2001. Competitions are already underway in 23 European countries [2] to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. The projects can be scientific or a piece of art, a theatrical performance, poetry or even a musical performance. The only restriction is that the final work must be based on scientific evidence. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN's headquarters, in Geneva on 8-11 November, 2001 to present their projects to a panel of International Experts at a special three day event devoted to understanding the possibility of other life forms existing in our Universe. This final event will be broadcast all over the world via the Internet. The website The home base of the 'Life in the Universe" project is a vibrant web space http://www.lifeinuniverse.org where details of the programme can be found. It is still under development but already has a wealth of information and links to the national websites, where all entries are posted. Is there other life in the Universe? We do not know - but the search is on! To find out what is happening for "Life in the Universe" in each country, contact the National Steering Committees ! Notes [1] This is a joint Press Release by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These European intergovernmental research organisations organised the highly successful Physics On Stage programme during the European Week of Science and Technology in 2000. [2] The 23 countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom. CERN , the European Organization for Nuclear Research , has its headquarters in Geneva. At present, its Member

  5. Prevalence of benzocaine and lidocaine patch test sensitivity in Denmark: temporal trends and relevance.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND. Allergens included in the European baseline series should result in positive patch test reactions in at least 1% of a patch test population. Inclusion of local anaesthetics other than benzocaine in the baseline series has previously been debated. To investigate temporal trends of benzocaine and lidocaine allergy in dermatitis patients who underwent routine patch testing in a tertiary referral patch test centre, and to clarify and discuss whether lidocaine and benzocaine should be included in routine series. Dermatitis patients who underwent routine patch testing with benzocaine as a part of the European baseline series between 1985 and 2010 (n = 19 347) and dermatitis patients who underwent routine patch testing with lidocaine between 1994 and 2001 (n = 6265) and between 2007 and 2009 (n = 1360) were included. The overall prevalences of contact allergy were 0.5% (benzocaine), 0.3% (lidocaine for the period 1994-2001), and 0.14% (lidocaine for the period 2007-2009). Current relevance was observed in 10% of those with benzocaine allergy and in 5% of those with lidocaine allergy. Benzocaine and lidocaine allergy is infrequent in Danish dermatitis patients. Lidocaine should only be used for aimed testing, and benzocaine should be removed from the baseline series used in Denmark. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Self rated health as a predictor of coronary heart disease in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, L; Kristensen, T S; Hollnagel, H

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between self rated health and the incidence of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Danish cohort followed up over 16 years. DESIGN: This was a prospective epidemiological follow up study. SETTING: A cohort from the County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1052 men and women born in 1936. During the 16 years' follow up 50 cases of CHD were registered in either the Danish register of deaths or the register of hospital admissions. MAIN RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed the following relative risks of CHD in the four self rated health groups: 'extremely good': 1.0, 'good': 4.0, 'poor': 5.8, 'miserable': 12.1 (p = 0.02). After control for the conventional CHD risk factors and a substantial number of other potential confounders the relative risks were: 1.0, 4.2, 6.5, and 18.6 (p = 0.02) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Self rated health was an independent predictor of CHD in the present cohort. If confirmed, the association between self rated health and CHD may lead to new insight into psychosocial processes leading to this disease. Images PMID:8882226

  7. Partial USH2A deletions contribute to Usher syndrome in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Dad, Shzeena; Rendtorff, Nanna D; Kann, Erik; Albrechtsen, Anders; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Bak, Mads; Tommerup, Niels; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rosenberg, Thomas; Jensen, Hanne; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2015-12-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital hearing impairment, progressive visual loss owing to retinitis pigmentosa and in some cases vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome is divided into three subtypes, USH1, USH2 and USH3. Twelve loci and eleven genes have so far been identified. Duplications and deletions in PCDH15 and USH2A that lead to USH1 and USH2, respectively, have previously been identified in patients from United Kingdom, Spain and Italy. In this study, we investigate the proportion of exon deletions and duplications in PCDH15 and USH2A in 20 USH1 and 30 USH2 patients from Denmark using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Two heterozygous deletions were identified in USH2A, but no deletions or duplications were identified in PCDH15. Next-generation mate-pair sequencing was used to identify the exact breakpoints of the two deletions identified in USH2A. Our results suggest that USH2 is caused by USH2A exon deletions in a small fraction of the patients, whereas deletions or duplications in PCDH15 might be rare in Danish Usher patients.

  8. The effect of communication and implicit associations on consuming insects: An experiment in Denmark and Italy.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; La Barbera, Francesco; Kolle, Susanne; Amato, Mario; Del Giudice, Teresa; Grunert, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    It has been widely noted that the introduction of insects in Westerns' diet might be a promising path towards a more sustainable food consumption. However, Westerns' are almost disgusted and sceptical about the eating of insects. In the current paper we report the results of an experiment conducted in two European countries-Denmark and Italy-different for food culture and familiarity with the topic of eating insects. We investigated the possibility to foster people's willingness to eat insect-based food through communication, also comparing messages based on individual vs. societal benefits of the eating of insects. Communication proved to be effective on intention and behaviour, and the societal message appeared to be more robust over time. The communication effect is significant across nation, gender, and previous knowledge about the topic. In addition, we investigated the impact of non-conscious negative associations with insects on the choice to eat vs. not eat insect-based food. Implicit attitudes proved to be a powerful factor in relation to behaviour, yet they did not impede the effectiveness of communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Intersectoral Health Promotion Changes Professional Practices: A Case Study From Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mads; Burau, Viola; Ledderer, Loni

    2018-05-01

    Intersectoral health promotion (IHP) has pushed health professions to engage in new tasks and interprofessional ways of working. We studied how care assistants from a nursing home and school teachers implemented a cookery project targeted at children ("Cool Beans") as an example of an IHP project in Denmark. Our aim was to examine the impact of the IHP project on the practices of the professions involved. We used a qualitative case study to investigate joint care and teaching situations with the two professions and their users. Our data consisted of documents, participatory observations, and informal interviews (17 hours) as well as semistructured interviews with professionals (n = 4). We used a sociological institutional framework to analyze the professional practices emerging in joint care and teaching situations and identified three themes of new professional activities: (1) "interplay" related to making different generations collaborate on the tasks involved in the cookery session; (2) "care" concerned with caregiving activities; and (3) "learning" focused on schooling on healthy food and cooking. We conclude that changes in professional practices occurred informally and were induced by the concrete activities in the cookery project. The specific, practical tasks of the IHP project thus offered an important leverage for future interprofessional collaborations.

  10. Loss of life expectancy derived from a standardized mortality ratio in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Væth, Michael; Støvring, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is a widely used measure. A recent methodological study provided an accurate approximate relationship between an SMR and difference in lifetime expectancies. This study examines the usefulness of the theoretical relationship, when comparing historic mortality data in four Scandinavian populations. For Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, data on mortality every fifth year in the period 1950 to 2010 were obtained. Using 1980 as the reference year, SMRs and difference in life expectancy were calculated. The assumptions behind the theoretical relationship were examined graphically. The theoretical relationship predicts a linear association with a slope, [Formula: see text], between log(SMR) and difference in life expectancies, and the theoretical prediction and calculated differences in lifetime expectancies were compared. We examined the linear association both for life expectancy at birth and at age 30. All analyses were done for females, males and the total population. The approximate relationship provided accurate predictions of actual differences in lifetime expectancies. The accuracy of the predictions was better when age was restricted to above 30, and improved if the changes in mortality rate were close to a proportional change. Slopes of the linear relationship were generally around 9 for females and 10 for males. The theoretically derived relationship between SMR and difference in life expectancies provides an accurate prediction for comparing populations with approximately proportional differences in mortality, and was relatively robust. The relationship may provide a useful prediction of differences in lifetime expectancies, which can be more readily communicated and understood.

  11. What characterizes persons with high levels of perceived stress in Denmark? A national representative study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Curtis, Tine; Kristensen, Tage S; Rod Nielsen, Naja

    2008-06-01

    Stress is a growing public health problem, but there are only a few studies with national representative samples on the occurrence of stress. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress, measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, in Denmark, and to identify and characterize the group with high levels of stress by factors measured at both the individual and neighbourhood levels in a national representative sample of the Danish population. The 10,022 participants in the National Health Interview Survey 2005 were asked about perceived stress and individual factors in a cross-sectional design. Information on neighbourhood factors was derived from a national registry. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression models. Low education, heavy smoking, physical inactivity, lack of social network and poor working conditions were associated with perceived stress. For women, living in a neighbourhood with low average education, and for men, living in a neighbourhood with a high rate of crime and a low degree of ethnic diversity, were associated with higher perceived stress. Perceived stress was also related to indicators of morbidity. The group with high perceived stress is characterized by individual and neighbourhood factors with negative impacts on quality of life and risk of illness. This knowledge can guide future stress prevention efforts. Additionally, the results suggest a negative social component where perceived stress, unhealthy lifestyle and low social status are accumulated, and perceived stress might be used as a measure to identify groups characterized by accumulation of risk factors.

  12. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mazick, A; Howitz, M; Rex, S; Jensen, I P; Weis, N; Katzenstein, T L; Haff, J; Mølbak, K

    2005-05-01

    During an outbreak of hepatitis A predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2004, we did a case-control study to determine risk factors for infection. A case was an MSM >17 years, living in Copenhagen, with IgM positive hepatitis A infection diagnosed between June and August 2004, and without a household contact with a hepatitis A case before onset of illness. Controls were selected at the Copenhagen Pride Festival. The study included 18 cases and 64 controls. Sixteen of 18 cases and 36/63 controls had sex with casual partners (ORMH 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results are in accordance with findings in other European outbreaks. As the general immunity to hepatitis A decreases and the outbreak potential increases, we recommend health education and hepatitis A vaccination to all MSM not living in monogamous relationships, especially if they visit gay saunas or other places with frequent partner change. To stop spread of hepatitis A among MSM in Europe, a European consensus on prevention and control measures may be required.

  13. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mazick, A; Howitz, M; Rex, S; Jensen, I P; Weis, N; Katzenstein, T L; Haff, J; Molbak, K

    2005-05-01

    During an outbreak of hepatitis A predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2004, we did a case-control study to determine risk factors for infection. A case was an MSM >17 years, living in Copenhagen, with IgM positive hepatitis A infection diagnosed between June and August 2004, and without a household contact with a hepatitis A case before onset of illness. Controls were selected at the Copenhagen Pride Festival. The study included 18 cases and 64 controls. Sixteen of 18 cases and 36/63 controls had sex with casual partners (ORMH 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results are in accordance with findings in other European outbreaks. As the general immunity to hepatitis A decreases and the outbreak potential increases, we recommend health education and hepatitis A vaccination to all MSM not living in monogamous relationships, especially if they visit gay saunas or other places with frequent partner change. To stop spread of hepatitis A among MSM in Europe, a European consensus on prevention and control measures may be required.

  14. A redescription of Lithornis vulturinus (Aves, Palaeognathae) from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle; Lindow, Bent

    2015-10-20

    The extinct Lithornithidae include several genera and species of flying palaeognathous birds of controversial affinities known from the Early Paleogene of North America and Europe. An almost complete, articulated skeleton from the Early Eocene marine deposits of the Fur Formation (Denmark) was recently assigned to Lithornis vulturinus Owen, 1840. This study provides a detailed redescription and comparison of this three-dimensionally preserved specimen (MGUH 26770), which is one of the best preserved representatives of the Lithornithidae yet known. We suggest that some new features might be diagnostic of Lithornis vulturinus, including a pterygoid fossa shallower than in other species of Lithornis and the presence of a small caudal process on the os palatinum. We propose that Lithornis nasi (Harrison, 1984) is a junior synonym of Lithornis vulturinus and we interpret minor differences in size and shape among the specimens as intraspecific variation. To date, Lithornis vulturinus is known with certainty from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene to Early Eocene of the North Sea Basin (Ølst, Fur and London Clay Formations). Among the four species of the genus Lithornis, the possibility that Lithornis plebius Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is conspecific with either Lithornis vulturinus or Lithornis promiscuus Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is discussed. The presence of closely related species of Lithornis on either side of the North Atlantic in the Early Eocene reflects the existence of a high-latitude land connection between Europe and North America at that time.

  15. The 'Seamless Web': the development of the electronic patient record in Aarhus region, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C B

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the organization of the current project to develop an electronic patient record in the Aarhus Region, Denmark. The article is based on various policy documents and reports as well as a number of semi-structured interviews with project managers from the EPR organization in Aarhus County and with participants in the development process at local hospitals. This material is used to present and discuss the framing of the project in a 'discourse coalition'. The stabilization of a specific discourse coalition has been an important factor in ensuring the success of the development project up to the present moment. This coalition became relatively stable by integrating a diverse set of actors in a story-line about the relationships between co-operation, management and technology in the medial sector, and has influenced the modular organization of the project. The successful maintenance of the discourse coalition allows the project to appear 'seamless' from the outside. Conversely, the project is likely to be continually reviewed as successful only to the extent that it is able to flexibly keep the fluctuating set of relevant actors in alignment. If the practical work of keeping a coalition in place remains invisible it becomes easy to imagine an ideal way of planning large socio-technical projects, like developing an ECR. But practical success is more likely to be achieved if one takes seriously the thorough intertwining of discursive, organizational and technical aspects of development projects.

  16. Cost-of-illness of patients with contact dermatitis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saetterstrøm, Bjørn; Olsen, Jens; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-09-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent occupational and non-occupational skin disease. To investigate the effects of contact dermatitis on labour market affiliation and societal costs in terms of healthcare costs and production loss. A total of 21 441 patients patch tested either in hospital departments or at dermatological clinics in the period 2004-2009 were included in the study. The analyses were stratified by children (age 0-15 years), occupational contact dermatitis (age 16-65 years), and non-occupational dermatitis (age ≥ 16 years). Controls were selected from a 30% random sample of the population. Individual encrypted data were retrieved on healthcare utilization, socio-demographics, education, labour market affiliation and transfer payments from public registers in Denmark for cases and controls. Attributable healthcare costs for 4 years prior to patch testing (1 year for children) and the year after patch testing were €959 for children, €724 for occupational contact dermatitis, and €1794 for non-occupational dermatitis. Productivity costs for the same period were €10 722 for occupational contact dermatitis and €3074 for non-occupational contact dermatitis. The main findings of this study were that there were statistically significant attributable healthcare costs for both children and adults, and statistically significant productivity loss for adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The North Denmark Bacteremia Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Schønheyder, Henrik C; Søgaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Improving prevention and treatment requires better knowledge of the disease and its prognosis. However, in order to study the entire spectrum of bacteremia patients, we need valid sources of information, prospective data collection, and complete follow-up. In North Denmark Region, all patients diagnosed with bacteremia have been registered in a population-based database since 1981. The information has been recorded prospectively since 1992 and the main variables are: the patient’s unique civil registration number, date of sampling the first positive blood culture, date of admission, clinical department, date of notification of growth, place of acquisition, focus of infection, microbiological species, antibiogram, and empirical antimicrobial treatment. During the time from 1981 to 2008, information on 22,556 cases of bacteremia has been recorded. The civil registration number makes it possible to link the database to other medical databases and thereby build large cohorts with detailed longitudinal data that include hospital histories since 1977, comorbidity data, and complete follow-up of survival. The database is suited for epidemiological research and, presently, approximately 60 studies have been published. Other Danish departments of clinical microbiology have recently started to record the same information and a population base of 2.3 million will be available for future studies. PMID:20865114

  18. Social Conditions for People With Down Syndrome: A Register-Based Cohort Study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hasle, Henrik; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Today, most persons with Down syndrome (DS) survive into middle age, but information on their social conditions as adults is limited. We addressed this knowledge gap using data from national registers in Denmark. We identified a national cohort of 1,998 persons with DS who were born between 1968 and 2007 (1,852 with standard trisomy 21, 80 with Robertsonian translocations and 66 with mosaicism) using the Danish Cytogenetic Register. We followed this cohort from 1980 to 2007. Information on social conditions (education, employment, source of income, marital status, etc.) was obtained by linkages to national registers, including the Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labor Market Research. For those aged 18 and older, more than 80%of persons with DS attended 10 years of primary school, with about 2% completing secondary or post-secondary education. About 4% obtained a full-time job, whereas the remaining mainly received public support from the government. Only a few (1–2%) of persons with DS were married or had a child. No significant differences in these social conditions were seen between males and females. More persons with mosaic DS attended secondary or post-secondary education, had a full-time job, were married, or had a child (18%, 28%, 15%, and 7%, respectively), compared with persons with standard DS (1%, 2%, 1%, and 1%, respectively). These data may provide families with better insight into social conditions and society with a better understanding of the social support needed for persons with DS. PMID:24273114

  19. Nickel and cobalt release from children's toys purchased in Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Jellesen, Morten S; Jacob, Sharon E; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance to identify new sources of nickel exposure in this age group is important. Recent case reports have described allergic nickel contact dermatitis in children following exposure to toys, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate nickel and cobalt release from children's toys. We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released cobalt. Toys are a commonly overlooked source of nickel exposure and sensitization. Therefore, dermatologists, allergists, and pediatricians should consider the role of toys in their evaluation of children with dermatitis, and the parents of children with positive nickel patch test reactions should be told that toys may release nickel and be a potential chemical source in the manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis.

  20. Does educational status impact adult mortality in Denmark? A twin approach.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen, Per Kragh; Osler, Merete

    2010-07-15

    To disentangle an independent effect of educational status on mortality risk from direct and indirect selection mechanisms, the authors used a discordant twin pair design, which allowed them to isolate the effect of education by means of adjustment for genetic and environmental confounding per design. The study is based on data from the Danish Twin Registry and Statistics Denmark. Using Cox regression, they estimated hazard ratios for mortality according to the highest attained education among 5,260 monozygotic and 11,088 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs born during 1921-1950 and followed during 1980-2008. Both standard cohort and intrapair analyses were conducted separately for zygosity, gender, and birth cohort. Educational differences in mortality were demonstrated in the standard cohort analyses but attenuated in the intrapair analyses in all subgroups but men born during 1921-1935, and no effect modification by zygosity was observed. Hence, the results are most compatible with an effect of early family environment in explaining the educational inequality in mortality. However, large educational differences were still reflected in mortality risk differences within twin pairs, thus supporting some degree of independent effect of education. In addition, the effect of education may be more pronounced in older cohorts of Danish men.

  1. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark: social and environmental quality jeopardized.

    PubMed

    Busck, Ole

    2007-08-01

    Refuse collection has been the main public service to be outsourced in Denmark since the E.U. guidelines on public procurement came into force in 1993. The contracting activities of the municipalities are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, in addition to regulations. At both EU level and at national level, the demands for marketization of the public sector are counterbalanced by demands for social and environmental considerations. The procurement directive reflects the balance legalizing the inclusion of such requirements by contracting. The Danish experiences, however, tell a grim tale of subordination of social requirements in municipal contracting practices with implications for the quality of the service. The results of a recent study of developments in the working conditions at commercial collection companies show deterioration in respect of health and safety, competence building and job security concurrent with the increase in outsourcing and competition in the sector. In the analysis of the results, a combination of municipal cost-saving strategies, harsh market forces and cultural influences are identified as causal factors. Drawing on a brief institutional analysis, it is concluded that the existing normative and regulative framework of municipal contracting needs reinforcement if societal intentions of qualified public services and acceptable working conditions are to be effective. Initiatives to simultaneously improve working conditions and environmental results of collection are called for.

  2. Permanent disability pension due to skin diseases in Denmark 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2011-01-01

    Skin diseases are common in the society. The majority of papers published on the impact of skin diseases are focused on clinical consequences of the quality of life, depression and anxiety. The overall societal perspective on skin disease is only poorly described but is important in the understanding of how skin diseases affect patients and in arguments for continued specialist services. An approach to explore the societal impact of skin diseases is to investigate the incidence of permanent disability pensions granted due to skin diseases. The present study evaluated the number of permanent disability pensions granted due to skin diseases in Denmark during the 2003-2008 period and related them to previous findings. In view of the high prevalence of skin diseases in the society, and particularly their role in occupational medicine, only a low number of disability pensions are granted. This may reflect that skin diseases either have less impact on the individual or are not considered by the authorities as debilitating as other high prevalence diseases such as musculoskeletal, psychiatric or circulatory diseases.

  3. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Allan; Frei, Patrizia; Kjaear, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Schüz, Joachim

    2013-07-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users.

  4. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, Peter Falck

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile phone use while driving 31% of the drivers reported to do so. Analysis of the variations in usage found a positive significant relationship between driving hours and phone use. A negative linear effect was found between age and phone use. Similarly, a positive significant association was found between the number of stops and the amount of phone use. 0.5% reported that their use of mobile phones had contributed to an accident, while 6% had experienced their mobile phone use causing a dangerous situation. However, 66% reported experiencing dangerous situations because of others road users' mobile phone use. Various implications of the findings are discussed particularly in relation to the drivers with high exposure.

  5. Analyzing the relationship between car generation and severity of motor-vehicle crashes in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rich, Jeppe; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2013-05-01

    While the number of fatalities on Danish roads has decreased in the last 40 years, research has not investigated the contribution of legislation changes, enforcement measures, technological enhancements, infrastructural improvements and human factors to this reduction. In the context of a Danish car market with remarkably high registration tax that causes potential buyers to hold longer onto old cars, the relationship between technological enhancements of vehicles and severity of crashes requires particular attention. The current study investigated the relationship between car generation (i.e., car's first registration year) and injury severity sustained by car drivers involved in accidents in Denmark between 2004 and 2010. A generalized ordered logit model was estimated while controlling for several characteristics of the crash, the vehicle and the persons involved, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effect of car generation on drivers' injury severity. Results illustrate that newer car generations are associated to significantly lower probability of injury and fatality, and that replacing older cars with newer ones introduces significant and not to be overlooked benefits for both population and society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  7. Preventive home visits to older people in Denmark--why, how, by whom, and when?

    PubMed

    Vass, M; Avlund, K; Hendriksen, C; Philipson, L; Riis, P

    2007-08-01

    In Denmark, political decisions improved the implementation of 'preventative thinking' into every-day clinical work. The potential benefits of preventive efforts have been supported by legislative and administrative incentives, and an ongoing effort to remain focused on the benefits of these initiatives towards older people is politically formulated and underlined as part of the new structured municipality reform. Evidence of beneficial effects of health promotion and prevention of disease in old age is well documented. In-home visits with individualised assessments make it possible to reach older persons not normally seen in the health care system. In-home assessment is not just a health check, but also an opportunity to meet individual needs that may be of importance for older people to stay independent. Preventive home visits may be part of an overall culture and strategy to avoid or prevent functional decline. There is an urgent need of an interdisciplinary teamwork and management for such programmes, incorporating flexible cooperation between the primary and secondary health care sector. The value and importance of geriatric and gerontological education is evidence based.

  8. The boundaries of care work: a comparative study of professionals and volunteers in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Incidence and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis in Denmark: A nationwide registry-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a nationwide cohort. From the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified all adults hospitalised with a first-time diagnosis of HSE in Denmark during 2004-2014. The HSE diagnoses were verified using medical records and microbiological data. Patients were followed for mortality through the Danish Civil Registry System. We estimated age-standardised incidence rates of HSE and 30-day, 60-day, and 1-year cumulative mortality. Furthermore, we assessed whether calendar year, age, gender, level of comorbidity, virus type, and department type was associated with HSE mortality. We identified a total of 230 cases of HSE. Median age was 60.7 years (interquartile range: 49.3-71.6). The overall incidence rate was 4.64 cases per million population per year (95% confidence interval: 4.06-5.28). The cumulative mortality within 30 days, 60 days, and 1 year of the HSE admission was 8.3%, 11.3%, and 18.6%, respectively. Advanced age and presence of comorbidity were associated with increased 60-day and 1-year mortality. This nationwide study of verified HSE found a higher incidence than reported in previous nationwide studies. Presence of comorbidity was identified as a novel adverse prognostic factor. Mortality rates following HSE remain high. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Health care cost containment in Denmark and Norway: a question of relative professional status?

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lotte B

    2014-04-01

    The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment.

  11. Professional groups driving change toward patient-centred care: interprofessional working in stroke rehabilitation in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Burau, Viola; Carstensen, Kathrine; Lou, Stina; Kuhlmann, Ellen

    2017-09-16

    Patient-centred care based on needs has been gaining momentum in health policy and the workforce. This creates new demand for interprofessional teams and redefining roles and tasks of professionals, yet little is known on how to implement new health policies more effectively. Our aim was to analyse the role and capacity of health professions in driving organisational change in interprofessional working and patient-centred care. A case study of the introduction of interprofessional, early discharge teams in stroke rehabilitation in Denmark was conducted with focus on day-to-day coordination of care tasks and the professional groups' interests and strategies. The study included 5 stroke teams and 17 interviews with different health professionals conducted in 2015. Professional groups expressed highly positive professional interest in reorganised stroke rehabilitation concerning patients, professional practice and intersectoral relations; individual professional and collective interprofessional interests strongly coincided. The corresponding strategies were driven by a shared goal of providing needs-based care for patients. Individual professionals worked independently and on behalf of the team. There was also a degree of skills transfer as individual team members screened patients on behalf of other professional groups. The study identified supportive factors and contexts of patient-centred care. This highlights capacity to improve health workforce governance through professional participation, which should be explored more systematically in a wider range of healthcare services.

  12. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    SciTech Connect

    Baun, A.; Jensen, S.D.; Bjerg, P.L.

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2 as the resin material. This treatment effectively eliminated sample matrix toxicity caused by inorganic salts and natural organic compounds and produced an aqueous concentrate of the nonvolatile chemical contaminants. The SPE extracts were tested in a battery of standardized short-term aquatic toxicity tests with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). Additionalmore » genotoxicity tests were made using the umuC test (Salmonella typhimurium). Biotests with algae and luminescent bacteria were the most sensitive tests. On the basis of results with these two bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background toxicity. SPE extracts were not toxic to Daphnia, and no genotoxicity was observed in the umuC test. The overall findings indicate that a battery of biotests applied on preconcentrated groundwater samples can be a useful tool for toxicity characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates.« less

  13. Nationwide citizen access to their health data: analysing and comparing experiences in Denmark, Estonia and Australia.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, Christian; Parv, Liisa; Kink, Pille; Cummings, Elizabeth; Almond, Helen; Nørgaard, Jens Rahbek; Turner, Paul

    2017-08-07

    Most countries face an ageing population, increasing chronic diseased, and constrictions on budget for providing health services. Involving patients in their own care by allowing them access to their patient data is a trend seen in many places. Data on the type and level of access citizens have to their own health data in three countries was gathered from public sources. Data from each individual country is presented and the experiences of Denmark, Estonia and Australia are examined whilst similarities and differences explored. The discussion adopts a citizen-centred perspective to consider how the different e-portal systems support, protect and structure citizen interactions with their own health data in three key areas: Security, privacy and data protection; User support; and Citizen adoption and use. The paper highlights the impact of opt-in/opt-out approaches on citizen access and the lack of a structured approach to addressing differences in citizen health and e-health literacy. This research also confirms while current data provides detail on the availability and use of personal health data by citizens, questions still remain over the ultimate impact on patient outcomes of these initiatives. It is anticipated the insights generated from the three countries experiences, supporting citizen access to their health data will be useful to improve these initiatives and guide other countries aspiring to support similar initiatives.

  14. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meixun; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1989-06-01

    SINCE the discovery1 nearly a decade ago that Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layers are greatly enriched in iridium, a rare element in the Earth's crust, there has been intense controversy on the relationship between this Ir anomaly and the massive extinction of organisms ranging from dinosaurs to marine plankton that characterizes the K/T boundary. Convincing evidence suggests that both the Ir spike and the extinction event were caused by the collision of a large bolide (>10 km in diameter) with the Earth1-11. Alternative explanations claim that extensive, violent volcanism12-14 can account for the Ir, and that other independent causes were responsible for the mass extinctions15,16. We surmise that the collision of a massive extraterrestrial object with the Earth may have produced a unique organic chemical signature because certain meteorites, and probably comets, contain organic compounds which are either rare or non-existent on the Earth17. In contrast, no organic compounds would be expected to be associated with volcanic processes. Here we find that K/T boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark, contain both α-amino-isobutyric acid [AIB, (CH3)2CNH2COOH] and racemic isovaline [ISOVAL, CH3CH2(CH3)CNH2COOH], two amino acids that are exceedingly rare on the Earth but which are major amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites17,18. An extraterrestrial source is the most reasonable explanation for the presence of these amino acids.

  15. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categoriesmore » and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.« less

  16. Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Palic, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2015-05-01

    Dissociative experiences are common in traumatized individuals, and can sometimes be mistaken for psychosis. It is difficult to identify pathological dissociation in the treatment of traumatized refugees, because there is a lack of systematic clinical descriptions of dissociative phenomena in refugees. Furthermore, we are currently unaware of how dissociation measures perform in this clinical group. To describe the phenomenology of dissociative symptoms in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark. As a part of a larger study, dissociation was assessed systematically in 86 Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees using a semi-structured clinical interview (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress-dissociation subscale; SIDES-D) and a self-report scale (Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES). The SIDES-D indicated twice as high prevalence of pathological dissociation as the DES. According to the DES, 30% of the refugees had pathological dissociation 15 years after their resettlement. On the SIDES-D, depersonalization and derealization experiences were the most common. Also, questions about depersonalization and derealization at times elicited reporting of visual and perceptual hallucinations, which were unrelated to traumatic re-experiencing. Questions about personality alteration elicited spontaneous reports of a phenomenon of "split" pre- and post-war identity in the refugee group. Whether this in fact is a dissociative phenomenon, characteristic of severe traumatization in adulthood, needs further examination. Knowledge of dissociative symptoms in traumatized refugees is important in clinical settings to prevent misclassification and to better target psychotherapeutic interventions. Much development in the measurement of dissociation in refugees is needed.

  17. [Malignant melanoma of the skin in Denmark--epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    von der Maase, H; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Dahlstrøm, K K; Geertsen, P F; Gjedde, S B; Hastrup, N C; Holmberg, S B; Krag, C; Lock-Andersen, J

    1992-07-06

    About 700 new cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are registered annually in Denmark. The incidence is increasing rapidly and the number of new cases increases by more than 5% per annum. The most important phenotypical risk factors are the number of acquired pigmented naevi and exposure to sunlight is the most important risk factor in the external environment so that severe sunburn in children and intermittent intense exposure to sunlight increase the risk of melanoma. The thickness of the tumour at the time of the diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. The prognosis deteriorates with increasing thickness. Treatment is primarily surgical. In cases of inoperable local melanoma and regional recurrences, irradiation may be administered. Chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy are of experimental character. In the light of the rapidly increasing incidence, it is important that knowledge of risk factors for development of the disease and the clinical characteristics of early melanoma is spread to not only the medical profession but also to the general public.

  18. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Chen, Ming; Chen Nielsen, Xiaohui; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Mølvadgaard, Mette; Schønning, Kristian; Vermedal Hoegh, Silje; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2016-05-05

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV-circulation in Denmark. The system could be strengthened by increasing the collection of supplementary faecal specimens, improving communication with primary diagnostic laboratories, adapting the laboratory typing methodology and collecting clinical information with electronic forms.

  19. Penicillin treatment for patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Denmark: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Andersen, Stine Bang; Petersen, Pelle Trier; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov; von Plessen, Christian; Rohde, Gernot; Ravn, Pernille

    2017-04-20

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin-G/V monotherapy. Retrospective cohort study including hospitalized patients with x-ray confirmed CAP. We calculated the population-based incidence, reviewed types of empiric antibiotics and duration of antibiotic treatment. We evaluated the association between mortality and treatment with empiric penicillin-G/V using logistic regression analysis. We included 1320 patients. The incidence of hospitalized CAP was 3.1/1000 inhabitants. Median age was 71 years (IQR; 58-81) and in-hospital mortality was 8%. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 10 days (IQR; 8-12). In total 45% were treated with penicillin-G/V as empiric monotherapy and they did not have a higher mortality compared to patients treated with broader-spectrum antibiotics (OR 0.92, CI 95% 0.55-1.53). The duration of treatment exceeded recommendations in European guidelines. Empiric monotherapy with penicillin-G/V was commonly used and not associated with increased mortality in patients with mild to moderate pneumonia. Our results are in agreement with current conservative antibiotic strategy as outlined in the Danish guidelines.

  20. Delivering smart city system through experimental smart building concept. Design case of Nordhavn Community Centre, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiandiani, F.; Raharjo, W.

    2018-05-01

    It is an undisputed fact that the development of a city requires more energy to accommodate the needs of the city’s population. Greater energy consumption due to growing cities is a concern for scholars as well as governments all over the world. In the European Union, Denmark’s renewable energy policy provides tax exemptions for passive air conditioning and renewable energy sources to foster public participation. To meet its energy provision objectives under this condition, cities need instruments to reduce energy consumption. The building of a community centre in Nordhavn (Denmark) was chosen as such an instrument due to its flexibility and possible exposure to solar radiation as an endless source of energy. An experimental design for the building envelope was developed to test its thermal performance when including a thermal storage wall. Design research was conducted using 3D modelling. Testing was done on a simulation of the building made with the Ecotect software application to provide comparable results for thermal performance supported by qualitative-descriptive methods. It was concluded that including a thermal storage wall in the building model corresponds well with the objectives of the design. Based on the result of the test, in the context of, the thermal storage wall is capable of contributing to passive air conditioning.

  1. Salmonella in pork cuttings in supermarkets and butchers' shops in Denmark in 2002 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T B; Christensen, B B; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella in fresh pork cuttings in Denmark in the years 2002 and 2006 was investigated at retail and compared with the retail supply pattern. A total of 1025 and 3473 samples were taken in 2002 from butcher's shops and supermarkets, respectively. The corresponding numbers in 2006 were 259 from butchers' shops and 628 from supermarkets. In 2002, 1.2% of all samples were positive for Salmonella; butchers' shops and supermarkets had 1.8% and 1.0% positive samples, respectively. The overall prevalence in 2006 was 4.2%, with prevalence of 8.1% and 2.6% for butchers' shops and supermarkets, respectively. Hence, increases around 3- to 5-fold were found. There was neither observed any parallel increase in Salmonella positive carcasses in Danish slaughterhouses during the study period, nor were any changes in supply routes towards slaughterhouses with higher prevalence observed, which could explain the apparent increase. We hypothesize that hygiene levels and ability to avoid cross-contamination and prevent growth of the organism, in the meat processing chain after slaughter were the most likely responsible factors. Results from this study indicate that the hygiene performance, particularly at retail, has a significant impact on the occurrence of Salmonella. This implies that there is no direct link between slaughterhouse Salmonella surveillance data and the level of Salmonella contamination at retail. To improve risk assessment of Salmonella in fresh pork meat, this study underlines the need for comprehensive retail data. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Educational Status Impact Adult Mortality in Denmark? A Twin Approach

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen, Per Kragh; Osler, Merete

    2010-01-01

    To disentangle an independent effect of educational status on mortality risk from direct and indirect selection mechanisms, the authors used a discordant twin pair design, which allowed them to isolate the effect of education by means of adjustment for genetic and environmental confounding per design. The study is based on data from the Danish Twin Registry and Statistics Denmark. Using Cox regression, they estimated hazard ratios for mortality according to the highest attained education among 5,260 monozygotic and 11,088 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs born during 1921–1950 and followed during 1980–2008. Both standard cohort and intrapair analyses were conducted separately for zygosity, gender, and birth cohort. Educational differences in mortality were demonstrated in the standard cohort analyses but attenuated in the intrapair analyses in all subgroups but men born during 1921–1935, and no effect modification by zygosity was observed. Hence, the results are most compatible with an effect of early family environment in explaining the educational inequality in mortality. However, large educational differences were still reflected in mortality risk differences within twin pairs, thus supporting some degree of independent effect of education. In addition, the effect of education may be more pronounced in older cohorts of Danish men. PMID:20530466

  4. Introducing out-of-pocket payment for general practice in Denmark: feasibility and support.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Camilla Aavang

    2014-07-01

    The financing of General Practice (GP) is a much-debated topic. In spite of out-of-pocket (OOP) payment for other primary health care provided by self-employed professionals, there is no OOP payment for the use of GP in Denmark. This article aims to explore the arguments, the actors and the decision-making context. An analysis of the healthcare-policy debate in Parliament and the media from 1990 until September 2012. The materials are parliamentary hearings/discussions and newspaper articles. Kingdon's model on Policy Windows and the Advocacy Coalition framework by Sabatier and Jenkins are used to investigate explanations. The arguments from the proponents are: that OOP payment for GP will reduce pressure on the primary sector; that the current allocation of OOP payment in the sector is historically conditioned; and that resistance towards OOP payment is based on emotions. The main argument from the opponents is that OOP payment will increase social inequality in health. There is little connection between the attitudes and ideological backgrounds of the political parties. Despite factors such as perceived expert/scientific evidence for OOP payment, changes of government, financial crisis and a market-based reform wave, no government has introduced OOP payment for GP. This article suggests that governmental positions, public- and especially health-professional support are important factors in the decision-making context. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Environmental sub models for a macroeconomic model: agricultural contribution to climate change and acidification in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine S; Jensen, Jørgen D; Hasler, Berit; Illerup, Jytte B; Andersen, Frits M

    2007-01-01

    Integrated modelling of the interaction between environmental pressure and economic development is a useful tool to evaluate environmental consequences of policy initiatives. However, the usefulness of such models is often restricted by the fact that these models only include a limited set of environmental impacts, which are often energy-related emissions. In order to evaluate the development in the overall environmental pressure correctly, these model systems must be extended. In this article an integrated macroeconomic model system of the Danish economy with environmental modules of energy related emissions is extended to include the agricultural contribution to climate change and acidification. Next to the energy sector, the agricultural sector is the most important contributor to these environmental themes and subsequently the extended model complex calculates more than 99% of the contribution to both climate change and acidification. Environmental sub-models are developed for agriculture-related emissions of CH(4), N(2)O and NH(3). Agricultural emission sources related to the production specific activity variables are mapped and emission dependent parameters are identified in order to calculate emission coefficients. The emission coefficients are linked to the economic activity variables of the Danish agricultural production. The model system is demonstrated by projections of agriculture-related emissions in Denmark under two alternative sets of assumptions: a baseline projection of the general economic development and a policy scenario for changes in the husbandry sector within the agricultural sector.

  6. Agricultural work and the risk of Parkinson's disease in Denmark, 1981-1993.

    PubMed

    Tüchsen, F; Jensen, A A

    2000-08-01

    This study examined the possible association between agricultural and horticultural work and the subsequent morbidity of Parkinson's disease. Fixed cohorts of 2,273,872 men and women aged 20-59 years on 1 January 1981 and identified in the Central Population Register of Denmark were followed, and all first-time hospitalizations with Parkinson's disease as the principal diagnosis during the 13 years until 31 December 1993 were recorded. Standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) were calculated using all gainfully employed persons as the standard and by multiplying the ratio by 100. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated on the assumption of a Poisson distribution. A high risk of Parkinson's disease was found for the men and women in agriculture and horticulture (134 cases, SHR 132, 95% CI 111-156). Statistically significantly high risks were found for farmers (79 cases, SHR 130, 95% CI 103-163) and for all men in agriculture and horticulture (109 cases, SHR 134, 95% CI 109-162). A consistent pattern of high Parkinson's disease morbidity was found among occupational groups employed in agriculture and horticulture.

  7. New Openings in University-Industry Cooperation: Aalto University as the Forerunner of European University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkula, Markku; Lappalainen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The Innovation University (IU)--to be called the Aalto University after Alvav Aalto, a famous Finnish architect and MIT professor--is a new university which will be created through a merger of three existing universities: the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE) and the University of Art and Design…

  8. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  9. Imagine the Universe. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains compilations of three NASA Website pages from the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The three sites on the CD-ROM are: (1) the Imagine the Universe!, (for ages 14 on up), which is dedicated to discussion of the Universe, what we know, how it is evolving and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains; (2) StarChild: A learning center for young astronomers, (for ages 4-14), contains information about the Solar System, the Universe and space explorations; and (3) the Astronomy picture of the day, which offers a new astronomical image and caption for each calendar day.

  10. The rotating universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdin, M.

    A closed universe obeying the Hubble equation v = Hu·r, where Hu is the Hubble constant, is considered. It is shown that such a universe is equivalent to a universe rotating around one of its diameters at an angular velocity Ωu = Hu. If one revives Blackett's conjecture, viz., a rotating body creates at its center a magnetic dipole, one computes the value of the magnetic field as B ≅ 2.5×10-5G. Intergalactic magnetic fields of the order of 10-6G were deduced from observations.

  11. The impact of ART on union dissolution: a register-based study in Denmark 1994-2010.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Vassard, Ditte; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Schmidt, Lone

    2018-01-23

    Are couples initiating ART treatment at higher risk for future union dissolution compared to other couples? There is no effect of ART treatments in future marital dissolution over a period of 16 years when adjusting for all confounders. Findings regarding marital stability and infertility treatments have been sparse and controversial. While there is data showing higher divorce rates among women who go through infertility treatments, there is also some evidence of this experience bringing couples closer by forcing them to communicate more and to deal with the surrounding stigma. Using a population-based study and couple-level data, we investigated the extent to which ART treatment increases the risk for divorce/marital dissolution during up to 16 years of follow-up. Register-based national cohort study including all women registered with ART treatment in Denmark between 1 January 1994 and 30 September 2009 (n = 42 845). Marital/cohabiting status was confirmed by matching these women to partners who they were married to or shared an address with. To account for having a significant relationship at baseline (2 years), marital/cohabiting status was confirmed by accessing this variable before the establishment of the cohort back to 1 January 1992. A comparison group from the background population including five controls per case and matched to female age at baseline was prospectively sampled. Participants could change status during follow-up if they entered ART. The final sample had 148 972 couples, followed until marital dissolution, death of self/spouse, migration or until 31 December 2010. We used Cox regression models adjusting for female and male age, education, marriage, common child at baseline and live-born child during follow-up. At baseline, the majority of couples were married (69%). More non-ART couples opted for marriage (70% versus 64%; P < 0.0001) and already had common children at study entry (43% versus 9%; P < 0.0001). During the 16 years of follow

  12. Universities, Knowledge and Pedagogical Configurations: Glimpsing the Complex University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán-Valenzuela, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    This paper elaborates a typology of universities in which each university is characteristically associated with (i) diverse missions, (ii) different ways of producing knowledge and (iii) contrasting pedagogical configurations. Four university forms are identified, analysed and illustrated, namely the expert university, the non-elite university,…

  13. The First Modern University: The University of Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James

    2017-01-01

    The University of Birmingham was planned, advanced and established with both national and German models of a University in mind. Civic reasons for the planning of the University need to be viewed within a broader motivational context. Even with a strong sense of civic place, the University was conceived as a modern University with multiple…

  14. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  15. ULTRA: Universal Grammar as a Universal Parser

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, David P.

    2018-01-01

    A central concern of generative grammar is the relationship between hierarchy and word order, traditionally understood as two dimensions of a single syntactic representation. A related concern is directionality in the grammar. Traditional approaches posit process-neutral grammars, embodying knowledge of language, put to use with infinite facility both for production and comprehension. This has crystallized in the view of Merge as the central property of syntax, perhaps its only novel feature. A growing number of approaches explore grammars with different directionalities, often with more direct connections to performance mechanisms. This paper describes a novel model of universal grammar as a one-directional, universal parser. Mismatch between word order and interpretation order is pervasive in comprehension; in the present model, word order is language-particular and interpretation order (i.e., hierarchy) is universal. These orders are not two dimensions of a unified abstract object (e.g., precedence and dominance in a single tree); rather, both are temporal sequences, and UG is an invariant real-time procedure (based on Knuth's stack-sorting algorithm) transforming word order into hierarchical order. This shift in perspective has several desirable consequences. It collapses linearization, displacement, and composition into a single performance process. The architecture provides a novel source of brackets (labeled unambiguously and without search), which are understood not as part-whole constituency relations, but as storage and retrieval routines in parsing. It also explains why neutral word order within single syntactic cycles avoids 213-like permutations. The model identifies cycles as extended projections of lexical heads, grounding the notion of phase. This is achieved with a universal processor, dispensing with parameters. The empirical focus is word order in noun phrases. This domain provides some of the clearest evidence for 213-avoidance as a cross

  16. The hidden universe

    SciTech Connect

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe.

  17. Universal router concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Portable universal router can cut holes of large diameter and irregular shapes, machine recesses, and drill holes with certain edge-distance limitations. Rectangular and round holes may be cut without a template.

  18. The University Visitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricquier, William

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the origin and nature of visitatorial jurisdiction, the scope of that jurisdiction and the extent to which it is itself reviewable by the courts, and the issue of how relevant the visitor is to today's university. (AF)

  19. University Presidents: Academic Chameleons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Thomas H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Sampling the opinions of at least one college or university president in each state and at schools of all sizes, the authors measure the degree of job satisfaction experienced by presidents. (Editor/LBH)

  20. California's "Free" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudhea, David

    1974-01-01

    Heliotrope, Orpheus, and Communiversity, San Francisco's three free universities, offer curricula with combinations of alchemy, magic, Volkswagen repairs, options in education, dance, conversational Mandarin, basic plumbing, and brain wave experiences. (Author/PG)

  1. TRI University Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Details about the TRI University Challenge, in which EPA is looking to academic institutions to help build a diverse portfolio of practical and replicable projects that benefit communities, the environment, academic institutions, and the TRI Program.

  2. Research in Irish Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Maire F.

    1989-01-01

    Trends in funding rates, funding sources, priorities, and public policy for research in Irish universities since 1981 are examined. A revised mechanism to provide more balanced policy, strategy, and funding is recommended. (MSE)

  3. Perelman's Universal Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the concept of the universal audience as the basic factor of Chaim Perelman's rhetorical theory and concludes that it is subject to the same criticism as Rousseau's general will and Kant's categorical imperative. (JMF)

  4. The organic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-10-01

    Our inventory of the molecular universe is continually progressing. Our understanding of the astrochemistry behind it will flourish if we are mindful of funding experimental and theoretical efforts as well as observational.

  5. A qualitative exploration of key informant perspectives regarding the nature and impact of contemporary legislation on professional development: a grounded theory study of chiropractic in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a substantive framework of the manner in which the Danish government interacts with the Danish chiropractic profession and influences professional practice. An exploratory, qualitative study was performed using a substantive grounded theory (GT) approach. Unstructured, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted during the years 2012 and 2013 and thematically analyzed. Six people were interviewed for this study including a gatekeeper and witness to legislative history, a previous chiropractic political representative and witness to legislative history, a previous Department of Health negotiator and previous administrator of chiropractic affairs and witness to legislative history, a current administrator of chiropractic affairs, an active chiropractic political representative and witness to legislative history, and a chief negotiator for Danish Regional Health Care Services. Open and axial coding yielded 2 themes centering on licensing chiropractors in Denmark and the resultant developmental issues encountered. Through further selective coding, the GT core construct, "chiropractic practice in the Danish heath care system" emerged. The GT highlights the tension between the strategic political importance of legislation and the restrictive nature of the overly specific act currently regulating chiropractic practice. Moreover, the GT also revealed the perceived negative effect that the National Board of Health may exert on clinical practice due to its conservative interpretation of the act. The Danish government is perceived to act as a countervailing power related to chiropractic practice. The derived substantive GT suggests that the Danish government's dualistic action relative to the Danish chiropractic community may inhibit the spontaneous evolution of contemporary Danish chiropractic practice. Although historically narrow legislation may limit chiropractic practice, conservative interpretations by the Danish

  6. Whole-genome Sequencing Used to Investigate a Nationwide Outbreak of Listeriosis Caused by Ready-to-eat Delicatessen Meat, Denmark, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kvistholm Jensen, Anne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Björkman, Jonas Torgny; Jensen, Tenna; Müller, Luise; Persson, Søren; Bjerager, Gitte; Perge, Annette; Krause, Tyra Grove; Kiil, Kristoffer; Sørensen, Gitte; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Mølbak, Kåre; Ethelberg, Steen

    2016-07-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne infection. Outbreaks of listeriosis occur rarely, but have often proved difficult to solve. In June 2014, we detected and investigated a listeriosis outbreak in Denmark using patient interviews and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We performed WGS on Listeria monocytogenes isolates from patients and available isolates from ready-to-eat foods and compared them using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Case patients had L. monocytogenes with ≤3 SNPs (the outbreak strain) isolated in September 2013-December 2014. Through interviews, we established case patients' food and clinical histories. Food production facilities were inspected and sampled, and we performed trace-back/trace-forward of food delivery chains. In total, 41 cases were identified; 17 deaths occurred (41%). An isolate from a delicatessen meat (spiced meat roll) from company A was identical to the outbreak strain. Half of the patients were infected while hospitalized/institutionalized; institutions were supplied food by company A. The outbreak strain was repeatedly isolated from further samples taken within this company and within companies in its distribution chain. Products from company A were traced and recalled from >6000 food establishments, after which the outbreak ended. Ready-to-eat spiced meat roll from a single production facility caused this outbreak. The product, served sliced and cold, is popular among the elderly; serving it at hospitals probably contributed to the high case-fatality rate. WGS used for patient isolates and isolates from food control inspections, coupled with routine epidemiological follow-up, was instrumental in swiftly locating the source of infections, preventing further illnesses and deaths. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Capping university overhead rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    On October 3 the Office of Management and Budget released final regulations on college and university administrative costs that can be charged against federal grants and contracts. A number of expenses were disallowed and all administrative costs were capped at 26%.Earlier this year Richard Darman, director of the Office of Management and Budget, announced his intention to “stop the abuse” in university reimbursements. Almost 300 replies were received in response to the earlier set of proposals on the matter.

  8. Statistics in Japanese universities.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, P K

    1979-01-01

    The teaching of statistics in the U.S. and Japanese universities is briefly reviewed. It is found that H. Hotelling's articles and subsequent relevant publications on the teaching of statistics have contributed to a considerable extent to the establishment of excellent departments of statistics in U.S. universities and colleges. Today the U.S. may be proud of many well-staffed and well-organized departments of theoretical and applied statistics with excellent undergraduate and graduate programs. On the contrary, no Japanese universities have an independent department of statistics at present, and the teaching of statistics has been spread among a heterogeneous group of departments of application. This was mainly due to the Japanese government regulation concerning the establishment of a university. However, it has recently been revised so that an independent department of statistics may be started in a Japanese university with undergraduate and graduate programs. It is hoped that discussions will be started among those concerned on the question of organization of the teaching of statistics in Japanese universities as soon as possible. PMID:396154

  9. Topology and the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1998-09-01

    Topology may play an important role in cosmology in several different ways. First, Einstein's field equations tell us about the local geometry of the universe but not about its topology. Therefore, the universe may be multiply connected. Inflation predicts that the fluctuations that made clusters and groups of galaxies arose from random quantum fluctuations in the early universe. These should be Gaussian random phase. This can be tested by quantitatively measuring the topology of large-scale structure in the universe using the genus statistic. If the original fluctuations were Gaussian random phase then the structure we see today should have a spongelike topology. A number of studies by our group and others have shown that this is indeed the case. Future tests using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey should be possible. Microwave background fluctuations should also exhibit a characteristic symmetric pattern of hot and cold spots. The COBE data are consistent with this pattern and the MAP and PLANCK satellites should provide a definitive test. If the original inflationary state was metastable then it should decay by making an infinite number of open inflationary bubble universes. This model makes a specific prediction for the power spectrum of fluctuations in the microwave background which can be checked by the MAP and PLANCK satellites. Finally, Gott and Li have proposed how a multiply connected cosmology with an early epoch of closed timelike curves might allow the universe to be its own mother.

  10. Universal Majorana thermoelectric noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric phenomena resulting from an interplay between particle flows induced by electric fields and temperature inhomogeneities are extremely insightful as a tool providing substantial knowledge about the microscopic structure of a given system. By tuning, e.g., parameters of a nanoscopic system coupled via tunneling mechanisms to two contacts, one may achieve various situations where the electric current induced by an external bias voltage competes with the electric current excited by the temperature difference of the two contacts. Even more exciting physics emerges when the system's electronic degrees freedom split to form Majorana fermions which make the thermoelectric dynamics universal. Here, we propose revealing these unique universal signatures of Majorana fermions in strongly nonequilibrium quantum dots via noise of the thermoelectric transport beyond linear response. It is demonstrated that whereas mean thermoelectric quantities are only universal at large-bias voltages, the noise of the electric current excited by an external bias voltage and the temperature difference of the contacts is universal at any bias voltage. We provide truly universal, i.e., independent of the system's parameters, thermoelectric ratios between nonlinear response coefficients of the noise and mean current at large-bias voltages where experiments may easily be performed to uniquely detect these truly universal Majorana thermoelectric signatures.

  11. Wormholes and Child Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    Evidence to the case that classical gravitation provides the clue to make sense out of quantum gravity is presented. The key observation is the existence in classical gravitation of child universe solutions or "almost" solutions, "almost" because of some singularity problems. The difficulties of these child universe solutions that are due to their generic singularity problems will be very likely be cured by quantum effects, just like for example "almost" instanton solutions are made relevant in gauge theories with the breaking of conformal invariance. Some well-motivated modifcations of general relativity where these singularity problems are absent even at the classical level are discussed. High energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space-time. This decoupling could prevent these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which take into account semiclassically gravitational effects. Child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of trans-Planckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis, and in particular the connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed. Some discussion of superexcited states in the case these states such as Kaluza-Klein excitations are carried out. Finally, the possibility of obtaining "string like" effects from the wormholes associated with the child universes is discussed.

  12. Differences in cancer awareness and beliefs between Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): do they contribute to differences in cancer survival?

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, L J L; Simon, A E; Warburton, F; Boniface, D; Brain, K E; Dessaix, A; Donnelly, C; Haynes, K; Hvidberg, L; Lagerlund, M; Lockwood, G; Tishelman, C; Vedsted, P; Vigmostad, M N; Ramirez, A J; Wardle, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are wide international differences in 1-year cancer survival. The UK and Denmark perform poorly compared with other high-income countries with similar health care systems: Australia, Canada and Sweden have good cancer survival rates, Norway intermediate survival rates. The objective of this study was to examine the pattern of differences in cancer awareness and beliefs across these countries to identify where these might contribute to the pattern of survival. Methods: We carried out a population-based telephone interview survey of 19 079 men and women aged ⩾50 years in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Results: Awareness that the risk of cancer increased with age was lower in the UK (14%), Canada (13%) and Australia (16%) but was higher in Denmark (25%), Norway (29%) and Sweden (38%). Symptom awareness was no lower in the UK and Denmark than other countries. Perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation were highest in the UK, in particular being worried about wasting the doctor's time (UK 34% Canada 21% Australia 14% Denmark 12% Norway 11% Sweden 9%). Conclusion: The UK had low awareness of age-related risk and the highest perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation, but symptom awareness in the UK did not differ from other countries. Denmark had higher awareness of age-related risk and few perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation. This suggests that other factors must be involved in explaining Denmark's poor survival rates. In the UK, interventions that address barriers to prompt presentation in primary care should be developed and evaluated. PMID:23370208

  13. University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL

  14. Northern Studies at Northern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Review: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Arts and Social Sciences of the North, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Describes college programs and research projects focused on the Arctic, northern studies, or northern concerns at Athabasca University (Alberta), the University of British Columbia, the University of Alaska Anchorage, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Scott Polar Institute at the University of Cambridge (England), and Kent State University…

  15. University Presses: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Robert B.

    Historical information on university presses and their problems are considered. University presses in the United States have their roots in 15th century England when the Oxford University Press was established in 1478. The first U.S. press to use the term "university press" was Cornell University; the press operated from 1869 until it…

  16. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Steentoft, A; Hels, T; Bernhoft, I M; Rasmussen, B S; Linnet, K

    2012-09-10

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n=3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53g/l, which is the Danish legal limit. The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4%; while, 0.3% of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were the most frequent illicit drugs detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ); while, codeine, tramadol, zopiclone, and benzodiazepines were the most frequent legal drugs. Middle aged men (median age 47.5 years) dominated the drunk driving group, while the drivers positive for illegal drugs consisted mainly of young men (median age 26 years). Middle aged women (median age 44.5 years) often tested positive for benzodiazepines at concentrations exceeding the legal limits. Interestingly, 0.6% of drivers tested positive for tramadol, at concentrations above the DRUID cut off; although, tramadol is not included in the Danish list of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark: A Cohort Study of Tumor Size and Overdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette; Zahl, Per-Henrik

    2017-03-07

    Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Cohort study. Denmark from 1980 to 2010. Women aged 35 to 84 years. Screening programs offering biennial mammography for women aged 50 to 69 years beginning in different regions at different times. Trends in the incidence of advanced (>20 mm) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing the incidence for nonadvanced tumors among women aged 35 to 49, 50 to 69, and 70 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas. Screening was not associated with lower incidence of advanced tumors. The incidence of nonadvanced tumors increased in the screening versus prescreening periods (incidence rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted for regional differences in women younger than the screening age, found that 711 invasive tumors and 180 cases of DCIS were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 48.3% [including DCIS] and 38.6% [excluding DCIS]). Regional differences complicate interpretation. Breast cancer screening was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of advanced cancer. It is likely that 1 in every 3 invasive tumors and cases of DCIS diagnosed in women offered screening represent overdiagnosis (incidence increase of 48.3%). None.

  18. Clinical characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Denmark in the post-vaccination era.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T I; Howitz, M; Ostergaard, C

    2010-05-01

    The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 1993 may have influenced the epidemiology of H. influenzae meningitis (i.e. increasing frequency of other non-vaccine types; presentation in other age groups). Based on nationwide registration, clinical information and laboratory findings were collected from all 65 confirmed cases of H. influenzae meningitis during the period 1994-2005. Twenty-nine patients (45%) were <13 years old [median 15 months (range 0-147)], and 36 patients (55%) were >24 years old [median 62 years (range 25-96)]. Hib accounted for 31% (20/65) of the cases, and significantly more children were infected with Hib compared with adults [53% (16/29) vs. 11% (4/36), respectively, p 0.0003]. Overall, 38% of cases had an otogenic focus and this was thus the most frequent primary focus of infection. Among children infected with Hib, two cases (13%) were identified as true vaccine failures. Six patients (9%) died; one premature infant infected with serotype f and five adults (age 83-96 years) with non-typeable H. influenzae. Hearing loss was reported in 16% of the surviving children and in 10% of the surviving adults. The presence of a lung focus was an independent prognostic factor for an unfavourable outcome (p 0.03). In conclusion, meningitis caused by Hib has been infrequent in Denmark after introduction of the Hib vaccine in the childhood vaccination programme, and no increase in meningitis cases due to non-b type H. influenzae has been observed. Cases with H. influenzae meningitis frequently had an otogenic focus, with low risk of an unfavourable outcome.

  19. Oral health-related quality of life in socially endangered persons in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Østergaard, Peter; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate and describe the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in a socially endangered group of people and to compare the OHRQoL to other patient groups. About 294 socially endangered persons attending a volunteer clinic in Copenhagen Denmark filled in the OHIP-14 questionnaire. The group was compared in mean score and reported problems to a group of patients with tooth loss and about to have a removable dental prosthesis (RDP), a group with tooth loss about to have a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) and a control group without tooth loss. Significantly higher OHIP-14 score was seen in the socially endangered group (15.5 (SD 12.6)) compared with the control (1.9 (SD 2.7)) and the FDP group (9.4 (SD 8.2)) but not the RDP group (13.1 (SD 10.5)). This difference was not changed after stratifying in age groups. Problems related to psychological disability, social disability, and handicap were more frequent in the social endangered group than for the other groups. The items pain, tense, diet, relax, life, and function stand out as problems in the socially endangered group compared to the other groups. The OHRQoL is highly impaired in the socially endangered persons and at least to the level of persons with great tooth loss about to have an RDP. The problems seem to be more handicapping in the socially endangered compared with other patient groups known to have high impairment.

  20. Transport and degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the pyritic Rabis Creek aquifer, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, K.; HøJberg, Anker L.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K. H.; Larsen, F.; Plummer, L. N.; Busenberg, E.

    2007-10-01

    Vertical profiles of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 penetrating aerobic and anaerobic parts of a shallow sandy aquifer show that the CFC gases are degraded in the <1 m thick transition zone from aerobic to anaerobic groundwater in a pyritic sand aquifer at Rabis Creek, Denmark. Two-dimensional solute transport simulations with either zero-order or first-order degradation in the anaerobic zone corroborate this interpretation. The transport model was previously calibrated against detailed tritium profiles in the same wells. First-order degradation is found to best match the observed CFC profiles yielding an approximate half-life of a few months for CFC-11. Degradation is not as clearly recognized for CFC-12 and CFC-113, but it may occur with rates corresponding to a half-life of a few years or more. Data indicate a geochemical control of the CFC concentration gradient at the redox front and that denitrification and denitrifiers are not of major importance for the observed CFC degradation. The responsible mechanism behind the observed degradation is not known but we suggest that reductive dehalogenation by surface-bound Fe(II) on pyrite possibly enhanced by the presence of Fe(III)-bearing weathering products (green rust) may be a plausible mechanism. The observed data and the performed simulations confirm the potential application of the CFC gases as age-dating tools in the aerobic part of the investigated aquifer, but also that CFC data must be analyzed carefully before it is used as a dating tool in reducing aquifers because degradation may have occurred. The use of multiple or alternative tracers should be considered in anaerobic environments.

  1. Controls on subsurface methane fluxes and shallow gas formation in Baltic Sea sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Sabine; Røy, Hans; Dale, Andrew W.; Fossing, Henrik; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2016-09-01

    Shallow gas accumulates in coastal marine sediments when the burial rate of reactive organic matter beneath the sulfate zone is sufficiently high and the methanogenic zone is sufficiently deep. We investigated the controls on methane production and free methane gas accumulation along a 400 m seismo-acoustic transect across a sharp transition from gas-free into gas-bearing sediment in Aarhus Bay (Denmark). Twelve gravity cores were taken, in which the pore water was analyzed for inorganic solutes while rates of organic carbon mineralization were measured experimentally by 35SO42- radiotracer method. The thickness of organic-rich Holocene mud increased from 5 to 10 m along the transect concomitant with a shallowing of the depth of the sulfate-methane transition from >4 m to 2.5 m. In spite of drastic differences in the distribution of methane and sulfate in the sediment along the transect, there were only small differences in total mineralization, and methanogenesis was only equivalent to about 1% of sulfate reduction. Shallow gas appeared where the mud thickness exceeded 8-9 m. Rates of methanogenesis increased along the transect as did the upward diffusive flux of methane. Interestingly, the increase in the sedimentation rate and Holocene mud thickness had only a modest direct effect on methanogenesis rates in deep sediments. This increase in methane flux, however, triggered a shallowing of the sulfate-methane transition which resulted in a large increase in methanogenesis at the top of the methanogenic zone. Thus, our results demonstrate a positive feedback mechanism that causes a strong enhancement of methanogenesis and explains the apparently abrupt appearance of gas when a threshold thickness of organic-rich mud is exceeded.

  2. Incidence Rates of Deliberate Self-Harm in Denmark 1994–2011

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: The validity and reliability of suicide statistics have been questioned and few nationwide studies of deliberate self-harm have been presented. Aim: To calculate rates of deliberate self-harm in Denmark in order to investigate trends and assess the reliability of hospital records. Method: A register study based on all individuals recorded with an episode of deliberate self-harm or probable deliberate self-harm in nationwide registers during 1994–2011. Results: A substantial difference in the rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm was noted for both genders. The average incidence rate of deliberate self-harm for women and men was 130.7 (95% CI = 129.6–131.8) per 100,000 and 86.9 (95% CI = 86.0–87.8) per 100,000, respectively. The rates of deliberate self-harm for women increased from 137.6 (95% CI = 132.9–142.3) per 100,000 in 1994 to 152.7 (95% CI = 147.8–157.5) in 2011. For a subgroup of younger women aged 15–24 years, an almost threefold increase was observed, IRR = 2.5 (95% CI = 2.4–2.7). The most frequently used method was self-poisoning. Conclusion: The rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm differed significantly. An increased incidence of deliberate self-harm among young Danish women was observed, despite detection bias. An improved registration procedure of suicidal behavior is needed. PMID:27278571

  3. Marriage, cohabitation and incidence trends of invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma in Denmark 1978-2010.

    PubMed

    Ulff-Møller, Constance J; Simonsen, Jacob; Frisch, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Few population-based studies have investigated the relation between living arrangements and risk of invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma (iP-SCC). Using long-term national cancer registry data in Denmark we examined incidence trends of iP-SCC. Furthermore, we examined the relation between marital status, cohabitation status and risk of iP-SCC using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained in Cox proportional hazards regression analyses as our measure of relative risk. Overall, 1,292 cases of iP-SCC were identified during 65.6 million person-years of observation between 1978 and 2010. During this period, the WHO world age-standardized incidence remained relatively stable (p-trend = 0.41) with an average incidence of 1.05 cases per 100,000 person-years. When compared to married men, those who were unmarried (HR 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13-1.66), divorced (HR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79) or widowed (HR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.13-1.63) were at increased risk of iP-SCC. Regarding cohabitation status, single-living men were at increased risk of iP-SCC compared to men in opposite-sex cohabitation (HR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.26-1.62). Risk increased with increasing numbers of prior opposite-sex (p-trend = 0.02) and same-sex (p-trend < 0.001) cohabitations. In conclusion, single-living Danish men and men who are not currently married are at increased risk of iP-SCC, and the risk increases with the number of prior cohabitations, perhaps reflecting less stable sexual relations in these subgroups. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  4. A nitrogen budget for Denmark; developments between 1990 and 2010, and prospects for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, N. J.; Nielsen, O.-K.; Dalgaard, T.; Mikkelsen, M. H.; Børgesen, C. D.; Thomsen, M.; Ellermann, T.; Højberg, A. L.; Mogensen, L.; Winther, M.

    2014-11-01

    A nitrogen (N) budget for Denmark has been developed for the years 1990 to 2010, describing the inputs and outputs at the national scale and the internal flows between relevant sectors of the economy. Satisfactorily closing the N budgets for some sectors of the economy was not possible, due to missing or contradictory information. The budgets were nevertheless considered sufficiently reliable to quantify the major flows. Agriculture was responsible for the majority of inputs, though fisheries and energy generation also made significant contributions. Agriculture was the main source of N input to the aquatic environment, whereas agriculture, energy generation and transport all contributed to emissions of reactive N gases to the atmosphere. Significant reductions in inputs of reactive N have been achieved during the 20 years, mainly by restricting the use of N for crop production and improving livestock feeding. This reduction has helped reduce nitrate leaching by about half. Measures to limit ammonia emissions from agriculture and mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from energy generation and transport, has reduced gaseous emissions of reactive N. Much N flows through the food and feed processing industries and there is a cascade of N through the consumer to solid and liquid waste management systems. The budget was used to frame a discussion of the potential for further reductions in losses of reactive N to the environment. These will include increasing the recycling of N between economic sectors, increasing the need for the assessment of knock-on effects of interventions within the context of the national N cycle.

  5. Doubling in the use of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in Denmark: association to iodization of salt?

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Charlotte; Knudsen, Nils; Ovesen, Lars; Laurberg, Peter; Perrild, Hans; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-08-01

    Iodization of salt is an effective strategy to prevent iodine deficiency disorders. Recent studies, however, indicate that increasing the iodine intake in a population may give rise to an increased incidence of hypothyroidism, but the association has not been fully clarified. In Denmark, iodization of salt was initiated in 1998 because of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the raised iodine intake on the nationwide incident use of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (levothyroxine) to treat hypothyroidism. Data on all use of levothyroxine was extracted from the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics during the period 1995-2009 and linked to other nationwide registers by use of the Danish identification number. Persons with previous thyroid surgery were excluded. In the studied period 71,565 incident users were identified. The incidence rate increased 75% in the moderately iodine deficient region (72.2 incident users/100,000 person-years in 1997 to 126.6 in 2008) and 87% in the mildly deficient region (86.9-162.9). When stratified by sex and age-group (00-39, 40-64, 65+) the largest relative increase was seen among women in the youngest age-group, where more than a doubling was seen. The mechanisms behind the increase may be a result of iodine-induced hypothyroidism, although a higher diagnostic activity with regard to thyroid dysfunction and intensified treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism may also play a role. Our findings stress the need for caution when initiating iodine fortification programs to keep the intake within the optimal range, and the need for continuous monitoring.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus

  7. Development and validation of a registry-based definition of eosinophilic esophagitis in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S; Erichsen, Rune; Pedersen, Lars; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Baron, John A; Sørensen, Henrik T; Vyberg, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To develop and validate a case definition of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in the linked Danish health registries. METHODS: For case definition development, we queried the Danish medical registries from 2006-2007 to identify candidate cases of EoE in Northern Denmark. All International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) and prescription codes were obtained, and archived pathology slides were obtained and re-reviewed to determine case status. We used an iterative process to select inclusion/exclusion codes, refine the case definition, and optimize sensitivity and specificity. We then re-queried the registries from 2008-2009 to yield a validation set. The case definition algorithm was applied, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 51 and 49 candidate cases identified in both the development and validation sets, 21 and 24 had EoE, respectively. Characteristics of EoE cases in the development set [mean age 35 years; 76% male; 86% dysphagia; 103 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf)] were similar to those in the validation set (mean age 42 years; 83% male; 67% dysphagia; 77 eos/hpf). Re-review of archived slides confirmed that the pathology coding for esophageal eosinophilia was correct in greater than 90% of cases. Two registry-based case algorithms based on pathology, ICD-10, and pharmacy codes were successfully generated in the development set, one that was sensitive (90%) and one that was specific (97%). When these algorithms were applied to the validation set, they remained sensitive (88%) and specific (96%). CONCLUSION: Two registry-based definitions, one highly sensitive and one highly specific, were developed and validated for the linked Danish national health databases, making future population-based studies feasible. PMID:23382628

  8. Oral health in children in Denmark under different public dental health care schemes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L B; Petersen, P E; Hede, B

    2010-06-01

    To describe and analyse oral health of children and adolescents under two types of dental health care schemes under the Public Dental Health Service in Denmark, and to analyse possible influence of socio-economic and socio-cultural factors. Data on children's oral health status was obtained from public oral health registers and were pooled with data from questionnaires sent to parents of the children and adolescents. The study comprised individuals aged 5, 12 and 15, in total 2168 persons, randomly drawn from four municipalities with dental care provided by salaried dentists in public dental clinics and three municipalities with dental care provided by dentists in private practice. 70% of the parents completed a questionnaire including questions on socio-economic and socio-cultural background, lifestyle-related factors, self assessment of parents' oral- and general health. After the data were merged, the final study population represented 60% of the original target population. The mean caries experience (DMFS+dmfs) was 2.2 and further analysis of caries experience in each age group showed no variations in relation to type of provider of dental care. However, multiple dummy regression analyses demonstrated that low education, poor general health, foreign citizenship and smoking habits of the parents were important determinants for high level of caries in their children. Occurrence of dental caries as well as changes over time in levels of dental caries of Danish children did not vary by scheme of Public Dental Health Service, i.e. whether dental health care was provided by public employed dentists or by private practitioners. However, social inequalities still relate to caries experience in children and adolescents. Adjustment of preventive oral health activities strategy seems to be needed.

  9. Methanobacterium aarhusense sp. nov., a novel methanogen isolated from a marine sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark).

    PubMed

    Shlimon, Adris Georgis; Friedrich, Michael W; Niemann, Helge; Ramsing, Niels Birger; Finster, Kai

    2004-05-01

    Strain H2-LR(T), a 5-18 micro m long and 0.7 micro m wide filamentous, mesophilic, moderately halophilic, non-motile hydrogenotrophic methanogen, was isolated from marine sediment of Aarhus Bay, Denmark, 1.7 m below the sediment surface. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparison with sequences of known methanogens, strain H2-LR(T) could be affiliated to the genus Methanobacterium. The strain forms a distinct line of descent within this genus, with Methanobacterium oryzae (95.9 % sequence identity) and Methanobacterium bryantii (95.7 % sequence identity) as its closest relatives. The 16S rRNA-based affiliation was supported by comparison of the mcrA gene, which encodes the alpha-subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. Strain H2-LR(T) grew only on H(2)/CO(2). The DNA G+C content is 34.9 mol%. Optimum growth temperature was 45 degrees C. The strain grew equally well at pH 7.5 and 8. No growth or methane production was observed below pH 5 or above pH 9. Strain H2-LR(T) grew well within an NaCl concentration range of 100 and 900 mM. No growth or methane production was observed at 1 M NaCl. At 50 mM NaCl, growth and methane production were reduced. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel taxon within the genus Methanobacterium, namely Methanobacterium aarhusense sp. nov. The type strain is H2-LR(T) (=DSM 15219(T)=ATCC BAA-828(T)).

  10. Internal hydraulic control in the Little Belt, Denmark - observations of flow configurations and water mass formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Vang, Torben; Chresten Lund-Hansen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Internal hydraulic control, which occurs when stratified water masses are forced through an abrupt constriction, plays an enormous role in nature on both large and regional scales with respect to dynamics, circulation, and water mass formation. Despite a growing literature on this subject surprisingly few direct observations have been made that conclusively show the existence of and the circumstances related to internal hydraulic control in nature. In this study we present observations from the Little Belt, Denmark, one of three narrow straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The observations (comprised primarily of along-strait, detailed transects of salinity and temperature; continuous observations of flow velocity, salinity, and temperature at a permanent station; and numerous vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence, and flow velocity in various locations) show that internal hydraulic control is a frequently occurring phenomenon in the Little Belt. The observations, which are limited to south-going flows of approximately two-layered water masses, show that internal hydraulic control may take either of two configurations, i.e. the lower or the upper layer being the active, accelerating one. This is connected to the depth of the pycnocline on the upstream side and the topography, which is both deepening and contracting toward the narrow part of the Little Belt. The existence of two possible flow configurations is known from theoretical and laboratory studies, but we believe that this has never been observed in nature and reported before. The water masses formed by the intense mixing, which is tightly connected with the presence of control, may be found far downstream of the point of control. The observations show that these particular water masses are associated with chlorophyll concentrations that are considerably higher than in adjacent water masses, showing that control has a considerable influence on the primary production and

  11. Digital Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon Contents and Stocks in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Minasny, Budiman; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette B.; Greve, Mogens H.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard soil depth intervals (0−5, 5−15, 15−30, 30−60 and 60−100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, wetness index, and multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness. The highest average SOC content of 20 g kg−1 was reported for 0−5 cm soil, whereas there was on average 2.2 g SOC kg−1 at 60−100 cm depth. For SOC and bulk density prediction precision decreased with soil depth, and a standard error of 2.8 g kg−1 was found at 60−100 cm soil depth. Average SOC stock for 0−30 cm was 72 t ha−1 and in the top 1 m there was 120 t SOC ha−1. In total, the soils stored approximately 570 Tg C within the top 1 m. The soils under agriculture had the highest amount of carbon (444 Tg) followed by forest and semi-natural vegetation that contributed 11% of the total SOC stock. More than 60% of the total SOC stock was present in Podzols and Luvisols. Compared to previous estimates, our approach is more reliable as we adopted a robust quantification technique and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC stock and prediction uncertainty. The estimation was validated using common statistical indices and the data and high-resolution maps could be used for future soil carbon assessment and inventories. PMID:25137066

  12. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C.; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis. PMID:26000630

  13. Long working hours and stroke among employees in the general workforce of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hannerz, Harald; Albertsen, Karen; Burr, Hermann; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Garde, Anne Helene; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2018-05-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis have found that long working hours were prospectively associated with an increased risk of overall stroke. The primary aim of the present study was to test if this finding could be reproduced in a sample that has been randomly selected from the general workforce of Denmark. A secondary aim was to estimate the association for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke separately. Individual participant data on 20- to 64-year-old employees were drawn from the Danish Labour Force Survey, 1999-2013, and linked to data on socio-economic status (SES), migrations, hospitalisations and deaths from national registers. The participants were followed from the time of the interview until the end of 2014. Poisson regression was used to estimate age-, sex- and SES-adjusted rate ratios for stroke as a function of weekly working hours. With 35-40 working hours per week as reference, the estimated rate ratios for overall stroke were 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-1.13) for 41-48 working hours, 1.10 (95% CI 0.86-1.39) for 49-54 working hours and 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.16) for ≥55 working hours. The estimated rate ratios per one category increase in working hours were 0.99 (95% CI 0.93-1.06) for overall stroke, 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.05) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.31) for haemorrhagic stroke. Our analysis does not support the hypothesis that long working hours are associated with increased rates of overall stroke. It suggests, however, that long working hours might be associated with increased rates of haemorrhagic stroke.

  14. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic organic compounds in a landfill leachate plume (Vejen, Denmark).

    PubMed

    Baun, Anders; Reitzel, Lotte A; Ledin, Anna; Christensen, Thomas H; Bjerg, Poul L

    2003-09-01

    Demonstration of natural attenuation of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in landfill leachate plumes is a difficult task and still an emerging discipline within groundwater remediation. One of the early studies was made at the Vejen Landfill in Denmark in the late 1980s, which suggested that natural attenuation of XOCs took place under strongly anaerobic conditions within the first 150 m of the leachate plume. This paper reports on a revisit to the same plume 10 years later. Within the strongly anaerobic part of the plume, 49 groundwater samples were characterized with respect to redox-sensitive species and XOCs. The analytical procedures have been developed further and more compounds and lower detection limits were observed this time. In addition, the samples were screened for degradation intermediates and for toxicity. The plume showed fairly stationary features over the 10-year period except that the XOC level as well as the level of chloride and nonvolatile organic carbon (NVOC) in the plume had decreased somewhat. Most of the compounds studied were subject to degradation in addition to dilution. Exceptions were benzene, the herbicide Mecoprop (MCPP), and NVOC. In the early study, NVOC seemed to degrade in the first part of the plume, but this was no longer the case. Benzyl succinic acid (BSA) was for the first time identified in a leachate plume as a direct indicator, and as the only intermediate of toluene degradation. Toxicity measurements on solid phase-extracted (SPE) samples revealed that toxic compounds not analytically identified were still present in the plume, suggesting that toxicity measurements could be helpful in assessing natural attenuation in leachate plumes.

  15. Attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination among Arab ethnic minority in Denmark: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zeraiq, Lina; Nielsen, Dorthe; Sodemann, Morten

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minorities is poorly explored in Denmark. The objective of this study was to explore attitudes and knowledge towards HPV vaccination among Arab mothers and their daughters. Five Arabic-speaking focus groups with mothers of vaccine-eligible girls and three focus groups with daughters were conducted. The participants were recruited through different social clubs. A phenomenological approach was used to investigate attitudes and knowledge of HPV vaccination. Meaning condensation inspired by Amedeo Giorgi was used to analyse the transcribed material. A total of 23 women and 13 daughters were included in this study. The mothers' knowledge regarding HPV was limited to the fact that HPV can cause cervical cancer. Two focus groups mentioned that HPV is a sexually transmitted disease and none of the mothers knew that HPV also causes genital warts. Both mothers and daughters acknowledged that the daughters have deeper insight into health-related issues. A gap of knowledge between generations was identified, as mothers and daughters obtained health information from different sources: mothers used the Arabic TV channels as a source of knowledge and daughters had a range of sources, e.g. school, internet, and Western TV channels. The consequence of these differences in obtaining knowledge is that mothers and daughters lack a common language to discuss health issues. Mothers were influenced by Arabic society, while daughters had created a hybrid of Arabic and Danish. Each generation had its own reasons for accepting the vaccine. The level of HPV knowledge and awareness did not affect their uptake decision in that all the participating mothers had accepted the vaccine for their daughters. Educational programs should target both mothers and daughters because mothers have an inadequate knowledge about HPV. This is likely to bridge the gap of knowledge between mothers and daughters, which

  16. Population based study of rates of multiple pregnancies in Denmark, 1980-94.

    PubMed Central

    Westergaard, T.; Wohlfahrt, J.; Aaby, P.; Melbye, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study trends in multiple pregnancies not explained by changes in maternal age and parity patterns. DESIGN: Trends in population based figures for multiple pregnancies in Denmark studied from complete national records on parity history and vital status. POPULATION: 497,979 Danish women and 803,019 pregnancies, 1980-94. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: National rates of multiple pregnancies, infant mortality, and stillbirths controlled for maternal age and parity. Special emphasis on primiparous women > or = 30 years of age, who are most likely to undergo fertility treatment. RESULTS: The national incidence of multiple pregnancies increased 1.7-fold during 1980-94, the increase primarily in 1989-94 and almost exclusively in primiparous women aged > or = 30 years, for whom the adjusted population based twinning rate increased 2.7-fold and the triplet rate 9.1-fold. During 1989-94, the adjusted yearly increase in multiple pregnancies for these women was 19% (95% confidence interval 16% to 21%) and in dizygotic twin pregnancies 25% (21% to 28%). The proportion of multiple births among infant deaths in primiparous women > or = 30 years increased from 11.5% to 26.9% during the study period. The total infant mortality, however, did not increase for these women because of a simultaneous significant decrease in infant mortality among singletons. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively small group of women has drastically changed the overall national rates of multiple pregnancies. The introduction of new treatments to enhance fertility has probably caused these changes and has also affected the otherwise decreasing trend in infant mortality. Consequently, the resources, both economical and otherwise, associated with these treatments go well beyond those invested in specific fertility enhancing treatments. PMID:9080993

  17. Access to healthcare and alternative health-seeking strategies among undocumented migrants in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As in many European countries, undocumented migrants in Denmark have restricted access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse undocumented migrants' experiences of access to healthcare, use of alternative health-seeking strategies; and ER nurses' experiences in encounters with undocumented migrants. Methods Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and observations. The participants included ten undocumented South Asian migrants and eight ER nurses. Results Undocumented migrants reported difficulties accessing healthcare. The barriers to healthcare were: limited medical rights, arbitrariness in healthcare professionals' attitudes, fear of being reported to the police, poor language skills, lack of network with Danish citizens, lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and lack of knowledge about informal networks of healthcare professionals. These barriers induced alternative health-seeking strategies, such as self-medication, contacting doctors in home countries and borrowing health insurance cards from Danish citizens. ER nurses expressed willingness to treat all patients regardless of their migratory status, but also reported challenges in the encounters with undocumented migrants. The challenges for ER nurses were: language barriers, issues of false identification, insecurities about the correct standard procedures and not always being able to provide appropriate care. Conclusions Undocumented migrants face formal and informal barriers to the Danish healthcare system, which lead to alternative health-seeking strategies that may have adverse effects on their health. This study shows the need for policies and guidelines, which in accordance with international human rights law, ensure access to healthcare for undocumented migrants and give clarity to healthcare professionals. PMID:21752296

  18. The tobacco problem in Denmark and the difficulties in implementing an organized plan of action.

    PubMed

    Egsmose, T

    1985-08-01

    In Denmark tobacco consumption has increased considerably during the last few decades. Almost 2 million people of a population of 5 million are smokers. Of the male population 48% are smokers, of the female population 46%. From 1981 to 1982 the cigarette consumption increased from 7,300 million to 8,000 million. Consumption of pipe tobacco increased slightly, whereas cigars and cigarillos were considerably reduced. The tobacco tax amounts to 6,500 million Dan. kr. annually (700 million US$). The tobacco industry's cost of marketing tobacco products are unknown, but advertising, for one thing, amounts to 25 million Dan.kr. annually (3 million US$), which is only a small fraction of the total cost of marketing. For comparison: On health information some 2 million Dan.kr. is spent annually by private associations. In 1970 and 1981 efforts were made to have a tobacco bill passed in the Danish Parliament-but with no success. Since 1972 there has been a gentleman's agreement between the ministry and the tobacco branch concerning the size and the content of tobacco advertising. The agreement was an evasive action initiated by the tobacco branch. During the tobacco bill debate in the Danish Parliament in 1981 the tobacco industry launched an aggressive and misleading advertising campaign in the large newspapers against the Minister of Interior. It says in the International Codes of Marketing Practice 1973 set forth by the International Chamber of Commerce: "all advertising should be legal, decent, honest and truthful" and "the advertisements should be prepared with due sense of social responsibility..".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.

  20. Digital mapping of soil organic carbon contents and stocks in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Hartemink, Alfred E; Minasny, Budiman; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette B; Greve, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard soil depth intervals (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, wetness index, and multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness. The highest average SOC content of 20 g kg(-1) was reported for 0-5 cm soil, whereas there was on average 2.2 g SOC kg(-1) at 60-100 cm depth. For SOC and bulk density prediction precision decreased with soil depth, and a standard error of 2.8 g kg(-1) was found at 60-100 cm soil depth. Average SOC stock for 0-30 cm was 72 t ha(-1) and in the top 1 m there was 120 t SOC ha(-1). In total, the soils stored approximately 570 Tg C within the top 1 m. The soils under agriculture had the highest amount of carbon (444 Tg) followed by forest and semi-natural vegetation that contributed 11% of the total SOC stock. More than 60% of the total SOC stock was present in Podzols and Luvisols. Compared to previous estimates, our approach is more reliable as we adopted a robust quantification technique and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC stock and prediction uncertainty. The estimation was validated using common statistical indices and the data and high-resolution maps could be used for future soil carbon assessment and inventories.