Science.gov

Sample records for aanpak van het

  1. Storings analyse Ten Behoeve van het Materieelverzorgingsplan (Failure Analysis for the Maintenance Plan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    oporachtnemer verwezen naar de ’Algemone Voorwaarden voor Onderzoeks- opdrachten TNO’. dan wet de betreflende terzake fijasen partlijen gesloten * 11 ...ixvulling van het onderhoudsschema 9 2.4 Invulling van het onderhoudsschema in de praktijk 14 2.5 Gonclusies 16 3 STORINGSANALYSES 18 3.1 ’Failure mode...nnfd- en subgroep (dit is een opdeling van bet systeem naar functioneel sanienhangende delen). Pa gina 9 - Het onderhoudsniveau waar jedere

  2. Softwaremodule voor het Simuleren van de Gevolgen van Raketonderschepping (The Dutch Program for the Simulation of Missile Intercept Effects)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    effects (Softwaremodule voor het simuleren van de gevolgen van raketonderschepping) 11 . AUTHOR(S) Dr E. Abadjieva, MSc R.P. Sterkenburg, MSc F. Bouquet...Softwaremnodule voor het simuleren van de gevolgen van raketonderschepping D)attini Juli 2007 Auteur(s) dr. F. Abadjicva ir. R.P Sterkenburg ir. F. Bouquet ir...P.W. D)ouip Rubricering rapport O)ngerubri ceerd Vastgesteld door Maj R. 11 . Jongkinid Vastgesteld d.d. 12 juni 2007 (Deze nitining mizil-4 sict

  3. Structuring of the Renewed Decision Making Process in the Royal Netherlands Army (Structurering van het vernieuwde besluitvormingsproces binnen de KL).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-10

    time informatie wordt door Eisenhardt (1989) gedefinieerd als " information about a firm’s operations or environment for which there is little or no...op het invoeren van (getypte) tekst . Conclusie Elektronisch Brainstormen: * in principe geschikt om Eigen Mogelijkheden te genereren, vooral als de...Capaieairt ca •acitenit ca a• C ie•lit Fig. 1 Mogelijke wijzen van besluitvorming (zie tekst ) als functie van beschik- bare tijd, capaciteit en ervaring van

  4. Energy Sources for Soldier Modernisation Programme Systems (Overzicht van Ontwikkelingen op het Gebied van Draagbare Energieopslag en Energieopwekking)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    9 . http://home.earthlink.net/-fradella/homepage.htm 10. http ://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/www/labs/GTL/research/micro/micro.html 11 . http://www.ecr.co.il...Meijer 7 LAS/DB&P/BO/OB&T taxv. aooi Jansen 8 LAS/DB&PIBO/OB 9 LAS/DB&P/BO/CIV 10 OGMAN/Externe plannen Infanterie 11 DM/C31 12 DM/COM 13 KPU-bedrijf 14...detailed specifications mentioned before. TNO-rapport TNO-MEP - R 99/490 9 van 51 Samenvatting In dit rapport wordt een eerste globale selectie gemaakt: van

  5. Gas Testing at the NBC-Filter of the M-Frigates of the Royal Dutch Navy According to the NATO Standard (Gastesten aan het NBC-Filter voor het M-Fregat van de oninklijke Marine volgens NAVO-eisen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    man de eisen van bet NAVO.-document voldsan word.. Het AstroCarb-filter bleek voor alle geteste gassen gemakkelijk de vereiste doorbroaktijden te halen ...hill ?NO famwtyn J-3r d~mf tI~nq"M#-rI~ m t~w)-im TNO RCl1 U W2 AM " TNO-por PML1 32490333 Pagins 2 Samenvatting De gasbescherniende eigenschappen van ...De schoktest tastte de prestaties van bet filter niet man. Summary The gas protective properties of an AstroCarb 200 NBC filter which is usid in the

  6. Inventory of Simulation and Modeling for the Analysis of Ground Manoeuvre Performance (inventarisatie van vragen en modellen voor de analyse van het grondgebonden optreden)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    uitvoeren, en hoe lang men deze operaties wit kunnen voortzetten. Deze vragen zijn niet binnen AGO te beantwoorden, mawr de antwoorden op deze vragen...Bovenstaande modellen zijn allen in gebruik bij DSTL. Daarnaast beschikt de DGD&D over een eigen wargame (MINERVA) waarmee men seminars ten beboeve van...gemnodelleerd. Zo zijn er voor de afzonderlijke tanks geen vuursectoren gemodelleerd waarbinnen men terugvuurt. Dit kan in de toekomnst wel verder

  7. Kennislacunes op het gebied van wapens en munitie in OVG (Knowledge Gaps in the Area of Weapons and Munitions in MOUT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Structuur 6 2.2 Inzetketen 8 2.3 Combinaties van W&M en doelen 9 2.4 Militaire activiteiten 10 3 De OVG context 11 4 Kennislacunes wapens en...Aanlal pagina’s Aantal bijlagen Ongerubriceerd drs. R.G.W. Gouweleeuw 7 november 2008 11 )eze mbricering \\N ijzigl mci) Ongerubriceerd...TNO-rapport | TNO-DV 2008 A436 9 /24 2.3 Combinaties van W&M en doelen In [2] is een overzicht opgesteld van zogenoemde ’force assets’ die tegen

  8. Dangerous Substance Advisor: Een Expert Systeem voor het Classificeren van Gevaarlijke Stoffen (Dangerous Substance Advisor: An Expert System for the Classification of Dangerous Substances)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    acid-chloride 5. - acid-fluoride 6. - acid-dibromidde 7. - acid-dichioride 8. - acid-difluoride 9 . - acid-tribromide 10. - acid-trichloride 11 ...zeer 3 1 3 gewoon 3 11 4 weinig 3 111 5 Brandbare vaste stof zeer 4.1 1 6 gewoon 4.1 11 7 weinig 4.1 111 8 Zeif ontbrandbare stof zeer 4.2 1 9 gewoon...I (S) 31 gewoon 8 11 (S) 33 weinig 8 111 (S) 35 Overige gevaren 9 36 TNO rapport Bijiage B Pgn B.1 BULAGE B: RANGORDE VAN GEVAARSEIGENSCHAPPEN

  9. Beslisbevoegdheden en Verantwoordelijkheden van de Uitgestegen Soldaat. Deel A: Verplaatsen van Beslisbevoegdheden (Authority and Responsibility of the Dismounted Soldier. Part A. Empowering the Dismounted Soldier)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    en verantwoordelijkheden van de uitgestegen soldaat Deel A: verplaatsen van beslisbevoegdheden Datumn april 2007 Auteur (s) R. de Bruin ITE. van Bernmel...Admiraal, Bureau SMP Auteur (s) R. de Bruin Program maleider Projectleider I.E. van Bemnmel dr. W.A. Lotens, A.J. van Vliet, A.J. van Vijet TNO Defensie en...Leadership Theory en wordt relevant geacht voor de ontvangers van aanvullende beslisbevoegdheden. 2.1.3 Het oogmerk van de hogere commandant Een ander

  10. Vrouwen bij de Koninklijke Landmacht: Een Onderzoek naar de Maatregelen die het Behoud en de Doorstroom van Vrouwelijke Militairen Verbeteren (Women in the Royal Netherlands Army: Measures for Retention and Career Development)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    mannencultuur. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat vrouwelijke BBT-ers (Beroeps Bepaalde Tijd ) zicb goed tbuis voelen bij de (masculiene) organisatiecultuur van...de KL. Zij ervaren bovendien geen benadeling of negatieve bejegening. Vrouwelijke BOT-ers (Beroeps Onbepaalde Tijd ) geven daarentegen wel aan dat zij...arbeid en zorg. Meer tijd voor de thuissituatie, waarbij de werknemner zelf kan beslissen hoe zij deze fijd bet beste kan aanpassen aan de behoefte van

  11. Selection of a Method for the Measurement of the Protection Factor in the Field (Selectie van een methode voor de meting van de gasmaskerprotectiefactor te velde)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    deeltjes in het masker, de luclitwegen of de detector worden protectiefactoren gevonden die in het algemneen te optimistisch zijn [11, 12]. De gevonden...zijn wel te relateren aan bepaalde activiteiten. 4.2.2 Natuurlijk atmosferisch stof Door de firma TSI is een apparaat ontwikkeld (Portacount) dat...onderdruk afnemen [5]. Door de firma Dynatech Nevada (USA) wordt een apparaat geproduceerd dat van dit principe gebruikmaakt. Het apparaat is voorzien

  12. The Mechanism of Toxicity in HET-S/HET-s Prion Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Seuring, Carolin; Greenwald, Jason; Wasmer, Christian; Wepf, Roger; Saupe, Sven J.; Meier, Beat H.; Riek, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The HET-s protein from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a prion involved in a cell death reaction termed heterokaryon incompatibility. This reaction is observed at the point of contact between two genetically distinct strains when one harbors a HET-s prion (in the form of amyloid aggregates) and the other expresses a soluble HET-S protein (96% identical to HET-s). How the HET-s prion interaction with HET-S brings about cell death remains unknown; however, it was recently shown that this interaction leads to a relocalization of HET-S from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery and that this change is associated with cell death. Here, we present detailed insights into this mechanism in which a non-toxic HET-s prion converts a soluble HET-S protein into an integral membrane protein that destabilizes membranes. We observed liposomal membrane defects of approximately 10 up to 60 nm in size in transmission electron microscopy images of freeze-fractured proteoliposomes that were formed in mixtures of HET-S and HET-s amyloids. In liposome leakage assays, HET-S has an innate ability to associate with and disrupt lipid membranes and that this activity is greatly enhanced when HET-S is exposed to HET-s amyloids. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed that HET-s induces the prion-forming domain of HET-S to adopt the β-solenoid fold (previously observed in HET-s) and this change disrupts the globular HeLo domain. These data indicate that upon interaction with a HET-s prion, the HET-S HeLo domain partially unfolds, thereby exposing a previously buried ∼34-residue N-terminal transmembrane segment. The liberation of this segment targets HET-S to the membrane where it further oligomerizes, leading to a loss of membrane integrity. HET-S thus appears to display features that are reminiscent of pore-forming toxins. PMID:23300377

  13. Militaire Toepassingen Van Adaptieve Optiek (Military Applications of Adaptive Optics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    dat op dit moment met de beschikbare theorie mogelijk is. Een ander interessant aspect is de mate waarin de turbulentie effecten het jam patroon...systemen In WEAG studie JP8. 11 is aangetoond dat in theorie adaptieve technieken een verbetering van de prestaties van een DIRCM systeem kunnen...Molenaar; Theorie van de laserscintillometer; TNO repot PHL 1978-16 (1978). TNO-rapport I TNO-DV 2006 A336 35/35 6 Ondertekening Den Haag, september 2006

  14. Bepaling Referentiewaarden voor Ergonomie en Warmtebelasting van Lichtgewicht Bommenpakken (Determination of Ergonomic and Thermal Load Tests and Assessment of Reference Values With Light Weight Bomb Disposal Suits)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    bommenpakken kunnen geven bij bewegingen worden gemeten met de volgende bewegingbeperkingtests: sit-and-reach, stand-and-reach, abductie van de armen ...anteflexie van de armen en beperking van zicht. Bij de sit-and-reach test komt een eventuele belernmering bij het voorover buigen naar voren. De...proefpersoon zit op de grond met de benen en armen gestrekt naar voren. Daarbij wordt de afstand tussen de tenen en de vingers gemeten (figuur 4). Als het pak

  15. Kwalificate/Classificatie van Explosieve Stoffen en Munitie. Rapport 2. Testontwikkeling (Qualification/Classification Explosive Materials and Munition. 2. Test Development)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    beschermkap van het apparaat af te halen , waardoor bij een eventuele ontsteking het energetisch materiaal (al dan niet brandend) weg kan springen. Tevens...TNO-DefensieonderzoekPr TN TNO-rapport Kwalificatielclassificatie van explosieve stoffen ~ PML 1992-68 en munitief Rapport ]I: Testontwikkeling...rapport Kwalificatielclassificatie van explosieve stoffen PML 1992-68 en munitie Rapport f1: Testontwikkeling november 1992 ~~- ExorrIaar no:- 1ýMI

  16. De Ontwikkeling van een PBPK Model voor VX; Stand van Zaken V013-813 en 207C (The Development of a PBPK Model for VX: Status Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    ing. H.C. Trap, dr. ir. M.J. van der werd zes maal gesproken over de Schans, ing. L.F. Chau, B.). Lander, invulling en de voortgang van het I.A. Cordia ...dr. ir. M.J. van der Schans, ing. L.F. Chau, J.P. Oostdijk, B.J. Lander, l.A. Cordia 25 TNO Defensie en Veiligheid, vestiging Rijswijk, Marketing en

  17. Evaluatie Kennistechnologische Ondersteuning bij Diagnose van SEWACO systemen (Projectmanagementplan) (Evaluation of Knowledge Technological Support for Diagnosis of SEWACO Systems (Project Management Plan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    diagnos van SE WACO systmnen/ AD-A245 424111 1fl1,l Niets uit deze uitgave mag warden vermenigvuldligd en/of oPenbaar gemaakt door middel van druk...fotakopie. microfilm of op welks andere whlze dan ook, zonder voorafgaande toeslemming van TNO. Hot ter inzage geven van het TNO-rapport aan direct...belanghebbenden is tegestaan. HYP. vanl OC dt Indian dit rapport in opdracht ward uitgebracht, wordt voor de, rechten en verpiichtingen van opdrachtgever en

  18. Analysing Operational Effects (Het analyseren van operationele effecten)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Programmanummer Projectnummer Datum V215 032.10 177 september 2007 Program maplanning Projectplanning Auteur (s)drs. M. Duistermaat Start 1 maart 2003 Start 1...called an effect, and when do we call it a task. In theory , an effect is formulated as ’to have accomplished a change in the situation’. and a task is...determining strategies for the mission. In the current chapter, we look at the different ways of utilization of the framework: in theory (the operational

  19. Bio-Aerosol Testkamer: Ontwikkeling van Protocollen (Bio Aerosol Test Chamber: Development of Protocols)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    testfaciliteit detector met de drie simulanten getest beschikbaar gekomen voor het testen van Beschrijving van de worden volgens gangbare internationale bio...2005 werd de Bio-Adrosol Testkamer (BAT-kamer) geplaatst door de firma Dycor Technologies Ltd., Canada. In de BAT-kamner kan een bio-ai5rosol...bestaande ruimte past. In beide gevallen bleek de firma Dycor Technologies Ltd in Canada (http://www.dycor.com) de beste leverancier te zijn, en voor beide

  20. Ex ante Implementatietoetsing van Beleid, Een Methodiek Gebaseerd op Synergie Tussen Risicomanagement en Verandermanagement (Ex Ante Test for Policy Implementation - A Method Based Upon Synergy Between Risk Management an Change Management)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    ante implementatietoetsing van beleid Een methodiek gebaseerd op synergie tussen risicomnanagemnent en verandermanagemnent Datuni december 2006 Auteur (s...te analyseren. Het de resultaten van de interviews gebruikct bij de theorie van risicomanagement en project Verandermanagernent bij de de ontwikkehing...Opdrachtnummer Hoewel expliciet is gekeken naar voorbeelden van risico’s bij Datum december 2006 Auteur (s) PROGRAMMA PR03ECT drs. R.C.T. de Haas drs

  1. Boltzmann Transport in Hybrid PIC HET Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...reproduce experimentally observed mobility trends derived from HPHall, a workhorse hybrid- PIC HET simulation code. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Justin Koo a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT

  2. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  3. Eisen voor Buitenbeelden van Voertuigsimulatoren: Een Literatuurstudie (Use of Exterior Pictures in Vehicle Simulators: A Literature Survey)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    1.3 Opleiding en onderzoek met voertuigsimulatoren 9 1.4 Opbouw van simulatoren 11 1.5 Totstandkomning van beelden in CGI-systemen 13 1.6 Bepalen van...pictures in vehicle simulators. A literature survey s 029 9 20 Aantal bladzijden: 102 .JISTRIBIYI±WN- STATEMEN9 -2 39 Approved for public release; 2 28 9 ...Achteruitkijkspiegels en verrekijkers 79 8.2 Helderheidsversterkers en warmtebeelden 80 8.3 Middelen om afstand te bepalen 80 9 INTERACTIES VAN HET

  4. Beslisbevoegdheden van de Uitgestegen Soldaat. Deel B: Verbetering van Situational Awareness Met Behulp van de Soldier Digital Assistant in een Gesimuleerde Omgeving (Authority and Responsbility of the Dismounted Soldier. Part B. Improving the Situational Awareness using the Soldier Digital Assistant in a Simulated Environment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Dergelijke omngevingen zijn tot op heden vrijwel uitsluitend gebruikt voor training en onderwijs , maar slechts zeer sporadisch voor wetenschappelijk...Onderstaande instanties/personen ontvangen een volledig exemplaar van het rapport. 1 DMO/SC-DR&D standaard inclusief digitale versie bijgeleverd op cd

  5. Het SOWNet Experiment (The SOWNet Experiment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    dat bet energieverbruik van de EQS zenders naar aanleiding van een gem-iddelde voertuigpassage circa 5 keer zo hoog is dan die van de SOWNet-zenders...code (I byte). * Een Belief- parameter (1 byte). * Een geheugenindex (2 bytes). * Lijst met Destination ID-codes, aangevuld met nullen. vaste omvang 10...verwachting voldoende hoog is zal de node alarm slaan. Als een sensor een object detecteert (hetzij als een False Alarm, hetzij doordat een object

  6. [Multidisciplinary treatment in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Oosterkamp, B C M; Kuijpers, M A R

    2015-11-01

    In deze editie van het NTvT neemt het thema ‘Multidisciplinaire aanpak in de orthodontie’ de lezer mee in de mogelijkheden van multidisciplinaire zorg vanuit een orthodontisch oogpunt. Tandheelkunde is niet meer uitsluitend gericht op preventie en behandeling van cariës. De gebitstoestand van zowel ­kinderen als volwassenen is de afgelopen 30 jaar namelijk sterk verbeterd. De cariës­ervaring is duidelijk afgenomen en mensen behouden steeds langer hun natuurlijke gebit. Daarnaast is een fraai uitziend en goed functionerend gebit steeds vanzelfsprekender geworden en zijn patiënten gemotiveerd hun gebit te behouden. Deze ontwikkelingen vragen ook van (mond)zorgverleners een andere kijk op de zorg. De tandheelkundige zorg betreft steeds meer integrale zorg met een multidisciplinair karakter waarbij ­verschillende disciplines samenwerken om in samenspraak met de patiënt tot een optimaal resultaat te komen.

  7. Bewegingshinder van Impactbeschermingsmiddelen voor de ME van de KMar (Restriction of Movement of Impact Protective Clothing for the Anti-Riot Squad of the Dutch Military Police)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    kleding. omnstandigheden. zoals borst. armen en benen. Omdat er geen De nieuwe kieding met impactbLscherming bestaand testprotocol voor het testen van...verschillende onderdelen die bescherming biedt op diverse plaatsen op bet lichaam zoals borst, armen en benen. Orndat er geen bestaand testprotocol voor bet... armen en benen, Hieronder wordt kort omischreven welke ergonomische testen uitgevoerd moesten worden. 2.6.1 Sprint Bij een korte sprint (10 meter

  8. Onderzoek Naar de Bepaling van Wrijvingscoefficienten van een Voertuig uit Uitrolcurves (Research into the Determination of Friction Coefficients of a Vehicle from Deceleration Curves)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    en Aemne Vrwaarden Wo OndOrzoeks 8 FE 1 1 opdrchl aT00’ dn wet do bereflende F B 0 1 9 terzake tussen partilon geslOlen dw:Agsu overOerikomStf...Ongemlbric~~d 9 -028 14 :259 wwWmtmd.fl 59w IEEIIIIiiiarabIg𔃽 1 c~ Vrederikkazerle, Geb. InO 03 3.. ~ van den Burchlaal 312 03 173Telefoofl 070-3166394...1ILEIDING 6 2 HET FYSISCHE MODEL 8 3 ONDERZOEK AAN DE DIFFERENTIAALVERGELIJKING 11 3.1 Existentie en uniciteit van ccii oplossing 11 3.2 Continulleit en

  9. Tactisch Optreden van kleine eenheden (Small Unit Tactics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Marechaussee KTS Knock, Talk and Search MB Mercedes Benz MND(SE) Multinational Division (South East) NAVO Noord Atlantische Verdrag Organisatie NGO Non...patrouilles had men de beschikking over Mercedes Benz (MB) soft top wielvoertuigen, met een mitrailleur MAG 7.62 mm op affuit. Als extra bescherming was het... Mercedes Benz 5 IkN/ 7.5 kN soft top) voorzien van een voertuigaffuit met een mitrailleur MAG 7,62mm, uitgevoerd (zie Figuur 8). Bij verhoogde dreiging

  10. Buffer Loading and Chunking in Sequential Keypressing (Het Laden van de Motor Buffer Versus Het Gebruik van Motor Chunks bij Sequentieule Toetsdrukseries)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-18

    Paillard, 1960). The benefit of movement chunks would lie in the associated reduction of storage and retrieval capacity (see e.g. Gallistel , 1980; Jones...1983; Fromkin, 1981; Gallistel , 1980; Zimmer & Korndle, 1988) but interval durations should be affected as well. The notion of sequence-specific...point where they can be made more rapidly and accurately with little variation. Then they become welded together into ’chunks’" ( Gallistel , 1980, p.367

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Camouflage Effectiveness in the Thermal Infrared (Experimentele Evaluatie van de Effectiviteit van Camouflage in het Thermische Infrarood)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    shape distortion. For recognitio , , however, camouflage rnr’f.ure" have to adjiist the tLugek signoawuie in more detail to the background clutter...ous trees, 4m height at ±100m range 4 ag.. _!tural field (seasonal plant growing) 5 ba~e soil (ploughed rough surface) 1) concrete -, face 7 Water...surlace (small pond, Im depth) 8 Up- and down hill slopes (bare seil and grass covered). North and South facing At regular intervals, the physical

  12. Geautomatiseerde Verwerking van Militaire berichten Volgens ADatP-3 (Automated Processing of Military Messages According to ADatP-3)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    ATCCIS beoogt juist dat te bereiken door te werken aan ecn informatie model en een data element dictionary. TNO-rapport Pagina 9 Binnen bet C2...en distributie 44 4.3.2 Interface met de gebruiker 45 4.3.3 Interface met dc operationcle database 46 TNO-rapport Pagina 11 4.3.3.1 Interpretatie...die bezig zijn met het ontwikkelen en implementeren van berichtformaten. Deel I van de publicatie bevat de beschrijving van FORMETS, delen 11 , I11 en

  13. Space Van system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  14. Heath Van Essen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Heath Van Essen, Respondent, an individual who owns or operates an animal feeding operation (“Facility”) that is located in Section 27 of Township 98 North, Range 47 West,

  15. Otto Van Geet | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Center at NREL. Otto has been involved in the design, construction, and operation of energy efficient energy use campus and community design. Mr. Van Geet was one of the founding members of the Labs21 and assessment, passive solar building design, use of design tools, photovoltaic (PV) system design

  16. Pythagoras Meets Van Hiele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio

    1993-01-01

    Develops the Pythagorean Theorem in the context of the Van Hiele levels by presenting activities appropriate for each level. Activities point to preparatory development (level 0), give 3 different versions of Euclid's proof (levels 1, 2, and 3), give some generalizations of the theorem (level 3), and explore the Pythagorean relationship in other…

  17. Van Gogh from Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Van Gogh from Space - July 13th, 2005 Description: In the style of Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night," massive congregations of greenish phytoplankton swirl in the dark water around Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea. Phytoplankton are microscopic marine plants that form the first link in nearly all ocean food chains. Population explosions, or blooms, of phytoplankton, like the one shown here, occur when deep currents bring nutrients up to sunlit surface waters, fueling the growth and reproduction of these tiny plants. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  18. Electromagnetic van Kampen waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatov, A. M., E-mail: aign@fpl.gpi.ru

    2017-01-15

    The theory of van Kampen waves in plasma with an arbitrary anisotropic distribution function is developed. The obtained solutions are explicitly expressed in terms of the permittivity tensor. There are three types of perturbations, one of which is characterized by the frequency dependence on the wave vector, while for the other two, the dispersion relation is lacking. Solutions to the conjugate equations allowing one to solve the initial value problem are analyzed.

  19. [Preserving life and limb on the stage of death: the Dance of Death by Dr Salomon van Rusting].

    PubMed

    Dreier, Rolf P; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-01-01

    Salomon van Rusting was a medical doctor from Amsterdam who lived and worked around the early 1700 s. He wrote one of the few Dutch Death Dances, naming it 'Het Schouw-Tooneel des Doods'. A Death Dance was an artistic expression of human death popular in the Late Middle Ages. The traditional Death Dance invited acknowledgement of the vanity of worldly existence ('memento mori') by portraying human subjects' encounters with 'Death'. This paper describes the context in which Van Rusting's work arose and briefly characterizes its highly original and, for the most part, rather burlesque nature. In contrast to other Death Dances, Van Rusting's work does not represent medicine as being powerless in the face of death. His work strikes us as having almost modern confidence in our own ability to avoid an untimely death by living sensibly.

  20. Fungal prion HET-s as a model for structural complexity and self-propagation in prions.

    PubMed

    Wan, William; Stubbs, Gerald

    2014-04-08

    The highly ordered and reproducible structure of the fungal prion HET-s makes it an excellent model system for studying the inherent properties of prions, self-propagating infectious proteins that have been implicated in a number of fatal diseases. In particular, the HET-s prion-forming domain readily folds into a relatively complex two-rung β-solenoid amyloid. The faithful self-propagation of this fold involves a diverse array of inter- and intramolecular structural features. These features include a long flexible loop connecting the two rungs, buried polar residues, salt bridges, and asparagine ladders. We have used site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray fiber diffraction to probe the relative importance of these features for the formation of β-solenoid structure, as well as the cumulative effects of multiple mutations. Using fibrillization kinetics and chemical stability assays, we have determined the biophysical effects of our mutations on the assembly and stability of the prion-forming domain. We have found that a diversity of structural features provides a level of redundancy that allows robust folding and stability even in the face of significant sequence alterations and suboptimal environmental conditions. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the structural interactions necessary for self-propagation. Propagation of prion structure seems to require an obligatory level of complexity that may not be reproducible in short peptide models.

  1. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  2. Defending commercial surrogate motherhood against Van Niekerk and Van Zyl.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, H V

    1997-01-01

    The arguments of Van Niekerk and Van Zyl that, on the grounds that it involves an inappropriate commodification and alienation of women's labour, commercial surrogate motherhood (CSM) is morally suspect are discussed and considered to be defective. In addition, doubt is cast on the notion that CSM should be illegal. PMID:9451602

  3. Jao Van De Lagemaat | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Jao Van De Lagemaat Photo of Jao Vandelagemaat. Jao Van De Lagemaat Center Director: Chemistry and Lagemaat is currently the Center Director of the Chemistry and Nanoscience Center at NREL. He received his university. Education Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, University of Utrecht Featured Publications View all NREL

  4. The Two-Store Model of Memory: Past Criticisms, Current Status, and Future Directions (Het Twee-Stadia Model van het Geheugen: Terugblik, Huidige Status en Toekomstige Ontwikkelingen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    levels -of- processing " ( Craik & Lockhart , 1972) en de "working memory" (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) benaderingen deze verschijnselen beter...of storing information in LTS. 2.2 The levels -of- processing framework Craik and Lockhart (1972), in a very influential paper, proposed what they...Cognitive theory. (Vol. 1). (pp. 151-171). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Craik , F.l.M & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A frame- work

  5. Geluidsexpositie bij Gebruik van Otoplastieken met Communicatie (Sound Exposure Level of F-16 Crew Chiefs Using Custom Molded Communications Earplugs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    346 35 39 77 lnfo-DenV@tno nl Datum oktober 2008 Auteur (s) dr. ir. MM..I. Houben J.A. Verhave Rubricering rapport Ongerubriceerd Vastgesteld... Auteur (s) dr. ir. M.M.J. Houben J.A. Verhave Rubricering rapport Ongerubriceerd TNO-rapport | TNO-DV 2008 A395 4/19 Summary Sound exposure level...ontwikkeld om de geluidsexpositie van CEPs te bepalen (TNO-project 032.13072, rapport TNO-DV 2008 A054) [1], In theorie kan het totale

  6. Stirling Powered Van Progam overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to transfer to manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercialization) the second-generation Mod 2 ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability and maintainability. The ASE program background leading to the van program is reviewed and plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans examined. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed.

  7. Huntsville, Alabama, Volunteer Van Demonstration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-04-01

    The Huntsville Volunteer Van Demonstration, operational since November of 1980, provides transportation service to the traditional transit-dependent community in an unconventional way. The city of Huntsville is not served by a conventional public tra...

  8. Visible light catalyzed methylsulfoxidation of (het)aryl diazonium salts using DMSO.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Mukund M D; Rastogi, Namrata

    2016-06-30

    The visible light catalyzed methylsulfoxidation of (het)aryl diazonium salts using DMSO is illustrated. This is the first example of DMSO being used as the source of the methylsulfinyl group. The procedure tolerates a wide range of functional groups on (het)aryl diazonium salts and provides aryl methyl sulfoxides in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions.

  9. LRS2: A New Integral Field Spectrograph for the HET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Tonnesen, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present LRS2 (Low Resolution Spectrograph) and highlight early science opportunities with the newly upgraded Hobby Eberly telescope (HET). LRS2 is a four-channel optical wavelength (370nm - 1micron) spectrograph based on two VIRUS unit spectrographs. This fiber-fed integral field spectrograph covers a 12" x 6" field of view, switched between the two units (one blue, and one red) at R~2000. We highlight design elements, including the fundamental modification to grisms (from VPH gratings in VIRUS) to access the higher resolution. We discuss early science opportunities, including investigating nearby "blue-bulge" spiral galaxies and their anomalous star formation distribution.

  10. Structure of transcription factor HetR required for heterocyst differentiation in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Ye, Zi; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Zhang, Rongguang; Gornicki, Piotr; Callahan, Sean M.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Haselkorn, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    HetR is an essential regulator of heterocyst development in cyanobacteria. HetR binds to a DNA palindrome upstream of the hetP gene. We report the crystal structure of HetR from Fischerella at 3.0 Å. The protein is a dimer comprised of a central DNA-binding unit containing the N-terminal regions of the two subunits organized with two helix-turn-helix motifs; two globular flaps extending in opposite directions; and a hood over the central core formed from the C-terminal subdomains. The flaps and hood have no structural precedent in the protein database, therefore representing new folds. The structural assignments are supported by site-directed mutagenesis and DNA-binding studies. We suggest that HetR serves as a scaffold for assembly of transcription components critical for heterocyst development. PMID:21628585

  11. Mass analysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction validate predictions of stacked beta-solenoid model of HET-s prion fibrils.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anindito; Baxa, Ulrich; Simon, Martha N; Wall, Joseph S; Sabate, Raimon; Saupe, Sven J; Steven, Alasdair C

    2007-02-23

    Fungal prions are infectious filamentous polymers of proteins that are soluble in uninfected cells. In its prion form, the HET-s protein of Podospora anserina participates in a fungal self/non-self recognition phenomenon called heterokaryon incompatibility. Like other prion proteins, HET-s has a so-called "prion domain" (its C-terminal region, HET-s-(218-289)) that is responsible for induction and propagation of the prion in vivo and for fibril formation in vitro. Prion fibrils are thought to have amyloid backbones of polymerized prion domains. A relatively detailed model has been proposed for prion domain fibrils of HET-s based on a variety of experimental constraints (Ritter, C., Maddelein, M. L., Siemer, A. B., Luhrs, T., Ernst, M., Meier, B. H., Saupe, S. J., and Riek, R. (2005) Nature 435, 844-848). To test specific predictions of this model, which envisages axial stacking of beta-solenoids with two coils per subunit, we examined fibrils by electron microscopy. Electron diffraction gave a prominent meridional reflection at (0.47 nm)(-1), indicative of cross-beta structure, as predicted. STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) mass-per-unit-length measurements yielded 1.02 +/- 0.16 subunits per 0.94 nm, in agreement with the model prediction (1 subunit per 0.94 nm). This is half the packing density of approximately 1 subunit per 0.47 nm previously obtained for fibrils of the yeast prion proteins, Ure2p and Sup35p, whence it follows that the respective amyloid architectures are basically different.

  12. Heterogeneous Seeding of a Prion Structure by a Generic Amyloid Form of the Fungal Prion-forming Domain HET-s(218–289)

    DOE PAGES

    Wan, William; Bian, Wen; McDonald, Michele; ...

    2013-08-28

    The fungal prion-forming domain HET-s(218–289) forms infectious amyloid fibrils at physiological pH that were shown by solid-state NMR to be assemblies of a two-rung β-solenoid structure. Under acidic conditions, HET-s(218–289) has been shown to form amyloid fibrils that have very low infectivity in vivo, but structural information about these fibrils has been very limited. In this paper, we show by x-ray fiber diffraction that the HET-s(218–289) fibrils formed under acidic conditions have a stacked β-sheet architecture commonly found in short amyloidogenic peptides and denatured protein aggregates. At physiological pH, stacked β-sheet fibrils nucleate the formation of the infectious β-solenoid prionsmore » in a process of heterogeneous seeding, but do so with kinetic profiles distinct from those of spontaneous or homogeneous (seeded with infectious β-solenoid fibrils) fibrillization. Several serial passages of stacked β-sheet-seeded solutions lead to fibrillization kinetics similar to homogeneously seeded solutions. Finally, our results directly show that structural mutation can occur between substantially different amyloid architectures, lending credence to the suggestion that the processes of strain adaptation and crossing species barriers are facilitated by structural mutation.« less

  13. Boosting Immune Responses Against Bacterial Pathogens: In Vitro Analysis of Immunomodulators (In Vitro Analyse van de Stimulerende Werking van Verschillende Stoffen op het Immuunsysteem)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    desmuramylpeptides in combination with chemically synthesized Toll-like receptor agonists synergistically induced production of interleukin-8 in a NOD2- and NODI...biothreat agents may be an option, however there is a broad range of biothreat agents, which may become even broader as a result of genetic engeneering

  14. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  15. Mobile Telemetry Van Remote Control Upgrade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Advantages of Remote Control System Upgrade • Summary Overview • Remote control of Telemetry Mobile Ground Support ( TMGS ) Van proposed to allow...NWC) personnel provided valuable data for full-function remote control of telemetry tracking vans Background • TMGS Vans support Flight Test...control capability from main TM site at Building 5790 currently allows support via TMGS Van at nearby C- 15 Site, Plant 42 in Palmdale, and as far

  16. Een Meetsysteem voor het Testen van Radiocommunicatie-Apparatuur (A measuring Facility for Testing of Radio Communication Equipment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    insert various jamming signals. The criterion for classifying radio equipment under test is the quality of transferred information , that is the SINAD...UNCLASSFED) This report describes a test facility for measuring the behaviour and quality of radio communication equipment in a simulated operational...formation FEL has the disposal of a facility to test the quality of radio equipment in a simulated operational situation. (Y .. ,. -’ , / " " ’ TNO mppon 4

  17. White Dwarfs in the HET Dark Energy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Winget, D. E.; Williams, K.; Montgomery, M. H.; Falcon, R. E.; Hermes, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    In the past decades, large scale surveys have discovered a large number of white dwarfs. For example, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 [5] lists about 20 000 spectroscopically confirmed new white dwarfs. More than just a number, the new discoveries revealed different flavors of white dwarfs, including a new class of pulsators [7] and a larger percentage of stars with a magnetic field [4]. The HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will use the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory and a set of 150 spectrographs to map the three-dimensional positions of one million galaxies. The main goal of the survey is to probe dark energy by observing the recent universe (2<=z<=4). However, this unique, magnitude-limited survey (V<=22) will also provide a variety of by-products. We expect to obtain spectra for about 10 000 white dwarfs in the next 3 to 4 years.

  18. SALT/HET cooperation in education and public outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra

    The "Science with SALT" meeting in March 1998 opened avenues of cooperation between SAAO and the University of Texas at Austin in education and public outreach. This paper will review past interactions and future plans. SAAO personnel have visited the HET and McDonald Observatory and have taken part in planning meetings for the Texas Astronomy Education Center museum area and educational programming. Discussions concerning the extension of the daily radio show StarDate (English), Universo (Spanish) and Sternzeit (German) versions to a southern hemisphere version are underway. In addition, we are cooperatively planning a workshop to discuss an international collaborative for educational outreach for state-of-the-art telescopes for which a regional collaborative in southwestern U.S. (SCOPE) serves as a model. The towns of Sutherland and Fort Davis are discussing forming a "twin-town" relationship. Projects and plans that link cutting-edge astronomical research to classrooms and the public will be reviewed.

  19. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  20. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  1. [Manic episode in a patient with Beçhet's disease].

    PubMed

    Bozikas, V; Ramnalis, A; Dittopoulos, J; Iakovou, J; Garyfallos, G; Fokas, K

    2015-01-01

    Beçhet's disease (BD) is a chronic, heterogeneous, multisystem disease that affects young males and females around the Mediterranean region, as well as from Far and Middle East. Its etiology is vague with vasculitis being its main pathological feature. International diagnostic criteria have been established and they require the presence of recurrent oral ulcerations plus two of the following: Recurrent genital ulceration, eye lesions, skin lesions and positive pathergy test. A significant number of patients with Beçhet's disease suffers from symptoms from the central nervous system (CNS), while the most common clinical symptoms are pyramidal signs, mental-behavioral changes, hemiparesis and brain stem syndrome. The existence of mental-behavioral changes seems to be one of the most common findings in patients with Neuro-Beçhet (N-BD). These changes seem to be related with memory and attention deficits, and the process of deterioration continues even in attack-free periods, suggesting a continuously active disease process in the CNS. The prevalence of anxiety, depression and general psychiatric symptoms is higher among patients with BD compared to healthy individuals. However, the association between psychiatric symptoms and BD is not clearly understood. On the other hand, syndromes like psychosis or bipolar disorder appear to be less frequent, especially in attack-free periods. We describe the case of a 52-year old woman with Beçhet's disease who developed a single manic episode 13 years after the onset of Beçhet's disease. A 52-year old woman, suffering from Beçhet's disease since the age of 39, developed manic symptoms, namely elevated mood, pressured speech, flight of ideas, distractibility and decreased need for sleep. The above symptoms developed during a period that no other symptoms of Beçhet's disease were present. Moreover there was no other manifestation from the nervous system. A brain MRI was unremarkable, while a brain SPECT study revealed severe

  2. Detection Technique and Overview of EPT-HET of Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Tammen, J.; Boden, S.; Steinhagen, J.; Elftmann, R.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Boettcher, S. I.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Mahesh, Y.; Schuster, B.; Kulemzin, A.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Sanchez, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT, and HET). The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. The Solar Orbiter EPT electron measurements from 20 - 400 keV will cover the gap with some overlap between suprathermal electrons measured by STEP and high energy electrons measured by HET. The proton measurements from 20 -7000 keV will partially cover the gap between STEP and HET. The Electron and Proton Telescope relies on the magnet/foil-technique. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 -100 MeV, and heavy ions from 20 to 200 MeV/nuc by dE/dx -Total E technique. Thus, HET covers the energy range which is of specific interest for studies of the space environment and will perform the measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy events at the Sun which occasionally accelerate particles to such high energies that they can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and be measured at ground level. Here we present the current development status of EPT-HET and calibration results of units.

  3. The hetC Gene Is a Direct Target of the NtcA Transcriptional Regulator in Cyanobacterial Heterocyst Development

    PubMed Central

    Muro-Pastor, Alicia M.; Valladares, Ana; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    1999-01-01

    The heterocyst is the site of nitrogen fixation in aerobically grown cultures of some filamentous cyanobacteria. Heterocyst development in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is dependent on the global nitrogen regulator NtcA and requires, among others, the products of the hetR and hetC genes. Expression of hetC, tested by RNA- DNA hybridization, was impaired in an ntcA mutant. A nitrogen-regulated, NtcA-dependent putative transcription start point was localized at nucleotide −571 with respect to the hetC translational start. Sequences upstream from this transcription start point exhibit the structure of the canonical cyanobacterial promoter activated by NtcA, and purified NtcA protein specifically bound to a DNA fragment containing this promoter. Activation of expression of hetC during heterocyst development appears thus to be directly operated by NtcA. NtcA-mediated activation of hetR expression was not impaired in a hetC mutant, indicating that HetC is not an NtcA-dependent element required for hetR induction. PMID:10542167

  4. Fiber Diffraction of the Prion-Forming Domain HET-s(218-289) Shows Dehydration-Induced Deformation of a Complex Amyloid Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, William; Stubbs, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    Amyloids are filamentous protein aggregates that can be formed by many different proteins and are associated with both disease and biological functions. The pathogenicities or biological functions of amyloids are determined by their particular molecular structures, making accurate structural models a requirement for understanding their biological effects. One potential factor that can affect amyloid structures is hydration. Previous studies of simple stacked β-sheet amyloids have suggested that dehydration does not impact structure, but other studies indicated dehydration-related structural changes of a putative water-filled nanotube. Our results show that dehydration significantly affects the molecular structure of the fungal prion-forming domain HET-s(218–289),more » which forms a β-solenoid with no internal solvent-accessible regions. The dehydration-related structural deformation of HET-s(218–289) indicates that water can play a significant role in complex amyloid structures, even when no obvious water-accessible cavities are present.« less

  5. Spatial fluctuations in expression of the heterocyst differentiation regulatory gene hetR in Anabaena filaments.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Guerrero, Laura; Tal, Asaf; Arbel-Goren, Rinat; Mariscal, Vicente; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia; Stavans, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Under nitrogen deprivation, filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena undergo a process of development, resulting in a one-dimensional pattern of nitrogen-fixing heterocysts separated by about ten photosynthetic vegetative cells. Many aspects of gene expression before nitrogen deprivation and during the developmental process remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, the coupling of gene expression fluctuations between cells along a multicellular filament is unknown. We studied the statistics of fluctuations of gene expression of HetR, a transcription factor essential for heterocyst differentiation, both under steady-state growth in nitrogen-rich conditions and at different times following nitrogen deprivation, using a chromosomally-encoded translational hetR-gfp fusion. Statistical analysis of fluorescence at the individual cell level in wild-type and mutant filaments demonstrates that expression fluctuations of hetR in nearby cells are coupled, with a characteristic spatial range of circa two to three cells, setting the scale for cellular interactions along a filament. Correlations between cells predominantly arise from intercellular molecular transfer and less from cell division. Fluctuations after nitrogen step-down can build up on those under nitrogen-replete conditions. We found that under nitrogen-rich conditions, basal, steady-state expression of the HetR inhibitor PatS, cell-cell communication influenced by the septal protein SepJ and positive HetR auto-regulation are essential determinants of fluctuations in hetR expression and its distribution along filaments. A comparison between the expression of hetR-gfp under nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-poor conditions highlights the differences between the two HetR inhibitors PatS and HetN, as well as the differences in specificity between the septal proteins SepJ and FraC/FraD. Activation, inhibition and cell-cell communication lie at the heart of developmental processes. Our results show that proteins involved in these

  6. A Conversation with William Van Til.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Reports an interview with William Van Til, Coffman Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Education at Indiana State University (Terre Haute). Van Til reviews his career as a social studies teacher and his writings on curriculum and social foundations. Presents his opinions on progressive education, famous educators, educational history and reform,…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: van der Woude syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency Van der Woude syndrome is believed to occur in 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 100,000 people, based on data from Europe and Asia. Van der Woude syndrome ...

  8. Van Go: A Labor of Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Like a tapestry woven with one outstanding thread from beginning to end, the author's forty-year tenure as an art educator has its golden thread in her Van Go art outreach project. Quite literally, she takes students in a "van" and they "go," mostly on dirt roads, taking art to rural schools in Idaho, some of which have no more…

  9. Speed Measuring System (Detectoren en Signaalbewerking Voor Het Snelheidsmeetsysteem 4-01)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    een hogere nauwkeurigheid te halen dan san de voet van bet signasi mogelijk is bij een grote signaalaniplitude, Wanneer de S/L < 6 is wordt de drempel...snelheidsmeetsysteem 4-01 Niets Uilf deze ultgave mag worden vermenigvuldigd en of openbaar gemaakt door mlddel van druk fotokope microfilm autour~s): of op welke...andere wijze dan 006 zonder voorafgaarode toestemming van TNO J. van der Haven Hetlter I zage geven van net TNO-rappoit aan direct belanghebbenoen is

  10. Functional evaluation of tryptophans in glycolipid binding and membrane interaction by HET-C2, a fungal glycolipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Kenoth, Roopa; Zou, Xianqiong; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Pike, Helen M; Malinina, Lucy; Patel, Dinshaw J; Brown, Rhoderick E; Kamlekar, Ravi Kanth

    2018-05-01

    HET-C2 is a fungal glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) that uses an evolutionarily-modified GLTP-fold to achieve more focused transfer specificity for simple neutral glycosphingolipids than mammalian GLTPs. Only one of HET-C2's two Trp residues is topologically identical to the three Trp residues of mammalian GLTP. Here, we provide the first assessment of the functional roles of HET-C2 Trp residues in glycolipid binding and membrane interaction. Point mutants HET-C2 W208F , HET-C2 W208A and HET-C2 F149Y all retained >90% activity and 80-90% intrinsic Trp fluorescence intensity; whereas HET-C2 F149A transfer activity decreased to ~55% but displayed ~120% intrinsic Trp emission intensity. Thus, neither W208 nor F149 is absolutely essential for activity and most Trp emission intensity (~85-90%) originates from Trp109. This conclusion was supported by HET-C2 W109Y/F149Y which displayed ~8% intrinsic Trp intensity and was nearly inactive. Incubation of the HET-C2 mutants with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing different monoglycosylceramides or presented by lipid ethanol-injection decreased Trp fluorescence intensity and blue-shifted the Trp λ max by differing amounts compared to wtHET-C2. With HET-C2 mutants for Trp208, the emission intensity decreases (~30-40%) and λ max blue-shifts (~12nm) were more dramatic than for wtHET-C2 or F149 mutants and closely resembled human GLTP. When Trp109 was mutated, the glycolipid induced changes in HET-C2 emission intensity and λ max blue-shift were nearly nonexistent. Our findings indicate that the HET-C2 Trp λ max blue-shift is diagnostic for glycolipid binding; whereas the emission intensity decrease reflects higher environmental polarity encountered upon nonspecific interaction with phosphocholine headgroups comprising the membrane interface and specific interaction with the hydrated glycolipid sugar. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Presence of the vancomycin resistance gene cluster vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT in Enterococcus casseliflavus.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Christina; Bauer, Johann; Stegherr, Eva-Maria; Schwaiger, Karin

    2014-04-01

    The three chromosomally located clustered genes vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT confer intrinsic resistance to vancomycin and are used for species identification of Enterococcus gallinarum. In this study, 28 strains belonging to the E. gallinarum/casseliflavus group isolated from cloacal swabs from laying hens were screened for the presence of vanC1. As confirmed by species-specific multiplex PCR, 11 vanC1-positive strains were identified as E. gallinarum. Surprisingly, one yellow pigmented strain, verified as E. casseliflavus by species-specific multiplex PCR, was also vanC1 positive; vanXYc and vanT were additionally detectable in this strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT in E. casseliflavus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was 4 mg/L. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed that none of the clustered genes was expressed in this strain. Even if the genes seem not to be active, there is a certain risk that they will be transferred to other bacteria where they might be functionally expressed. Therefore, it may be advisable to expand the search for vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT from E. gallinarum to other (enterococcal) species. This study confirms that enterococci live up to their name as being reservoir bacteria and should therefore always be closely monitored.

  12. The heterocyst differentiation transcriptional regulator HetR of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena forms tetramers and can be regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Ana; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    Many filamentous cyanobacteria respond to the external cue of nitrogen scarcity by the differentiation of heterocysts, cells specialized in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in oxic environments. Heterocysts follow a spatial pattern along the filament of two heterocysts separated by ca. 10-15 vegetative cells performing oxygenic photosynthesis. HetR is a transcriptional regulator that directs heterocyst differentiation. In the model strain Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the HetR protein was observed in various oligomeric forms in vivo, including a tetramer that peaked with maximal hetR expression during differentiation. Tetramers were not detected in a hetR point mutant incapable of differentiation, but were conspicuous in an over-differentiating strain lacking the PatS inhibitor. In differentiated filaments the HetR tetramer was restricted to heterocysts, being undetectable in vegetative cells. HetR co-purified with RNA polymerase from Anabaena mainly as a tetramer. In vitro, purified recombinant HetR was distributed between monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers, and it was phosphorylated when incubated with (γ-(32)P)ATP. Phosphorylation and PatS hampered the accumulation of HetR tetramers and impaired HetR binding to DNA. In summary, tetrameric HetR appears to represent a functionally relevant form of HetR, whose abundance in the Anabaena filament could be negatively regulated by phosphorylation and by PatS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Detection of Solar Energetic Electron, Proton and Heavy Ions by EPT-HET of Solar Orbiter: Calibration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Boden, S.; Elftmann, R.; Tammen, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Boettcher, S. I.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Mahesh, Y.; Schuster, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT, and HET). The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. The Solar Orbiter EPT electron measurements from 20 - 400 keV will cover the gap with some overlap between suprathermal electrons measured by STEP and high energy electrons measured by HET. The proton measurements from 20 -7000 keV will partially cover the gap between STEP and HET. The Electron and Proton Telescope relies on the magnet/foil-technique. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 -100 MeV, and heavy ions from 20 to 200 MeV/nuc by dE/dx -Total E technique. Thus, HET covers the energy range which is of specific interest for studies of the space environment and will perform the measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy events at the Sun which occasionally accelerate particles to such high energies that they can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and be measured at ground level. Here we present calibration results of EPT-HET which show that EPT-HET will function as planned.

  14. Ellagitannin HeT obtained from strawberry leaves is oxidized by bacterial membranes and inhibits the respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Martos, Gustavo G; Mamani, Alicia; Filippone, María P; Abate, Pedro O; Katz, Néstor E; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz Ricci, Juan C

    2018-02-01

    Plant secondary metabolism produces a variety of tannins that have a wide range of biological activities, including activation of plant defenses and antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral effects. The ellagitannin HeT (1- O -galloyl-2,3;4,6-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucopyranose) from strawberry leaves elicits a strong plant defense response, and exhibits antimicrobial activity associated to the inhibition of the oxygen consumption, but its mechanism of action is unknown. In this paper we investigate the influence of HeT on bacterial cell membrane integrity and its effect on respiration. A β-galactosidase unmasking experiment showed that HeT does not disrupt membrane integrity. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that HeT strongly interacts with the cell membrane. Spectrochemical analysis indicated that HeT is oxidized in contact with bacterial cell membranes, and functional studies showed that HeT inhibits oxygen consumption, NADH and MTT reduction. These results provide evidence that HeT inhibits the respiratory chain.

  15. Crater Wall in Van de Graaff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-11

    This image taken NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the wall of crater Van de Graaff C, where brighter material is exposed by more active processes associated with steeper slopes, recent small craters, and even individual rolling boulders.

  16. Analysis of crashes involving 15-passenger vans

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between vehicle occupancy and several other variables in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database and a 15-passenger van's risk of rollover....

  17. Flower Still Life, Maria Van Oosterwijck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtrop, Emily

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life of Maria van Oosterwijck. It also discusses her art and its significance and symbolism. A list of suggested activities for elementary, middle, and high school students is included.

  18. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for inspection by Customs officials upon reasonable notice. (3) If the container does not exit the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of...

  19. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for inspection by Customs officials upon reasonable notice. (3) If the container does not exit the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of...

  20. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for inspection by Customs officials upon reasonable notice. (3) If the container does not exit the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of...

  1. Nodal Statistics for the Van Vleck Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Alain

    The Van Vleck polynomials naturally arise from the generalized Lamé equation as the polynomials of degree for which Eq. (1) has a polynomial solution of some degree k. In this paper, we compute the limiting distribution, as well as the limiting mean level spacings distribution of the zeros of any Van Vleck polynomial as N --> ∞.

  2. Response to van der Meer.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Gail V; Barnes, David K A; Morley, Simon A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-12-18

    In our recent Current Biology paper [1], we describe an ocean warming experiment in which we manipulated the temperature of panels set on the seafloor to provide a realistic and relevant indication of how benthic communities may change under future ocean warming. We describe increases in growth associated with warming by 1°C, with growth rates up to doubled in some species. The definition of Q 10 is a measure of the temperature sensitivity of an enzymatic reaction rate or a physiological process due to an increase by 10°C; doubling of growth rates with a 1°C change gives Q 10 s around 1,000. In his correspondence, Jaap van der Meer [2] questions our methods and provides alternative analyses which lead him to conclude that our observed increases in growth rate were in fact much lower and in accordance with previous studies from temperate zones. We provide justification for our use of absolute growth rate, justification for not using instantaneous growth rate (or a measure of growth in proportion to previous growth) and encourage the on-going discussion of how to measure and compare growth rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Van Allen Discovery Most Important

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1959-01-01

    The first step toward the exploration of space occurred approximately 22 months ago as a part of the International Geophysical Year. In the short interval since October, 1957, the new tools of research, the satellite and the space rocket, have produced two unexpected results of fundamental scientific importance. First, instruments placed in the Explorer satellites by James A. Van Allen have revealed the existence of layers of energetic particles in the outer atmosphere. This discovery constitutes the most significant research achievement of the IGY satellite program. The layers may provide the explanation for the aurora and other geophysical phenomena, and they will also influence the design of vehicles for manned space flight, whose occupants must be shielded against their harmful biological effects. Second, the shape of the earth has been determined very accurately with the aid of data from the first Vanguard. As a result of this investigation, we have found that our planet tends toward the shape of a pear, with its stem at the North Pole. This discovery may produce major changes in our ideas on the interior structure of the earth.

  4. Mentale Inzetbaarheid van Teams: Ontwikkeling van een Moden van Teamfunctioneren als Module voor SCOPE (Mental Readiness of Teams - Development of a Team Model as Module for SCOPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    inzetbaarheid van teams: ontwikkeling van een model van teamfunctioneren als module voor SCOPE Datumn april 2007 Auteur (s) R. de B~ruin C’. Vervvijs A.J...Datum april 2007 Programmaleider Projectleider Auteur (s) dr. W.A. Lotens, TNO Defensie en A.]. van Vijet, TNO Defensie en R. de Bruin Veiligheid...Deelnemers verwachten wel, in lijn met de theorie , dat een lage cohesie samenhangt met een lage effectiviteit. Een hoge cohesie, daarentegen, zou

  5. Toekomstvisie op Verstrekking en Ontwikkeling van Kleding op Basis van Scangegenereerde Gegevens (Scan Based Distribution and Development of Clothing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    meting Maatke uzest rategi e Borstomvang =1 11 [104 ý󈧌 616 [120 124 Primair Tailleomvang =106 98 b02~ . 10 114 118 Secundair Halsomvang = 37,4 ý5 6 9 40...Vastgcsteld d.d. 3 juli 2006 Titel Ongerubriceerd M anagementuittrekscl Ongerubriceerd Samenvatting Ongerubriceerd Rapporttekst Ongerubriceerd Oplage . 9 ...kieding Het KPU bedrijf verstrekt kieding aan het Defensie-personeel en gebruikt daartoe een lichaamsscanner. Deze nieuwe techniek heeft gevolgen voor

  6. Analysis and Verification of HET 1 m Mirror Deflections Due to Edge Sensor Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Michael A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ninety-one 1 m mirror segments which comprise the McDonald Observatory Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET) primary mirror have been observed to drift out of alignment in an unpredictable manner in response to time variant temperature deviations. A Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMS) is being developed to detect and correct this segment-to-segment drift using sensors mounted at the edges of the mirror segments. However, the segments were not originally designed to carry the weight of edge sensors. Thus, analyses and tests were conducted as part of the SAMS design to estimate the magnitude and shape of the edge sensor induced deformations as well as the resultant optical performance. Interferometric testing of a 26 m radius of curvature HET mirror segment was performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center using several load conditions to verify the finite element analyses.

  7. Diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates with VanA, VanB, and VanD phenotypes and susceptibility to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Cha, J O; Yoo, J I; Kim, H K; Kim, H S; Yoo, J S; Lee, Y S; Jung, Y H

    2013-10-01

    To investigate diversity in the vanA cluster in Enterococcus faecium isolates from nontertiary hospitals. We identified 43 vanA-positive Ent. faecium isolates, including two vancomycin-susceptible isolates, from hospitals between 2003 and 2006. Of these isolates, >85% were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. The vanA cluster was classified into six types using overlapping PCR, but the prototype transposon Tn1546 was not found. Most vanA-positive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) carried IS1216V and belonged to Type III (58·1%) or Type II (20·9%). vanY, vanZ and IS1216V were observed in the left and right ends of Type III with long-range PCR. IS1216V was also observed within vanS and vanX in the two vancomycin-susceptible isolates and in two vancomycin-resistant isolates. No VRE isolates with VanB and VanD phenotypes contained point mutations in vanS, unlike in previous reports. Sequence types (STs) of all isolates belonged to clonal complex 17, and ST78 was predominant. Insertion sequences, especially IS1216V, cause structural variation in the vanA cluster. We report the first observation of vanY and vanZ at the left end of Tn1546 in clinical isolates. This is the first report of the frequency of vancomycin resistance and diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Ent. faecium isolates from nontertiary hospitals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Simulation optimizing of n-type HIT solar cells with AFORS-HET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Xiao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xiumei; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a study of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells based on n-type silicon substrates by a simulation software AFORS-HET. We have studied the influence of thickness, band gap of intrinsic layer and defect densities of every interface. Details in mechanisms are elaborated as well. The results show that the optimized efficiency reaches more than 23% which may give proper suggestions to practical preparation for HIT solar cells industry.

  9. Electrons in the Inner Van Allen Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoff

    A recent study shows that the inner Van Allen belt has less radiation than previously believed. Observations from NASA’s Van Allen probes show the fastest, most energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt are actually much rarer and harder to find than scientists expected. This is good news for spacecraft that are orbiting in the region and can be damaged by high levels of radiation. The results will also help scientists better understand—and detect—effects from high-altitude nuclear explosions.

  10. Van Kampen Colimits as Bicolimits in Span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindel, Tobias; Sobociński, Paweł

    The exactness properties of coproducts in extensive categories and pushouts along monos in adhesive categories have found various applications in theoretical computer science, e.g. in program semantics, data type theory and rewriting. We show that these properties can be understood as a single universal property in the associated bicategory of spans. To this end, we first provide a general notion of Van Kampen cocone that specialises to the above colimits. The main result states that Van Kampen cocones can be characterised as exactly those diagrams in ℂ that induce bicolimit diagrams in the bicategory of spans mathcal{S}pan_{mathbb{C}}, provided that ℂ has pullbacks and enough colimits.

  11. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site transportation analysis report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    The Volpe Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is providing transportation support to Martin Van Buren National Historic Site's (NHS) first General Management Plan (GMP), which will be complete in 2010 or 2011. Currently, Martin Van Buren NHS...

  12. 77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Alternative Fuel Vans AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must... (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of alternative fuel vans. This notice...

  13. UPS Hybrid Electric Delivery Van Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    conventional diesel vans. Publications The following documents provide detailed information about the study the conventional vans during the on-road portion of the study. The two vehicle groups switched route assignments during the study period to provide a balanced review of the vans on the same routes. During

  14. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC - Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the current effective synthetic minor NSR permit for the Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC, Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility, located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in Mountrail County, ND.

  15. Research and the Bernard van Leer Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines Bernard van Leer Foundation sponsorship of action programs and research studies of child development in 25 countries. The problems and possibilities of such work are discussed from the viewpoint of evaluation and the contribution which can be made to the behavioral sciences--notably to comparative child development. (Author/RH)

  16. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2001 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands operating internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following the…

  17. Bernard van Leer Foundation. Annual Report 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This document provides an annual report and financial review of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. Following an introduction by the chairman of the Foundation's board of trustees, a report of the executive director details the first full-year of implementation of the Foundation's…

  18. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This document provides an annual report and financial review for 1998 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. Following an introduction by chairman of the Foundation's board of trustees, a report of the executive director details the second year of implementation of the…

  19. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2002 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands operating internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following the…

  20. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report details the activities and financial status for 1999 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. Following the introduction by the chairman of the Foundation's board of trustees, the report of the executive director details activities during the Foundation's fiftieth…

  1. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This document provides an annual report and financial review for 1996 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. Following a summary by the executive director of the Foundation, the report includes a description of the foundation and its grants. It then lists, by country, the major…

  2. Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation, Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the Bernard van Leer Foundation's "Newsletter" published during 1996. The newsletter covers topics related to, or about efforts to foster, the education and welfare of children around the world, and includes descriptions of programs around the world, lists of resources and publications, and…

  3. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2000 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands that operates internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following an…

  4. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Francis, D A; Ponsford, J R; Wiles, C M; Thomas, P K; Duchen, L W

    1993-02-01

    The clinical and pathological findings of a male with the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome are described. This rare and fatal affection of the nervous system involves mainly the brain stem with the prominent and early manifestation of sensorineural deafness. Increased awareness and documentation of this disorder has added information on the mode of inheritance.

  5. The Forced van der Pol Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the forced van der Pol equation x + [epsilon](x[superscript 2] - 1)x + x = F cos[omega]t, by solving numerically the differential equation for a variety of values of the parameters [epsilon], F and [omega]. In doing so, many striking and interesting trajectories can be discovered and phenomena such as frequency entrainment,…

  6. Q & A with Carmella Van Vleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Carmella Van Vleet, a former teacher and educational speaker. She has written family humor and parenting articles, and is also the author of "How to Handle School Snafus," "Great Ancient Egypt Projects You Can Build Yourself" and "Amazing Ben Franklin Inventions You Can Build Yourself." In this interview,…

  7. The van Gogh of the Infrared Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-25

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is a little like the Vincent van Gogh of the infrared sky, providing the world with picturesque images of the cosmos by representing infrared light through color. This image is the nebula NGC 2174.

  8. van Maanen, Adriaan (1884-1947)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Dutch astronomer, became a member of the Mount Wilson staff, and studied the rotation of spiral nebulae as a means to establish their distances. His detection of rotational motions was illusory and misleadingly suggested that they were relatively nearby. Through its proper motion and parallax, he discovered the white dwarf van Maanen's star....

  9. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Jones, Mary K.; Channell, Guy; Kelsall, Claire J.; Hughes, Charlotte S.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Patching, Simon G.; Dinu, Vlad; Gillis, Richard B.; Adams, Gary G.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    VanA-type resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical enterococci is regulated by the VanSARA two-component signal transduction system. The nature of the molecular ligand that is recognised by the VanSA sensory component has not hitherto been identified. Here we employ purified, intact and active VanSA membrane protein (henceforth referred to as VanS) in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to study VanS oligomeric state and conformation in the absence and presence of vancomycin. A combination of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (SEDFIT, SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG analysis) showed that VanS in the absence of the ligand is almost entirely monomeric (molar mass M = 45.7 kDa) in dilute aqueous solution with a trace amount of high molar mass material (M ~ 200 kDa). The sedimentation coefficient s suggests the monomer adopts an extended conformation in aqueous solution with an equivalent aspect ratio of ~(12 ± 2). In the presence of vancomycin over a 33% increase in the sedimentation coefficient is observed with the appearance of additional higher s components, demonstrating an interaction, an observation consistent with our circular dichroism measurements. The two possible causes of this increase in s – either a ligand induced dimerization and/or compaction of the monomer are considered. PMID:28397853

  10. A note on evaluating VAN earthquake predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselentis, G.-Akis; Melis, Nicos S.

    The evaluation of the success level of an earthquake prediction method should not be based on approaches that apply generalized strict statistical laws and avoid the specific nature of the earthquake phenomenon. Fault rupture processes cannot be compared to gambling processes. The outcome of the present note is that even an ideal earthquake prediction method is still shown to be a matter of a “chancy” association between precursors and earthquakes if we apply the same procedure proposed by Mulargia and Gasperini [1992] in evaluating VAN earthquake predictions. Each individual VAN prediction has to be evaluated separately, taking always into account the specific circumstances and information available. The success level of epicenter prediction should depend on the earthquake magnitude, and magnitude and time predictions may depend on earthquake clustering and the tectonic regime respectively.

  11. Geometrothermodynamics of Van der Waals black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yumin; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu

    2017-12-01

    We study the geometrothermodynamics of a special asymptotically AdS black hole, i.e. Van der Waals ( VdW) black hole, in the extended phase space where the negative cosmological constant Λ can be regarded as thermodynamic pressure. Analysing some special conditions of this black hole with geometrothermodynamical method, we find a good correlation with ordinary cases according to the state equation.

  12. Three Substrains of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Display Divergence in Genomic Sequences and hetC Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Gao, Yuan; Li, Chao; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Xu, Xudong

    2018-07-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a model strain for molecular studies of cell differentiation and patterning in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Subtle differences in heterocyst development have been noticed in different laboratories working on the same organism. In this study, 360 mutations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small insertion/deletions (indels; 1 to 3 bp), fragment deletions, and transpositions, were identified in the genomes of three substrains. Heterogeneous/heterozygous bases were also identified due to the polyploidy nature of the genome and the multicellular morphology but could be completely segregated when plated after filament fragmentation by sonication. hetC is a gene upregulated in developing cells during heterocyst formation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and found in approximately half of other heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Inactivation of hetC in 3 substrains of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 led to different phenotypes: the formation of heterocysts, differentiating cells that keep dividing, or the presence of both heterocysts and dividing differentiating cells. The expression of P hetZ - gfp in these hetC mutants also showed different patterns of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. Thus, the function of hetC is influenced by the genomic background and epistasis and constitutes an example of evolution under way. IMPORTANCE Our knowledge about the molecular genetics of heterocyst formation, an important cell differentiation process for global N 2 fixation, is mostly based on studies with Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Here, we show that rapid microevolution is under way in this strain, leading to phenotypic variations for certain genes related to heterocyst development, such as hetC This study provides an example for ongoing microevolution, marked by multiple heterogeneous/heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in a multicellular multicopy-genome microorganism. Copyright © 2018 American Society for

  13. Members of the Genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus Harbor Genes Homologous to Enterococcal Glycopeptide Resistance Genes vanA and vanB

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, L.; Christensen, H.; Hasman, H.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2004-01-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative d-Ala:d-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons. PMID:15561881

  14. Members of the genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus harbor genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, L; Christensen, H; Hasman, H; Dalsgaard, A

    2004-12-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative D-Ala:D-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons.

  15. Consequences of the Introduction of Insensitive Munitions on Safety, Collateral Damage and Operations (consequenties van de invoering van mkm-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (internationaal) opereren

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    van de werkzaamheden In dit rapport worden de gevolgen van initiatie van munitie door een ongewilde externe stimulus beschouwd aan de hand van reele...operationele scenario’s. Dit wordt vergeleken met de gevolgen in dezelfde scenario’s, waarin gebruik is gemaakt van Minder Kwetsbare Munitie (MKM). Naast...de historie van MKM wordt uitgelegd wat Inleiding of terroristische activiteiten, maar ook door MKM is. Vervolgens worden de gevolgen Munitie en de

  16. Op weg naar een didactiek voor natuurkunde-experimenten op afstand : Ontwerp en evaluatie van een via internet uitvoerbaar experiment voor leerlingen uit het voortgezet onderwijs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbarts, M. B. A.

    2009-02-01

    The subject of this thesis is a developmental study on “remote experimenting” in education. It concerns the development of a remote experiment that enables pre-university students to carry out a physics experiment at a distance via the internet. Remote experiments can offer several (practical) benefits when compared to conventional experiments but the desire to exploit these benefits put special demands on the design of the experiment, since the students might be conducting the experiment without a teacher in the vicinity. As a consequence of these demands it was decided to focus on exploring the possibilities and problems of remote experiments conducted in the absence of a teacher. The research was carried out in two cycles and focused on the development of a remote experiment that could be conducted autonomously by pre-university students to measure the speed of light in several media. This should answer the global question: What should a technically, as well as didactically, well-functioning remote experiment look like? The first cycle had an explorative character. It showed that technically the experiment already functioned quite well. However, many problems were observed concerning the content, and the way the students were tackling it. This led to two categories of recommendations. Concerning the content, the material should aim at making the students more aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it and several content related problems needed to be avoided. The second category of recommendations concerned the format of the material: the design and the working method. Special attention should be paid to designing a clear structure for the website and adding interaction and control, (feedback- and reflection facilities) to activate the students and guide them through the material. In the second research cycle these recommendations were followed by designing the material within the theoretical framework of the problem posing theory. A didactical structure was designed before writing the actual lesson material for the website describing the inter-related conceptual and content-related motivational pathway of the intended teaching-learning process. The lesson material was set up in such a way that the students are repeatedly confronted with a practical problem to solve and they play an active role in developing the method of measurement. Secondly, in an attempt to compensate for the absence of the teacher and support the teaching-learning process some format elements were developed and deployed like an automated question-, and feedback system that supported the students, activated them and gave them insight into their learning process and a ‘Where-am-I’-window that showed their current position within the material. This all had led to a technically as well as didactically well functioning remote experiment in which, at a global level, the line of reasoning was made explicit and recognizable for the students, and ad a local level was build up out of well connected successive activities and required the students to adopt an active attitude.

  17. Integrating Training Simulations and e-Learning Systems: The SimSCORM Platform (Integratie van Training Simulaties en e-Learning Systemen: Het SimSCORM Platform)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    SimSCORM Opdrachtnummer Trainingsconcepten voor Defensie Datum Programmanummer Projectnummer juli 2008 V406 032.13224 Auteur (s) ir H.L.H. de Penning...simulators can provide learners with powerful and realistic learning environments: whereas e-learning systems provide them with interactive, mostly theory ...practice and theory , in both learning and evaluation, is becoming increasingly important. From a learner’s point of view, a powerful learning environment

  18. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter.

    PubMed

    Kulić, Igor M; Kulić, Miodrag L

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R(-6)), in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R(-9)). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  19. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulić, Igor M.; Kulić, Miodrag L.

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R-6) , in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R-9 ). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  20. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, asmore » is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.« less

  1. [Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848)].

    PubMed

    Eikermann, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The article about the life and achievements of the apothecary Johann van Beethoven, the younger brother of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, depicts a vivid picture of life in the 18th, 19t century. Research on archived original documents in Bonn, Vienna and Linz on the Danube made it possible to reveal details about the relationship inside this famous family and describes the hurdles of life of a successful apothecary. In 1776 Johann van Beethoven was born as the fourth child of the Beethoven family, a family of Bonner musicians. In 1790 he began his apprenticeship to become an apothecary at the Bonner "Hofapotheke". Towards the end of 1795 he moved to join his older brothers Ludwig and Karl in Vienna. During his time there he worked as a "subject" in various Viennese pharmacies. However in 1808 he purchased the pharmacy "Zur Goldenen Krone" in Linz on the Danube. His new pharmacy flourished, supplying first the Napoleonic occupation troops, and later the Austrian Military with medicines and field dressing/bandage materials. When in 1812 he married his Housekeeper, his Brother Ludwig opposed harshly, on reasons of social status and on moral grounds. Four years later, in 1816 Johann sold the pharmacy in Linz and founded a new pharmacy in Urfahr, on the opposite bank of the Danube. In 1819 he became a squire (or landowner), when he purchased a manor estate in Gneixendorf, near Krems on the Danube. In spite of his numerous duties as an apothecary and squire, Johann was frequently resident in Vienna, supporting his brother both emotionally and pharmaceutically. At the end of his life Johann sold both his pharmacy and the Gneixendorf estate, and spent his last years as a private gentleman living a dazzling lifestyle in Vienna. He died on January 12th 1848 and was buried in Vienna's "Waldmüllerpark".

  2. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Review 1993 = Fundacion Bernard van Leer Revista Anual 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This report, in both English and Spanish versions, aims to highlight the Bernard van Leer Foundation's identity, objectives, and major activities, as well as the work undertaken by the projects the foundation supports. The review features articles on the Foundation's work on advocacy, supporting families living in disadvantaged circumstances,…

  3. Fundacion Bernard van Leer, Boletin Informativo, 1987-1996 (Bernard van Leer Foundation Information Bulletin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fundacion Bernard van Leer, Boletin Informativo, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of ten annual Spanish Language Bulletins, published during the period 1987-1996. The early bulletins were largely composed of selections originally published in the Bernard van Lear Foundation's English-Language "Newsletter The articles discuss topics such as: (1) parents as children's first teachers; (2) health and…

  4. The microscopes of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

    PubMed

    van Zuylen, J

    1981-03-01

    The seventeenth-century Dutch microscopist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, was the first man to make a protracted study of microscopical objects, and, unlike his contemporary Robert Hooke, he viewed by transmitted light. Leeuwenhoek made over 500 of his own, curious, simple microscopes, but now only nine are known to exist. The exact nature of the lenses Leeuwenhoek made, has for long been a puzzle. The existing microscopes have now been examined in detail, and their optical characteristics measured and tabulated. It is proposed that the lens of highest magnification, x 266, was made using a special blown bubble technique.

  5. The Influence of Protection, Mobility and Risk Perception on the Behaviour and Physical Performance of a Combat Soldier (De Invloed van Bescherming, Mobiliteit en Risicoperceptie op het Gedrag en de Fysieke Prestatie van een Gevechtssoldaat)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    2004). The trade off between protection and performance for dismounted infantry in the assault. Personal Armour System Symposium, PASS-2004, Kijkduin...of protection, mobility and risk Info-DenV@tno.nl perception on the behaviour and physical performance of a combat soldier Date December 2006 Author(s...behaviour and physical performance of a combat soldier Programmanummer Projectnummer V205 014.16190 Program maplanning Projectplannlng Start 01-04-2003

  6. vanC Cluster of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Cesar A.; Courvalin, Patrice; Reynolds, Peter E.

    2000-01-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci of the VanC type synthesize UDP-muramyl-pentapeptide[d-Ser] for cell wall assembly and prevent synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala. The vanC cluster of Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 consists of five genes: vanC-1, vanXYC, vanT, vanRC, and vanSC. Three genes are sufficient for resistance: vanC-1 encodes a ligase that synthesizes the dipeptide d-Ala-d-Ser for addition to UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide, vanXYC encodes a d,d-dipeptidase–carboxypeptidase that hydrolyzes d-Ala-d-Ala and removes d-Ala from UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[d-Ala], and vanT encodes a membrane-bound serine racemase that provides d-Ser for the synthetic pathway. The three genes are clustered: the start codons of vanXYC and vanT overlap the termination codons of vanC-1 and vanXYC, respectively. Two genes which encode proteins with homology to the VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system were present downstream from the resistance genes. The predicted amino acid sequence of VanRC exhibited 50% identity to VanR and 33% identity to VanRB. VanSC had 40% identity to VanS over a region of 308 amino acids and 24% identity to VanSB over a region of 285 amino acids. All residues with important functions in response regulators and histidine kinases were conserved in VanRC and VanSC, respectively. Induction experiments based on the determination of d,d-carboxypeptidase activity in cytoplasmic extracts confirmed that the genes were expressed constitutively. Using a promoter-probing vector, regions upstream from the resistance and regulatory genes were identified that have promoter activity. PMID:10817725

  7. The heterocyst regulatory protein HetP and its homologs modulate heterocyst commitment in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Videau, Patrick; Rivers, Orion S; Hurd, Kathryn; Ushijima, Blake; Oshiro, Reid T; Ende, Rachel J; O'Hanlon, Samantha M; Cozy, Loralyn M

    2016-10-24

    The commitment of differentiating cells to a specialized fate is fundamental to the correct assembly of tissues within a multicellular organism. Because commitment is often irreversible, entry into and progression through this phase of development must be tightly regulated. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, the multicellular cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 terminally commits ∼10% of its cells to become specialized nitrogen-fixing heterocysts. Although commitment is known to occur 9-14 h after the induction of differentiation, the factors that regulate the initiation and duration of this phase have yet to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of four genes that share a functional domain and modulate heterocyst commitment: hetP (alr2818), asl1930, alr2902, and alr3234 Epistatic relationships between all four genes relating to commitment were revealed by deleting them individually and in combination; asl1930 and alr3234 acted most upstream to delay commitment, alr2902 acted next in the pathway to inhibit development, and hetP acted most downstream to drive commitment forward. Possible protein-protein interactions between HetP, its homologs, and the heterocyst master regulator, HetR, were assessed, and interaction partners were defined. Finally, patterns of gene expression for each homolog, as determined by promoter fusions to gfp and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, were distinct from that of hetP in both spatiotemporal organization and regulation. We posit that a dynamic succession of protein-protein interactions modulates the timing and efficiency of the commitment phase of development and note that this work highlights the utility of a multicellular cyanobacterium as a model for the study of developmental processes.

  8. Hybrid-type endoscopic thyroidectomy (HET: Tori's method) for differentiated thyroid carcinoma including invasion to the trachea.

    PubMed

    Tori, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) or robotic thyroidectomy is yet to be applied to thyroid carcinoma invasive to the trachea and to wide lymph node node metastasis. On the other hand, small-incision thyroidectomy lacks sufficient working space and clear vision. The author has newly developed hybrid-type endoscopic thyroidectomy (HET) to overcome these problems. From March 2011 to February 2012, HET was performed for 85 patients. Clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. To evaluate the superiority of HET for malignancy representatively, conventional lobectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) performed 1 year previously was compared with HET. In lobectomy and node dissection, a single skin incision (1.5 cm) is made above the clavicle, with a port incision (5 mm) made 3 cm below the clavicle. Then CCND is performed directly through the incision by lifting up the isthmus. To obtain sufficient working space for the lobectomy, the strap muscles are taped and pulled toward the head, then hung by the cradle. The thyroid lobe is retracted to the midline with a retractor, followed by isolation of the inferior laryngeal nerve and transection of the inferior thyroid vessels with the monitor of the scope. Lateral lymph nodes dissection can be performed at the same time, if necessary. In total thyroidectomy, the same procedure is performed at the opposite side. The scalpel can be used to shave through each incision in case of tracheal invasion. Of the 85 cases, 62 were malignant, involving papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 23 were benign. Total thyroidectomy was performed for 22 of the PTC cases and CCND for 49 of the cases. Shaving for tracheal invasion was performed for eight patients. No mortality, complications, recurrence, or metastasis was found 1-2 years after the operation. Compared with conventional thyroidectomy, HET was superior in blood loss, visual analog scale, and postoperative hospital stay. The author's method (Tori's method) might be

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... CREVELD SYNDROME Sources for This Page Baujat G, Le Merrer M. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Jun ... CB, Kochilas L, Schimmenti LA, Moller JH. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and congenital heart defects: presentation of an additional 32 cases. Pediatr Cardiol. 2011 Oct;32( ...

  10. A. E. van Vogt: In Search of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H. L.

    A general semantics perspective of science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt is presented in this paper. The first major section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of van Vogt and traces the influence of A. Korzybski's work on general semantics, "Science and Sanity," on his writing, while the second major section provides an…

  11. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van…

  12. Multiple Voices in Charles Van Riper's Desensitization Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Charles Van Riper (1905-94) author, researcher and practitioner, was one of the major contributors to the field of stuttering in the 20th century. His series of Action Therapy videotapes provide a useful model of how therapy was implemented by a master clinician. Aims: Van Riper's session with a client is analysed to reveal how voices…

  13. Transient aerodynamic characteristics of vans during the accelerated overtaking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-ning; Wang, Xing-shen; Du, Guang-sheng; Liu, Zheng-gang; Lei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the influence of the accelerated overtaking process on the vehicles' transient aerodynamic characteristics, through 3-D numerical simulations with dynamic meshes and sliding interface technique. Numerical accuracy is verified by experimental results. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles in the uniform overtaking process and the accelerated overtaking process are compared. It is shown that the speed variation of the overtaking van would influence the aerodynamic characteristics of the two vans, with greater influence on the overtaken van than on the overtaking van. The simulations of three different accelerated overtaking processes show that the greater the acceleration of the overtaking van, the larger the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken van. When the acceleration of the overtaking van increases by 1 m/s2, the maximum drag force, side force and yawing moment coefficients of the overtaken van all increase by more than 6%, to seriously affect the power performance and the stability of the vehicles. The analysis of the pressure fields under different accelerated conditions reveals the cause of variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles.

  14. van Manen's method and reduction in a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Kristiina

    2015-03-01

    To describe van Manen's method and concept of reduction in a study that used a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Nurse researchers have used van Manen's method in different ways. Participants' lifeworlds are described in depth, but descriptions of reduction have been brief. The literature and knowledge review and manual search of research articles. Databases Web Science, PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO, without applying a time period, to identify uses of van Manen's method. This paper shows how van Manen's method has been used in nursing research and gives some examples of van Manen's reduction. Reduction enables us to conduct in-depth phenomenological hermeneutic research and understand people's lifeworlds. As there are many variations in adapting reduction, it is complex and confusing. This paper contributes to the discussion of phenomenology, hermeneutic study and reduction. It opens up reduction as a method for researchers to exploit.

  15. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  16. Amino acid substitutions in the VanS sensor of the VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains result in high-level vancomycin resistance and low-level teicoplanin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Y; Tanimoto, K; Ozawa, Y; Murata, T; Ike, Y

    2000-04-15

    The vancomycin-resistant enterococci GV1, GV2 and GV3, which were isolated from droppings from broiler farms in Japan have been characterized as VanA-type VRE, which express high-level vancomycin resistance (256 or 512 microg ml(-1), MIC) and low-level teicoplanin resistance (1 or 2 microg ml(-1), MIC). The vancomycin resistances were encoded on plasmids. The vancomycin resistance conjugative plasmid pMG2 was isolated from the GV2 strain. The VanA determinant of pMG2 showed the same genetic organization as that of the VanA genes encoded on the representative transposon Tn1546, which comprises vanRSHAXYZ. The nucleotide sequences of all the genes, except the gene related to the vanS gene on Tn1546, were completely identical to the genes encoded on Tn1546. Three amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of the deduced VanS were detected in the nucleotide sequence of vanS encoded on pMG2. There were also three amino acid substitutions in the vanS gene of the GV1 and GV3 strains in the same positions as in the vanS gene of pMG2. Vancomycin induced the increased teicoplanin resistance in these strains.

  17. Rater Biases in Genetically Informative Research Designs: Comment on Bartels, Boomsma, Hudziak, van Beijsterveldt, and van den Oord (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Rater biases are of interest to behavior genetic researchers, who often use ratings data as a basis for studying heritability. Inclusion of multiple raters for each sibling pair (M. Bartels, D. I. Boomsma, J. J. Hudziak, T. C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, & E. J. C. G. van den Oord, 2007) is a promising strategy for controlling bias variance and may…

  18. Additional Value from Road Mapping in Defense Policy Making (meerwaarde van roadmapping bij beleidsontwikkeling van de koninklijke landmacht)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    van zogonaamde strategische reserves tot bijvaarbeeld lakaal boschikbare gevechtscapacitoit. 9 11 Joint. Do Nederlandse krijgsmacht ontwikkelt zich tot...8 2 W erkwijze van de KL tot nu toe ............................................................................... 9 2.1 O...ntwikkeling visiedocurnent ....................................................................................... 9 2.2 Opzet beleid- en deelstudies

  19. Dancing bunches as Van Kampen modes

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Van Kampen modes are eigen-modes of Jeans-Vlasov equation [1-3]. Their spectrum consists of continuous and, possibly, discrete parts. Onset of a discrete van Kampen mode means emergence of a coherent mode without any Landau damping; thus, even a tiny couple-bunch wake is sufficient to drive instability. Longitudinal instabilities observed at Tevatron [4], RHIC [5] and SPS [6] can be explained as loss of Landau damping (LLD), which is shown here to happen at fairly low impedances. For repulsive wakes and single-harmonic RF, LLD is found to be extremely sensitive to steepness of the bunch distribution function at small amplitudes. Basedmore » on that, a method of beam stabilization is suggested. Emergence of a discrete van Kampen mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. Longitudinal bunch stability is analysed in weak head-tail approximation for inductive impedance and single-harmonic RF. The LLD threshold intensities are found to be rather low: for cases under study all of them do not exceed a few percent of the zero-amplitude incoherent synchrotron frequency shift, strongly decreasing for shorter bunches. Because of that, LLD can explain longitudinal instabilities happened at fairly low impedances at Tevatron [4], and possibly for RHIC [5] and SPS [6], being in that sense an alternative to the soliton explanation [5, 20]. Although LLD itself results in many cases in emergence of a mode with zero growth rate, any couple-bunch (and sometimes multi-turn) wake would drive instability for that mode, however small this wake is. LLD is similar to a loss of immune system of a living cell, when any microbe becomes fatal for it. The emerging discrete mode is normally very different from the rigid-bunch motion; thus the rigid-mode model significantly overestimates the LLD threshold. The power low of LLD predicted in Ref. [17] agrees with results of this paper. However, the numerical factor in that scaling low strongly depends on the bunch distribution

  20. Van de Hulst Essay: Light Scattering, Aerosols, Clouds, Climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific study, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst assay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. Finally, after that, I present brieflymore » a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.« less

  1. Van de Hulst Essay: Light Scattering, Aerosols, Clouds, Climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr

    2017-12-06

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific study, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst assay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. Finally, after that, I present brieflymore » a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.« less

  2. Upgrade of the HET segment control system, utilizing state-of-the-art, decentralized and embedded system controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häuser, Marco; Richter, Josef; Kriel, Herman; Turbyfill, Amanda; Buetow, Brent; Ward, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Together with the ongoing major instrument upgrade of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) we present the planned upgrade of the HET Segment Control System (SCS) to SCS2. Because HET's primary mirror is segmented into 91 individual 1-meter hexagonal mirrors, the SCS is essential to maintain the mirror alignment throughout an entire night of observations. SCS2 will complete tip, tilt and piston corrections of each mirror segment at a significantly higher rate than the original SCS. The new motion control hardware will further increase the system's reliability. The initial optical measurements of this array are performed by the Mirror Alignment Recovery System (MARS) and the HET Extra Focal Instrument (HEFI). Once the segments are optically aligned, the inductive edge sensors give sub-micron precise feedback of each segment's positions relative to its adjacent segments. These sensors are part of the Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMS) and are responsible for providing information about positional changes due to external influences, such as steep temperature changes and mechanical stress, and for making compensatory calculations while tracking the telescope on sky. SCS2 will use the optical alignment systems and SAMS inputs to command corrections of every segment in a closed loop. The correction period will be roughly 30 seconds, mostly due to the measurement and averaging process of the SAMS algorithm. The segment actuators will be controlled by the custom developed HET Segment MOtion COntroller (SMOCO). It is a direct descendant of University Observatory Munich's embedded, CAN-based system and instrument control tool-kit. To preserve the existing HET hardware layout, each SMOCO will control two adjacent mirror segments. Unlike the original SCS motor controllers, SMOCO is able to drive all six axes of its two segments at the same time. SCS2 will continue to allow for sub-arcsecond precision in tip and tilt as well as sub-micro meter precision in piston. These

  3. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  4. Middle ear abnormalities in Van Maldergem syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Thomeer, Henricus G X M; Pameijer, Frank A; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal. Here, we present a VMS patient with congenital malformations of the middle ear as the main reason for severe conductive bilateral hearing impairment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe middle ear abnormalities in VMS. These malformations were seen on high resolution Computed Tomography scanning and during an exploratory tympanotomy. Due to the severity of the middle ear abnormalities and the risk for facial nerve damage, the patient was not offered an ossicular chain reconstruction but a bone conduction device after this exploratory tympanotomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterisation of the selective binding of antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin by the VanS receptor regulating type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C S; Longo, E; Phillips-Jones, M K; Hussain, R

    2017-08-01

    A-type resistance towards "last-line" glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the leading hospital acquired infectious agent, the enterococci, is the most common in the UK. Resistance is regulated by the VanR A S A two-component system, comprising the histidine sensor kinase VanS A and the partner response regulator VanR A . The nature of the activating ligand for VanS A has not been identified, therefore this work sought to identify and characterise ligand(s) for VanS A . In vitro approaches were used to screen the structural and activity effects of a range of potential ligands with purified VanS A protein. Of the screened ligands (glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, and peptidoglycan components N-acetylmuramic acid, D-Ala-D-Ala and Ala-D-y-Glu-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) only glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin were found to bind VanS A with different affinities (vancomycin 70μM; teicoplanin 30 and 170μM), and were proposed to bind via exposed aromatic residues tryptophan and tyrosine. Furthermore, binding of the antibiotics induced quicker, longer-lived phosphorylation states for VanS A , proposing them as activators of type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci. Copyright © 2017 Diamond Light Source Ltd. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vehicle test report: Jet Industries Electra Van 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Electra Van 600, an electric vehicle, was tested. Tests were performed to characterize parameters of the Electra Van 600 and to provide baseline data to be used for comparison of improved batteries and to which will be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller, and motor; coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluation for cyclic and constant speed conditions; and qualitative performance was evaluated. It is found that the Electra Van 600 range performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested previously.

  7. Glycopeptide Resistance vanA Operons in Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 μg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of ≥32 μg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanAPT operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanAPA in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanAPA by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala-d-Lac, as demonstrated by d,d-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:16189102

  8. Glycopeptide resistance vanA operons in Paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-10-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 microg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of > or =32 microg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanA(PT) operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanA(PA) in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanA(PA) by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-Ala-D-Lac, as demonstrated by D,D-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor.

  9. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  10. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 INTERIOR DETAIL OF FRAME CONSTRUCTION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Science.gov Websites

    anxiety. More recently, the company has been exploring dedicated-propane vehicles in Kansas City to ensure technologies and petroleum-use reduction strategies, then deployed bi-fuel vans; currently exploring dedicated

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 BRICK NOGGING AND ORIGINAL WEATHERBOARDING OF SOUTH ELEVATION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  13. VIEW NORTH, SHOWING SOUTH END OF BRIDGE LOOKING TOWARD VAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH, SHOWING SOUTH END OF BRIDGE LOOKING TOWARD VAN BUREN TOWNSHIP - Belleville Road Bridge, Spanning the Flat River at Burroughs Drive (replaced Burroughs Street Bridge), Lowell, Kent County, MI

  14. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  15. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site alternative transportation feasibility study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-31

    The Martin Van Buren National Historic Site (MVBNHS) Alternative Transportation Feasibility Study examines the feasibility of : alternative transportation system (ATS) service to MVBNHS. The report investigates opportunities for a shuttle carrying vi...

  16. 12 & 15 passenger vans tire pressure study : preliminary results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-05-01

    A study was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA) to determine the extent of underinflation and observe the tire condition in 12- and 15-passenger vans. This Res...

  17. LEASAT-3 repair during the van Hoften and Fisher EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-08-31

    51I-44-012 (1 Sept. 1985) --- Astronaut James D. van Hoften looks on as the Syncom IVC-3 satellite responds to his push against it moments earlier. Dr. van Hoften, mission specialist, is anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Discovery. The 51-I crew members showed this photograph at their Sept. 11 postflight press conference. Photo credit: NASA

  18. The research contributions of Dr. Paul Van Deusen

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Francis A. Roesch; John Paul McTague; Jeffrey H. Gove; Gregory A. Reams; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Paul Van Deusen’s recent passing concluded a rich 30+-year research career dedicated to development and implementation of quantitative methods for forestry and natural resources. Since the early part of his career as a biometrician with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station in the 1980s-1990s and continuing with his later employment at NCASI, Dr. Van...

  19. Heterozygous Mapping Strategy (HetMappS) for High Resolution Genotyping-By-Sequencing Markers: A Case Study in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghui; Londo, Jason P.; Acharya, Charlotte B.; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Sun, Qi; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) provides opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low genotyping cost, but for highly heterozygous species, missing data and heterozygote undercalling complicate the creation of GBS genetic maps. To overcome these issues, we developed a publicly available, modular approach called HetMappS, which functions independently of parental genotypes and corrects for genotyping errors associated with heterozygosity. For linkage group formation, HetMappS includes both a reference-guided synteny pipeline and a reference-independent de novo pipeline. The de novo pipeline can be utilized for under-characterized or high diversity families that lack an appropriate reference. We applied both HetMappS pipelines in five half-sib F1 families involving genetically diverse Vitis spp. Starting with at least 116,466 putative SNPs per family, the HetMappS pipelines identified 10,440 to 17,267 phased pseudo-testcross (Pt) markers and generated high-confidence maps. Pt marker density exceeded crossover resolution in all cases; up to 5,560 non-redundant markers were used to generate parental maps ranging from 1,047 cM to 1,696 cM. The number of markers used was strongly correlated with family size in both de novo and synteny maps (r = 0.92 and 0.91, respectively). Comparisons between allele and tag frequencies suggested that many markers were in tandem repeats and mapped as single loci, while markers in regions of more than two repeats were removed during map curation. Both pipelines generated similar genetic maps, and genetic order was strongly correlated with the reference genome physical order in all cases. Independently created genetic maps from shared parents exhibited nearly identical results. Flower sex was mapped in three families and correctly localized to the known sex locus in all cases. The HetMappS pipeline could have wide application for genetic mapping in highly heterozygous species, and its modularity provides opportunities to

  20. A revision of the tribe Planitorini van Achterberg (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae), with description of a new genus from Australia.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Quicke, Donald L J; Boring, C Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The tribe Planitorini van Achterberg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) is revised. One new genus Paramannokeraia gen. n. (type species: P. gibsoni sp. n. ) and five new species from Australia are described and illustrated: Mannokeraia albipalpis van Achterberg, sp. n. , M. nigrita van Achterberg, sp. n. , M. punctata van Achterberg, sp. n. , Paramannokeraia gibsoni van Achterberg & Quicke, sp. n. and P. juliae van Achterberg, sp. n. The tribe Mannokeraiini van Achterberg, 1995, is synonymized with the tribe Planitorini ( syn. n. ).

  1. A revision of the tribe Planitorini van Achterberg (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae), with description of a new genus from Australia

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Quicke, Donald L.J.; Boring, C. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The tribe Planitorini van Achterberg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) is revised. One new genus Paramannokeraia gen. n. (type species: P. gibsoni sp. n.) and five new species from Australia are described and illustrated: Mannokeraia albipalpis van Achterberg, sp. n., M. nigrita van Achterberg, sp. n., M. punctata van Achterberg, sp. n., Paramannokeraia gibsoni van Achterberg & Quicke, sp. n. and P. juliae van Achterberg, sp. n. The tribe Mannokeraiini van Achterberg, 1995, is synonymized with the tribe Planitorini (syn. n.). PMID:29290713

  2. Modified Van der Waals equation and law of corresponding states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Changming; Zhu, Yongkai

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the Van der Waals equation is a modification of the ideal gas law, yet it can be used to describe both gas and liquid, and some important messages can be obtained from this state equation. However, the Van der Waals equation is not a precise state equation, and it does not give a good description of the law of corresponding states. In this paper, we expand the Van der Waals equation into its Taylor's series form, and then modify the fourth order expansion by changing the constant Virial coefficients into their analogous ones. Via this way, a more precise result about the law of corresponding states has been obtained, and the law of corresponding states can then be expressed as: in terms of the reduced variables, all fluids should obey the same equation with the analogous Virial coefficients. In addition, the system of 3 He with quantum effects has also been taken into consideration with our modified Van der Waals equation, and it is found that, for a normal system without quantum effect, the modification on ideal gas law from the Van der Waals equation is more significant than the real case, however, for a system with quantum effect, this modification is less significant than the real case, thus a factor is introduced in this paper to weaken or strengthen the modification of the Van der Waals equation, respectively.

  3. Arnoldus Van Rhijn on aphasia: a forgotten thesis.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia formed a central topic in the discussion on localization of function in the nineteenth century, in particular in France, Germany and Great Brittain. Little is known on contributions from the Netherlands. This paper aims to discuss the contents of Arnoldus Van Rhijn's dissertation on aphasia, written in 1868 and one of the very few Dutch contributions to aphasiology in the nineteenth century. Added to this paper is a translation of the "Physiological Part" of Van Rhijn's dissertation. Van Rhijn discussed three cases with acquired aphasia. He rejected Broca's notion of a cortical center for the articulation of speech and instead regarded the cortex as the site where the will exerted its influence. He argued that there is a certain form of specialization: the will to say something is localized at a different place than the will to write. According to Van Rhijn, the highest motor centers are localized in the subcortical gray areas. Van Rhijn concluded that aphasia may result from lesions to the cortical centers involved in speaking, or from a disconnection of the cortical and subcortical centers. Very little work was done on aphasia in the 19th century in the Netherlands. Van Rhijn's thesis, from an aphasiological point of view of limited value, does show that the notions of "centers", "connections", and "disorders due to disconnections" were generally known before Wernicke, also in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  4. Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of van Helmontian chymistry.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    A striking omission in the scholarship on the reception of the chymical philosophy of Jan Baptista van Helmont in England in the seventeenth century is the work of the mid-seventeenth-century natural philosopher Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle. In her Philosophical Letters (1664), Cavendish offers an extended critique of Van Helmont's work (whose Ortus Medicince had recently been translated into English by John Sadler). In this paper, I compare Cavendish's criticisms with those of Robert Boyle in his Sceptical Chymist (1661). Both Boyle and Cavendish attacked Van Helmont for the obscurity of his chymical vocabulary and concepts, and attacked his seminalism. Although their critiques had much in common, they diverged in their attitudes to Van Helmont's experiments. As an opponent of the experimental philosophy, Cavendish had little interest in the quality of Van Helmont's experimental claims, whereas Boyle was critical of their unreplicability. I also try to show that the two writers had very different polemical agendas, with Boyle defending his vision of chymistry based on a corpuscularian natural philosophy, and Cavendish being as much concerned with establishing her religious orthodoxy as with defending the truth claims of her own materialist vitalism. For Cavendish, Van Helmont was an example of the dangers of mingling theology and natural philosophy.

  5. [Little animals observed by Antony van Leeuwenhoek].

    PubMed

    Amako, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    Antony van Leeuwenhoek is the discoverer of bacteria and other microorganisms. However, his name is currently not as well-known as those of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch or Shibasaburo Kitasato. Why not? To answer this question I read a book published in 1932 by Clifford Dobell, an English protozoologist, and found some answers. First, Leeuwenhoek was not a professional scientist in any university or scientific institute, but merely an average citizen in Delft, Holland, working as a merchant in his own shop, and later he also served as an office-holder in Delft city hall. Second, he made and invented his own microscopes but never made his work on microscopes and observation techniques widely known to the public. Accordingly, after his death, his excellent techniques for observing microorganisms were not handed down to the next generation and eventually became forgotten by the scientific community. Although he did not write any scientific paper, he did write about his observations in many letters addressed to the Royal Society of London. Dr. Dobell had translated most of them into English and included them in his book. I picked up and translated several of these letters into Japanese and have included them in this review to show how he described his observations and also what he thought about the presence of such small animals invisible to the naked eye. By reading this review I hope you will come to understand the efforts and abilities of a citizen in Delft about 340 years ago.

  6. Van der Waals Interactions Involving Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Charles M.; Neal, Brian L.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models. with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth.

  7. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Rai, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière's disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière's disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well. PMID:25745302

  8. Strain engineering of van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Paul A; Mulder, Jefta; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J

    2018-01-18

    Modifying the strain state of solids allows control over a plethora of functional properties. The weak interlayer bonding in van der Waals (vdWaals) materials such as graphene, hBN, MoS 2 , and Bi 2 Te 3 might seem to exclude strain engineering, since strain would immediately relax at the vdWaals interfaces. Here we present direct observations of the contrary by showing growth of vdWaals heterostructures with persistent in-plane strains up to 5% and we show that strain relaxation follows a not yet reported process distinctly different from strain relaxation in three-dimensionally bonded (3D) materials. For this, 2D bonded Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 and 2D/3D bonded Bi 2 Te 3 -GeTe multilayered films are grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and their structure is monitored in situ using Reflective High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) and post situ analysis is performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Strain relaxation is modeled and found to solely depend on the layer being grown and its initial strain. This insight demonstrates that strain engineering of 2D bonded heterostructures obeys different rules than hold for epitaxial 3D materials and opens the door to precise tuning of the strain state of the individual layers to optimize functional performance of vdWaals heterostructures.

  9. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  10. Wind loading analysis and strategy for deflection reduction on HET wide field upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Brian J.; Soukup, Ian M.; Worthington, Michael S.; Zierer, Joseph J.; Booth, John A.; Good, John M.

    2010-07-01

    Wind loading can be a detrimental source of vibration and deflection for any large terrestrial optical telescope. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope* (HET) in the Davis Mountains of West Texas is undergoing a Wide Field Upgrade (WFU) in support of the Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) that will greatly increase the size of the instrumentation subjected to operating wind speeds of up to 20.1 m/s (45 mph). A non-trivial consideration for this telescope (or others) is to quantify the wind loads and resulting deflections of telescope structures induced under normal operating conditions so that appropriate design changes can be made. A quasi-static computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was generated using wind speeds collected on-site as inputs to characterize dynamic wind forces on telescope structures under various conditions. The CFD model was refined until predicted wind speed and direction inside the dome agreed with experimental data. The dynamic wind forces were then used in static loading analysis to determine maximum deflections under typical operating conditions. This approach also allows for exploration of operating parameters without impact to the observation schedule of the telescope. With optimum combinations of parameters (i.e. dome orientation, tracker position, and louver deployment), deflections due to current wind conditions can be significantly reduced. Furthermore, the upper limit for operating wind speed could be increased, provided these parameters are monitored closely. This translates into increased image quality and observing time.

  11. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  12. Co-colonization of vanA and vanB Enterococcus faecium of clonal complex 17 in a patient with bacteremia due to vanA E. faecium.

    PubMed

    Seol, Chang Ahn; Park, Jeong Su; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na

    2014-06-01

    A 53-year-old Vietnamese man with liver cirrhosis was transferred from a Vietnamese hospital to our tertiary care hospital in Korea in order to undergo a liver transplantation. Bacteremia due to vanA Enterococcus faecium was diagnosed, and stool surveillance cultures for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were positive for both vanA and vanB E. faecium. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the 2 vanA VRE isolates from the blood and stool were clonal, but the vanB VRE was unrelated to the vanA VRE. vanA and vanB VRE were ST64 and ST18, single-allele variations of clonal complex 17, respectively. This is the first case report of vanA VRE bacteremia in a Vietnamese patient and demonstrates the reemergence of vanB VRE since a single outbreak occurred 15years ago in Korea. The reemergence of vanB VRE emphasizes the importance of VRE genotyping to prevent the spread of new VRE strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sathasivam, Sivakumar

    2008-01-01

    The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding), limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination) are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases), gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases) and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases). After the initial

  14. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  15. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-10-01

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. Such interactions are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. This review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. The outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  16. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  17. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  18. Moment tensor inversion of recent local moderate sized Van Earthquakes: seismicity and active tectonics of the Van region : Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.; Pinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study area of the present research, the Van Region is located at the norththern end of the collision zone between the Anatolia and Arabian plates. Therefore, the southeast border of the Anatolian plate collides with the Arabian plate along the Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along Southern Turkey (e.g. Lice, 1971; Varto, 1966; Caldiran, 1976). On the 23th of October 2011, an earthquake shook the Van Lake, Eastern Turkey, following a seismic sequence of more than three months in an unprecedented episode for this region characterized by null or low seismicity. The October 23, 2011 Van-Ercis Earthquake (Mw=7.1) was the most devastating resulting in loss of life and destruction. In order to study the aftershocks' activity of this main event, we installed and kept a seismic network of 10 broad-band (BB) stations in the area for an interval of nearly fifteen months. We characterized the seismogenic structure of the zone by calculating a minimum 1-D local velocity model and obtaining precise hypocentre locations. We also calculated fault plane solutions for more than 200 moderate sized earthquakes based on first motion polarities and commonly Moment Tensor Inversion Methods. The seismogenic zone would be localized at aproximately 10 km depth. Generally, the distribution of the important moderate earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Aftershock events are located along the eastern border of Lake Van and mainly between 5 and 10 km depth and disposed in two alignments: a ~E-W-trending alignment that matches with the trace of the Van Trust fault Zone and a NE-trending which could correspond to an structure not previously seen. Selected focal mechanisms show a

  19. Van Driest transformation and compressible wall-bounded flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The transformation validity question utilizing resulting data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supersonic, isothermal cold wall channel flow was investigated. The DNS results stood for a wide scope of parameter and were suitable for the purpose of examining the generality of Van Driest transformation. The Van Driest law of the wall can be obtained from the inner-layer similarity arguments. It was demonstrated that the Van Driest transformation cannot be incorporated to collapse the sublayer and log-layer velocity profiles simultaneously. Velocity and temperature predictions according to the preceding composite mixing-length model were presented. Despite satisfactory congruity with the DNS data, the model must be perceived as an engineering guide and not as a rigorous analysis.

  20. NASA's Van Allen Probes Discover a Surprise Circling Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Two giant swaths of radiation, known as the Van Allen Belts, surrounding Earth were discovered in 1958. In 2012, observations from the Van Allen Probes showed that a third belt can sometimes appear. The radiation is shown here in yellow, with green representing the spaces between the belts. Credit: NASA/Van Allen Probes/Goddard Space Flight Center To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/rbsp/news/third-belt.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Arthur van Gehuchten takes neurology to the movies.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-11-26

    To present the cinematographic production of Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914) and to put this collection into its medical and sociocultural context. The arrival of Edison's Kinetoscope (1891) and Lumière's Cinématographe (1895) provoked the immediate interest of neurologists who foresaw the potential of motion pictures for illustration, research, and teaching. Arthur Van Gehuchten, professor of anatomy and neurology at the Catholic University of Louvain, was trained as a microscopist and a cytologist. From neuroanatomy, he progressively broadened his interest to neurology. Van Gehuchten was an avant-garde teacher, eager to adopt new visual aids. In 1895, he attended the first cinematographic screenings. Medical cinematography was soon brought into disrepute in European academic circles, when films made by the French surgeon Doyen were copied and shown on fairgrounds. Nevertheless, in 1905, Van Gehuchten began to film neurologic patients. He used this technique extensively to demonstrate clinical signs, to illustrate neurologic diseases, and to document functional evolution following surgery. For decades, these films were screened for medical students by Van Gehuchten's successors to the chair of neurology. The original nitrate films (more than 2 hours) have been recently rediscovered. They have been restored by the Royal Belgian Film Archive, where they are the oldest Belgian films. At the beginning of the 20th century, Van Gehuchten built up a collection of moving pictures for teaching purposes. This was one of the first such undertakings. This unique set of films has miraculously survived, and serves as an important archive of nervous diseases and their manifestations prior to the advent of modern therapies.

  2. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  3. Effective field theories for van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Shtabovenko, Vladyslav; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Van der Waals interactions between two neutral but polarizable systems at a separation R much larger than the typical size of the systems are at the core of a broad sweep of contemporary problems in settings ranging from atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics to strong interactions and gravity. In this paper, we reexamine the dispersive van der Waals interactions between two hydrogen atoms. The novelty of the analysis resides in the usage of nonrelativistic effective field theories of quantum electrodynamics. In this framework, the van der Waals potential acquires the meaning of a matching coefficient in an effective field theory, dubbed van der Waals effective field theory, suited to describe the low-energy dynamics of an atom pair. It may be computed systematically as a series in R times some typical atomic scale and in the fine-structure constant α . The van der Waals potential gets short-range contributions and radiative corrections, which we compute in dimensional regularization and renormalize here for the first time. Results are given in d space-time dimensions. One can distinguish among different regimes depending on the relative size between 1 /R and the typical atomic bound-state energy, which is of order m α2. Each regime is characterized by a specific hierarchy of scales and a corresponding tower of effective field theories. The short-distance regime is characterized by 1 /R ≫m α2 and the leading-order van der Waals potential is the London potential. We also compute next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections. In the long-distance regime we have 1 /R ≪m α2. In this regime, the van der Waals potential contains contact terms, which are parametrically larger than the Casimir-Polder potential that describes the potential at large distances. In the effective field theory, the Casimir-Polder potential counts as a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order effect. In the intermediate-distance regime, 1 /R ˜m α2, a significantly more complex

  4. NOAA's Van-Based Mobile Atmospheric Emissions Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, W. P.; Peischl, J.; Neuman, J. A.; Eilerman, S. J.; Holloway, M.; Roberts, O.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Chemical Science Division (CSD) mobile atmospheric emissions measurement laboratory is the second and latest of two mobile measurement vans outfitted for atmospheric sampling by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. In this presentation we will describe the modifications made to this vehicle to provide a versatile and relatively inexpensive instrument platform including: the 2 kW 120 volt instrument power system; battery back-up system; data acquisition system; real-time display; meteorological, directional, and position sensor package; and the typical atmospheric emissions instrument package. The van conversion uses commercially available, off-the-shelf components from the marine and RV industries, thus keeping the costs quite modest.

  5. Baseline tests of the Volkswagen transporter electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, R. F.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Gourash, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Volkswagen Transporter, an electric delivery van, was tested as part of an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state of the art of electric vehicles. The Volkswagen Transporter is a standard Volkswagen van that has been converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by a 144-volt traction battery. A direct current (dc) chopper controller, actuated by a conventional accelerator pedal, regulates the voltage or power applied to the 16-kilowatt (21-hp) motor. The braking system uses conventional hydraulic braking in combination with an electric regenerative braking system. The Volkswagen vehicle performance test results are presented.

  6. Van vleck paramagnetism in orthorhombic TiO2 (Brookite)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.

    1968-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of the orthorhombic form of titanium dioxide has been measured from 5 to 300??K. After deducting the temperature-dependent component, which is probably due to defects or impurities, and the free-ion diamagnetic component, the Van Vleck paramagnetism was estimated to be 33??10-6 emu/mole. Comparison is made between this value and the Van Vleck paramagnetism of strontium titanate and the two tetragonal forms of titanium dioxide: rutile and anatase. ?? 1968 The American Physical Society.

  7. Conversion of Chemical Reaction Energy into Useful Work in the Van't Hoff Equilibrium Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazhin, N. M.; Parmon, V. N.

    2007-01-01

    The ideal van't Hoff equilibrium box is described in detail. It shows that van't Hoff equilibrium box divided in two parts can simultaneously produce heat and useful work without violation of the first law of thermodynamics.

  8. Genomic and expression analysis of the vanG-like gene cluster of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Johann; Courtin, Pascal; El Meouche, Imane; Catel-Ferreira, Manuella; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Lemée, Ludovic; Pons, Jean-Louis

    2013-07-01

    Primary antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile intestinal diseases requires metronidazole or vancomycin therapy. A cluster of genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptides resistance vanG genes was found in the genome of C. difficile 630, although this strain remains sensitive to vancomycin. This vanG-like gene cluster was found to consist of five ORFs: the regulatory region consisting of vanR and vanS and the effector region consisting of vanG, vanXY and vanT. We found that 57 out of 83 C. difficile strains, representative of the main lineages of the species, harbour this vanG-like cluster. The cluster is expressed as an operon and, when present, is found at the same genomic location in all strains. The vanG, vanXY and vanT homologues in C. difficile 630 are co-transcribed and expressed to a low level throughout the growth phases in the absence of vancomycin. Conversely, the expression of these genes is strongly induced in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, indicating that the vanG-like operon is functional at the transcriptional level in C. difficile. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) and MS analysis of cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors of C. difficile 630 grown without vancomycin revealed the exclusive presence of a UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide with an alanine at the C terminus. UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide [d-Ala] was also the only peptidoglycan precursor detected in C. difficile grown in the presence of vancomycin, corroborating the lack of vancomycin resistance. Peptidoglycan structures of a vanG-like mutant strain and of a strain lacking the vanG-like cluster did not differ from the C. difficile 630 strain, indicating that the vanG-like cluster also has no impact on cell-wall composition.

  9. Experimental Testing of a Van De Graaff Generator as an Electromagnetic Pulse Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR THESIS...protection in the United States AFIT-ENP-MS-16-S-075 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-16-S-075 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR

  10. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers. 30.26 Section 30.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  11. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers. 30.26 Section 30.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  12. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers. 30.26 Section 30.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  13. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers. 30.26 Section 30.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  14. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers. 30.26 Section 30.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan

    Science.gov Websites

    FloristA> Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist Watch how a Dallas, Texas, florist reduces emissions and saves money fueling delivery vans with compressed natural gas. For information about this project

  16. Programme for Learning Enrichment. A Van Leer Project: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghani, Zainal

    This paper reports the evaluation of a project undertaken by the Sarawak Education Department to improve the quality of education in upper primary classes in rural Sarawak, Malaysia. The project is known officially as the Programme for Learning Enrichment, and commonly as the Van Leer Project, after the international agency which provides the main…

  17. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the...

  18. Letters from a suicide: Van Gogh and his sister.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-04-01

    An analysis of trends over a 3-yr. period in the letters of Vincent Van Gogh to his sister as the time of his suicide approached identified 8 trends, including an increase in words concerned with anxiety and words concerned with the past.

  19. Van der Waals forces in pNRQED

    SciTech Connect

    Shtabovenko, Vladyslav

    2016-01-22

    We report on the calculation of electromagnetic van der Waals forces [1] between two hydrogen atoms using non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) of QED for large and small momentum transfers with respect to the intrinsic energy scale of the hydrogen atom. Our results reproduce the well known London and Casimir-Polder forces.

  20. Aldo van Eyck’s Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    2017-01-01

    After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck’s play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck’s play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities) it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars) that tends to characterize van Eyck’ play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children. PMID:28725208

  1. 1. Photocopy of woodengraving by Van Vleck & Keith from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of wood-engraving by Van Vleck & Keith from a photograph by Shireff of Higgins' Daguerrian Rooms, Sacramento, with figures, etc. touched up by Nahl & Brothers. Illustration from The Californian Farmer, July 4, 1862. STANFORD HOUSE BY SETH BABSON, VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Leland Stanford House, 800 N Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Heath Van Essen - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Heath Van Essen, Respondent, an individual who owns or operates an animal feeding operation (“Facility”) that is located in Section 27 of Township 98 North, Range 47 West,

  3. van der Pauw's Theorem on Sheet Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The sheet resistance of a conducting material of uniform thickness is analogous to the resistivity of a solid material and provides a measure of electrical resistance. In 1958, L. J. van der Pauw found an effective method for computing sheet resistance that requires taking two electrical measurements from four points on the edge of a simply…

  4. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-15

    41C-05-188 (12 April 1984) --- Astronaut James D. van Hoften, mission specialist, holds an aluminum box, full of honeybees. The experiment in Earth-orbit is duplicated with another colony of the young honeycomb builders on Earth. Dan Poskevich submitted the experiment to NASA as part of the Shuttle student involvement program.

  5. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: A Centralized Data Access Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G. K.; Kessel, R.; Potter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the Van Allen Probes Space Weather data to users. Over the past years, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes science and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including, simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell, capability of visualizing data from both probes (A & B) on the same plot. In cooperation with all Van Allen Probes Instrument SOCs, the Science Gateway will soon be able to serve higher level data products (Level 3), and to visualize them via the above mentioned HTML5 interface. Users will also be able to create customized CDF files on the fly.

  6. View west along Lower Raceway, Van Houten Street, with (left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Lower Raceway, Van Houten Street, with (left to right) Congdon Mill, Phoenix Mill, and Fabricolor Mill (a.k.a., Industry Mill, HAER No. NJ-15) - Great Falls/S. U. M. Power Canal System, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. Learning Styles versus the Rip Van Winkle Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsak, Lana

    1990-01-01

    Rip Van Winkle would not recognize Corsicana (Texas) High School since its curriculum coordinator began implementing learning styles techniques in various pilot programs. Lecturing to rows of bored students has been replaced by students' active involvement in group activities, listening centers, and tactile/kinesthetic exercises on the floor or at…

  8. James Van Allen and His Namesake NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Hoxie, V. C.; Jaynes, A.; Kale, A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Li, X.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    In many ways, James A. Van Allen defined and "invented" modern space research. His example showed the way for government-university partners to pursue basic research that also served important national and international goals. He was a tireless advocate for space exploration and for the role of space science in the spectrum of national priorities.

  9. Teaching Strategies of the van Dijk Curricular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, S. Z. C.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents 14 major teaching strategies for implementing the Jan van Dijk curricular approach with children who are deaf-blind. The theory underlying the approach is reported, and guidelines for implementing instructional strategies in the areas of communication, socialization, conceptualization, and movement are discussed. (Author/DB)

  10. MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO.) POSE FOR GAMMA IRRADIATION EXPERIMENT IN MTR CANAL. CANS OF FOOD WILL BE LOWERED TO CANAL BOTTOM, WHERE SPENT MTR FUEL ELEMENTS EMIT GAMMA RADIATION. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11746. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction < 63 µm assuming that it represents only carbonates precipitating in the water column. Microfossil assemblage consists of three different species of ostracods (Candona spp, Loxoconcha sp, Amnicythere spp.), diatoms, gastropods and bivalves. Brakish-water ostracods, Loxoconcha sp and Amnicythere sp occur more often after 530 ka. Additionaly, Loxoconcha sp is a shallow-water species relaying on plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic

  12. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1-3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37°C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p>0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. The ellagitannin HeT induces electrolyte leakage, calcium influx and the accumulation of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Martos, Gustavo Gabriel; Mamaní, Alicia; Filippone, María Paula; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Díaz Ricci, Juan Carlos

    2018-02-01

    HeT (1-0-galloyl-2,3; 4,6-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucopyranose) is a penta-esterified ellagitannin obtained from strawberry leaves. Previous studies have shown that foliar application of HeT prior to inoculation with a virulent pathogen increases the resistance toward Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry plants and to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in lemon plants. In this work we report that HeT induces an immediate leak of electrolytes, the hyperpolarization of the cellular membrane, a rapid Ca 2+ influx to the cytoplasm during the first few seconds, which in turn modulates the accumulation of nitric oxide 5 min after treatment. At longer times, a biphasic accumulation of H 2 O 2 with peaks at 2 and 5 h post treatment could be observed. In addition, HeT elicited the increase of alternative oxidase capacity during the first 12 h post treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Thomas Charles Van Flandern, an expert in celestial mechanics and cosmology, died January 9, 2009 in Seattle, Washington, of colon cancer. He was 68. Van Flandern was an astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory from 1963 to 1983. He developed software to predict and analyze lunar occultations to improve lunar orbital and fundamental star catalog data. In later years he championed increasingly controversial theories. But his 1978 prediction that some asteroids have natural satellites, which was almost universally rejected, was verified when the Galileo spacecraft photographed Dactyl, a satellite of (243) Ida, during its flyby in 1993. Besides astronomy and computers, he had strong interests in biochemistry and nutrition, and he ran a business selling personal computers in the 1980s. Tom Van Flandern was born June 26, 1940 in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Robert F. Van Flandern and Anna Mary Haley. His father, a police officer, left the family when Tom Van Flandern was 5. His mother died when he was 16; he and his siblings then lived with their grandmother, Margery Jobe, until he went to college. Tom Van Flandern became interested in astronomy as a child. He used his first telescope, purchased with newspaper delivery earnings, to observe lunar occultations, and then learned how to predict them, sparking a life-long passion for dynamical astronomy. While attending St. Ignatius High School, Van Flandern and fellow student Thomas Petrie organized the Cleveland Moonwatch team to observe the first artificial satellites, the only team without an adult organizer. In 1958, Tom Van Flandern entered Xavier University where he led the Cincinnati Moonwatch team. He learned computer programming at a summer job with General Electric and wrote software to calculate "look angles" from orbital elements. The Cincinnati team became a top producer of observations using these predictions. Tom obtained a B.S. in mathematics from Xavier in 1962. He spent the next year at

  15. The phosphotransferase VanU represses expression of four qrr genes antagonizing VanO-mediated quorum-sensing regulation in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Barbara; Lindell, Kristoffer; El Qaidi, Samir; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum utilizes quorum sensing to regulate stress responses required for survival in the aquatic environment. Like other Vibrio species, V. anguillarum contains the gene qrr1, which encodes the ancestral quorum regulatory RNA Qrr1, and phosphorelay quorum-sensing systems that modulate the expression of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize mRNA encoding the transcriptional regulator VanT. In this study, three additional Qrr sRNAs were identified. All four sRNAs were positively regulated by σ54 and the σ54-dependent response regulator VanO, and showed a redundant activity. The Qrr sRNAs, together with the RNA chaperone Hfq, destabilized vanT mRNA and modulated expression of VanT-regulated genes. Unexpectedly, expression of all four qrr genes peaked at high cell density, and exogenously added N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules induced expression of the qrr genes at low cell density. The phosphotransferase VanU, which phosphorylates and activates VanO, repressed expression of the Qrr sRNAs and stabilized vanT mRNA. A model is presented proposing that VanU acts as a branch point, aiding cross-regulation between two independent phosphorelay systems that activate or repress expression of the Qrr sRNAs, giving flexibility and precision in modulating VanT expression and inducing a quorum-sensing response to stresses found in a constantly changing aquatic environment. PMID:21948044

  16. The phosphotransferase VanU represses expression of four qrr genes antagonizing VanO-mediated quorum-sensing regulation in Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Barbara; Lindell, Kristoffer; El Qaidi, Samir; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Milton, Debra L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio anguillarum utilizes quorum sensing to regulate stress responses required for survival in the aquatic environment. Like other Vibrio species, V. anguillarum contains the gene qrr1, which encodes the ancestral quorum regulatory RNA Qrr1, and phosphorelay quorum-sensing systems that modulate the expression of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize mRNA encoding the transcriptional regulator VanT. In this study, three additional Qrr sRNAs were identified. All four sRNAs were positively regulated by σ(54) and the σ(54)-dependent response regulator VanO, and showed a redundant activity. The Qrr sRNAs, together with the RNA chaperone Hfq, destabilized vanT mRNA and modulated expression of VanT-regulated genes. Unexpectedly, expression of all four qrr genes peaked at high cell density, and exogenously added N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules induced expression of the qrr genes at low cell density. The phosphotransferase VanU, which phosphorylates and activates VanO, repressed expression of the Qrr sRNAs and stabilized vanT mRNA. A model is presented proposing that VanU acts as a branch point, aiding cross-regulation between two independent phosphorelay systems that activate or repress expression of the Qrr sRNAs, giving flexibility and precision in modulating VanT expression and inducing a quorum-sensing response to stresses found in a constantly changing aquatic environment.

  17. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  18. High-resolution study of Gamow-Teller transitions via the 54Fe(3He,t)54Co reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Bacher, A. D.; Berg, G. P. A.; Black, T.; de Frenne, D.; Foster, C. C.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Honma, M.; Jacobs, E.; Jänecke, J.; Kanzaki, K.; Katori, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Negret, A.; Otsuka, T.; Popescu, L.; Roberts, D. A.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Stephenson, E. J.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Uchida, M.; Ueno, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Yosoi, M.; Zell, K. O.

    2012-02-01

    The Gamow-Teller transition strengths, B(GT), in pf-shell nuclei are of interest in nuclear physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics. A high-resolution (3He,t) charge-exchange (CE) reaction was performed on the Tz=+1 nucleus 54Fe at 0∘ and at an intermediate incident energy of 140 MeV/nucleon for the study of precise GT transition strengths to the final Tz=0 nucleus 54Co. By applying dispersion matching techniques for a high-quality 3He beam at RCNP, an energy resolution of 21 keV and an angular resolution of 5 mr were realized. The bumplike structure of the GT resonance observed in low-resolution CE reactions at around the excitation energy (Ex) of 10 MeV was resolved in individual L = 0, GT states. Excitation strengths were obtained for these GT states. If the R2 value that is defined by the ratio between GT and Fermi unit cross sections is known, the B(GT) values can be determined from the excitation strengths. For the derivation of the R2 value, the “merged analysis” combining the GT strength distribution from the 54Fe(3He,t)54Co study and the half-life from a 54Ni β decay was used, where T=1 isospin symmetry for A=54 isobars was assumed. The GT strengths were compared with a shell-model calculation using the GXPF1 interaction. The final GT states can have the isospin values T = 0, 1, and 2. The isospin T of each GT state observed in the 8.3≤Ex≤12.0 MeV region of the 54Fe(3He,t)54Co spectrum was identified by comparing the excitation strength with that of corresponding M1 state observed in a 54Fe(p,p')54Fe experiment. The B(GT) values of the states identified to have T=2, in particular, are of importance for the calculation of the electron capture rates at the core-collapse stage of presupernovae. The B(GT) strengths were further compared with B(M1) strengths measured in the 54Fe(e,e')54Fe reaction. In the M1 excitation using an electromagnetic probe, isoscalar (IS) and isovector (IV) orbital type operators are active in addition to the IV spin

  19. Spectral Properties of Dirac Billiards at the van Hove Singularities.

    PubMed

    Dietz, B; Klaus, T; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Wunderle, M; Bouazza, C

    2016-01-15

    We study distributions of the ratios of level spacings of rectangular and Africa-shaped superconducting microwave resonators containing circular scatterers on a triangular grid, so-called Dirac billiards (DBs). The high-precision measurements allowed the determination of, respectively, all 1651 and 1823 eigenfrequencies in the first two bands. The resonance densities are similar to that of graphene. They exhibit two sharp peaks at the van Hove singularities which separate the band structure into regions with a linear and a quadratic dispersion relation, respectively. In the vicinity of the van Hove singularities we observe rapid changes in, e.g., the wave function structure. Accordingly, we question whether the spectral properties are there still determined by the shapes of the DBs. The commonly used statistical measures are no longer applicable; however, we demonstrate in this Letter that the ratio distributions provide suitable measures.

  20. Aqueous gating of van der Waals materials on bilayer nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenzhong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Hongli; Han, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Preston, Colin; Hu, Liangbing

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we report transistors made of van der Waals materials on a mesoporous paper with a smooth nanoscale surface. The aqueous transistor has a novel planar structure with source, drain, and gate electrodes on the same surface of the paper, while the mesoporous paper is used as an electrolyte reservoir. These transistors are enabled by an all-cellulose paper with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on the top surface that leads to an excellent surface smoothness, while the rest of the microsized cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte effectively. Based on two-dimensional van der Waals materials, including MoS2 and graphene, we demonstrate high-performance transistors with a large on-off ratio and low subthreshold swing. Such planar transistors with absorbed electrolyte gating can be used as sensors integrated with other components to form paper microfluidic systems. This study is significant for future paper-based electronics and biosensors.

  1. Accurate van der Waals coefficients from density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    The van der Waals interaction is a weak, long-range correlation, arising from quantum electronic charge fluctuations. This interaction affects many properties of materials. A simple and yet accurate estimate of this effect will facilitate computer simulation of complex molecular materials and drug design. Here we develop a fast approach for accurate evaluation of dynamic multipole polarizabilities and van der Waals (vdW) coefficients of all orders from the electron density and static multipole polarizabilities of each atom or other spherical object, without empirical fitting. Our dynamic polarizabilities (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) are exact in the zero- and high-frequency limits, and exact at all frequencies for a metallic sphere of uniform density. Our theory predicts dynamic multipole polarizabilities in excellent agreement with more expensive many-body methods, and yields therefrom vdW coefficients C6, C8, C10 for atom pairs with a mean absolute relative error of only 3%. PMID:22205765

  2. Photovoltaic Effect in an Electrically Tunable van der Waals Heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures form the cornerstone of many electronic and optoelectronic devices and are traditionally fabricated using epitaxial growth techniques. More recently, heterostructures have also been obtained by vertical stacking of two-dimensional crystals, such as graphene and related two-dimensional materials. These layered designer materials are held together by van der Waals forces and contain atomically sharp interfaces. Here, we report on a type-II van der Waals heterojunction made of molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide monolayers. The junction is electrically tunable, and under appropriate gate bias an atomically thin diode is realized. Upon optical illumination, charge transfer occurs across the planar interface and the device exhibits a photovoltaic effect. Advances in large-scale production of two-dimensional crystals could thus lead to a new photovoltaic solar technology. PMID:25057817

  3. Design of a command, communications, and control van (surrogate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J. Darryl; Fishback, Jerome

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and checkout of a radio and telephone multi-mode communications hub. This unit is to serve as a surrogate for a command, control, and communications van which is to be used in support of a special series of testing at a remote site. This unit is assembled in a military four-wheel van and has a crew of a commander and three operators. Radio communications monitoring can be performed in all popular modes of transmission from 50 KHz to 2 GHz and transmission can be performed on selected frequencies in the 40-meter, 6-meter, and 2-meter bands. Both voice and digital (teletype, packet, facsimile, etc.) communications are supported.

  4. Van der Waals interaction mediated by an optically uniaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šarlah, A.; Žumer, S.

    2001-11-01

    We study the van der Waals interaction between macroscopic bodies separated by a thin anisotropic film with a uniaxial permittivity tensor. We describe the effect of anisotropy of the media on the magnitude and sign of the interaction. The resulting differences in the van der Waals interaction are especially important for the stability of strongly confined liquid crystals, and nanostructures characterized by highly uniaxial macroscopic molecular arrangement, such as in self-assemblies of long organic molecules forming films, membranes, colloids, etc. We introduce an improved expression for the Hamaker constant which takes into account the uniaxial symmetry of a medium. In special cases neglecting the optical anisotropy even leads to an incorrect sign of the interaction.

  5. Spin-Flavor van der Waals Forces and NN interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Alvaro Calle Cordon, Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    A major goal in Nuclear Physics is the derivation of the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In QCD the fundamental degrees of freedom are colored quarks and gluons which are confined to form colorless strongly interacting hadrons. Because of this the resulting nuclear forces at sufficiently large distances correspond to spin-flavor excitations, very much like the dipole excitations generating the van der Waals (vdW) forces acting between atoms. We study the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation at second order in perturbation theory including the Delta resonance as an intermediate state. The potential resembles strongly chiral potentials computedmore » either via soliton models or chiral perturbation theory and has a van der Waals like singularity at short distances which is handled by means of renormalization techniques. Results for the deuteron are discussed.« less

  6. IVAN: Intelligent Van for the Distribution of Pharmaceutical Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Asier; Angulo, Ignacio; Perallos, Asier; Landaluce, Hugo; Zuazola, Ignacio Julio García; Azpilicueta, Leire; Astrain, José Javier; Falcone, Francisco; Villadangos, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a telematic system based on an intelligent van which is capable of tracing pharmaceutical drugs over delivery routes from a warehouse to pharmacies, without altering carriers' daily conventional tasks. The intelligent van understands its environment, taking into account its location, the assets and the predefined delivery route; with the capability of reporting incidences to carriers in case of failure according to the established distribution plan. It is a non-intrusive solution which represents a successful experience of using smart environments and an optimized Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) embedded system in a viable way to resolve a real industrial need in the pharmaceutical industry. The combination of deterministic modeling of the indoor vehicle, the implementation of an ad-hoc radiating element and an agile software platform within an overall system architecture leads to a competitive, flexible and scalable solution. PMID:22778659

  7. Strong van der Waals attractive forces in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Jeffrey

    The Dobson classification scheme for failure of London-like expressions for describing dispersion is reviewed. New ways to measure using STM data and calculate by first principles free energies of organic self-assembly processes from solution will be discussed, considering tetraalkylporphyrins on graphite. How strong van der Waals forces can compete against covalent bonding to produce new molecular isomers and reaction pathways will also be demonstrated, focusing on golds-sulfur bonds for sensors and stabilizing nanoparticles.

  8. Grippers Based on Opposing Van Der Waals Adhesive Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Kennedy, Brett A. (Inventor); Heverly, Matthew C (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Hawkes, Elliot Wright (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel gripping structures based on van der Waals adhesive forces are disclosed. Pads covered with fibers can be activated in pairs by opposite forces, thereby enabling control of the adhesive force in an ON or OFF state. Pads can be used in groups, each comprising a group of opposite pads. The adhesive structures enable anchoring forces that can resist adverse forces from different directions. The adhesive structures can be used to enable the operation of robots on surfaces of space vehicles.

  9. Phase diagram for the Kuramoto model with van Hemmen interactions.

    PubMed

    Kloumann, Isabel M; Lizarraga, Ian M; Strogatz, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators that includes quenched random interactions of the type used by van Hemmen in his model of spin glasses. The phase diagram is obtained analytically for the case of zero noise and a Lorentzian distribution of the oscillators' natural frequencies. Depending on the size of the attractive and random coupling terms, the system displays four states: complete incoherence, partial synchronization, partial antiphase synchronization, and a mix of antiphase and ordinary synchronization.

  10. Recent Science Highlights of the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr

    2016-10-01

    The morning of 30 August 2012 saw an Atlas 5 rocket launch NASA's second Living With a Star spacecraft mission, the twin Radiation Belt Storm Probes, into an elliptic orbit cutting through Earth's radiation belts. Renamed the Van Allen Probes soon after launch, the Probes are designed to determine how the highly variable populations of high-energy charged particles within the radiation belts, dangerous to astronauts and satellites, are created, respond to solar variations, and evolve in space environments. The Van Allen Probes mission extends beyond the practical considerations of the hazard's of Earth's space environment. Twentieth century observations of space and astrophysical systems throughout the solar system and out into the observable universe have shown that the processes that generate intense particle radiation within magnetized environments such as Earth's are universal. During its mission the Van Allen Probes verified and quantified previously suggested energization processes, discovered new energization mechanisms, revealed the critical importance of dynamic plasma injections into the innermost magnetosphere, and used uniquely capable instruments to reveal inner radiation belt features that were all but invisible to previous sensors. This paper gives a brief overview of the mission, presents some recent science highlights, and discusses plans for the extended mission.

  11. Self-Aligned van der Waals Heterojunction Diodes and Transistors.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Beck, Megan E; Henning, Alex; Luo, Jiajia; Bergeron, Hadallia; Kang, Junmo; Balla, Itamar; Inbar, Hadass; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2018-02-14

    A general self-aligned fabrication scheme is reported here for a diverse class of electronic devices based on van der Waals materials and heterojunctions. In particular, self-alignment enables the fabrication of source-gated transistors in monolayer MoS 2 with near-ideal current saturation characteristics and channel lengths down to 135 nm. Furthermore, self-alignment of van der Waals p-n heterojunction diodes achieves complete electrostatic control of both the p-type and n-type constituent semiconductors in a dual-gated geometry, resulting in gate-tunable mean and variance of antiambipolar Gaussian characteristics. Through finite-element device simulations, the operating principles of source-gated transistors and dual-gated antiambipolar devices are elucidated, thus providing design rules for additional devices that employ self-aligned geometries. For example, the versatility of this scheme is demonstrated via contact-doped MoS 2 homojunction diodes and mixed-dimensional heterojunctions based on organic semiconductors. The scalability of this approach is also shown by fabricating self-aligned short-channel transistors with subdiffraction channel lengths in the range of 150-800 nm using photolithography on large-area MoS 2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Overall, this self-aligned fabrication method represents an important step toward the scalable integration of van der Waals heterojunction devices into more sophisticated circuits and systems.

  12. Determining Core Plasmaspheric Electron Densities with the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascuale, S.; Hartley, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    We survey three methods for obtaining electron densities inside of the core plasmasphere region (L < 4) to the perigee of the Van Allen Probes (L 1.1) from September 2012 to December 2014. Using the EMFISIS instrument on board the Van Allen Probes, electron densities are extracted from the upper hybrid resonance to an uncertainty of 10%. Some measurements are subject to larger errors given interpretational issues, especially at low densities (L > 4) resulting from geomagnetic activity. At high densities EMFISIS is restricted by an upper observable limit near 3000 cm-3. As this limit is encountered above perigee, we employ two additional methods validated against EMFISIS measurements to determine electron densities deep within the plasmasphere (L < 2). EMFISIS can extrapolate density estimates to lower L by calculating high densities, in good agreement with the upper hybrid technique when applicable, from plasma wave properties. Calibrated measurements, from the Van Allen Probes EFW potential instrument, also extend into this range. In comparison with the published EMFISIS database we provide a metric for the validity of core plasmaspheric density measurements obtained from these methods and an empirical density model for use in wave and particle simulations.

  13. Observation of van Hove Singularities in Twisted Silicene Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interlayer interactions perturb the electronic structure of two-dimensional materials and lead to new physical phenomena, such as van Hove singularities and Hofstadter’s butterfly pattern. Silicene, the recently discovered two-dimensional form of silicon, is quite unique, in that silicon atoms adopt competing sp2 and sp3 hybridization states leading to a low-buckled structure promising relatively strong interlayer interaction. In multilayer silicene, the stacking order provides an important yet rarely explored degree of freedom for tuning its electronic structures through manipulating interlayer coupling. Here, we report the emergence of van Hove singularities in the multilayer silicene created by an interlayer rotation. We demonstrate that even a large-angle rotation (>20°) between stacked silicene layers can generate a Moiré pattern and van Hove singularities due to the strong interlayer coupling in multilayer silicene. Our study suggests an intriguing method for expanding the tunability of the electronic structure for electronic applications in this two-dimensional material. PMID:27610412

  14. Observation of van Hove Singularities in Twisted Silicene Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhuang, Jincheng; Chen, Lan; Ni, Zhenyi; Liu, Chen; Wang, Li; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jiaou; Pi, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaolin; Du, Yi; Wu, Kehui; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-08-24

    Interlayer interactions perturb the electronic structure of two-dimensional materials and lead to new physical phenomena, such as van Hove singularities and Hofstadter's butterfly pattern. Silicene, the recently discovered two-dimensional form of silicon, is quite unique, in that silicon atoms adopt competing sp(2) and sp(3) hybridization states leading to a low-buckled structure promising relatively strong interlayer interaction. In multilayer silicene, the stacking order provides an important yet rarely explored degree of freedom for tuning its electronic structures through manipulating interlayer coupling. Here, we report the emergence of van Hove singularities in the multilayer silicene created by an interlayer rotation. We demonstrate that even a large-angle rotation (>20°) between stacked silicene layers can generate a Moiré pattern and van Hove singularities due to the strong interlayer coupling in multilayer silicene. Our study suggests an intriguing method for expanding the tunability of the electronic structure for electronic applications in this two-dimensional material.

  15. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and Space Weather Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts as a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the VAP Space Weather data to users. Over the past year, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes summary and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell. We discuss the new Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and the Space Weather Data Pipeline.

  16. Mid infrared observations of Van Maanen 2: no substellar companion.

    SciTech Connect

    Farihi, J; Becklin, E; Macintosh, B

    2004-11-03

    The results of a comprehensive infrared imaging search for the putative 0.06 M{sub {circle_dot}} astrometric companion to the 4.4 pc white dwarf van Mannen 2 are reported. Adaptive optics images acquired at 3.8 {micro}m reveal a diffraction limited core of 0.09 inch and no direct evidence of a secondary. Models predict that at 5 Gyr, a 50 M{sub J} brown dwarf would be only 1 magnitude fainter than van Maanen 2 at this wavelength and the astrometric analysis suggested a separation of 0.2 inch. In the case of a chance alignment along the line of sight, a 0.4 mag excessmore » should be measured. An independent photometric observation at the same wavelength reveals no excess. In addition, there exist published ISO observations of van Maanen 2 at 6.8 {micro}m and 15.0 {micro}m which are consistent with photospheric flux of a 6750 K white dwarf. If recent brown dwarf models are correct, there is no substellar companion with T{sub eff} {approx}> 500 K.« less

  17. Van Vleck and the magnetic susceptibilities of gaseous molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Horst

    2011-03-01

    In his 1927 Physical Review article and in his 1932 book, ~The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities,~Van Vleck used the new quantum theory to derive the magnetic susceptibilities of O2 and NO in their gaseous form ~and compared them with experiments. ~He was therefore very interested in low temperature susceptibility experiments on O2 at Oxford University in 1954 where individual O2 molecules were trapped in small, almost spherical cages in organic clathrates. Correspondence between him and this speaker, then at Oxford, led to further measurements of O2 and also of NO in such clathrates, to theory and to subsequent publications and correspondence. Later communication with Van Vleck on the magnetism in rare earth iron garnets, a subject of long-term interest to him, will be described ~in connection with experiments carried out at Duke University. Some fond personal ~recollections of this speaker of his interaction with Van Vleck - both while at Harvard, during visits and through correspondence which extended into the seventies - will be presented.

  18. Chlorhexidine Induces VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance Genes in Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Ziegler, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic used for infection control. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) is among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. VREfm may be exposed to chlorhexidine at supra- and subinhibitory concentrations as a result of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheter use. We used RNA sequencing to investigate how VREfm responds to chlorhexidine gluconate exposure. Among the 35 genes upregulated ≥10-fold after 15 min of exposure to the MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate were those encoding VanA-type vancomycin resistance (vanHAX) and those associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility (liaXYZ). We confirmed that vanA upregulation was not strain or species specific by querying other VanA-type VRE. VanB-type genes were not induced. The vanH promoter was found to be responsive to subinhibitory chlorhexidine gluconate in VREfm, as was production of the VanX protein. Using vanH reporter experiments with Bacillus subtilis and deletion analysis in VREfm, we found that this phenomenon is VanR dependent. Deletion of vanR did not result in increased chlorhexidine susceptibility, demonstrating that vanHAX induction is not protective against chlorhexidine. As expected, VanA-type VRE is more susceptible to ceftriaxone in the presence of sub-MIC chlorhexidine. Unexpectedly, VREfm is also more susceptible to vancomycin in the presence of subinhibitory chlorhexidine, suggesting that chlorhexidine-induced gene expression changes lead to additional alterations in cell wall synthesis. We conclude that chlorhexidine induces expression of VanA-type vancomycin resistance genes and genes associated with daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Overall, our results indicate that the impacts of subinhibitory chlorhexidine exposure on hospital-associated pathogens should be further investigated in laboratory studies. PMID:26810654

  19. Who Do We Deploy for Psychological Operations: A Function Profile for TPT Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    doet onderzoek om de ontwikkeling v’an PSYOPS in Nederland te ondersteunen. Een eerste stap, in het goed voorbereiden en uitvoeren van PSYOPS is het...bezit. De focus van het huidige project ligt op de selectiemethode van mensen die PSYOPS functies gaan vervullen. Naast Nederland zijn er ook andere NAVO...deze interviews kwam naar voren dat verschillende landen kampen met dezelfde problemen als Nederland wat betreft de selectie van het PSYOPS personeel

  20. CLImAT-HET: detecting subclonal copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in heterogeneous tumor samples from whole-genome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Li, Ao; Wang, Minghui

    2017-03-15

    Copy number alterations (CNA) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) represent a large proportion of genetic structural variations of cancer genomes. These aberrations are continuously accumulated during the procedure of clonal evolution and patterned by phylogenetic branching. This invariably results in the emergence of multiple cell populations with distinct complement of mutational landscapes in tumor sample. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, inference of subclonal populations has become one of the focused interests in cancer-associated studies, and is usually based on the assessment of combinations of somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNV), CNA and LOH. However, cancer samples often have several inherent issues, such as contamination of normal stroma, tumor aneuploidy and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Addressing these critical issues is imperative for accurate profiling of clonal architecture. We present CLImAT-HET, a computational method designed for capturing clonal diversity in the CNA/LOH dimensions by taking into account the intra-tumor heterogeneity issue, in the case where a reference or matched normal sample is absent. The algorithm quantitatively represents the clonal identification problem using a factorial hidden Markov model, and takes an integrated analysis of read counts and allele frequency data. It is able to infer subclonal CNA and LOH events as well as the fraction of cells harboring each event. The results on simulated datasets indicate that CLImAT-HET has high power to identify CNA/LOH segments, it achieves an average accuracy of 0.87. It can also accurately infer proportion of each clonal population with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a mean absolute error of 0.02. CLImAT-HET shows significant advantages when compared with other existing methods. Application of CLImAT-HET to 5 primary triple negative breast cancer samples demonstrates its ability to capture clonal diversity in the CAN

  1. The Construction of the Small Scale Cook-off Bomb (SCB) op het PML-TNO (De constructie vande Small scale Cook-off Bomb (SCB) op het PML-TNO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    cervV epa Addm Ing. J.A. van (3ooI - 12-02-1993 It7T- PAPOTNCNTAE g,: Accesion For Frederikkaze~rne, gebouw 140 OGRBIER TS CAI T v/ d Burchlaafl 31 HPC...16A r~l D TIC -;S TEL. 070-3166394/6395 ONGERUBRICEERD) !’ ,ro’ ;Cc FAX. (31) 070-.3166202 Srevtil:JSl--to ElostbUs 90701 Saiqwag ......zto I...Tabel I geeft d onderdelen van de TNO~~~~-SC e e fiknemattnozc a ei etU rnebe[I] becrvnSB Tae I ljtvnodreediqu atvscinvnd I-C TaeD ef e onder d n o

  2. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  3. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  4. A notable difference between ideal gas and infinite molar volume limit of van der Waals gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. H.; Shen, Y.; Bai, R. L.; Wang, X.

    2010-05-01

    The van der Waals equation of state does not sufficiently represent a gas unless a thermodynamic potential with two proper and independent variables is simultaneously determined. The limiting procedures under which the behaviour of the van der Waals gas approaches that of an ideal gas are letting two van der Waals coefficients be zero rather than letting the molar volume become infinitely large; otherwise, the partial derivative of internal energy with respect to pressure at a fixed temperature does not vanish.

  5. Application of Diffusion Monte Carlo to Materials Dominated by van der Waals Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; ...

    2014-06-12

    Van der Waals forces are notoriously difficult to account for from first principles. We perform extensive calculation to assess the usefulness and validity of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo when applied to van der Waals forces. We present results for noble gas solids and clusters - archetypical van der Waals dominated assemblies, as well as a relevant pi-pi stacking supramolecular complex: DNA + intercalating anti-cancer drug Ellipticine.

  6. RpoS induces expression of the Vibrio anguillarum quorum-sensing regulator VanT.

    PubMed

    Weber, Barbara; Croxatto, Antony; Chen, Chang; Milton, Debra L

    2008-03-01

    In vibrios, regulation of the Vibrio harveyi-like LuxR transcriptional activators occurs post-transcriptionally via small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize the luxR mRNA at a low cell population, eliminating expression of LuxR. Expression of the sRNAs is modulated by the vibrio quorum-sensing phosphorelay systems. However, vanT mRNA, which encodes a LuxR homologue in Vibrio anguillarum, is abundant at low and high cell density, indicating that VanT expression may be regulated via additional mechanisms. In this study, Western analyses showed that VanT was expressed throughout growth with a peak of expression during late exponential growth. VanO induced partial destabilization of vanT mRNA via activation of at least one Qrr sRNA. Interestingly, the sigma factor RpoS significantly stabilized vanT mRNA and induced VanT expression during late exponential growth. This induction was in part due to RpoS repressing expression of Hfq, an RNA chaperone. RpoS is not part of the quorum-sensing regulatory cascade since RpoS did not regulate expression or activity of VanO, and RpoS was not regulated by VanO or VanT. VanT and RpoS were needed for survival following UV irradiation and for pigment and metalloprotease production, suggesting that RpoS works with the quorum-sensing systems to modulate expression of VanT, which regulates survival and stress responses.

  7. Regulation of intracellular free calcium concentration during heterocyst differentiation by HetR and NtcA in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunming; Zhao, Weixing; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Zi; Zhao, Jindong

    2006-07-25

    Calcium ions are important to some prokaryotic cellular processes, such as heterocyst differentiation of cyanobacteria. Intracellular free Ca(2+)concentration, [Ca(2+)](i), increases several fold in heterocysts and is regulated by CcbP, a Ca(2+)-binding protein found in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. We demonstrate here that CcbP is degraded by HetR, a serine-type protease that controls heterocyst differentiation. The degradation depends on Ca(2+) and appears to be specific because HetR did not digest other tested proteins. CcbP was found to bind two Ca(2+) per molecule with K(D) values of 200 nM and 12.8 microM. Degradation of CcbP releases bound Ca(2+) that contributes significantly to the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) during the process of heterocyst differentiation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We suggest that degradation of CcbP is a mechanism of positive autoregulation of HetR. The down-regulation of ccbP in differentiating cells and mature heterocysts, which also is critical to the regulation of [Ca(2+)](i), depends on NtcA. Coexpression of ntcA and a ccbP promoter-controlled gfp in Escherichia coli diminished production of GFP, and the decrease is enhanced by alpha-ketoglutarate. It was also found that NtcA could bind a fragment of the ccbP promoter containing an NtcA-binding sequence in a alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent fashion. Therefore, [Ca(2+)](i) is regulated by a collaboration of HetR and NtcA in heterocyst differentiation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

  8. Regulation of intracellular free calcium concentration during heterocyst differentiation by HetR and NtcA in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yunming; Zhao, Weixing; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Zi; Zhao, Jindong

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ions are important to some prokaryotic cellular processes, such as heterocyst differentiation of cyanobacteria. Intracellular free Ca2+concentration, [Ca2+]i, increases several fold in heterocysts and is regulated by CcbP, a Ca2+-binding protein found in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. We demonstrate here that CcbP is degraded by HetR, a serine-type protease that controls heterocyst differentiation. The degradation depends on Ca2+ and appears to be specific because HetR did not digest other tested proteins. CcbP was found to bind two Ca2+ per molecule with KD values of 200 nM and 12.8 μM. Degradation of CcbP releases bound Ca2+ that contributes significantly to the increase of [Ca2+]i during the process of heterocyst differentiation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We suggest that degradation of CcbP is a mechanism of positive autoregulation of HetR. The down-regulation of ccbP in differentiating cells and mature heterocysts, which also is critical to the regulation of [Ca2+]i, depends on NtcA. Coexpression of ntcA and a ccbP promoter-controlled gfp in Escherichia coli diminished production of GFP, and the decrease is enhanced by α-ketoglutarate. It was also found that NtcA could bind a fragment of the ccbP promoter containing an NtcA-binding sequence in a α-ketoglutarate-dependent fashion. Therefore, [Ca2+]i is regulated by a collaboration of HetR and NtcA in heterocyst differentiation in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. PMID:16849429

  9. OMEGACAM and Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, Fabrice Frédéric Thiébaut

    2007-04-01

    Het proefschrift van Fabrice Christen gaat over de ontwikkeling van nieuwe methoden voor het corrigeren van (digitale) foto's van melkwegstelsels. Met deze methoden kunnen de beelden uit het heelal beter worden geanalyseerd. Het eerste gedeelte is gewijd aan het werk dat bij ESO is uitgevoerd aan de CCD's van de OmegaCAM camera, het enige instrument van de VST. OmegaCAM is een optische groothoekcamera met een beeldveld van een vierkante graad, opgebouwd uit een mozaiek van 8 bij 4 CCD's. Van elk onderdeel moeten alle kenmerken volledig bekend zijn voordat het in het CCD mozaiek geplaatst kan worden. In het tweede deel van dit proefschrift wordt de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe methode voor het corrigeren van de ``point-spread function'' (PSF) en schatten van de ellipticiteit van de melkwegstelsels besproken. De nieuwe techniek wordt getest en vergeleken met een door sterrenkundigen algemeen gebruikte methode in het veld van zwaartekrachtslenzen, de Kaiser, Squire en Broadhurst (KSB) methode. De nieuwe methode, gebaseerd op shapelet ontleding (vergelijkbaar met wavelet ontleding), gaat verder, en is sneller en theoretisch preciezer dan de KSB methode. Door gebruik te maken van de gecorrigeerde ellipticiteit, kunnen we een statistische analyse uitvoeren om er een kosmisch vervormingssignaal uit te halen. De licht vervormde beelden van de melkwegstelsels bewij zen dat de niet-homogene massaverdeling op megaparsec-schaal voornamelijk bestaat uit grote hoeveelheden donkere materie. Verder vergelijken we de schattingen van de ellipticiteit van de shapelet en KSB methode. Bovendien voeren we ook nog een melkwegstelsel-melkwegstelsel lens analyse uit op de 50 VLT Fors1 afbeeldingen en slagen we erin de belangrijkste eigenschappen van de halo's van de stelsels, die zich op een afstand van een- tot tweeduizend megaparsec (1 parsec = 3,26 lichtjaar = 3,085 x 10^16 meter) bevinden, te bepalen door gebruik te maken van twee modellen van melkwegstelselhalo's. Vergeleken met andere

  10. Dutch Anthropometry for Vehicle Design and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    middelen Beschrijving van de werkzaamheden Uitgaande van afmetingen van Nederlanders zijn grenswaarden voor negen paspoppen. met vanSrende...vastgesteld voor het jaar 2015 Hierbij is uitgegaan van een Nederlands antropometrisch bestand (NedScan) Resultaten en conclusies Het resultaat is een kort... Nederlands antropometrisch bestand (NedScan) en van lichaamsafmetingen van goedgekeurde K.L rekruten. De grenswaarden omvatten 95% van dat Nederlandse

  11. MATE (Mentale Aspecten van Team Effectiviteit) (MATE (Mental Aspects of Team Effectiveness))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    0 Auteur (s) drs. J.P. van Meer drs. MI. 1 ’ IIart0 drs. 1. van der 16. Rubricering rapport Ongerubriceerd Vastgesteld door Ikol drs. L.A. de Vos...team Auteur (s) Teamntraining drs. J.P. van Meer drs. M.H.E. I Hart Programmanummer Projectnummer drs. 1. van der Beijl V406 015.34095 Rubricering...Murphy & Cleveland (1995) geven inzicht in de tearngedragingen die meetbaar zijn en de theorie over Shared Mental Models (Espevik et al, 2006) laat zien

  12. Waardering en Analyse van Simulatieresultaten (Valuation and Analysis of Simulation Results)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    is uit de tabel van de Students T-verdeling te halen . Deze wordt aangeduid met t,(v), waarin a de overschrijdingskans en v bet aantal vrijheidsgraden...2 vrijheidsgraden. Uit de tabol van de Student’s t-verdeling zija nu de kritieke waardon R, on R2 to halen zodanig dat P(t >R2 ) = i Wordt or eon...analyse van simnulatieresultaten - TDCnaK RAPPORTE1CENTRALE Frederikkazerne, Geb. 140 AD-A25 470van den Burchlaan 31AD-A25 470Telefoon: 070-3166394

  13. Mixed Dimensional Van der Waals Heterostructures for Opto-Electronics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariwala, Deep

    The isolation of a growing number of two-dimensional (2D) materials has inspired worldwide efforts to integrate distinct 2D materials into van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. While a tremendous amount of research activity has occurred in assembling disparate 2D materials into ``all-2D'' van der Waals heterostructures, this concept is not limited to 2D materials alone. Given that any passivated, dangling bond-free surface will interact with another via vdW forces, the vdW heterostructure concept can be extended to include the integration of 2D materials with non-2D materials that adhere primarily through noncovalent interactions. In the first part of this talk I will present our work on emerging mixed-dimensional (2D + nD, where n is 0, 1 or 3) heterostructure devices performed at Northwestern University. I will present two distinct examples of gate-tunable p-n heterojunctions 1. Single layer n-type MoS2\\ (2D) combined with p-type semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (1D) and 2. Single layer MoS2 combined with 0D molecular semiconductor, pentacene. I will present the unique electrical properties, underlying charge transport mechanisms and photocurrent responses in both the above systems using a variety of scanning probe microscopy techniques as well as computational analysis. This work shows that van der Waals interactions are robust across different dimensionalities of materials and can allow fabrication of semiconductor devices with unique geometries and properties unforeseen in bulk semiconductors. Finally, I will briefly discuss our recent work from Caltech on near-unity absorption in atomically-thin photovoltaic devices. This work is supported by the Materials Research Center at Northwestern University, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF DMR-1121262) and the Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech.

  14. Van Swieten and the renaissance of the Vienna Medical School.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M; Modlin, I M

    2001-04-01

    The period until 1745 found the Viennese medical system languishing far behind advances made in other major European centers. This chaotic situation was reversed by the foresight and breadth of vision of the Empress Maria Theresa, who initiated considerable reform in Austria by actively recruiting the best minds of the time to reduce the intellectual and technologic differences. Her ability to entice one of Boerhaave's most eminent pupils, Gerard van Swieten, to leave Leiden for Vienna, particularly benefited the Vienna Medical School. In 1745 van Swieten assumed responsibility for reconfiguration of the patronage and nepotism-ridden medical system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a first task, he swiftly expunged the influence of the Jesuits and other religious orders from medicine and established formal training and examinations, transforming the medical discipline into a meritocracy. Excelling as a physician and an innovative teacher, he also established a close personal relationship with the Empress and became her medical confidante. To a large part, the success of this first great Viennese medical school was owed to de Haen, who left Leiden to implement Boerhaave's method of clinical teaching. As a result of these innovations and with considerable support from the Empress, the University of Vienna, particularly its medical school, within a few decades achieved recognition throughout Europe as a seat of learning and scholarship. Van Swieten would not be remembered today if his contribution had been only scholarly or scientific achievements. He propelled Austrian medicine to a level commensurate with that of other European states of the day by 27 years of dedicated and industrious service.

  15. Baseline tests of the power-train electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumannick, S.; Dustin, M. O.; Bozek, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics were determined for a modified utility van powered by sixteen 6-volt batteries connected in series. A chopper controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal changes the voltage applied to the 22-kilowatt (30-hp) series-wound drive motor. In addition to the conventional hydraulic braking system, the vehicle has hydraulic regenerative braking. Cycle tests and acceleration tests were conducted with and without hydraulic regeneration.

  16. van Leeuwenhoek microscopes-where are they now?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-05-01

    When Antonie van Leeuwenhoek died, he left over 500 simple microscopes, aalkijkers (an adaption of his microscope to allow the examination of blood circulation in the tails of small eels) and lenses, yet now there are only 10 microscopes with a claim to being authentic, one possible aalkijker and six lenses. He made microscopes with more than one lens, and possibly three forms of the aalkijker. This paper attempts to establish exactly what he left and trace the fate of some of the others using the earliest possible documents and publications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Measured and Modelled Tidal Circulation Under Ice Covered Van Mijenforden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, F.

    The observation and model area Van Mijenfjorden is situated at the west coast of Spits- bergen. An area of 533 km2 makes it the second largest fjord on Spitsbergen and the distance from the head to the mouth of the fjord is approximately 70 km. An 8.5km long and 1km wide island, Akseløya, is lying across the fjord mouth and blocking exchanges between the fjord and the coastal water masses outside. The sound Aksel- sundet on the northern side of the island is 1km wide and has a sill at 34m depth. On the southern side an islet, Mariaholmen, is between two sounds that are 200m wide and 2m deep, and 500m wide and 12m deep. Strong tidal currents exist in these sounds. Van Mijenfjorden has special ice conditions in that Akseløya almost closes the fjord, and comparatively little ice comes in from west. On the other hand, there are periods with fast ice in the fjord inside Akseløya longer than in other places, as the sea waves have little chance to break up fast ice here, or delay ice formation in autumn/winter. Van Mijenfjorden is often separated into two basins by a sill at 30m depth. The inner basin is typical 5km wide and has a maximum depth of 80m, while the outer basin is on average 10 km wide and has a maximum depth of 115m. Hydrographic measurements have been conducted since 1958 and up to the present. Through the last decade, The University Courses on Svalbard (UNIS) has used this fjord as a laboratory for their student excursions, in connection to courses in air-ice- ocean interaction and master programs, and build up an oceanographic data base. In this work, focus is put on the wintertime situation and the circulation under an ice covered fjord. Measurements show a mean cyclonic circulation pattern in the outer basin with tidal oscillation (mainly M2) superposed on this mean vector. A three- dimensional sigma layered numerical model called Bergen Ocean Model (BOM) was used to simulate the circulation in Van Mijenfjorden with only tidal forcing. The four most

  18. Twisted bilayer graphene photoluminescence emission peaks at van Hove singularities.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Thonimar V; von Dreifus, Driele; Gabriela Cota Moreira, Maria; Eliel, Gomes S N; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Chiu, Po-Wen; Pimenta, Marcos A; Malard, Leandro M; Maria de Paula, Ana

    2018-05-02

    We report on photoluminescence emission imaging by femtosecond laser excitation on twisted bilayer graphene samples. The emission images are obtained by tuning the excitation laser energies in the near infrared region. We demonstrate an increase of the photoluminescence emission at excitation energies that depends on the bilayer twist angle. The results show a peak for the light emission when the excitation is in resonance with transitions at the van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states. We measured the photoluminescence excitation peak position and width for samples with various twist angles showing resonances in the energy range of 1.2 to 1.7 eV.

  19. van der Waals-type forces in spontaneously broken supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radescu, E. E.

    1983-03-01

    In spontaneously broken rigid supersymmetry, Goldstone-fermion pair exchange should lead to a universal interaction between massive bodies uniquely fixed by the existing low-energy theorem. The resulting van der Waals-type potential is shown to be V(r)=-Mmπ-3F-4r-7+O(r-8), where M and m are the masses of the interacting bodies while F is the scale of the breaking. The change in the situation when the supersymmetry is promoted to a local symmetry is briefly discussed.

  20. Verification Test of Jet Industries Electra-Van 1000P,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Ene ion of Electric Unclassified and Hybrid Vehicles 15 I Ia. DEL S FCATIOt OWNGRADING 16. DISTRIBUTION...Propulsion Batteries Charger 24. AUSTRACT (C m ern.. Fev neeey aid Idenify by block nmtbe) - The Je 4nfduis&ieElectra-Van IOOOP is a Chrysler Corp. pickup...Electric EV -1 SCR Controller (Figure 5). The propulsion motor is a General Electric d.c. motor, 37-hp, series-wound, rated at 2039 r/min. The 1000P has a

  1. Van der Waals pressure sensors using reduced graphene oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju Ra; Ahn, Sung Il

    2018-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films intercalated with various polymers were fabricated by reaction-based self-assembly, and their characteristics as vacuum pressure sensors based on van der Waals interactions were studied. At low temperature, the electrical resistances of the samples decrease linearly with increasing vacuum pressure, whereas at high temperature the variation of the electrical resistance shows secondary order curves. Among all samples, the poly vinyl alcohol intercalated RGO shows the highest sensitivity, being almost two times more sensitive than reference RGO. All samples show almost the same signal for repetitive sudden pressure changes, indicating reasonable reproducibility and durability.

  2. Spherical and hyperspherical harmonics representation of van der Waals aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Grossi, Gaia; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Barreto, Patricia R. P.; Cruz, Ana Claudia P. S.

    2016-12-01

    The representation of the potential energy surfaces of atom-molecule or molecular dimers interactions should account faithfully for the symmetry properties of the systems, preserving at the same time a compact analytical form. To this aim, the choice of a proper set of coordinates is a necessary precondition. Here we illustrate a description in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and the expansion of the intermolecular interaction energy in terms of hypersherical harmonics, as a general method for building potential energy surfaces suitable for molecular dynamics simulations of van der Waals aggregates. Examples for the prototypical case diatomic-molecule-diatomic-molecule interactions are shown.

  3. Twisted bilayer graphene photoluminescence emission peaks at van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Thonimar V.; von Dreifus, Driele; Cota Moreira, Maria Gabriela; Eliel, Gomes S. N.; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Chiu, Po-Wen; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Malard, Leandro M.; de Paula, Ana Maria

    2018-05-01

    We report on photoluminescence emission imaging by femtosecond laser excitation on twisted bilayer graphene samples. The emission images are obtained by tuning the excitation laser energies in the near infrared region. We demonstrate an increase of the photoluminescence emission at excitation energies that depends on the bilayer twist angle. The results show a peak for the light emission when the excitation is in resonance with transitions at the van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states. We measured the photoluminescence excitation peak position and width for samples with various twist angles showing resonances in the energy range of 1.2 to 1.7 eV.

  4. Nonadditivity of van der Waals forces on liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataram, Prashanth S.; Whitton, Jeremy D.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-09-01

    We present an approach for modeling nanoscale wetting and dewetting of textured solid surfaces that exploits recently developed, sophisticated techniques for computing exact long-range dispersive van der Waals (vdW) or (more generally) Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries. We apply these techniques to solve the variational formulation of the Young-Laplace equation and predict the equilibrium shapes of liquid-vacuum interfaces near solid gratings. We show that commonly employed methods of computing vdW interactions based on additive Hamaker or Derjaguin approximations, which neglect important electromagnetic boundary effects, can result in large discrepancies in the shapes and behaviors of liquid surfaces compared to exact methods.

  5. Van der Woude syndrome: Management in the mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sonahita; Dinesh, M R; Dharma, R M; Amarnath, B C

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with Van der Woude syndrome treated with orthodontic and orthopedic intervention in the mixed dentition stage. The patient had a bilateral cleft of the lip and alveolus accompanied by lip pits on the lower lip. Intra-orally, there was bilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite with a collapsed maxilla. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the second phase of treatment involved secondary alveolar bone grafting followed by retention with functional regulator-3. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation.

  6. Van der Woude syndrome: Management in the mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sonahita; Dinesh, M. R.; Dharma, R. M.; Amarnath, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with Van der Woude syndrome treated with orthodontic and orthopedic intervention in the mixed dentition stage. The patient had a bilateral cleft of the lip and alveolus accompanied by lip pits on the lower lip. Intra-orally, there was bilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite with a collapsed maxilla. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the second phase of treatment involved secondary alveolar bone grafting followed by retention with functional regulator-3. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation. PMID:23853466

  7. Measuring Low-PRF Pulsed Signals with a Standard HP 8510B Vector Network Analyzer Within Milliseconds (Het Meten van Lage-PRF Gepulste Signalen met een Standaard HP 8510B Vector Network Analyzer Binnen Enkele Milliseconden)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    reference signal 25 5 A METHOD FOR MEASURING LOW-PRF PULSED SIGNALS 28 5.1 Using a NWA with a smaller BPF 28 5.2 Using the HP 8510B external trigger...2nd LO 11Q 3MHz BPF lOkHz BPF Fig. 4: Receiver block diagram The receiver is a double conversion superheterodyne with a 10 kHz wide BandPass Filter... BPF ) in the second IF. This 10 kHz filter is the component that dictates how the HP 8510B responds to pulsed signals. For the pulsed-RF test signal

  8. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the vanC-2 vancomycin resistance gene cluster of Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ireena; Reynolds, Peter E

    2002-10-01

    The vanC-2 cluster of Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788 consisted of five genes (vanC-2, vanXY(C-2), vanT(C-2), vanR(C-2), and vanS(C-2)) and shared the same organization as the vanC cluster of E. gallinarum BM4174. The proteins encoded by these genes displayed a high degree of amino acid identity to the proteins encoded within the vanC gene cluster. The putative D,D-dipeptidase-D,D-carboxypeptidase, VanXY(C-2), exhibited 81% amino acid identity to VanXY(C), and VanT(C-2) displayed 65% amino acid identity to the serine racemase, VanT. VanR(C-2) and VanS(C-2) displayed high degrees of identity to VanR(C) and VanS(C), respectively, and contained the conserved residues identified as important to their function as a response regulator and histidine kinase, respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was expressed inducibly in E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 and required an extended period of induction. Analysis of peptidoglycan precursors revealed that UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-delta-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ser could not be detected until several hours after the addition of vancomycin, and its appearance coincided with the resumption of growth. The introduction of additional copies of the vanT(C-2) gene, encoding a putative serine racemase, and the presence of supplementary D-serine in the growth medium both significantly reduced the period before growth resumed after addition of vancomycin. This suggested that the availability of D-serine plays an important role in the induction process.

  9. Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of the vanC-2 Vancomycin Resistance Gene Cluster of Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ireena; Reynolds, Peter E.

    2002-01-01

    The vanC-2 cluster of Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788 consisted of five genes (vanC-2, vanXYC-2, vanTC-2, vanRC-2, and vanSC-2) and shared the same organization as the vanC cluster of E. gallinarum BM4174. The proteins encoded by these genes displayed a high degree of amino acid identity to the proteins encoded within the vanC gene cluster. The putative d,d-dipeptidase-d,d-carboxypeptidase, VanXYC-2, exhibited 81% amino acid identity to VanXYC, and VanTC-2 displayed 65% amino acid identity to the serine racemase, VanT. VanRC-2 and VanSC-2 displayed high degrees of identity to VanRC and VanSC, respectively, and contained the conserved residues identified as important to their function as a response regulator and histidine kinase, respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was expressed inducibly in E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 and required an extended period of induction. Analysis of peptidoglycan precursors revealed that UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-Ala-δ-d-Glu-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ser could not be detected until several hours after the addition of vancomycin, and its appearance coincided with the resumption of growth. The introduction of additional copies of the vanTC-2 gene, encoding a putative serine racemase, and the presence of supplementary d-serine in the growth medium both significantly reduced the period before growth resumed after addition of vancomycin. This suggested that the availability of d-serine plays an important role in the induction process. PMID:12234834

  10. [Education in anatomy initiated by Pompe van Meerdervoort].

    PubMed

    Koji, Takehiko; Aikawa, Tadaomi

    2008-12-01

    Pompe van Meerdervoort arrived at Nagasaki port on September 21, 1857 and started his western-style medical education for the first time in the Nishiyakusho of Nagasaki on November 12, 1857. He had 12 students including Ryojun Matsumono. The curriculum was largely based on that of Utrecht Army Medical School, which was re-organized after 1841 and very good in balance of theory and practice. Among subjects, much attention was paid for Anatomy which was quite advancing at the time and in fact the lecture was given on every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday morning from 1857 to the end of 1859. His lecture note on Anatomy was based on Handboek der Ontleedkunde van den Mensch originally written by C. E. Bock, which was translated into Dutch by P. H. Pool. The note currently available is a copy by the students. In Europe of those days, microscopes were developed and "Histology" had been established as a new science. Therefore, his lecture contained details of histological findings and now we can appreciate his policy to think much of Anatomy in the introduction of western-style medical education.

  11. Generalization of the van der Pauw relationship derived from electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2011-08-01

    In an earlier paper, this author, along with two others Weiss et al. (2008) [1], demonstrated that the original van der Pauw relationship could be derived from three-dimensional electrostatics, as opposed to van der Pauw's use of conformal mapping. The earlier derivation was done for a conducting material of rectangular cross section with contacts placed at the corners. Presented here is a generalization of the previous work involving a square sample and a square array of electrodes that are not confined to the corners, since this measurement configuration could be a more convenient one. As in the previous work, the effects of non-zero sample thickness and contact size have been investigated. Buehler and Thurber derived a similar relationship using an infinite series of current images on a large and thin conducting sheet to satisfy the conditions at the boundary of the sample. The results presented here agree with theirs numerically, but analytic agreement could not be shown using any of the perused mathematical literature. By simply equating the two solutions, it appears that, as a byproduct of this work, a new mathematical relationship has been uncovered. Finally, the application of this methodology to the Hall Effect is discussed.

  12. van der Waals epitaxy of Ge films on mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, A. J.; Xiang, Y.; Rauch, E.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2017-11-01

    To date, many materials have been successfully grown on substrates through van der Waals epitaxy without adhering to the constraint of lattice matching as is required for traditional chemical epitaxy. However, for elemental semiconductors such as Ge, this has been challenging and therefore it has not been achieved thus far. In this paper, we report the observation of Ge epitaxially grown on mica at a narrow substrate temperature range around 425 °C. Despite the large lattice mismatch (23%) and the lack of high in-plane symmetry in the mica surface, an epitaxial Ge film with [111] out-of-plane orientation is observed. Crystallinity and electrical properties degrade upon deviation from the ideal growth temperature, as shown by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall effect measurements. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals that there exist multiple rotational domains in the epitaxial Ge film with dominant in-plane orientations between Ge [" separators="|1 ¯10 ] and mica[100] of (20 n )°, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A superlattice area mismatch model was used to account for the likelihood of the in-plane orientation formation and was found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed dominant orientations. Our observation of Ge epitaxy with one out-of-plane growth direction through van der Waals forces is a step toward the growth of single crystal Ge films without the constraint in the lattice and symmetry matches with the substrates.

  13. Interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ashish; Drüppel, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Deilmann, Thorsten; Schneider, Robert; Molas, Maciej R; Marauhn, Philipp; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Potemski, Marek; Rohlfing, Michael; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-21

    Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers. By combining high-field magneto-reflectance experiments and ab initio calculations for 2H-MoTe 2 , we explain their salient features: the positive sign of the g-factor and the large diamagnetic shift. Our investigations solve the long-standing puzzle of positive g-factors in transition metal dichalcogenides, and pave the way for studying collective phenomena in these materials at elevated temperatures.Excitons, quasi-particles of bound electron-hole pairs, are at the core of the optoelectronic properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, the authors unveil the presence of interlayer excitons in bulk van der Waals semiconductors, arising from strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers.

  14. Observing Imperfection in Atomic Interfaces for van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Aidan P; Kozikov, Aleksey; Rudenko, Alexander N; Prestat, Eric; Hamer, Matthew J; Withers, Freddie; Cao, Yang; Novoselov, Kostya S; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Gorbachev, Roman; Haigh, Sarah J

    2017-09-13

    Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures are a lucrative platform for exploring the rich electronic and optoelectronic phenomena in two-dimensional materials. Their performance will be strongly affected by impurities and defects at the interfaces. Here we present the first systematic study of interfaces in van der Waals heterostructure using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. By measuring interlayer separations and comparing these to density functional theory (DFT) calculations we find that pristine interfaces exist between hBN and MoS 2 or WS 2 for stacks prepared by mechanical exfoliation in air. However, for two technologically important transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) systems, MoSe 2 and WSe 2 , our measurement of interlayer separations provide the first evidence for impurity species being trapped at buried interfaces with hBN interfaces that are flat at the nanometer length scale. While decreasing the thickness of encapsulated WSe 2 from bulk to monolayer we see a systematic increase in the interlayer separation. We attribute these differences to the thinnest TMDC flakes being flexible and hence able to deform mechanically around a sparse population of protruding interfacial impurities. We show that the air sensitive two-dimensional (2D) crystal NbSe 2 can be fabricated into heterostructures with pristine interfaces by processing in an inert-gas environment. Finally we find that adopting glovebox transfer significantly improves the quality of interfaces for WSe 2 compared to processing in air.

  15. Earthquake prediction evaluation standards applied to the VAN Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.

    Earthquake prediction research must meet certain standards before it can be suitably evaluated for potential application in decision making. For methods that result in a binary (on or off) alarm condition, requirements include (1) a quantitative description of observables that trigger an alarm, (2) a quantitative description, including ranges of time, location, and magnitude, of the predicted earthquakes, (3) documented evidence of all previous alarms, (4) a complete list of predicted earthquakes, (5) a complete list of unpredicted earthquakes. The VAN technique [Varotsos and Lazaridou, 1991; Varotsos et al., 1996] has not yet been stated as a testable hypothesis. It fails criteria (1) and (2) so it is not ready to be evaluated properly. Although telegrams were transmitted in advance of claimed successes, these telegrams did not fully specify the predicted events, and all of the published statistical evaluations involve many subjective ex post facto decisions. Lacking a statistically demonstrated relationship to earthquakes, a candidate prediction technique should satisfy several plausibility criteria, including: (1) a reasonable relationship between the location of the candidate precursor and that of the predicted earthquake, (2) some demonstration that the candidate precursory observations are related to stress, strain, or other quantities related to earthquakes, and (3) the existence of co-seismic as well as pre-seismic variations of the candidate precursor. The VAN technique meets none of these criteria.

  16. Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998).

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Michael; Nelson, Leif D; Ackermann, Evi; Aczel, Balazs; Akhtar, Athfah; Aldrovandi, Silvio; Alshaif, Nasseem; Andringa, Ronald; Aveyard, Mark; Babincak, Peter; Balatekin, Nursena; Baldwin, Scott A; Banik, Gabriel; Baskin, Ernest; Bell, Raoul; Białobrzeska, Olga; Birt, Angie R; Boot, Walter R; Braithwaite, Scott R; Briggs, Jessie C; Buchner, Axel; Budd, Desiree; Budzik, Kathryn; Bullens, Lottie; Bulley, Richard L; Cannon, Peter R; Cantarero, Katarzyna; Cesario, Joseph; Chambers, Stephanie; Chartier, Christopher R; Chekroun, Peggy; Chong, Clara; Cleeremans, Axel; Coary, Sean P; Coulthard, Jacob; Cramwinckel, Florien M; Denson, Thomas F; Díaz-Lago, Marcos; DiDonato, Theresa E; Drummond, Aaron; Eberlen, Julia; Ebersbach, Titus; Edlund, John E; Finnigan, Katherine M; Fisher, Justin; Frankowska, Natalia; García-Sánchez, Efraín; Golom, Frank D; Graves, Andrew J; Greenberg, Kevin; Hanioti, Mando; Hansen, Heather A; Harder, Jenna A; Harrell, Erin R; Hartanto, Andree; Inzlicht, Michael; Johnson, David J; Karpinski, Andrew; Keller, Victor N; Klein, Olivier; Koppel, Lina; Krahmer, Emiel; Lantian, Anthony; Larson, Michael J; Légal, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Richard E; Lynott, Dermot; Magaldino, Corey M; Massar, Karlijn; McBee, Matthew T; McLatchie, Neil; Melia, Nadhilla; Mensink, Michael C; Mieth, Laura; Moore-Berg, Samantha; Neeser, Geraldine; Newell, Ben R; Noordewier, Marret K; Ali Özdoğru, Asil; Pantazi, Myrto; Parzuchowski, Michał; Peters, Kim; Philipp, Michael C; Pollmann, Monique M H; Rentzelas, Panagiotis; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Philipp Röer, Jan; Ropovik, Ivan; Roque, Nelson A; Rueda, Carolina; Rutjens, Bastiaan T; Sackett, Katey; Salamon, Janos; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ángel; Saunders, Blair; Schaafsma, Juliette; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Shanks, David R; Sherman, Martin F; Steele, Kenneth M; Steffens, Niklas K; Sun, Jessie; Susa, Kyle J; Szaszi, Barnabas; Szollosi, Aba; Tamayo, Ricardo M; Tinghög, Gustav; Tong, Yuk-Yue; Tweten, Carol; Vadillo, Miguel A; Valcarcel, Deisy; Van der Linden, Nicolas; van Elk, Michiel; van Harreveld, Frenk; Västfjäll, Daniel; Vazire, Simine; Verduyn, Philippe; Williams, Matt N; Willis, Guillermo B; Wood, Sarah E; Yang, Chunliang; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Zheng, Robert; Zrubka, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence ("professor") subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence ("soccer hooligans"). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%), but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multilab Registered Replication Report. A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, and 23 of these laboratories met all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic results for those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493), which tested whether performance on a 30-item general-knowledge trivia task differed between these two priming conditions (results of supplementary analyses of the data from all 40 labs, N = 6,454, are also reported). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with the "professor" category and those primed with the "hooligan" category (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.

  17. Geologic environment of the Van Norman Reservoirs area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Bonilla, M.G.; Youd, T.L.; Sims, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    The upper and lower Van Norman dams, in northwesternmost San Fernando Valley about 20 mi (32 km) northwest of downtown Los Angeles, were severely damaged during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. An investigation of the geologic-seismologic setting of the Van Norman area indicates that an earthquake of at least M 7.7 may be expected in the Van Norman area. The expectable transitory effects in the Van Norman area of such an earthquake are as follows: peak horizontal acceleration of at least 1.15 g, peak velocity of displacement of 4.43 ft/sec (135 cm/sec), peak displacement of 2.3 ft (70 cm), and duration of shaking at accelerations greater than 0.05 g, 40 sec. A great earthquake (M 8+) on the San Andreas fault, 25 mi distant, also is expectable. Transitory effects in the Van Norman area from such an earthquake are estimated as follows: peak horizontal acceleration of 0.5 g, peak velocity of 1.97 ft/sec (60 cm/sec), displacement of 1.31 ft (40 cm), and duration of shaking at accelerations greater than 0.05 g, 80 sec. The permanent effects of the expectable local earthquake could include simultaneous fault movement at the lower damsite, the upper damsite, and the site proposed for a replacement dam halfway between the upper and lower dams. The maximum differential displacements due to such movements are estimated at 16.4 ft (5 m) at the lower damsite and about 9.6 ft (2.93 m) at the upper and proposed damsites. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake (M 6?) was accompanied by the most intense ground motions ever recorded instrumentally for a natural earthquake. At the lower Van Norman dam, horizontal accelerations exceeded 0.6 g, and shaking greater than 0.25 g lasted for about 13 see; at Pacoima dam, 6 mi (10 km) northeast of the lower dam, high-frequency peak horizontal accelerations of 1.25 g were recorded in two directions, and shaking greater than 0.25 g lasted for about 7 sec. Permanent effects of the earthquake include slope failures in the embankments of the upper

  18. Effectiveness of autism training programme: An example from Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eray, Safak; Murat, Duygu

    2017-11-01

    To determine the knowledge and attitudes of family practitioners before and after their participation in a training programme. The study was conducted at Van Training and Research Hospital, Van, Turkey, from December 1to 15, 2016, and comprised family practitioners. Before the training, the practitioners were asked to fill out a questionnaire that was prepared by the researchers. Subsequently, the training course was presented by the child and adolescent psychiatrists. After the training, participants were asked to fill out the same questionnaire again. The results of survey were compared before and after training. Data was evaluated using SPSS 22.Descriptive analyses were used and baseline characteristics were compared between groups using McNemar's test and paired t-test. Of the 79 family practitioners who filled out the questionnaire,75(94.9%) were included. The mean age of the practitioners was 28.2±11.63, with 40(53%) being females. Moreover,26(34.7%) participants thought that they had sufficient information regarding autism spectrum disorder before training, and this number increased to 66(88%) after training. There was a significant difference between pre-training and post-training scores of the questionnaire (p<0.001). There was a deficiency in knowledge about autism symptoms, aetiology, prevalence and treatment among family practitioners. .

  19. Upscaled soil-water retention using van Genuchten's function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, T.R.; Constantz, J.E.; Freyberg, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Soils are often layered at scales smaller than the block size used in numerical and conceptual models of variably saturated flow. Consequently, the small-scale variability in water content within each block must be homogenized (upscaled). Laboratory results have shown that a linear volume average (LVA) of water content at a uniform suction is a good approximation to measured water contents in heterogeneous cores. Here, we upscale water contents using van Genuchten's function for both the local and upscaled soil-water-retention characteristics. The van Genuchten (vG) function compares favorably with LVA results, laboratory experiments under hydrostatic conditions in 3-cm cores, and numerical simulations of large-scale gravity drainage. Our method yields upscaled vG parameter values by fitting the vG curve to the LVA of water contents at various suction values. In practice, it is more efficient to compute direct averages of the local vG parameter values. Nonlinear power averages quantify a feasible range of values for each upscaled vG shape parameter; upscaled values of N are consistently less than the harmonic means, reflecting broad pore-size distributions of the upscaled soils. The vG function is useful for modeling soil-water retention at large scales, and these results provide guidance for its application.

  20. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  1. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  2. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  3. VAN method of short-term earthquake prediction shows promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya

    Although optimism prevailed in the 1970s, the present consensus on earthquake prediction appears to be quite pessimistic. However, short-term prediction based on geoelectric potential monitoring has stood the test of time in Greece for more than a decade [VarotsosandKulhanek, 1993] Lighthill, 1996]. The method used is called the VAN method.The geoelectric potential changes constantly due to causes such as magnetotelluric effects, lightning, rainfall, leakage from manmade sources, and electrochemical instabilities of electrodes. All of this noise must be eliminated before preseismic signals are identified, if they exist at all. The VAN group apparently accomplished this task for the first time. They installed multiple short (100-200m) dipoles with different lengths in both north-south and east-west directions and long (1-10 km) dipoles in appropriate orientations at their stations (one of their mega-stations, Ioannina, for example, now has 137 dipoles in operation) and found that practically all of the noise could be eliminated by applying a set of criteria to the data.

  4. Evaluation of van der Waals density functionals for layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Gould, Tim; Stampfl, Catherine; Ford, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, Björkman et al. posed the question "Are we van der Waals ready?" [T. Björkman et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 424218 (2012), 10.1088/0953-8984/24/42/424218] about the ability of ab initio modeling to reproduce van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces in layered materials. The answer at that time was no, however. Here we report on a new generation of vdW dispersion models and show that one, i.e., the fractionally ionic atom theory with many-body dispersions, offers close to quantitative predictions for layered structures. Furthermore, it does so from a qualitatively correct picture of dispersion forces. Other methods, such as D3 and optB88vdW, also work well, albeit with some exceptions. We thus argue that we are nearly vdW ready and that some modern dispersion methods are accurate enough to be used for nanomaterial prediction, albeit with some caution required.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of condensed van der Waals Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; Kim, Jeongnim; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.

    2012-02-01

    Van der Waals forces are as ubiquitous as infamous. While post-Hartree-Fock methods enable accurate estimates of these forces in molecules and clusters, they remain elusive for dealing with many-electron condensed phase systems. We present Quantum Monte Carlo [1,2] results for condensed van der Waals systems. Interatomic many-body contributions to cohesive energies and bulk modulus will be discussed. Numerical evidence is presented for crystals of rare gas atoms, and compared to experiments and methods [3]. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DoE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.[4pt] [1] J. Kim, K. Esler, J. McMinis and D. Ceperley, SciDAC 2010, J. of Physics: Conference series, Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 11 2011 [0pt] [2] QMCPACK simulation suite, http://qmcpack.cmscc.org (unpublished)[0pt] [3] O. A. von Lillienfeld and A. Tkatchenko, J. Chem. Phys. 132 234109 (2010)

  6. Molecular Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis N06-0364 with Low-Level Vancomycin Resistance Harboring a Novel d-Ala-d-Ser Gene Cluster, vanL▿

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, David A.; Willey, Barbara M.; Fawcett, Darlene; Gillani, Nazira; Mulvey, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis N06-0364, exhibiting a vancomycin MIC of 8 μg/ml, was found to harbor a novel d-Ala-d-Ser gene cluster, designated vanL. The vanL gene cluster was similar in organization to the vanC operon, but the VanT serine racemase was encoded by two separate genes, vanTmL (membrane binding) and vanTrL (racemase). PMID:18458129

  7. Job Oriented Training: Onderwijskundige Grondslag en Onderbouwing (Job Oriented Training: Foundation and Empirical Support)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    die binmen defensie tot aanzien van de effecten van JOT onderwijs met het nieuwe leren terug te dan toe in gebruik waren bij het theorie - voeren is op...problemen in de uitvoerings- onderwijs; toepassing van JOT impliceerde Grondslag praktijk van datzeltde regulier onderwijs. dat er geen theorie meer...het rechte eind Opdrachtnummer Datum PROGRAMMA PROJECT juli 2008 Program mabegeleider Projectbegeleider Auteur (s) IkolP.M.. Bonen,dr. A.H. van der

  8. Testing the dynamic rollover resistance of two 15-passenger vans with multiple load configurations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-06-01

    As a consequence of NTSB Safety Recommendations H-02-26 and H-02-28, NHTSA performed a study to investigate the effects different load conditions may have on the dynamic rollover resistance of 15-passenger vans. The two vans used in this study, a 200...

  9. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  10. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  11. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  12. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  13. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or less...

  14. Early Childhood Matters: The Bulletin of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smale, Jim, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the three 1999 issues of The Bernard van Leer Foundation's "Early Childhood Matters." This periodical, addressed to practitioners in the field of early childhood education, evolved from an in-house publication directed to projects funded by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. Articles in the February 1999 edition…

  15. Early Childhood Matters: The Bulletin of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smale, Jim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three 1998 issues of The Bernard van Leer Foundations'"Early Childhood Matters." This periodical, addressed to practitioners in the field of early childhood development, evolved from an in-house publication directed to projects funded by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. Articles in the February 1998 edition…

  16. The Educational Thought of Cornelius Van Til: Philosophical Foundations of the Contemporary Christian School Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffet, Gregory J.; Dye, Charles M.

    This paper gives an account of the thoughts of Cornelius Van Til on the contemporary Christian school movement. An account of the historical development of Christian compromise is given, followed by a critique of the compromise among contemporary Christian educators. Van Til claims that any educational position which falls short of being founded…

  17. Early Childhood Matters: The Bulletin of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smale, Jim, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2000 issues of The Bernard van Leer Foundation's "Early Childhood Matters." This periodical, addressed to practitioners in the field of early childhood education, evolved from an in-house publication directed to projects funded by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. Articles in the February 2000 edition…

  18. Community Music during the New Deal: The Contributions of Willem Van de Wall and Max Kaplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krikun, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…

  19. Martin Van Buren's "Return to the Soil." Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Register of Historic Places, Washington, DC. Interagency Resources Div.

    Using primary documents, maps, and visual data, this lesson packet focuses on Martin Van Buren and his retirement home, Lindenwald, which is on the National Register of Historic Places. The lesson materials compliment classroom study of early 19th century politics by tracing the life of Martin Van Buren and his role in the Jacksonian Era. Included…

  20. The Effect of Designed Geometry Teaching Lesson to the Candidate Teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli; Koparan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how designed Geometry Teaching Lesson affects candidate teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels. For that purpose, 14 weeks long study was performed with 44 candidate teachers who were university students in Turkey. Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Test was applied to candidate teachers before and after…

  1. Unconscious Odour Conditioning 25 Years Later: Revisiting and Extending "Kirk-Smith, Van Toller and Dodd"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucco, Gesualdo M.; Paolini, Michela; Schaal, Benoist

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering work by Kirk-Smith, Van Toller, and Dodd [Kirk-Smith, M. D., Van Toller, C., & Dodd, G. H. (1983). "Unconscious odour conditioning in human subjects." "Biological Psychology," 17, 221-231], established that an unnoticed odorant paired with an emotionally meaningful task can influence mood and attitudes when the odorant alone is…

  2. Cylinders and Seances: Elise van Calcar and the Spirit of Froebel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (1822-1904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and of "messages" from spirits in the…

  3. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  4. Willem van de Wall: Organizer and Innovator in Music Education and Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Heller, George N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Willem van de Wall's historically significant contributions to seminal literature on music therapy and the influence of music on behavior. Reviews van de Wall's early writings, at his work on music for children, and on music in institutions. Cites his "Music in Hospitals" as the culmination of his work in music therapy, music…

  5. REMOTE LAND MINE(FIELD) DETECTION. An Overview of Techniques (DETECTIE VAN LANDMIJNEN EN MIJNENVELDEN OP AFSTAND. Een Overzicht van de technieken),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    titel DETECTIE VAN LANDMIJNEN EN MIJNENVELDEN OP AFSTAND, een overzicht van de technieken auteur (s) Drs. J.S. Groot, Ir. Y.H.L. Janssen datum september...functions based on set theory . The fundamental theory is developed in the sixties. This theory was applicable to binary images (black-and-white images...held at TNO-FEL. Various subjects related to fusion techniques: Dempster Shafer theory , Bayesian inference, Kalman filtering, fuzzy logic. [A15], [B4

  6. Emergence of vanA Enterococcus faecium in Denmark, 2005-15.

    PubMed

    Hammerum, Anette M; Baig, Sharmin; Kamel, Yasmin; Roer, Louise; Pinholt, Mette; Gumpert, Heidi; Holzknecht, Barbara; Røder, Bent; Justesen, Ulrik S; Samulioniené, Jurgita; Kjærsgaard, Mona; Østergaard, Claus; Holm, Anette; Dzajic, Esad; Søndergaard, Turid Snekloth; Gaini, Shahin; Edquist, Petra; Alm, Erik; Lilje, Berit; Westh, Henrik; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    To describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in Denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical E. faecium isolates from 2015. During 2005-14, all clinical VRE isolates were tested for the presence of vanA/B/C genes by PCR. In 2015, all clinical VRE isolates were whole-genome sequenced. From the WGS data, the presence of van genes and MLST STs were extracted in silico . Core-genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis was performed for the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates. During 2005-15, 1043 vanA E. faecium , 25 vanB E. faecium , 4 vanA E. faecalis and 28 vanB E. faecalis were detected. The number of VRE was <50 isolates/year until 2012 to > 200 isolates/year in 2013-15. In 2015, 368 vanA E. faecium and 1 vanB E. faecium were detected along with 1 vanA E. faecalis and 1 vanB E. faecalis . cgMLST subdivided the 368 vanA E. faecium isolates into 33 cluster types (CTs), whereas the vanB E. faecium isolate belonged to a different CT. ST203-CT859 was most prevalent (51%), followed by ST80-CT14 (22%), ST117-CT24 (6%), ST80-CT866 (4%) and ST80-CT860 (2%). Comparison with the cgMLST.org database, previous studies and personal communications with neighbouring countries revealed that the novel cluster ST203-CT859 emerged in December 2014 and spread to the south of Sweden and the Faroe Islands during 2015. VRE increased in Denmark during 2005-15 due to the emergence of several vanA E. faecium clones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A New Method for Suppressing Periodic Narrowband Interference Based on the Chaotic van der Pol Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Hao

    The chaotic van der Pol oscillator is a powerful tool for detecting defects in electric systems by using online partial discharge (PD) monitoring. This paper focuses on realizing weak PD signal detection in the strong periodic narrowband interference by using high sensitivity to the periodic narrowband interference signals and immunity to white noise and PD signals of chaotic systems. A new approach to removing the periodic narrowband interference by using a van der Pol chaotic oscillator is described by analyzing the motion characteristic of the chaotic oscillator on the basis of the van der Pol equation. Furthermore, the Floquet index for measuring the amplitude of periodic narrowband signals is redefined. The denoising signal processed by the chaotic van der Pol oscillators is further processed by wavelet analysis. Finally, the denoising results verify that the periodic narrowband and white noise interference can be removed efficiently by combining the theory of the chaotic van der Pol oscillator and wavelet analysis.

  8. Implication of Two-Coupled Differential Van der Pol Duffing Oscillator in Weak Signal Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hang-hang; Xu, Xue-mei; Yang, Bing-chu; Yin, Lin-zi

    2016-04-01

    The principle of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator for state transition and for determining critical value is described, which has been studied to indicate that the application of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator in weak signal detection is feasible. On the basis of this principle, an improved two-coupled differential Van der Pol Duffing oscillator is proposed which can identify signals under any frequency and ameliorate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analytical methods of the proposed model and the construction of the proposed oscillator are introduced in detail. Numerical experiments on the properties of the proposed oscillator compared with those of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator are carried out. Our numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical treatment. The results demonstrate that this novel oscillator has better detection performance than the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator.

  9. Novel type of VanB2 teicoplanin-resistant hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Santona, Antonella; Paglietti, Bianca; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Senok, Abiola; Deligios, Massimo; Rubino, Salvatore; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2014-08-01

    Seven high-risk clones of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) belonging to clonal complex 17 were identified using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) among clinical isolates from Saudi Arabia. Among these isolates, a new hospital-associated sequence type (ST795), VanB(2)-type teicoplanin-resistant strain was detected. Its unusual phenotype resulted from a new combination of mutations in the ddl, vanS and vanW genes, which confirmed the trend of evolution in VanB-type resistance. Furthermore, characteristics of adaptation and persistence in the hospital environment of ST795 were emphasised by the presence of genes and clusters recognised to be specific for hospital-associated VREF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterologous expression of glycopeptide resistance vanHAX gene clusters from soil bacteria in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Guardabassi, Luca

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether glycopeptide resistance gene clusters from soil bacteria could be heterologously expressed in Enterococcus faecalis and adapt to the new host following exposure to vancomycin. The vanHAX clusters from Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1, Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B and Amycolatopsis coloradensis DSM 44225 were separately cloned in an appropriately constructed shuttle vector containing the two-component regulatory system (vanRS) of Tn1546. The complete vanA(PT) operon (vanRSHAXY) from P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 was cloned in the same shuttle vector lacking enterococcal vanRS. All plasmid constructs were electroporated into E. faecalis JH2-2 and the MICs of vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined for each recombinant strain before and following exposure to sublethal concentrations of vancomycin. The vanHAX clusters from P. thiaminolyticus and P. apiarius conferred high-level vancomycin resistance (MIC > or = 125 mg/L) in E. faecalis JH2-2. In contrast, cloning of the vanHAX cluster from A. coloradensis did not result in a significant increase of vancomycin resistance (MIC = 0.7 mg/L). Resistance to vancomycin was not observed after cloning the complete vanA(PT) operon from P. thiaminolyticus (MIC = 2 mg/L), but this recombinant rapidly adapted to high concentrations of vancomycin (MIC = 500 mg/L) following exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of this antibiotic. The results showed that vanA(PT) in P. thiaminolyticus is a possible ancestor of vanA-mediated glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Experimental evidence supported the hypothesis that enterococci did not acquire glycopeptide resistance directly from glycopeptide-producing organisms such as A. coloradensis.

  11. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Functional Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Hao

    In the diligent pursuit of low-power consumption, multifunctional, and environmentally friendly electronics, more sophisticated requirements on functional materials are on demand. Recently, the discovery of 2D layered materials has created a revolution to this field. Pioneered by graphene, these new 2D materials exhibit abundant unusual physical phenomena that is undiscovered in bulk forms. These materials are characterized with their layer form and almost pure 2D electronic behavior. The confinement of charge and heat transport at such ultrathin planes offers possibilities to overcome the bottleneck of present device development in thickness limitation, and thus push the technologies into next generation. Van der Waals epitaxy, an epitaxial growth method to combine 2D and 3D materials, is one of current reliable manufacturing processes to fabricate 2D materials by growing these 2D materials epitaxially on 3D materials. Then, transferring the 2D materials to the substrates for practical applications. In the mean time, van der Waals epitaxy has also been used to create free-standing 3D materials by growing 3D materials on 2D materials and then removing them from 2D materials since the interfacial boding between 2D and 3D materials should be weak van der Waals bonds. In this study, we intend to take the same concept, but to integrate a family of functional materials in order to open new avenue to flexible electronics. Due to the interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom, correlated electrons in oxides generate a rich spectrum of competing phases and physical properties. Recently, lots of studies have suggested that oxide heterostructures provide a powerful route to create and manipulate the degrees of freedom and offer new possibilities for next generation devices, thus create a new playground for researchers to investigate novel physics and the emergence of fascinating states of condensed matter. In this talk, we use a 2D layered material as

  12. Cosmology with an interacting van der Waals fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, E.; Khurshudyan, M.

    A model for the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe is considered where a van der Waals fluid interacting with matter plays the role of dark energy. The transition towards this phase in the cosmic evolution history is discussed in detail and, moreover, a complete classification of the future finite-time singularities is obtained for six different possible forms of the nongravitational interaction between dark energy (the van der Waals fluid) and dark matter. This study shows, in particular, that a Universe with a noninteracting three-parameter van der Waals fluid can evolve into a Universe characterized by a type IV (generalized sudden) singularity. On the other hand, for certain values of the parameters, exit from the accelerated expanding phase is possible in the near future, what means that the expansion of the Universe in the future could become decelerated - to our knowledge, this interesting situation is not commonplace in the literature. On the other hand, our study shows that space can be divided into different regions. For some of them, in particular, the nongravitational interactions Q = 3Hbρde, Q = 3Hbρdm and Q = 3Hb(ρde + ρde) may completely suppress future finite-time singularity formation, for sufficiently high values of b. On the other hand, for some other regions of the parameter space, the mentioned interactions would not affect the singularity type, namely the type IV singularity generated in the case of the noninteracting model would be preserved. A similar conclusion has been archived for the cases of Q = 3bHρdeρdm/(ρde + ρdm), Q = 3bHρdm2/(ρ de + ρdm) and Q = 3bHρde2/(ρ de + ρdm) nongravitational interactions, with only one difference: the Q = 3bHρdm2/(ρ de + ρdm) interaction will change the type IV singularity of the noninteracting model into a type II (the sudden) singularity.

  13. Fast Determination of the Element Excitation of an Active Phased Array Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    elementenexcitatie te, bepalen: de amplitude en fase van het elektrische ven-e veld moeten gemeten warden in slechts I richting in het verre veld van de ...Page 3 rapport no FEL-91-BO38 titel Een snelle bepaling van de excitatie van de elenienten van cen actieve phased array antenne auteur(s) I. J.G. van...van der Spek Onderzoek uItgevoerd door Ir. J.G. van Hezewijk SAMENVATIING (ONGERUBRICEERD) Het verre veld stralingsdiagram van een actieve phased array

  14. Investigating the Effect of van Hiele Phase-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armah, Robert Benjamin; Cofie, Primrose Otokonor; Okpoti, Christopher Adjei

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of van Hiele Phase-based Instruction (VHPI) on Ghanaian Pre-service Teachers' (PTs') geometric thinking in terms of the van Hiele Levels. A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design was employed. There were 75 PTs each in the experimental group and the control group. Van Hiele Geometry Test (VHGT) was…

  15. 77 FR 44683 - Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, IZOD Dress Furnishings Division, New York, NY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, IZOD Women... Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, IZOD Women's Wholesale Division, New York, New York has not increased. In... Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, IZOD Women's Wholesale Division, New York, New York) was incorrect, that...

  16. 78 FR 47817 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Van Hool N...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ....V. and Coach USA AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... exemption from Van Hool N.V. and Coach USA (Van Hool/Coach USA) to allow the use of double deck motorcoaches..., Van Hool/Coach USA is requesting an exemption that would allow the use of sleeper berths that comply...

  17. The first report of the vanC₁ gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhongju; Zhu, Xuhui; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ziyong

    2014-09-01

    The vanC₁ gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC₁gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC₁ and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC₁ gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC₁gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC₁gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC₁gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC₁gene from different species.

  18. Energetic Proton Spectra Measured by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark J.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    2017-10-01

    We test the hypothesis that pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during 17-20 March 2013 and 17-20 March 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE-B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with self-limiting by EMIC wave scattering.

  19. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wardle, Kent E.; Quigley, K. J.

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O 2 + H 2) data were collected.more » The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.« less

  20. Ion spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades several missions have recorded the presence of dynamic spectral features of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. Previous studies have reported single "nose-like" structures occurring alone and simultaneous nose-like structures (up to three). These ion structures are named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. They constitute the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. The HOPE mass spectrometer onboard the Van Allen Probes measures energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet, where these ion structures are observed. We present a statistical study of nose-like structures, using 2-years measurements from the HOPE instrument. The results provide important details about the spatial distribution (dependence on geocentric distance), spectral features of the structures (differences among species), and geomagnetic conditions under which these structures occur.

  1. van der Waals Heterostructures with High Accuracy Rotational Alignment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyounghwan; Yankowitz, Matthew; Fallahazad, Babak; Kang, Sangwoo; Movva, Hema C P; Huang, Shengqiang; Larentis, Stefano; Corbet, Chris M; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K; LeRoy, Brian J; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-03-09

    We describe the realization of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures with accurate rotational alignment of individual layer crystal axes. We illustrate the approach by demonstrating a Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene formed using successive transfers of monolayer graphene flakes. The Raman spectra of this artificial bilayer graphene possess a wide 2D band, which is best fit by four Lorentzians, consistent with Bernal stacking. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals no moiré pattern on the artificial bilayer graphene, and tunneling spectroscopy as a function of gate voltage reveals a constant density of states, also in agreement with Bernal stacking. In addition, electron transport probed in dual-gated samples reveals a band gap opening as a function of transverse electric field. To illustrate the applicability of this technique to realize vdW heterostructuctures in which the functionality is critically dependent on rotational alignment, we demonstrate resonant tunneling double bilayer graphene heterostructures separated by hexagonal boron-nitride dielectric.

  2. The Van Sant AVHRR image projected onto a rhombicosidodecahedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Michael; Morain, Stan

    1996-03-01

    IDEATION, a design and development corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico, has modeled Tom Van Sant's ``The Earth From Space'' image to a rhombicosidodecahedron. ``The Earth from Space'' image, produced by the Geosphere® Project in Santa Monica, California, was developed from hundreds of AVHRR pictures and published as a Mercator projection. IDEATION, utilizing a digitized Robinson Projection, fitted the image to foldable, paper components which, when interconnected by means of a unique tabular system, results in a rhombicosidodecahedron representation of the Earth exposing 30 square, 20 triangular, and 12 pentagonal faces. Because the resulting model is not spherical, the borders of the represented features were rectified to match the intersecting planes of the model's faces. The resulting product will be licensed and commercially produced for use by elementary and secondary students. Market research indicates the model will be used in both the demonstration of geometric principles and the teaching of fundamental spatial relations of the Earth's lands and oceans.

  3. Van Wyk Grumbach Syndrome: A Rare Consequence of Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pavan; Tiwari, Kritika; Kulkarni, Abhishek; Parikh, Ketan; Khubchandani, Raju

    2018-05-19

    Long standing hypothyroidism presenting as an ovarian mass has been well described in literature as the Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome (hypothyroidism, isosexual precocious puberty and ovarian mass). Here, authors report this entity in a 11 y 7 mo old girl child who was referred to a surgeon in view of intestinal obstruction along with a multiloculated ovarian cyst. On evaluation, she was found to have raised serum creatinine, short stature, delayed bone age and pituitary enlargement. She was diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and was started on replacement therapy with thyroxine, after which the ovarian cysts regressed. This entity should be kept in mind in cases of ovarian cysts, especially those with isosexual precocity, to prevent unnecessary evaluation and surgical misadventures.

  4. Infrared hyperbolic metasurface based on nanostructured van der Waals materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peining; Dolado, Irene; Alfaro-Mozaz, Francisco Javier; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.; Liu, Song; Edgar, James H.; Nikitin, Alexey Y.; Vélez, Saül; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    Metasurfaces with strongly anisotropic optical properties can support deep subwavelength-scale confined electromagnetic waves (polaritons), which promise opportunities for controlling light in photonic and optoelectronic applications. We developed a mid-infrared hyperbolic metasurface by nanostructuring a thin layer of hexagonal boron nitride that supports deep subwavelength-scale phonon polaritons that propagate with in-plane hyperbolic dispersion. By applying an infrared nanoimaging technique, we visualize the concave (anomalous) wavefronts of a diverging polariton beam, which represent a landmark feature of hyperbolic polaritons. The results illustrate how near-field microscopy can be applied to reveal the exotic wavefronts of polaritons in anisotropic materials and demonstrate that nanostructured van der Waals materials can form a highly variable and compact platform for hyperbolic infrared metasurface devices and circuits.

  5. NASA's Van Allen Probes Discover a Surprise Circling Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On Aug. 31, 2012, a giant prominence on the sun erupted, sending out particles and a shock wave that traveled near Earth. This event may have been one of the causes of a third radiation belt that appeared around Earth a few days later, a phenomenon that was observed for the very first time by the newly-launched Van Allen Probes. This image of the prominence before it erupted was captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Credit: NASA/SDO/AIA/Goddard Space Flight Center To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/rbsp/news/third-belt.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Van Allen Probe Charging During the St. Patrick's Day Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    The geomagnetic storms on and around March 17, 2015 marked the largest storms seen in the declining phase of the solar cycle to date. We use the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer on board the Van Allen Probe - A and B satellites to study in detail the charging effects seen on these spacecraft during this time. Ion particle flux data provides information on the magnitude of the charging events using the ion line charging signature due to low energy ions accelerated by the spacecraft potential. Electron flux observations are used to correlate the charging environment with variations in spacecraft potential through the event. We also investigate the density and temperature of ions and electrons during the time of the charging event.

  7. Nonlinearity of resistive impurity effects on van der Pauw measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.

    2006-09-01

    The dependence of van der Pauw resistivity measurements on local macroscopic inhomogeneities is shown to be nonlinear. A resistor grid network models a square laminar specimen, enabling the investigation of both positive and negative local perturbations in resistivity. The effect of inhomogeneity is measured both experimentally, for an 11×11 grid, and computationally, for both 11×11 and 101×101 grids. The maximum "shortlike" perturbation produces 3.1±0.2 times the effect predicted by the linear approximation, regardless of its position within the specimen, while all "openlike" perturbations produce a smaller effect than predicted. An empirical nonlinear correction for f(x ,y) is presented which provides excellent fit over the entire range of both positive and negative perturbations for the entire specimen.

  8. Characterization of rarefaction waves in van der Waals fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Albert; Barnard, John J.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the isentropic evolution of an instantaneously heated foil, assuming a van der Waals equation of state with the Maxwell construction. The analysis by Yuen and Barnard [Phys. Rev. E 92, 033019 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.033019] is extended for the particular case of three degrees of freedom. We assume heating to temperatures in the vicinity of the critical point. The self-similar profiles of the rarefaction waves describing the evolution of the foil display plateaus in density and temperature due to a phase transition from the single-phase to the two-phase regime. The hydrodynamic equations are expressed in a dimensionless form and the solutions form a set of universal curves, depending on a single parameter: the dimensionless initial entropy. We characterize the rarefaction waves by calculating how the plateau length, density, pressure, temperature, velocity, internal energy, and sound speed vary with dimensionless initial entropy.

  9. Engineering Low Dimensional Materials with van der Waals Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials grow into a hot and big field in condensed matter physics in the past decade. One particularly intriguing thing is the possibility to stack different layers together as one wish, like playing a Lego game, which can create artificial structures that do not exist in nature. These new structures can enable rich new physics from interlayer interaction: The interaction is strong, because in low-dimension materials electrons are exposed to the interface and are susceptible to other layers; and the screening of interaction is less prominent. The consequence is rich, not only from the extensive list of two-dimensional materials available nowadays, but also from the freedom of interlayer configuration, such as displacement and twist angle, which creates a gigantic parameter space to play with. On the other hand, however, the huge parameter space sometimes can make it challenging to describe consistently with a single picture. For example, the large periodicity or even incommensurability in van der Waals systems creates difficulty in using periodic boundary condition. Worse still, the huge superlattice unit cell and overwhelming computational efforts involved to some extent prevent the establishment of a simple physical picture to understand the evolution of system properties in the parameter space of interlayer configuration. In the first part of the dissertation, I will focus on classification of the huge parameter space into subspaces, and introduce suitable theoretical approaches for each subspace. For each approach, I will discuss its validity, limitation, general solution, as well as a specific example of application demonstrating how one can obtain the most important effects of interlayer interaction with little computation efforts. Combining all the approaches introduced will provide an analytic solution to cover majority of the parameter space, which will be very helpful in understanding the intuitive physical picture behind

  10. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems.

  11. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems. PMID:28630922

  12. A Scalable Implementation of Van der Waals Density Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Gygi, Francois

    2010-03-01

    Recently developed Van der Waals density functionals[1] offer the promise to account for weak intermolecular interactions that are not described accurately by local exchange-correlation density functionals. In spite of recent progress [2], the computational cost of such calculations remains high. We present a scalable parallel implementation of the functional proposed by Dion et al.[1]. The method is implemented in the Qbox first-principles simulation code (http://eslab.ucdavis.edu/software/qbox). Application to large molecular systems will be presented. [4pt] [1] M. Dion et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004).[0pt] [2] G. Roman-Perez and J. M. Soler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009).

  13. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-12-01

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10-13 s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO2 via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10-12 s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H2O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  14. Splitting of Van Hove singularities in slightly twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Ke-Qin; Yin, Long-Jing; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Yan, Wei; Yang, Xu-Qin; Yang, Jun-Kai; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; He, Lin

    2017-10-01

    A variety of new and interesting electronic properties have been predicted in graphene monolayer doped to Van Hove singularities (VHSs) of its density of state. However, tuning the Fermi energy to reach a VHS of graphene by either gating or chemical doping is prohibitively difficult, owing to their large energy distance (˜3 eV). This difficulty can be easily overcome in twisted bilayer graphene (TBG). By introducing a small twist angle between two adjacent graphene sheets, we are able to generate two low-energy VHSs arbitrarily approaching the Fermi energy. Here, we report experimental studies of electronic properties around the VHSs of a slightly TBG through scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. The split of the VHSs is observed and the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs is directly visualized. These exotic results provide motivation for further theoretical and experimental studies of graphene systems around the VHSs.

  15. Statistical analysis of plasmatrough exohiss waves on Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmatrough exohiss waves have attracted much attention due to their potential important role in dynamics of radiation belt. We investigated three-year Van Allen Probe data and built up an event list of exohiss. The statistical analysis shows exohiss preferentially occurred in dayside at quite time and most wave power focuses on afternoon side of low L region. Consistent with plasmaspheric hiss, the peak frequency is around 200 Hz and wave amplitude decreases with L increasing. Furthermore, the ratios of equatorward Poynting fluxes to poleward Poynting fluxes significantly increase up to 10 times as magnetic latitude increasing up to 20 deg. Those results strong support that the formation of exohiss wave results from hiss leakage, particularly at quite time.

  16. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, John R.; Copley, Alex C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Parsons, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw 7.1 2011 Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9 m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW 40 °–54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10 km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14 km, and the rupture reaching only within 8–9 km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8 km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw 5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  17. High-resolution study of Gamow-Teller transitions in the 47Ti(3He,t)47V reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganioǧlu, E.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Algora, A.; Csatlós, M.; Deaven, J. M.; Estevez-Aguado, E.; Guess, C. J.; Gulyás, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Hirota, K.; Honma, M.; Ishikawa, D.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Matsubara, H.; Meharchand, R.; Molina, F.; Okamura, H.; Ong, H. J.; Otsuka, T.; Perdikakis, G.; Rubio, B.; Scholl, C.; Shimbara, Y.; Susoy, G.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Zenihiro, J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions in nuclear structure and astrophysical nuclear processes, we have studied Tz=+3/2→+1/2, GT transitions starting from the 47Ti nucleus in the (3He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 0∘ and at an intermediate incident energy of 140 MeV/nucleon. The experiments were carried out at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, using the high-resolution facility with a high-dispersion beam line and the Grand-Raiden spectrometer. With an energy resolution of 20 keV, individual GT transitions were observed and GT strength was derived for each state populated up to an excitation energy (Ex) of 12.5 MeV. The GT strength was widely distributed from low excitation energy up to 12.5 MeV, where we had to stop the analysis because of the high level density. The distribution of the GT strengths was compared with the results of shell model calculations using the GXPF1 interaction. The calculations could reproduce the experimental GT distributions well. The GT transitions from the ground state of 47Ti and the M1 transitions from the isobaric analog state in 47V to the same low-lying states in 47V are analogous. It was found that the ratios of GT transition strengths to the ground state, the 0.088-MeV state, and the 0.146-MeV state are similar to the ratios of the strengths of the analogous M1 transitions from the isobaric analog state (IAS) to these states. The measured distribution of the GT strengths was also compared with those starting from the Tz=+3/2 nucleus 41K to the Tz=+1/2 nucleus 41Ca.

  18. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk at Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas: A unique geologic setting

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.; Carrington, D.B.

    1990-09-01

    The Austin Chalk is buried to a depth of only 2,100-2,500 ft and has retained primary microporosity unlike the typical deep fractured chalk reservoirs. The Van structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion and is approximately 2,000 ft higher than surrounding structures in the area. A major northwest-dipping fault acts as the primary trapping mechanism. The field has produced 0.5 billion BO from thick Woodbine sands since its discovery in 1929. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk has been known since the field discovery, but prior completions were low rate oil producers. Recent development ofmore » a large fracture stimulation technique has resulted in increased production rates of up to 300 BOPD. The Austin Chalk reservoir limits were determined by isopaching feet of minimum productive resistivity having porosity above a cutoff value. The resistivity/porosity isopach showed a direct correlation between Austin Chalk productivity and the Austin Chalk structure and faulting pattern. Structural evidence along with oil typing indicate that the oil in the Austin Chalk has migrated upward along fault planes and through fault juxtaposition from the Woodbine sands 200 ft below the Austin Chalk. Thin-section and scanning electron microscopy work performed on conventional cores showed that the Van Austin Chalk formation is a very fine grained limestone composed primarily of coccoliths. Various amounts of detrital illite clay are present in the coccolith matrix. All effective porosity is micro-intergranular and ranges from 15 to 35%. Based on the core analyses, the main porosity reducing agent and therefore control on reservoir quality is the amount of detrital clay present filling the micropores. Permeability is very low with values ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 md. There is no evidence of significant natural fractures in the core. Artificial fractures are therefore required to create the permeability needed to sustain commercial production rates.« less

  19. Computer Simulation of the Effect of Pretreatment with Reversible Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on the Protection Against Soman Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    dr. U.A. Th. Brinkmnan 31* Directeur van het Medisch Biologisch Laboratorium TNO Prof. dr. W.R.F. Notten 32 PML-TNO, Directeur; daarna reserve 33 PML...Generaal Personeel Ministerie van Defensie 8* Adviseur van het Prins Maurits Laboratorium TNO Chemnische Research Prof. dr. G. Dijkstra 9* lid van de

  20. Representation of Research Paradigms as a Function of Familiarity with Research Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    van de paradigma’s te kunnen vaststellen. Keuze van het Juiste paradigma werd bepaald door proefpersonen te vragen de betreffende zin te classificeren...als afkomstig van een bepaaid type onderzoek. De innoud van het paradigma werd bepaald door proefpersonen te, vragen zoveel kenmerken voor bet

  1. Quantum synchronization of quantum van der Pol oscillators with trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tony E; Sadeghpour, H R

    2013-12-06

    The van der Pol oscillator is the prototypical self-sustained oscillator and has been used to model nonlinear behavior in biological and other classical processes. We investigate how quantum fluctuations affect phase locking of one or many van der Pol oscillators. We find that phase locking is much more robust in the quantum model than in the equivalent classical model. Trapped-ion experiments are ideally suited to simulate van der Pol oscillators in the quantum regime via sideband heating and cooling of motional modes. We provide realistic experimental parameters for 171Yb+ achievable with current technology.

  2. Dynamical property analysis of fractionally damped van der pol oscillator and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiuhui; Zhang, Chunrui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was studied. Firstly, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was transformed into a set of integer order equations. Then the Lyapunov exponents diagram was given. Secondly, it was transformed into a set of fractional integral equations and solved by a predictor-corrector method. The time domain diagrams and phase trajectory were used to describe the dynamic behavior. Finally, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was used to detect a weak signal.

  3. Jacobus Schroeder van der Kolk (1797-1862): his resistance against materialism.

    PubMed

    Eling, P

    1998-07-01

    Schroeder van der Kolk is regarded as the founder of Dutch psychiatry and neurology. This paper describes his vitalistic views on the relation between body and soul, as formulated by him in a series of lectures. These lectures were intended to counteract the materialistic tendencies of some of Schroeder van der Kolk's French and German contemporaries. It is argued that Schroeder van der Kolk can be regarded as the transition in Holland from the "Naturphilosophie" approach to the modern experimental approach in physiology. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Did Jan van Eyck build the first photocopier in 1432?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, David G.

    2003-12-01

    Recently it has been claimed that some early Renaissance painters used concave mirrors to project real inverted images onto their supports (paper, canvas, oak panel, ...) which they then traced or painted over, and that this was an important source of the increase in realism in European painting around 1420. Key exhibits adduced as evidence in support of this bold theory are a pair of portraits by Jan van Eyck of Cardinal Niccolo Albergati(&?) - a silverpoint study of 1431 and a larger oil of 1432. The contours in these two works bear striking resemblance in form (after being appropriately scaled) and at least one distinctive "relative shift" - evidence that has led proponents of the projection theory to claim that the oil was copied by means of an epidiascope or primitive opaque projector, the shift due to an accidental "bump" during the copying process. We find several difficulties with this optical explanation: there are at least two relative shifts (one horizontal and one vertical), the latter being somewhat unlikely given the putative projection equipment and setup; these shifts are in the ratio of distances of nearly 1:2, a ratio that has no natural role in the projection explanation; any accidental "bump" would surely have been noticed by van Eyck, and if so desired, corrected by him; recent analysis shows physical evidence (tiny pinpricks presumably from mechanical compass) consistent with mechanical transfer that has no role in the optical explanation; and several other points. The fidelity of the copy as well as the direction and relative magnitudes of these shifts are, however, consistent with the use of a familiar grid construction and with mechanical transfer using drawing compass and ruler or Reductionszirkel. Further, there are prominent vertical Bruchkanten (fold or fraction) lines on the grounded paper in the silverpoint study whose orientation and separation have no natural role in an optical theory, but have a plausible role in other explanations

  5. Cyclic, Early Diagenetic Dolomite Formation in Alkaline Lake Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.

    2017-12-01

    Modern dolomite-forming environments are commonly constrained to evaporitic marine or marginal marine settings such as lagoons and sabkhas. Beside microbial mediation, high temperatures and Mg2+ concentrations in solution are factors considered important in aiding dolomite formation. Accordingly, previous studies associate the presence of dolomite within deep sediments of alkaline Lake Van (Turkey) with periods of enhanced evaporation, low lake levels and high Mg/Ca ratio. We systematically studied dolomite within the sedimentary record of Lake Van by means of XRD, SEM and stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) mass spectrometry. First, we considered the origin of the dolomite; next, we focused on the wider implication of its presence. SEM imaging documents large dolomite crystals interwoven with clay minerals and individual crystals with different crystallographic orientations grown together, indicating space-limited growth within the sediment. According to recent climatic reconstructions for the same sequence (ICDP PALEOVAN project), the water depth of the coring site - today at 350 m - unlikely fell below 200 m. Consequently, dolomite formed below a thick water column at constantly low temperatures (supported by heavy δ18O signature). Within this environment, variations in Mg/Ca ratio, pH and alkalinity, which are constantly high, have no effect on the episodic nature of dolomite precipitation. These observations call for a re-evaluation of the palaeoenvironments often invoked to interpret intervals rich in dolomite within ancient sedimentary sequences (e.g., periods of enhanced aridity and evaporation). Further, and in contrast to previous interpretations, our dolomite concentration data backed up by ICDP PALEOVAN reconstructions suggest that intervals rich in dolomite coincide with periods of high lake level and increased humidity. High dolomite concentrations (20 - 85 % relative carbonate content) occur cyclically within the last glacial period and coincide with

  6. Cosmological models constructed by van der Waals fluid approximation and volumetric expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, G. C.; Myrzakulov, R.

    The universe modeled with van der Waals fluid approximation, where the van der Waals fluid equation of state contains a single parameter ωv. Analytical solutions to the Einstein’s field equations are obtained by assuming the mean scale factor of the metric follows volumetric exponential and power-law expansions. The model describes a rapid expansion where the acceleration grows in an exponential way and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflation for an initial epoch of the universe. Also, the model describes that when time goes away the acceleration is positive, but it decreases to zero and the van der Waals fluid approximation behaves like a present accelerated phase of the universe. Finally, it is observed that the model contains a type-III future singularity for volumetric power-law expansion.

  7. Delivering Value by Preserving Values: An Interview with Douglas Van Houweling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE Review, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Douglas Van Houweling, president and CEO of the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), the formal organization supporting Internet2, and recipient of the EDUCAUSE Award for Excellence in Leadership. (EV)

  8. Tri-wheeled scooters transported on buses and vans : assessment of securement restraint issues

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, all "common wheelchairs and mobility aids", including tri-wheeled scooters, must be accommodated on buses and vans used in public transit service. Several transit systems have recently expresse...

  9. J. H. Van Vleck and Magnetism at the University of Wisconsin: 1928 -1934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, David

    2011-03-01

    In 1928, John Van Vleck returned to his alma mater to take a position in the Physics Department. Six years later he left to join the faculty of Harvard University. While Van Vleck was at Wisconsin, he began a series of theoretical studies that helped lay the foundation for the modern theory of magnetism in solids. In 1932 Van Vleck published his celebrated monograph, The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities, in which he made use of the new theory to explain the results of experimental studies in a variety of magnetic materials. In my talk, I will review the accomplishments of Van Vleck and his students during this period and also comment briefly on his notes for a second edition of the book.

  10. Enhanced Chiral Discriminatory van der Waals Interactions Mediated by Chiral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Safari, Hassan; Salam, A.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-05-01

    We predict a discriminatory interaction between a chiral molecule and an achiral molecule which is mediated by a chiral body. To achieve this, we generalize the van der Waals interaction potential between two ground-state molecules with electric, magnetic, and chiral response to nontrivial environments. The force is evaluated using second-order perturbation theory with an effective Hamiltonian. Chiral media enhance or reduce the free interaction via many-body interactions, making it possible to measure the chiral contributions to the van der Waals force with current technology. The van der Waals interaction is discriminatory with respect to enantiomers of different handedness and could be used to separate enantiomers. We also suggest a specific geometric configuration where the electric contribution to the van der Waals interaction is zero, making the chiral component the dominant effect.

  11. Graphene Substrate for van der Waals Epitaxy of Layer-Structured Bismuth Antimony Telluride Thermoelectric Film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Ohta, Hiromichi; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sung Wng

    2017-02-01

    Graphene as a substrate for the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D layered materials is utilized for the epitaxial growth of a layer-structured thermoelectric film. Van der Waals epitaxial Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 film on graphene synthesized via a simple and scalable fabrication method exhibits good crystallinity and high thermoelectric transport properties comparable to single crystals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Polarimetric Extension of the van Cittert-Zernike Theorem for Use with Microwave Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Simon, N. K.

    2004-01-01

    The van Cittert-Zernike theorem describes the Fourier-transform relationship between an extended source and its visibility function. Developments in classical optics texts use scalar field formulations for the theorem. Here, we develop a polarimetric extension to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem with applications to passive microwave Earth remote sensing. The development provides insight into the mechanics of two-dimensional interferometric imaging, particularly the effects of polarization basis differences between the scene and the observer.

  13. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases

    PubMed Central

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the d-alanyl–d-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with d-alanyl–d-lactate or d-alanyl–d-serine (d-Ala-d-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of d-Ala-d-Ser-terminating precursors by converting l-Ser to d-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in l-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for the l-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against l-Ser versus l-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for l-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of d-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:26265719

  14. Structural and functional adaptation of vancomycin resistance VanT serine racemases

    DOE PAGES

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; ...

    2015-08-11

    Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the D-alanyl–D-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with D-alanyl–D-lactate or D-alanyl–D-serine (D-Ala-D-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of D-Ala-D-Ser-terminating precursors by converting L-Ser to D-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in L-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanT G from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518more » was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanT G and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn 696 which are responsible for theL-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanT G against L-Ser versus L-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for L-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of D-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.« less

  15. Velocity Measurements on the Electric Gun Developed at the TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory (Snelheidheidsmetingen aan de bij het Prins Maurits Laboratorium Ontwikkelde Electric Gun)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    8 2.3 De Flyer Plate Assembly (.FPA) 9 3 OPZET VAN DE MFTThIGEN 11 3.1 De djfferentjaalstroommetiflg 11 3.2 Stroommetingen 12 3.3...25 n11)" II )60 S. L) I.P014 25 ,rzit II ,0 8 9 28 ).7 I 10.7 273.0 2.15 43790 1.318 - - - IM,𔃺I5 25 Nr. 11 60 8.9 279.t) 125.9 274.1 2.22 44406 1...4 HWO-KLU 5 HWO-KM 6 DMKL J.A. van Gool 7/ 9 TDCK 10 Hoofddirecteur DO-TNO 11 Lid Inst jtuuts Advies Raad PMIL Prof. drs. P.J. van den Berg 12 Lid

  16. Particle Energization in Earth's Van Allen Radiation Belts Due to Solar Wind Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Early observations of the Earth's radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. However, recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed unexpected properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic (E > 2 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (E > 5 MeV) kinetic energies. In this presentation we show using high spatial and temporal resolution data from the experiments on board the Van Allen Probes that multiple belts can exist concurrently and that an exceedingly sharp inner boundary exists for ultra-relativistic electrons. Using additionally available Van Allen Probes data, we demonstrate that these remarkable features of energetic electrons are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. The comprehensive Van Allen Probes data show more broadly and in many ways how extremely high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. The new data have shown especially how dayside processes play a key role in electron acceleration and loss processes.

  17. d-Ala-d-Ser VanN-Type Transferable Vancomycin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium▿

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, François; Depardieu, Florence; Bourdon, Nancy; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Berger, Pierre; Camiade, Sabine; Leclercq, Roland; Courvalin, Patrice; Cattoir, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium UCN71, isolated from a blood culture, was resistant to low levels of vancomycin (MIC, 16 μg/ml) but susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml). No amplification was observed with primers specific for the previously described glycopeptide resistance ligase genes, but a PCR product corresponding to a gene called vanN was obtained using degenerate primers and was sequenced. The deduced VanN protein was related (65% identity) to the d-alanine:d-serine VanL ligase. The organization of the vanN gene cluster, determined using degenerate primers and by thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR, was similar to that of the vanC operons. A single promoter upstream from the resistance operon was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The presence of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-serine and d,d-peptidase activities in the absence of vancomycin indicated constitutive expression of the resistance operon. VanN-type resistance was transferable by conjugation to E. faecium. This is the first report of transferable d-Ala-d-Ser-type resistance in E. faecium. PMID:21807981

  18. Van der waals forces on thin liquid films in capillary tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Herdt, G.C.; Swanson, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    A theory of the van der Waals attraction between a thin liquid films and a capillary tube is presented assuming the presence of a vapor-liquid interface. The model is based on the surface mode analysis method of van Kampen et al. Values for the van der Waals interaction energy per unit area were calculated for liquid films of pentane on a gold substrate assuming a thin liquid film. Results indicate that the effect of capillary curvature on the van der Waals interaction increases as the ratio of the liquid film thickness to the capillary radius is increased. This trend ismore » consistent with predictions based on the Hamaker theory. Deviations from results based on the Hamaker theory are easily explained in terms of retardation of the van der Waals interaction. Because the effect of capillary curvature increases in the regime where retardation effects become important, curvature effects constitute a small correction to the van der Waals forces in a capillary tube.« less

  19. Electrotunable artificial molecules based on van der Waals heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo-Zhi; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Luo, Gang; Deng, Guang-Wei; Mosallanejad, Vahid; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Guo, Guang-Can; Nori, Franco; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Quantum confinement has made it possible to detect and manipulate single-electron charge and spin states. The recent focus on two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted significant interests on possible applications to quantum devices, including detecting and manipulating either single-electron charging behavior or spin and valley degrees of freedom. However, the most popular model systems, consisting of tunable double-quantum-dot molecules, are still extremely difficult to realize in these materials. We show that an artificial molecule can be reversibly formed in atomically thin MoS2 sandwiched in hexagonal boron nitride, with each artificial atom controlled separately by electrostatic gating. The extracted values for coupling energies at different regimes indicate a single-electron transport behavior, with the coupling strength between the quantum dots tuned monotonically. Moreover, in the low-density regime, we observe a decrease of the conductance with magnetic field, suggesting the observation of Coulomb blockade weak anti-localization. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the realization of an artificial quantum-dot molecule in a gated MoS2 van der Waals heterostructure, which could be used to investigate spin-valley physics. The compatibility with large-scale production, gate controllability, electron-hole bipolarity, and new quantum degrees of freedom in the family of 2D materials opens new possibilities for quantum electronics and its applications. PMID:29062893

  20. Plasmapause Location: Model Compared to Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.; Jaynes, A. N.; Malaspina, D.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    We study the evolution of the plasmapause for a multi-year period (January 2013 to January 2017) spanning much of the Van Allen Probes mission, by comparing the output of a plasmapause test particle simulation with the spacecraft potential measured by the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) suite. Consistent with previous results, we quantify the accuracy of the model by measuring the radial difference between real and virtual satellite encounters with the plasmapause boundary. We find that model performance is better on the nightside and during active periods, and worse on the duskside/dayside and during extended quiet intervals. For two case studies, we compare the plasmapause with the locations of relativistic electron flux peaks. For global context we use the test particle plasmaspheric index Fp [Goldstein et al., 2016], the fraction of a circular drift orbit inside the plasmapause, as a proxy for the globally integrated opportunity for losses in cold plasma. We find an inverse relationship between relativistic flux and the Fp index, consistent with increased likelihood of losses in cold plasma.

  1. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+ and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses, and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted by using a steady state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge-exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  2. Van Allen Probes Observations of the Plasmasphere and Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; Jahn, J. M.; De Pascuale, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Genestreti, K. J.; Skoug, R. M.; Larsen, B.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Van Allen Probes (RBSP) observations during 15-20 January 2013 are the basis of this study of the spatial relationship between the plasmasphere and radiation belts, and its influence on energy dependent lifetimes of energetic electrons. We use a convection-driven plasmapause test particle (PTP) simulation to provide contextual information for in situ measurements by RBSP during 15-20 January 2013, and find that the model reproduces the observed plasmapause radial locations to within 0.40 Earth radii (RE). We use analysis of the RBSP data to examine the radial structure of both the plasmasphere and radiation belts for the selected 5-day period, which includes a moderate geomagnetic disturbance on 17 January. RBSP observed three belts (inner, outer, and storage ring) prior to the 17 January disturbance, and two belts (inner and outer) afterward. The plasmapause aligns with the outermost belt. We examine the energy dependence of the radial structure and decay lifetimes of energetic electrons, both inside and outside the plasmasphere.

  3. Thermionic Energy Conversion Based on Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shi-Jun; Liu, Bo; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Kun; Ang, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Seeking for thermoelectric (TE) materials with high figure of merit (or ZT), which can directly converts low-grade wasted heat (400 to 500 K) into electricity, has been a big challenge. Inspired by the concept of multilayer thermionic devices, we propose and design a solid-state thermionic devices (as a power generator or a refrigerator) in using van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure sandwiched between two graphene electrodes, to achieve high energy conversion efficiency in the temperature range of 400 to 500 K. The vdW heterostructure is composed of suitable multiple layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2. From our calculations, WSe2 and MoSe2 are identified as two ideal TMDs (using the reported experimental material’s properties), which can harvest waste heat at 400 K with efficiencies about 7% to 8%. To our best knowledge, this design is the first in combining the advantages of graphene electrodes and TMDs to function as a thermionic-based device. PMID:28387363

  4. The deafness of Ludwig van Beethoven: an immunopathy.

    PubMed

    Karmody, Collin S; Bachor, Edgar S

    2005-07-01

    To analyze and discuss the deafness of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) and to offer a logical theory for its etiology. The study will carefully review the composer's symptoms as described in his letters to friends and acquaintances and also will review a large body of source material, particularly publications by his contemporaries, some of which were generously loaned by Beethoven-Haus, Bonn, Germany, where necessary translations were made directly from the original German. We will also study publications on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and its associated extraintestinal manifestations and personal discussions with experienced gastroenterologists. Beethoven's abdominal symptoms that began in his teens are highly suggestive of IBD, which we believe to be a correct diagnosis. IBD is an umbrella term that includes a number of named entities such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease. IBD is now considered to be a problem of immune regulation with extra intestinal manifestations that include sensorineural hearing loss and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). PSC eventually causes cirrhosis and failure of the liver. A diagnosis of IBD therefore provides a single entity that explains most of the composer's symptoms and was finally the cause of his death. Our conclusion is that Beethoven's sensorineural hearing loss was an immunopathy associated with IBD.

  5. Separation of Dirac's Hamiltonian by Van Vleck transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    The now classic Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation (FWT) was introduced as successive unitary transformations. This fundamental idea has become the standard in later developments such as the Douglas-Kroll transformation (DKT) - but it is not the only possibility. FWT can be seen as a simple special case of the general Van Vleck transformation (VVT) which besides the successive version has another, known as the canonical because of a series of nice mathematical properties discovered gradually over time. The aim of the present paper is to compare the two approaches - which give identical results in the lower orders, but not in the higher. After having recapitalised both, we apply them to Dirac's Hamiltonian for the electron in a constant electromagnetic field, written with so few assumptions about the operators that the mathematical techniques stand out separated from the terminology of relativistic quantum mechanics. FWT for a free particle is dealt with by a recent geometric approach to VVT. The original FWT is continued through the next non-zero orders. DKT is considered with special weight on equivalent formulations of the generalised and the optimised forms introduced by Wolf, Reiher and Hess.

  6. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

  7. Infrared photodetectors based on graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, V.; Ryzhii, M.; Svintsov, D.; Leiman, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2017-08-01

    We propose and evaluate the graphene layer (GL) infrared photodetectors (GLIPs) based on the van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures with the radiation absorbing GLs. The operation of the GLIPs is associated with the electron photoexcitation from the GL valence band to the continuum states above the inter-GL barriers (either via tunneling or direct transitions to the continuum states). Using the developed device model, we calculate the photodetector characteristics as functions of the GL-vdW heterostructure parameters. We show that due to a relatively large efficiency of the electron photoexcitation and low capture efficiency of the electrons propagating over the barriers in the inter-GL layers, GLIPs should exhibit the elevated photoelectric gain and detector responsivity as well as relatively high detectivity. The possibility of high-speed operation, high conductivity, transparency of the GLIP contact layers, and the sensitivity to normally incident IR radiation provides additional potential advantages in comparison with other IR photodetectors. In particular, the proposed GLIPs can compete with unitravelling-carrier photodetectors.

  8. Scientia sexualis versus ars erotica: Foucault, van Gulik, Needham.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Leon Antonio

    2011-09-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of the scientia sexualis/ars erotica distinction, which Foucault first advances in History of Sexuality Vol. 1, and which has been employed by many scholars to do a variety of analytical work. Though Foucault has expressed his doubts regarding his conceptualization of the differences between Western and Eastern discourses of desire, he never entirely disowns the distinction. In fact, Foucault remains convinced that China must have an ars erotica. I will explore Foucault's sources of authority. To this end, I introduce the work of famous Dutch sinologist Robert Hans van Gulik, who published the tremendously influential Sexual Life in Ancient China in 1961, and also explore Joseph Needham's view on Chinese sex. I argue that, Foucault, in his fierce polemic against the "Repressive Hypothesis", himself imagined a utopian Other where pleasure and desire were organised differently. I end on a discuss on Orientalism and the project of "Sinography" of comparative literature scholars Haun Saussy, Eric Hayot and others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. van der Waals Layered Materials: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Duong, Dinh Loc; Yun, Seok Joon; Lee, Young Hee

    2017-12-26

    Since graphene became available by a scotch tape technique, a vast class of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials has been researched intensively. What is more intriguing is that the well-known physics and chemistry of three-dimensional (3D) bulk materials are often irrelevant, revealing exotic phenomena in 2D vdW materials. By further constructing heterostructures of these materials in the planar and vertical directions, which can be easily achieved via simple exfoliation techniques, numerous quantum mechanical devices have been demonstrated for fundamental research and technological applications. It is, therefore, necessary to review the special features in 2D vdW materials and to discuss the remaining issues and challenges. Here, we review the vdW materials library, technology relevance, and specialties of vdW materials covering the vdW interaction, strong Coulomb interaction, layer dependence, dielectric screening engineering, work function modulation, phase engineering, heterostructures, stability, growth issues, and the remaining challenges.

  10. Butterfly inclusions in Van Schrieck masterpieces. Techniques and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, S.; Boulenguez, J.; Menu, M.; Mottin, B.

    2008-07-01

    Dutch painter Otto Marseus Van Schrieck (1619 1678) is famous for his invention of “sottobosco”. These specific still-life paintings are characterized by the presence of various living organisms (mainly insects and plants) directly on the canvas. We will focus our attention on the painting kept in the museum of Grenoble, France, where a real butterfly is pasted on the canvas. The actual butterfly is a common Nymphalidae, Inachis io, presented in a static position on the dorsal side, without any perspective, compared to the neighboring butterflies. The colors of this butterfly are mainly due to pigments, melanin (black to brown) and ommochromes (yellow, orange, red) often in granules configuration that introduce scattering of light superimposed to the classical selective absorption, except in the ocelli of the hind wings where the blue coloration is due to interferential effects. The nearly perfect refraction index equality between the varnish and the chitin, the main constituent of the butterfly wings, deeply affects its colors. This leads the artist to a final intervention in some parts of the wings, revealed by microscope observation.

  11. Consistent van der Waals Radii for the Whole Main Group

    PubMed Central

    Mantina, Manjeera; Chamberlin, Adam C.; Valero, Rosendo; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic radii are not precisely defined but are nevertheless widely used parameters in modeling and understanding molecular structure and interactions. The van der Waals radii determined by Bondi from molecular crystals and noble gas crystals are the most widely used values, but Bondi recommended radius values for only 28 of the 44 main-group elements in the periodic table. In the present article we present atomic radii for the other 16; these new radii were determined in a way designed to be compatible with Bondi’s scale. The method chosen is a set of two-parameter correlations of Bondi’s radii with repulsive-wall distances calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The newly determined radii (in Å) are Be, 1.53; B, 1.92; Al, 1.84; Ca, 2.31; Ge, 2.11; Rb, 3.03; Sr, 2.50; Sb, 2.06; Cs, 3.43; Ba, 2.68; Bi, 2.07; Po, 1.97; At, 2.02; Rn, 2.20; Fr, 3.48; and Ra, 2.83. PMID:19382751

  12. Consistent van der Waals radii for the whole main group.

    PubMed

    Mantina, Manjeera; Chamberlin, Adam C; Valero, Rosendo; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-05-14

    Atomic radii are not precisely defined but are nevertheless widely used parameters in modeling and understanding molecular structure and interactions. The van der Waals radii determined by Bondi from molecular crystals and data for gases are the most widely used values, but Bondi recommended radius values for only 28 of the 44 main-group elements in the periodic table. In the present Article, we present atomic radii for the other 16; these new radii were determined in a way designed to be compatible with Bondi's scale. The method chosen is a set of two-parameter correlations of Bondi's radii with repulsive-wall distances calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The newly determined radii (in A) are Be, 1.53; B, 1.92; Al, 1.84; Ca, 2.31; Ge, 2.11; Rb, 3.03; Sr, 2.49; Sb, 2.06; Cs, 3.43; Ba, 2.68; Bi, 2.07; Po, 1.97; At, 2.02; Rn, 2.20; Fr, 3.48; and Ra, 2.83.

  13. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; El-Sahn, Malak A; El-Banna, Amr A

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production.

  14. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

  15. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequentlymore » in heavy ions than in H +, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H + noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.« less

  16. Temperature of the plasmasphere from Van Allen Probes HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genestreti, K. J.; Goldstein, J.; Corley, G. D.; Farner, W.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Mouikis, C. G.; Ramnarace, C.; Skoug, R. M.; Turner, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce two novel techniques for estimating temperatures of very low energy space plasmas using, primarily, in situ data from an electrostatic analyzer mounted on a charged and moving spacecraft. The techniques are used to estimate proton temperatures during intervals where the bulk of the ion plasma is well below the energy bandpass of the analyzer. Both techniques assume that the plasma may be described by a one-dimensional E→×B→ drifting Maxwellian and that the potential field and motion of the spacecraft may be accounted for in the simplest possible manner, i.e., by a linear shift of coordinates. The first technique involves the application of a constrained theoretical fit to a measured distribution function. The second technique involves the comparison of total and partial-energy number densities. Both techniques are applied to Van Allen Probes Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) observations of the proton component of the plasmasphere during two orbits on 15 January 2013. We find that the temperatures calculated from these two order-of-magnitude-type techniques are in good agreement with typical ranges of the plasmaspheric temperature calculated using retarding potential analyzer-based measurements—generally between 0.2 and 2 eV (2000-20,000 K). We also find that the temperature is correlated with L shell and hot plasma density and is negatively correlated with the cold plasma density. We posit that the latter of these three relationships may be indicative of collisional or wave-driven heating of the plasmasphere in the ring current overlap region. We note that these techniques may be easily applied to similar data sets or used for a variety of purposes.

  17. Seroprevalence of human fascioliasis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Yılmaz, Hasan; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Çiçek, Mutalip

    2015-05-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a rare zoonotic parasite that infects the liver of many mammals including humans. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of fascioliasis in Van province by ELISA (antibody detection) on the assumption that not all cases could be detected by stool examination alone. A total of randomly selected 1,600 patients, directed from affiliated outpatient clinics to Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 44.44±19.00 years. Blood samples were collected from all the patients, and their stool samples were examined. For the stool examination, native-lugol and sedimentation (in formalin-ethyl acetate) methods were employed. ELISA for F. hepatica was performed on the blood samples from all patients. Seropositive patients were treated with triclabendazole. F. hepatica was detected by ELISA in 89 (5.6%) of the 1,600 patients, but eggs were identified on the stool examination in only 29 (1.8%) patients. The prevalence of F. hepatica was higher in females (7.2%) than in males (4.2%) and was higher in the ≥36-year age group (6.7%) than in the ≤35-year age group (4.4%). Abdominal pain (93.3%), fatigue (88.8%), and weight loss (69.7%) were the most common symptoms. Eosinophilia was present in 89.9% of the patients. All seropositive patients had a history of eating raw aquatic plants. Stool examination alone is not sufficient to diagnose F. hepatica. Serological tests such as ELISA must be used together with stool examination.

  18. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequentlymore » in heavy ions than in H +, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H + noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.« less

  19. Charging of the Van Allen Probes: Theory and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, G. L.; Meierbachtol, C.; Svyatskiy, D.; Denton, M.

    2017-12-01

    The electrical charging of spacecraft has been a known problem since the beginning of the space age. Its consequences can vary from moderate (single event upsets) to catastrophic (total loss of the spacecraft) depending on a variety of causes, some of which could be related to the surrounding plasma environment, including emission processes from the spacecraft surface. Because of its complexity and cost, this problem is typically studied using numerical simulations. However, inherent unknowns in both plasma parameters and spacecraft material properties can lead to inaccurate predictions of overall spacecraft charging levels. The goal of this work is to identify and study the driving causes and necessary parameters for particular spacecraft charging events on the Van Allen Probes (VAP) spacecraft. This is achieved by making use of plasma theory, numerical simulations, and on-board data. First, we present a simple theoretical spacecraft charging model, which assumes a spherical spacecraft geometry and is based upon the classical orbital-motion-limited approximation. Some input parameters to the model (such as the warm plasma distribution function) are taken directly from on-board VAP data, while other parameters are either varied parametrically to assess their impact on the spacecraft potential, or constrained through spacecraft charging data and statistical techniques. Second, a fully self-consistent numerical simulation is performed by supplying these parameters to CPIC, a particle-in-cell code specifically designed for studying plasma-material interactions. CPIC simulations remove some of the assumptions of the theoretical model and also capture the influence of the full geometry of the spacecraft. The CPIC numerical simulation results will be presented and compared with on-board VAP data. This work will set the foundation for our eventual goal of importing the full plasma environment from the LANL-developed SHIELDS framework into CPIC, in order to more accurately

  20. HET2 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence W.; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Diftler, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    2015 mid-year review charts of the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 project that describe the Astrobee free-flying robot and the Robonaut 2 humanoid robot. A planned replacement for Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellite (SPHERES), which is currently in use in the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico: First detection of VanB phenotype-vanA genotype.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Martínez-Landeros, Erik Alan; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Calzada-Güereca, Andrés; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico. Consecutive clinical isolates (n=56) were collected in two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico from 2011 to 2014. VREF isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VREF isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, high-level streptomycin, and teicoplanin, and showed lower resistance to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. None of the isolates were resistant to linezolid. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Two VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates, highly resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, were detected. Furthermore, 17.9% of the isolates were classified as biofilm producers, and the espfm gene was found in 98.2% of the isolates. A total of 37 distinct PFGE patterns and 6 clones (25% of the isolates as clone A, 5.4% as clone B, and 3.6% each as clone C, D, E, and F) were detected. Clone A was detected in 5 different wards of the same hospital during 14 months of surveillance. The high resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the moderate cross-transmission of VREF detected accentuates the need for continuous surveillance of E. faecium in the hospital setting. This is also the first reported incidence of the E. faecium VanB phenotype-vanA genotype in the Americas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  3. Identification of VanN-type vancomycin resistance in an Enterococcus faecium isolate from chicken meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Tanimoto, Koichi; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Ike, Yasuyoshi; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Five VanN-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from a sample of domestic chicken meat in Japan. All isolates showed low-level resistance to vancomycin (MIC, 12 mg/liter) and had the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. The vancomycin resistance was encoded on a large plasmid (160 kbp) and was expressed constitutively. The VanN-type resistance operon was identical to the first resistance operon to be reported, with the exception of a 1-bp deletion in vanT(N) and a 1-bp substitution in vanS(N).

  4. First and Second Order Stokes Generation by SRS in Methane: Influence of Rep-Rate, Beam Quality and Astigmatism (Opwekking van Eerste en Tweede Orde Stokes d.m.v. SRS in Methaan: Invloed van de Pulsfrequentie, de Bundelkwaliteit en Astigmatisme)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    omzettings rendementen van circa 75% gehaad bij een ingangs- energie van 280 mJ. De mogelijkheden tot bet halen van een hoger rendement lijken...of rep-rate, beam quality and astigmatism DImi-Thu-B~mO ITA1EiM-tT-h lF I~~ ~~’ IAPR2 8 1993~ I ~Xtbai Uiitdw FJ.M. van Putten J.C. van den Heuvel RJ.L...Influence of rep-rate. beam quality and astigmatism author(s) : F.J.M. van Putten, I.C. van den Heuvel, R.J.L. Lerou institute : TNO Physics and

  5. Van, Turkey Earthquake of 23 October 2011, Mw 7.2; An Overview on Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    ZARÉ, Mehdi; NAZMAZAR, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, Turkey (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of Anatolian plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in Turkey after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in Turkey. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082

  6. Colossal terahertz nonlinearity of tunneling van der Waals gap (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahk, Young-Mi; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Yong Seung; Kim, Joon-Yeon; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Tae Yun; Kang, Taehee; Rhie, Ji Yeah; Han, Sanghoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We manufactured an array of three angstrom-wide, five millimeter-long van der Waals gaps of copper-graphene-copper composite, in which unprecedented nonlinearity was observed. To probe and manipulate van der Waals gaps with long wavelength electromagnetic waves such as terahertz waves, one is required to fabricate vertically oriented van der Waals gaps sandwiched between two metal planes with an infinite length in the sense of being much larger than any of the wavelengths used. By comparison with the simple vertical stacking of metal-graphene-metal structure, in our structure, background signals are completely blocked enabling all the light to squeeze through the gap without any strays. When the angstrom-sized van der Waals gaps are irradiated with intense terahertz pulses, the transient voltage across the gap reaches up to 5 V with saturation, sufficiently strong to deform the quantum barrier of angstrom gaps. The large transient potential difference across the gap facilitates electron tunneling through the quantum barrier, blocking terahertz waves completely. This negative feedback of electron tunneling leads to colossal nonlinear optical response, a 97% decrease in the normalized transmittance. Our technology for infinitely long van der Waals gaps can be utilized for other atomically thin materials than single layer graphene, enabling linear and nonlinear angstrom optics in a broad spectral range.

  7. Science, Sex, and Pictures: Reflections on Van Fraassen's Use of Perspectival Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okruhlik, Kathleen

    2014-03-01

    Bas van Fraassen's brand of empiricism, as articulated in his well-known constructive empiricism and his more recent empiricist structuralism, has been developed using the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. This approach has allowed van Fraassen to espouse quite a robust form of non-realism about unobservable entities while avoiding some of the problems that contributed to the demise of logical empiricism. I shall argue, however, that in other respects van Fraassen replicates many of the serious shortcomings associated with the earlier tradition -- despite the fact that his choice of language sometimes obscures those similarities. Because van Fraassen's empiricist structuralism is much less well-known than his constructive empiricism, the rather lengthy first section of this paper provides an overview and initial assessment of that position. Subsequent sections deal with the ways in which van Fraassen's very sophisticated form of empiricism not only fails to address some of the most serious shortcomings of logical empiricism but actually reinforces them. The chief focus is on the failure to address issues that arise from the historical and social contexts within which science is pursued -- this despite a vocabulary rich in references to perspectivity, pragmatics, context, use, and aims.

  8. Pathologies of van Stockum dust/Tipler's time machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, David S.

    2016-09-01

    We study the internal solution, and external vacuum solution for radial cutoff, of "van Stockum dust", an infinitely long rotating pressureless dust column; its density increases with radius. This interesting but poorly explored spacetime turns out to have a number of exotic properties, especially in the external vacuum region. These solutions have been known for decades, but it seems that they have never been investigated in detail. In this paper we analyze them and describe their peculiar properties. There are three regimes of radial cutoff that are of interest: (1) If the dust column is thick enough that closed timelike loops (CTLs or "time machines") exist inside the column, then the radius of the entire "universe" is finite, and in fact does not extend much beyond the edge of the matter, even though the metric's radial parameter is unbounded. This interesting finite proper radius seems to have been missed by earlier investigators. Other exotic properties of the external vacuum in this regime: CTLs exist in cylindrical shells, alternating with shells having no circular CTLs; there are infinitely many such shells, getting closer and closer together as one gets farther from the rotation axis. Also, a separate set of infinitely many cylindrical shells exists, having what might be termed "extreme frame-dragging", within which motion is possible only in one direction; they alternate with "normal" shells allowing motion in either direction. Gravitational attraction and tides increase with distance from the matter column, and diverge at the "edge of the universe". In addition, though the radius of the universe is finite, its circumference is infinite; and its boundary is a circle, not a cylinder (the z-axis has shrunk to nothing at the edge). (2) For smaller radial cutoff, but still large enough to produce CTLs, the radius of the universe is infinite; but there are still infinitely many cylindrical shells of CTLs alternating with non-CTL shells. However, the innermost

  9. Multilevel population genetic analysis of vanA and vanB Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial outbreaks in 27 countries (1986-2012).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana R; Tedim, Ana P; Francia, Maria V; Jensen, Lars B; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Sánchez-Valenzuela, Antonio; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin; Werner, Guido; Sadowy, Ewa; Hammerum, Anette M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) have been increasingly reported since the 1980s. Despite the high number of published studies about VRE epidemiology, the dynamics and evolvability of these microorganisms are still not fully understood. A multilevel population genetic analysis of VREfm outbreak strains since 1986, representing the first comprehensive characterization of plasmid content in E. faecium, was performed to provide a detailed view of potential transmissible units. From a comprehensive MeSH search, we identified VREfm strains causing hospital outbreaks (1986-2012). In total, 53 VanA and 18 VanB isolates (27 countries, 5 continents) were analysed and 82 vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) were included for comparison. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST (goeBURST/Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure, BAPS). Characterization of van transposons (PCR mapping, RFLP, sequencing), plasmids (transfer, ClaI-RFLP, PCR typing of relaxases, replication-initiation proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems, hybridization, sequencing), bacteriocins and virulence determinants (PCR, hybridization, sequencing) was performed. VREfm were mainly associated with major human lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78. VREfm and VSEfm harboured plasmids of different families [RCR, small theta plasmids, RepA_N (pRUM/pLG1) and Inc18] able to yield mosaic elements. Tn1546-vanA was mainly located on pRUM/Axe-Txe (USA) and Inc18-pIP186 (Europe) plasmids. The VanB2 type (Tn5382/Tn1549) was predominant among VanB strains (chromosome and plasmids). Both strains and plasmids contributed to the spread and persistence of vancomycin resistance among E. faecium. Horizontal gene transfer events among genetic elements from different clonal lineages (same or different species) result in chimeras with different stability and host range, complicating the surveillance of epidemic plasmids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  10. Confirming the appearance of excess success: Reply to van Boxtel and Koch (2016).

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-12-01

    van Boxtel and Koch (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi: 10.3758/s13423-016-1010-0 , 2016) reported finding problems in the Test for Excess Success (TES) analysis in Francis (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1180-1187, 2014). They argued that their findings undermined the general analysis and the conclusions of the specific TES analysis for their article (van Boxtel & Koch in Psychological Science, 23(4), 410-418, 2012). As shown in this paper, their reported problems reflect misunderstandings about both the general properties of a TES analysis and how it was applied to their specific set of findings. Another look at the findings and theoretical claims in van Boxtel and Koch (Psychological Science, 23(4), 410-418, 2012) confirms the appearance of excess success.

  11. Bell's palsy before Bell: Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683.

    PubMed

    van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A

    2005-11-01

    Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th century. Recently, an even earlier account of Bell's palsy was found, as observed by Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel (1620-1702) from The Hague, The Netherlands in 1683. Because our current knowledge of the history of Bell's palsy before Bell is limited to a few documents, it is interesting to discuss Stalpart van der Wiel's description and determine its additional value for the history of Bell's palsy. It is concluded that Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel was the first to record Bell's palsy in 1683. His manuscript provides clues for future historical research.

  12. Concurrent Van der Woude syndrome and Turner syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Baines, Hayley; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of Van der Woude syndrome are caused by a mutation to interferon regulatory factor 6 on chromosome 1. Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in girls. We describe a unique case of the two syndromes occurring concurrently though apparently independently in a girl with Van der Woude syndrome diagnosed at birth and Turner syndrome at 14 years 9 months. Short stature was initially misattributed to Van der Woude syndrome and pituitary insufficiency associated with clefts before correctly diagnosing Turner syndrome. We discuss the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of Turner syndrome, the rarity of reports of concurrent autosomal chromosome mutation and sex chromosome deletion, as well as the need to consider the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in all girls with short stature regardless of prior medical history.

  13. Evidence of van Hove singularities in ordered grain boundaries of graphene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanxu; Sun, Haifeng; Zhao, Yeliang; Li, Bin; Li, Qunxiang; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Wang, Bing; Hou, J G

    2014-06-06

    It has long been under debate whether the electron transport performance of graphene could be enhanced by the possible occurrence of van Hove singularities in grain boundaries. Here, we provide direct experimental evidence to confirm the existence of van Hove singularity states close to the Fermi energy in certain ordered grain boundaries using scanning tunneling microscopy. The intrinsic atomic and electronic structures of two ordered grain boundaries, one with alternative pentagon and heptagon rings and the other with alternative pentagon pair and octagon rings, are determined. It is firmly verified that the carrier concentration and, thus, the conductance around ordered grain boundaries can be significantly enhanced by the van Hove singularity states. This finding strongly suggests that a graphene nanoribbon with a properly embedded ordered grain boundary can be a promising structure to improve the performance of graphene-based electronic devices.

  14. Simon van der Meer (1925-2011):. A Modest Genius of Accelerator Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, Vinod C.

    2011-02-01

    Simon van der Meer was a brilliant scientist and a true giant of accelerator science. His seminal contributions to accelerator science have been essential to this day in our quest for satisfying the demands of modern particle physics. Whether we talk of long base-line neutrino physics or antiproton-proton physics at Fermilab or proton-proton physics at LHC, his techniques and inventions have been a vital part of the modern day successes. Simon van der Meer and Carlo Rubbia were the first CERN scientists to become Nobel laureates in Physics, in 1984. Van der Meer's lesserknown contributions spanned a whole range of subjects in accelerator science, from magnet design to power supply design, beam measurements, slow beam extraction, sophisticated programs and controls.

  15. Van der Waals interactions and the limits of isolated atom models at interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Björkman, Torbjörn; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Björk, Jonas; Canova, Filippo Federici; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals forces are among the weakest, yet most decisive interactions governing condensation and aggregation processes and the phase behaviour of atomic and molecular matter. Understanding the resulting structural motifs and patterns has become increasingly important in studies of the nanoscale regime. Here we measure the paradigmatic van der Waals interactions represented by the noble gas atom pairs Ar–Xe, Kr–Xe and Xe–Xe with a Xe-functionalized tip of an atomic force microscope at low temperature. Individual rare gas atoms were fixed at node sites of a surface-confined two-dimensional metal–organic framework. We found that the magnitude of the measured force increased with the atomic radius, yet detailed simulation by density functional theory revealed that the adsorption induced charge redistribution strengthened the van der Waals forces by a factor of up to two, thus demonstrating the limits of a purely atomic description of the interaction in these representative systems. PMID:27174162

  16. Uncovering Droop Control Laws Embedded Within the Nonlinear Dynamics of Van der Pol Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Mohit; Dorfler, Florian; Johnson, Brian B.

    This paper examines the dynamics of power-electronic inverters in islanded microgrids that are controlled to emulate the dynamics of Van der Pol oscillators. The general strategy of controlling inverters to emulate the behavior of nonlinear oscillators presents a compelling time-domain alternative to ubiquitous droop control methods which presume the existence of a quasistationary sinusoidal steady state and operate on phasor quantities. We present two main results in this paper. First, by leveraging the method of periodic averaging, we demonstrate that droop laws are intrinsically embedded within a slower time scale in the nonlinear dynamics of Van der Pol oscillators. Second,more » we establish the global convergence of amplitude and phase dynamics in a resistive network interconnecting inverters controlled as Van der Pol oscillators. Furthermore, under a set of nonrestrictive decoupling approximations, we derive sufficient conditions for local exponential stability of desirable equilibria of the linearized amplitude and phase dynamics.« less

  17. The integrable case of Adler-van Moerbeke. Discriminant set and bifurcation diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Pavel E.; Oshemkov, Andrej A.; Sokolov, Sergei V.

    2016-09-01

    The Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case of the Euler equations on the Lie algebra so(4) is investigated. For the L- A pair found by Reyman and Semenov-Tian-Shansky for this system, we explicitly present a spectral curve and construct the corresponding discriminant set. The singularities of the Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case and its bifurcation diagram are discussed. We explicitly describe singular points of rank 0, determine their types, and show that the momentum mapping takes them to self-intersection points of the real part of the discriminant set. In particular, the described structure of singularities of the Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case shows that it is topologically different from the other known integrable cases on so(4).

  18. Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C

    2014-01-01

    On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation.

  19. Dynamics of three coupled van der Pol oscillators with application to circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompala, Kevin; Rand, Richard; Howland, Howard

    2007-08-01

    In this work we study a system of three van der Pol oscillators. Two of the oscillators are identical, and are not directly coupled to each other, but rather are coupled via the third oscillator. We investigate the existence of the in-phase mode in which the two identical oscillators have the same behavior. To this end we use the two variable expansion perturbation method (also known as multiple scales) to obtain a slow flow, which we then analyze using the computer algebra system MACSYMA and the numerical bifurcation software AUTO. Our motivation for studying this system comes from the presence of circadian rhythms in the chemistry of the eyes. We model the circadian oscillator in each eye as a van der Pol oscillator. Although there is no direct connection between the two eyes, they are both connected to the brain, especially to the pineal gland, which is here represented by a third van der Pol oscillator.

  20. Spectral asymmetry of atoms in the van der Waals potential of an optical nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. D.; Solano, P.; Julienne, P. S.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    We measure the modification of the transmission spectra of cold 87Rb atoms in the proximity of an optical nanofiber (ONF). Van der Waals interactions between the atoms an the ONF surface decrease the resonance frequency of atoms closer to the surface. An asymmetric spectra of the atoms holds information of their spatial distribution around the ONF. We use a far-detuned laser beam coupled to the ONF to thermally excite atoms at the ONF surface. We study the change of transmission spectrum of these atoms as a function of heating laser power. A semiclassical phenomenological model for the thermal excitation of atoms in the atom-surface van der Waals bound states is in good agreement with the measurements. This result suggests that van der Waals potentials could be used to trap and probe atoms at few nanometers from a dielectric surface, a key tool for hybrid photonic-atomic quantum systems.

  1. Hydrology and land use in Van Buren County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.; Holtschlag, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of ground and surface water in Van Buren County and to relate these characteristics to the agricultural use of land. Chemical inputs to the hydrologic system, including those from precipitation, animal wastes, septic tanks, and fertilizers, are assessed. Land-use, geologic setting, and hydrologic conditions are given as a necessary framework for interpretations. The land surface in Van Buren county in southwestern Michigan is flat to rolling, and ranges in altitude from 580 to 1,050 feet. About 30,000 acres or 7.4 percent of land is irrigated. Annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 36 inches. Two rivers--the Paw Paw and South Branch Black--drain most of the county. During this study, the maximum discharge of the Paw Paw River was 2,500 cubic feet per second; the minimum discharge was 202 cubic feet per second. The average discharge of the South Branch Black River during a 17- year period of record has been 106 cubic feet per second. Glacial deposits are the principal source of ground-water supplies. These deposits range in thickness from 100 to 600 feet and consist of till, outwash, and materials of lacustrine and eolian origin. In places the deposits fill buried valleys that are as much as 400 feet deep. The Coldwater Shale of Mississippian age, which underlies the glacial deposits, is mostly shale and usually yields only small amounts of salty water. Of the glacial deposits, outwash is the most productive aquifer. Most domestic wells obtain water from outwash at depths ranging from 15 to 160 feet. Irrigation wells capable of yielding 1,000 gallons per minute generally are about 200 feet deep. In places in the western part of the county, glacial deposits, which are several hundred feet thick, are mostly clay and yield little or no water. Areal variations in the chemical and physical characteristics of ground and surface water are related to land use and

  2. Understanding the nanoscale local buckling behavior of vertically aligned MWCNT arrays with van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yupeng; Kim, Hyung-Ick; Wei, Bingqing; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-Boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-08-01

    The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect.The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03581c

  3. Spacecraft-level verification of the Van Allen Probes' RF communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowne, M. J.; Srinivasan, D.; Royster, D.; Weaver, G.; Matlin, D.; Mosavi, N.

    This paper presents the verification process, lessons learned, and selected test results of the radio frequency (RF) communication system of the Van Allen Probes, formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). The Van Allen Probes mission is investigating the doughnut-shaped regions of space known as the Van Allen radiation belts where the Sun interacts with charged particles trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Understanding this dynamic area that surrounds our planet is important to improving our ability to design spacecraft and missions for reliability and astronaut safety. The Van Allen Probes mission features two nearly identical spacecraft designed, built, and operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RF communication system features the JHU/APL Frontier Radio. The Frontier Radio is a software-defined radio (SDR) designed for spaceborne communications, navigation, radio science, and sensor applications. This mission marks the first spaceflight usage of the Frontier Radio. RF ground support equipment (RF GSE) was developed using a ground station receiver similar to what will be used in flight and whose capabilities provided clarity into RF system performance that was previously not obtained until compatibility testing with the ground segments. The Van Allen Probes underwent EMC, acoustic, vibration, and thermal vacuum testing at the environmental test facilities at APL. During this time the RF communication system was rigorously tested to ensure optimal performance, including system-level testing down to threshold power levels. Compatibility tests were performed with the JHU/APL Satellite Communication Facility (SCF), the Universal Space Network (USN), and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Successful completion of this program as described in this paper validated the design of the system and demonstrated that it will be able to me

  4. A Century after Van Allen's Birth: Conclusion of Reconnaissance of Radiation Belts in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    On May 1, 1958 in the Great Hall of the US National Academy of Sciences, James A. Van Allen, having instrumented Explorer-1 and follow-on satellites with radiation detectors, announced the discovery of intense radiation at high altitudes above Earth. The press dubbed the doughnut-shaped structures "Van Allen Belts" (VAB). Soon thereafter, the search began for VAB at nearby planets. Mariner 2 flew by Venus in 1962 at a distance of 41,000 km, but no radiation was detected. The Mariner 4 mission to Mars did not observe planet-associated increase in radiation, but scaling arguments with Earth's magnetosphere yielded an upper limit to the ratio of magnetic moments of MM/ME < 0.001 (Van Allen et al, 1965). Similarly, the Mariner 5 flyby closer to Venus resulted in a ratio of magnetic moments < 0.001 (Van Allen et al, 1967), dealing a blow to the expectation that all planetary bodies must possess significant VAB. The flyby of Mercury in 1974 by Mariner 10 revealed a weak magnetic field, but the presence of durably trapped higher energy particles remained controversial until MESSENGER in 2011.The first flybys of Jupiter by Pioneers 10, 11 in 1973 and 1974, respectively, measured a plethora of energetic particles in Jupiter's magnetosphere and established the fact that their intensities were rotationally modulated. Later flybys of Jupiter and Saturn by the two Voyagers in 1979 and 1981 revealed that those magnetospheres possessed their own internal plasma source(s) and radiation belts. Subsequent discoveries of Van Allen belts at Uranus and Neptune by Voyager 2 demonstrated that VAB are the rule rather than the exception in planetary environments. We now know from the Voyagers and through Energetic Neutral Atom images from Cassini and IBEX that an immense energetic particle population surrounds the heliosphere itself. Thus, the reconnaissance of radiation belts of our solar system has been completed, some 56 years after the discovery of the Van Allen Belts at Earth.

  5. van der Waals interactions between nanostructures: Some analytic results from series expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, T.; Drosdoff, D.; Woods, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    The van der Waals force between objects of nontrivial geometries is considered. A technique based on a perturbation series approach is formulated in the dilute limit. We show that the dielectric response and object size can be decoupled and dominant contributions in terms of object separations can be obtained. This is a powerful method, which enables straightforward calculations of the interaction for different geometries. Our results for planar structures, such as thin sheets, infinitely long ribbons, and ribbons with finite dimensions, may be applicable for nanostructured devices where the van der Waals interaction plays an important role.

  6. Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Deep; Davoyan, Artur R; Tagliabue, Giulia; Sherrott, Michelle C; Wong, Joeson; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate near-unity, broadband absorbing optoelectronic devices using sub-15 nm thick transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of molybdenum and tungsten as van der Waals semiconductor active layers. Specifically, we report that near-unity light absorption is possible in extremely thin (<15 nm) van der Waals semiconductor structures by coupling to strongly damped optical modes of semiconductor/metal heterostructures. We further fabricate Schottky junction devices using these highly absorbing heterostructures and characterize their optoelectronic performance. Our work addresses one of the key criteria to enable TMDCs as potential candidates to achieve high optoelectronic efficiency.

  7. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition.

  8. A high-pressure van der Waals compound in solid nitrogen-helium mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, W. L.; Finger, L. W.; Hemley, R. J.; Hu, J. Z.; Mao, H. K.; Schouten, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed diamond anvil-cell study using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and optical microscopy has been conducted for the He-N system, with a view to the weakly-bound van der Waals molecule interactions that can be formed in the gas phase. High pressure is found to stabilize the formation of a stoichiometric, solid van der Waals compound of He(N2)11 composition which may exemplify a novel class of compounds found at high pressures in the interiors of the outer planets and their satellites.

  9. Light scattering, aerosols, clouds, climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific paper, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst essay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. After that, I present briefly a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.

  10. Simulated Van Allen Belts Generated by Plasma Thruster in Tank 5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-21

    The model of the Earth housed inside Vacuum Tank 5 contained a coil which produced a magnetic field simulating that of the Earth. It was bombarded with a stream of ionized particles simulating the solar wind which impinges on the Earth's magnetic field. The bands or belts of luminous plasma seen in this image were suggestive of the Van Allen belts found around the Earth. Scientists at Lewis probed the plasma around the model and studied scaling laws in an attempt to find an explanation for the actual formation of the Van Allen belt.

  11. Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Algoritmen voor Integriteits-Controle (Quality of Expert Systems: Algorithms for Integrity Control)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Dist~i~ Ulnre rbu~ on Una o~d0 9 ~ j 2 0 0 TNO rapport Pagina rappon no. .FEL-89-A312 f"It Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Algoritmen voor Integriteits...KNOWLEDGEBASE 7 2.1 Inleiding 7 2.2 Een uitbreiding op NIAM: E(xtended)NIAM 8 2.3 Specificatie in E(xtended)NIAM 11 2.4 Representatie in Prolog 13 3...instantiatie van cen ThO rapport Pagina 9 ’graph’ is gelijk aan ten propositie (ean uitspraak over dea werkelijkheid). ’Graph’- instantiaties zijn

  12. Top-Level Players' Visual Control of Interceptive Actions: Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H. P.; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of…

  13. The "Discernment of a Human Face" in Research: A Reaction to Van Hesteren's Human Science and Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Don

    1986-01-01

    Responds to Van Hesteren's advocacy of a "human science" orientation, using constructs and analytical methods from phenomenology to enhance methodology. Approves of a philosophy of science and of a self-perspective. Questions the need for complex terminology, Van Hesteren's definition of what constitutes research, quantification, and…

  14. An Empirical Introduction to the Concept of Chemical Element Based on Van Hiele's Theory of Level Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelezang, Michiel; Van Berkel, Berry; Verdonk, Adri

    2015-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1990, the Dutch working group "Empirical Introduction to Chemistry" developed a secondary school chemistry education curriculum based on the educational vision of the mathematicians van Hiele and van Hiele-Geldof. This approach viewed learning as a process in which students must go through discontinuous level transitions…

  15. Solving Geometric Problems by Using Algebraic Representation for Junior High School Level 3 in Van Hiele at Geometric Thinking Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwito, Abi; Yuwono, Ipung; Parta, I. Nengah; Irawati, Santi; Oktavianingtyas, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the ability of algebra students who have 3 levels van Hiele levels. Follow its framework Dindyal framework (2007). Students are required to do 10 algebra shaped multiple choice, then students work 15 about the geometry of the van Hiele level in the form of multiple choice questions. The question has been tested levels…

  16. Results of baseline tests of the EVA metro sedan, citi-car, jet industries electra-van, CDA town car, and OTIS P-500 van

    SciTech Connect

    Stenger, F.J.; Bozek, J.M.; Soltis, R.F.

    1976-10-01

    Five electric vehicles were tested at vehicle test tracks using the SAE. The tests provide range data at steady speeds and for several driving cycles. Most tests were conducted with lead-acid traction batteries. The Otis Van and the Copper Electric Town Car were also tested with lead-acid and nickel-zinc batteries. The tests showed a range increase of from 82 to 101 percent depending on vehicle, speed, and test cycle.

  17. Results of baseline tests of the EVA Metro sedan, Citi-car, Jet Industries Electra-van, CDA town car, and Otis P-500 van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, F. J.; Bozek, J. M.; Soltis, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Five electric vehicles were tested at vehicle test tracks using the SAE. The tests provide range data at steady speeds and for several driving cycles. Most tests were conducted with lead-acid traction batteries. The Otis Van and the Copper Electric Town Car were also tested with lead-acid and nickel-zinc batteries. The tests showed a range increase of from 82 to 101 percent depending on vehicle, speed, and test cycle.

  18. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases.

    PubMed

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-08-11

    Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the D-alanyl-D-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with D-alanyl-D-lactate or D-alanyl-D-serine (D-Ala-D-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of D-Ala-D-Ser-terminating precursors by converting L-Ser to D-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in L-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for the L-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against L-Ser versus L-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for L-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of d-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Vancomycin is one of the drugs of last resort against Gram-positive antibiotic-resistant pathogens. However, bacteria have evolved a sophisticated mechanism which remodels the drug target, the D-alanine ending precursors in cell wall

  19. The hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) test to predict the ophthalmic irritation potential of a cysteamine-containing gel: Quantification using Photoshop® and ImageJ.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Barbara; Kay, Graeme; Matthews, Kerr H; Knott, Rachel M; Cairns, Donald

    2015-07-25

    A modified hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) test has been developed, combining ImageJ analysis with Adobe(®) Photoshop(®). The irritation potential of an ophthalmic medicine can be quantified using this method, by monitoring damage to blood vessels. The evaluation of cysteamine containing hyaluronate gel is reported. The results demonstrated that the novel gel formulation is non-irritant to the ocular tissues, in line with saline solution (negative control). In conclusion, the modification of the established HET-CAM test can quantify the damage to minute blood vessels. These results offer the possibility to formulate cysteamine in an ocular applicable gel formulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological mindfulness, spirituality, and life-long (hybrid, dialogical) learning: a tribute to Michiel van Eijck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this tribute, I articulate the contributions Michiel van Eijck made to science education, as experienced through our relation, which ranged from supervisor and colleague to friend. His ecological thinking about human knowing, which was reflected in his spiritual inclinations, constitutes his legacy that will have an impact on our field for years to come.

  1. An Instrument for Measuring Performance in Geometry Based on the Van Hiele Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez-García, Ana B.; Cabello, Ana Belén

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of constructing a test for assessing student performance in geometry corresponding to the first year of Secondary Education. The main goal was to detect student errors in the understanding of geometry in order to develop a proposal according to the Van Hiele teaching model, explained in this paper. Our research…

  2. Impact of a Major National Evaluation Study: Israel's Van Leer Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Lewy, Arieh

    This investigation documents the impact of the Van Leer Study, a large-scale evaluation study of achievement in the primary schools of Israel. It is intended to increase understanding of the process of evaluation utilization, showing how evaluation findings and other kinds of information can work together, over time and in a variety of ways, to…

  3. A Small Awakening. The Work of the Bernard van Leer Foundation: 1965-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Hugh; Chetley, Andrew

    The development of the Bernard van Leer Foundation is recounted. The discussion illustrates general trends by means of selective project reviews and references to theoretical discussions which were prevalent in early childhood education during the period from 1965-1986. Also considered are activities encouraged by the foundation which have…

  4. Early Childhood Matters: The Bulletin of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smale, Jim, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2001 issues of The Bernard van Leer Foundation's "Early Childhood Matters," a periodical addressed to practitioners in the field of early childhood education and including information on projects funded by the foundation. Articles in the February 2001 edition focus on fathers and include: (1)…

  5. Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project. Third, Fourth, and Fifth Annual Reports to Bernard Van Leer Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). School of Education.

    This series of the third, fourth, and fifth annual reports to the Bernard Van Leer Foundation on the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project of Macquarie University, Australia, describes the general activities, program developments, and research activities of the project for the period 1977-1979. The main objective of the project is to develop,…

  6. Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; van der Zande, Arend M; Chen, Wenchao; Li, Yilei; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F; Guo, Jing; Hone, James; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are essential building blocks for electronic and optoelectronic devices. In conventional p-n junctions, regions depleted of free charge carriers form on either side of the junction, generating built-in potentials associated with uncompensated dopant atoms. Carrier transport across the junction occurs by diffusion and drift processes influenced by the spatial extent of this depletion region. With the advent of atomically thin van der Waals materials and their heterostructures, it is now possible to realize a p-n junction at the ultimate thickness limit. Van der Waals junctions composed of p- and n-type semiconductors--each just one unit cell thick--are predicted to exhibit completely different charge transport characteristics than bulk heterojunctions. Here, we report the characterization of the electronic and optoelectronic properties of atomically thin p-n heterojunctions fabricated using van der Waals assembly of transition-metal dichalcogenides. We observe gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and a photovoltaic response across the p-n interface. We find that the tunnelling-assisted interlayer recombination of the majority carriers is responsible for the tunability of the electronic and optoelectronic processes. Sandwiching an atomic p-n junction between graphene layers enhances the collection of the photoexcited carriers. The atomically scaled van der Waals p-n heterostructures presented here constitute the ultimate functional unit for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. The first record of Pyxidium tardigradum Van der Land, 1964 (Ciliophora) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Daniel Adrian; Roszkowska, Milena; Moglan, Ioan; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2015-04-02

    In three lichen samples collected from eastern part of Romania, three populations of Ramazzottius cf. oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840) infested by Pyxidium tardigradum Van der Land 1964 were found. In this short correspondence we present a first record of P. tardigradum in Romania and infestation rates in studied populations according to the different life stages.

  8. De Haas van Alphen effect of PrB6 in commensurate and incommensurate phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, M.; Isshiki, T.; Kimura, N.; Aoki, H.; Kunii, S.

    2006-05-01

    We have studied the de Haas-van Alphen effect in the commensurate (C) and incommensurate (IC) phases of PrB6. It is found that the amplitudes and effective masses of the two oscillations α1 and α2 from the main Fermi surface are approximately the same in the C phase while they are considerably different in the IC phase.

  9. Encounters with Insignificance in Teaching and Learning: Gus Van Sant's "Elephant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlos, Karyn

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how a curriculum of film becomes organized by the teacher's worries about what film may open up in class. The author focuses on her own worries about showing Gus Van Sant's (2003) film, "Elephant," an elliptical and dreamlike study of the murders in 1999 of twelve students and a teacher at Columbine High School, to a class of…

  10. Fostering Students' Creativity through Van Hiele's 5 Phase-Based Tangram Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew, Nyet Moi; Chong, Chin Lu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Van Hiele's 5 phase-based tangrams activities could help to foster creativity among Grade Three primary school students. Students' creativity was investigated in terms of Torrance's Figural Test of creative thinking: Fluency, Originality, Elaboration, Abstractness of title, and Resistance to a…

  11. 77 FR 29394 - Van Eck VIP Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... outstanding voting stock of the registered closed-end investment company. 2. Section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Act... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30063; 812-13846] Van Eck... Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (C) of the Act...

  12. Control of excitons in multi-layer van der Waals heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Calman, E. V., E-mail: ecalman@gmail.com; Dorow, C. J.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-03-07

    We report an experimental study of excitons in a double quantum well van der Waals heterostructure made of atomically thin layers of MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal boron nitride. The emission of neutral and charged excitons is controlled by gate voltage, temperature, and both the helicity and the power of optical excitation.

  13. Low-Voltage Complementary Electronics from Ion-Gel-Gated Vertical Van der Waals Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yongsuk; Kang, Junmo; Jariwala, Deep

    2016-03-22

    Low-voltage complementary circuits comprising n-type and p-type van der Waals heterojunction vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs) are demonstrated. The resulting VFETs possess high on-state current densities (>3000 A cm-2) and on/off current ratios (>104) in a narrow voltage window (<3 V).

  14. Automated Identification and Shape Analysis of Chorus Elements in the Van Allen Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen Gupta, Ananya; Kletzing, Craig; Howk, Robin; Kurth, William; Matheny, Morgan

    2017-12-01

    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave-particle interaction by chorus emissions in terrestrial Van Allen radiation belts. To test models, statistical characterization of chorus properties, such as amplitude variation and sweep rates, is an important scientific goal. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields as well as DC magnetic fields for the Van Allen Probes mission. However, manual inspection across terabytes of EMFISIS data is not feasible and as such introduces human confirmation bias. We present signal processing techniques for automated identification, shape analysis, and sweep rate characterization of high-amplitude whistler-mode chorus elements in the Van Allen radiation belts. Specifically, we develop signal processing techniques based on the radon transform that disambiguate chorus elements with a dominant sweep rate against hiss-like chorus. We present representative results validating our techniques and also provide statistical characterization of detected chorus elements across a case study of a 6 s epoch.

  15. Promoting Preservice Teacher Reflectivity: Van Manen May Represent a Viable Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Kristy K.; McBride, Ron

    2010-01-01

    From Dewey (1933) to present, reflectivity is an important component of teacher education. Little information exists that specifically addresses when changes in reflectivity might occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (a) to apply Van Manen's model to outcomes to examine levels of, and changes in, reflectivity and (b) to verify the…

  16. Dynamical screening of the van der Waals interaction between graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Dappe, Y J; Bolcatto, P G; Ortega, J; Flores, F

    2012-10-24

    The interaction between graphene layers is analyzed combining local orbital DFT and second order perturbation theory. For this purpose we use the linear combination of atomic orbitals-orbital occupancy (LCAO-OO) formalism, that allows us to separate the interaction energy as the sum of a weak chemical interaction between graphene layers plus the van der Waals interaction (Dappe et al 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 205434). In this work, the weak chemical interaction is calculated by means of corrected-LDA calculations using an atomic-like sp(3)d(5) basis set. The van der Waals interaction is calculated by means of second order perturbation theory using an atom-atom interaction approximation and the atomic-like-orbital occupancies. We also analyze the effect of dynamical screening in the van der Waals interaction using a simple model. We find that this dynamical screening reduces by 40% the van der Waals interaction. Taking this effect into account, we obtain a graphene-graphene interaction energy of 70 ± 5 meV/atom in reasonable agreement with the experimental evidence.

  17. 75 FR 63216 - Van Eck Associates Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29459; 812-13605] Van Eck... Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 5(a)(1), 22(d) and 22(e) of... investment companies to issue shares (``Shares'') redeemable in large aggregations only (``Creation Units...

  18. 77 FR 25780 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Rembrandt, Van Dyck...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7863] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Gainsborough: The Treasures of Kenwood House, London'' SUMMARY: Notice is... House, London,'' imported from abroad by the American Federation of Arts for temporary exhibition within...

  19. Astronauts Lodewijk van den Berg observes growth of crystals in VCGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-30

    51B-06-010 (29 April-6 May 1985) --- Lodewijk van den Berg, 51-B payload specialist, observes the growth of mercuric iodide crystal in the vapor crystal growth system (VCGS) on the Spacelab 3 science module aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger.

  20. Ecological Mindfulness, Spirituality, and Life-Long (Hybrid, Dialogical) Learning: A Tribute to Michiel Van Eijck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this tribute, I articulate the contributions Michiel van Eijck made to science education, as experienced through our relation, which ranged from supervisor and colleague to friend. His ecological thinking about human knowing, which was reflected in his spiritual inclinations, constitutes his legacy that will have an impact on our field for…

  1. [Implementation of vanA and vanB genes by PCR technique research interest in system (Xpert vanA/vanB CepheidR) closed in a laboratory of microbiology in managing an outbreak to Enterococcus faecium resistant glycopeptide (EfRG)].

    PubMed

    Dekeyser, S; Beclin, E; Descamps, D

    2011-04-01

    The closed system PCR for the rapid detection of vanA and vanB genes (Xpert vanA/vanB Cepheid(®)) was evaluated in our laboratory, to improve the rapidity of the response and thus the management of patients and isolation measures during two GRE outbreaks. From March to December2009, 565 samples were analysed by PCR associated to bacterial culture initially for all samples for 2months (n = 75), and thereafter for PCR-positive samples only. In this study, sensitivity and negative predictive values of the PCR were 100%. Specificity was evaluated in the presence and absence of outbreak: 69.3 and 76.8% respectively. The variability of false positive rates between units were lower in nonepidemic than during epidemic phase. The global false positive rate was 23.9%. This easy-to-use technology provides rapid results… four samples are tested in 1h versus 72h for culture. Despite its reagent cost, it represents an important hospital diagnostic tool: improvement of the management of cohorting areas and patient transfer between units, adaptation of isolation measures and treatments. However, culture remains necessary to confirm any positive result obtained by PCR and for epidemiological surveillance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas (2009) contend that the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans is about 80. A critical evaluation of the studies presented by WDM shows that many of these are based on unrepresentative elite samples. We show that studies of 29 acceptably representative samples on tests other than the Progressive Matrices give a…

  3. Teacher Training Takes to the Road. Mobile Van, Computers Add Convenience and Quality to Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Phyllis E.

    1971-01-01

    This article describes the development and use of a new delivery system for education services based on the concepts of mobility and individualized instruction. The system consists of a mobile van equipped with a central IBM computer and 15 student terminals. Traveling through rural Pennsylvania, it offers local teachers a course in special…

  4. Polyclonal emergence of vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Australia.

    PubMed

    van Hal, Sebastiaan J; Espedido, Björn A; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Howden, Benjamin P; Korman, Tony M; Nimmo, Graeme R; Gosbell, Iain B; Jensen, Slade O

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the genetic context associated with the emergence of vanA VRE in Australia. The whole genomes of 18 randomly selected vanA -positive Enterococcus faecium patient isolates, collected between 2011 and 2013 from hospitals in four Australian capitals, were sequenced and analysed. In silico typing and transposon/plasmid assembly revealed that the sequenced isolates represented (in most cases) different hospital-adapted STs and were associated with a variety of different Tn 1546 variants and plasmid backbone structures. The recent emergence of vanA VRE in Australia was polyclonal and not associated with the dissemination of a single 'dominant' ST or vanA -encoding plasmid. Interestingly, the factors contributing to this epidemiological change are not known and future studies may need to consider investigation of potential community sources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Probing low-energy hyperbolic polaritons in van der Waals crystals with an electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Govyadinov, Alexander A; Konečná, Andrea; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vélez, Saül; Dolado, Irene; Nikitin, Alexey Y; Lopatin, Sergei; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E; Aizpurua, Javier; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2017-07-21

    Van der Waals materials exhibit intriguing structural, electronic, and photonic properties. Electron energy loss spectroscopy within scanning transmission electron microscopy allows for nanoscale mapping of such properties. However, its detection is typically limited to energy losses in the eV range-too large for probing low-energy excitations such as phonons or mid-infrared plasmons. Here, we adapt a conventional instrument to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, a representative van der Waals material. The boron nitride spectra depend on the flake thickness and on the distance of the electron beam to the flake edges. To explain these observations, we developed a classical response theory that describes the interaction of fast electrons with (anisotropic) van der Waals slabs, revealing that the electron energy loss is dominated by excitation of hyperbolic phonon polaritons, and not of bulk phonons as often reported. Thus, our work is of fundamental importance for interpreting future low-energy loss spectra of van der Waals materials.Here the authors adapt a STEM-EELS system to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and apply it to map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, revealing that the electron loss is dominated by hyperbolic phonon polaritons.

  6. Lessons Learnt from Employing van Hiele Theory Based Instruction in Senior Secondary School Geometry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alex, Jogymol Kalariparambil; Mammen, Kuttickattu John

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a part of a study which was conducted to determine the effect of van Hiele theory based instruction in the teaching of geometry to Grade 10 learners. The sample consisted of 359 participants from five conveniently selected schools from Mthatha District in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. There were 195 learners in…

  7. Improving Students' Van Hiele Level of Geometric Thinking Using Geometer's Sketchpad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieng, Poh Geik; Eu, Leong Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of the Geometer's Sketchpad on students' van Hiele level of geometric thinking. A total of 31 Year Three students from a primary school in Pahang, Malaysia, participated in this study which was carried out over two weeks. The experimental group (N=16) was given the intervention using Geometer's…

  8. The Reception of J. H. van't Hoff's Theory of the Asymmetric Carbon Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelders, H. A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff's revolutionary theory of the asymmetric carbon atom and its early reception among his contemporaries in the Netherlands. Indicates that the extension of the new idea to practical problems gives the impetus to the development of stereochemistry. (CC)

  9. A van der Waals Equation of State for a Dilute Boson Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    An equation of state of a system is a relationship that connects the thermodynamic variables of the system such as pressure and temperature. Such equations are well known for classical gases but less so for quantum systems. In this paper we develop a van der Waals equation of state for a dilute boson gas that may be used to explain the occurrence…

  10. Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and binding properties of GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, Sergey Y., E-mail: sarkisov@mail.tsu.ru; Kosobutsky, Alexey V., E-mail: kosobutsky@kemsu.ru; Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya 6, 650043 Kemerovo

    The influence of van der Waals interactions on the lattice parameters, band structure, elastic moduli and binding energy of layered GaSe compound has been studied using projector-augmented wave method within density functional theory. We employed the conventional local/semilocal exchange-correlation functionals and recently developed van der Waals functionals which are able to describe dispersion forces. It is found that application of van der Waals density functionals allows to substantially increase the accuracy of calculations of the lattice constants a and c and interlayer distance in GaSe at ambient conditions and under hydrostatic pressure. The pressure dependences of the a-parameter, Ga–Ga, Ga–Semore » bond lengths and Ga–Ga–Se bond angle are characterized by a relatively low curvature, while c(p) has a distinct downward bowing due to nonlinear shrinking of the interlayer spacing. From the calculated binding energy curves we deduce the interlayer binding energy of GaSe, which is found to be in the range 0.172–0.197 eV/layer (14.2–16.2 meV/Å{sup 2}). - Highlights: • Effects of van der Waals interactions are analyzed using advanced density functionals. • Calculations with vdW-corrected functionals closely agree with experiment. • Interlayer binding energy of GaSe is estimated to be 14.2–16.2 meV/Å{sup 2}.« less

  11. A Unique Delivery System to Rural Schools: The NMSU-Space Center Microcomputer Van Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Collaboration between New Mexico State University's College of Education and three other entities has led to the computer experience microvan program, implemented in 1983, a unique system for bringing microcomputers into rural New Mexico K-12 classrooms. The International Space Hall of Fame Foundation provides the van, International Space Center…

  12. The Wim Van Leer Competition for Young Film Makers at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Gilli

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Jerusalem Film Center and the background, history, and organization of the Wim Van Leer Competition which was established for young filmmakers in high school. Describes the Jerusalem Film Festival, film studies programs at Israeli high schools, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  13. Working Memory Facilitates Insight Instead of Hindering It: Comment on Decaro, Van Stockum, and Wieth (2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuderski, Adam; Jastrzebski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The "nothing-special" account of insight predicts positive correlations of insight problem solving and working memory capacity (WMC), whereas the "special-process" account expects no, or even negative, correlations. In the latter vein, DeCaro, Van Stockum Jr., and Wieth (2016) have recently reported weak negative WMC…

  14. Geluidsexpositie bij gebruik van CEP door F-16 crewchiefs (Sound Exposure Level of F-16 Crew Chiefs Using Communications Earplugs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Communications Earplugs Auteur (s) dr. ir. M.M.J. Houben Programmanummer Projectnummer J.A. Verhave 032.13072 F.W.M. Geurtsen Rubricering rapport Program...de communicatie kiest men voor een geluidniveau dat luider is dan het waargenomen omgevingsgeluid. In theorie kan bet totale geluidsexpositieniveau...Afdelingshoofd Auteur TNO-rapport I TNO-DV 2008 A054 Bijlage A 1 1/3 A Simulatie Simulatie-omgeving Uit een opname gemaakt op Vhiegbasis Volkel hebben

  15. New Results About the Earth’s Van Allen Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The first great scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or 'belts', of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies showed that electrons in the energy range 100 keV < E< 1 MeV often populated both the inner and outer zones with a pronounced 'slot' region relatively devoid of energetic electrons existing between them. This two-belt structure for the Van Allen moderate-energy electron component was explained as being due to strong interactions of electrons with electromagnetic waves just inside the cold plasma (plasmapause) boundary. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. However, recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed wholly unexpected properties of the radiation belts, especially at highly relativistic (E > 2 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (E > 5 MeV) kinetic energies. In this presentation we show using high spatial and temporal resolution data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) experiment on board the Van Allen Probes that multiple belts can exist concurrently and that an exceedingly sharp inner boundary exists for ultra-relativistic electrons. Using additionally available Van Allen Probes data, we demonstrate that these remarkable features of energetic electrons are not due to a physical boundary within Earth's intrinsic magnetic field. Neither is it likely that human-generated electromagnetic transmitter wave fields might produce such effects. Rather, we conclude from these unique measurements that slow natural inward radial diffusion combined with weak, but persistent, wave-particle pitch angle

  16. Accounting for apparent deviations between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpies.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, Samuel A; Henriksen, Niel M; Gilson, Michael K

    2018-03-01

    In theory, binding enthalpies directly obtained from calorimetry (such as ITC) and the temperature dependence of the binding free energy (van't Hoff method) should agree. However, previous studies have often found them to be discrepant. Experimental binding enthalpies (both calorimetric and van't Hoff) are obtained for two host-guest pairs using ITC, and the discrepancy between the two enthalpies is examined. Modeling of artificial ITC data is also used to examine how different sources of error propagate to both types of binding enthalpies. For the host-guest pairs examined here, good agreement, to within about 0.4kcal/mol, is obtained between the two enthalpies. Additionally, using artificial data, we find that different sources of error propagate to either enthalpy uniquely, with concentration error and heat error propagating primarily to calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpies, respectively. With modern calorimeters, good agreement between van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies should be achievable, barring issues due to non-ideality or unanticipated measurement pathologies. Indeed, disagreement between the two can serve as a flag for error-prone datasets. A review of the underlying theory supports the expectation that these two quantities should be in agreement. We address and arguably resolve long-standing questions regarding the relationship between calorimetric and van't Hoff enthalpies. In addition, we show that comparison of these two quantities can be used as an internal consistency check of a calorimetry study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of narrow angles by gonioscopy, Van Herick method and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Bae; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kang, Sung Yung; Jo, Jung Woo; Lee, Kyoung Sub; Kook, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate anterior chamber (AC) angles using gonioscopy, Van Herick technique and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). One hundred forty-eight consecutive subjects were enrolled. The agreement between any two of three diagnostic methods, gonioscopy, AS-OCT and Van Herick, was calculated in narrow-angle patients. The area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) for discriminating between narrow and open angles determined by gonioscopy was calculated in all participants for AS-OCT parameter angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area, trabecular iris surface area and anterior chamber depth (ACD). As a subgroup analysis, capability of AS-OCT parameters for detecting angle closure defined by AS-OCT was assessed in narrow-angle patients. The agreement between the Van Herick method and gonioscopy in detecting angle closure was excellent in narrow angles (κ = 0.80, temporal; κ = 0.82, nasal). However, agreement between gonioscopy and AS-OCT and between the Van Herick method and AS-OCT was poor (κ = 0.11-0.16). Discrimination capability of AS-OCT parameters between open and narrow angles determined by gonioscopy was excellent for all AS-OCT parameters (AUC, temporal: AOD500 = 0.96, nasal: AOD500 = 0.99). The AUCs for detecting angle closure defined by AS-OCT image in narrow angle subjects was good for all AS-OCT parameters (AUC, 0.80-0.94) except for ACD (temporal: ACD = 0.70, nasal: ACD = 0.63). Assessment of narrow angles by gonioscopy and the Van Herick technique showed good agreement, but both measurements revealed poor agreement with AS-OCT. The angle closure detection capability of AS-OCT parameters was excellent; however, it was slightly lower in ACD.

  18. Inelastic processes in atomic collisions involving ground state and laser-prepared atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planje, Willem Gilles

    1999-11-01

    In dit proefschrift worden experimenten beschreven waarbij ionen of atomen met een bepaalde snelheid op een ensemble van doelwitatomen worden gericht. Wanneer twee deeltjes elkaar voldoende genaderd hebben, vindt er wissel- werking plaats waarbij allerlei processen kunnen optreden. Deze processen resulteren in specieke eindproducten. Kennis over de interactie tussen twee botsingspartners wordt verkregen door te bekijken welke eindproducten ontstaan, en in welke mate. Een belangrijke grootheid die van invloed is op mogelijke processen is de onderlinge snelheid van de twee kernen, oftewel de botsingssnelheid. Wanneer de botsingssnelheid voldoende klein is dan kunnen de verschillende reactiemechanismen zowel kwalitatief als kwanti- tatief vaak goed voorspeld worden door het systeem te beschouwen als een kort-stondig molecuul, opgebouwd uit de twee botsende deeltjes. De ver- schillende processen die kunnen optreden worden gekwaliceerd afhankelijk van de vorming van bepaalde eindproducten. Ruwweg de volgende indeling kan gemaakt worden: 1. de interne structuur van de eindproducten zijn identiek aan die van de beginproducten. We spreken dan van een elastische botsing. 2. e en van de deeltjes of beiden worden in een aangeslagen toestand ge- bracht (of ge¨oniseerd). Dit zijn processen waarbij de herschikte elek- tronen zich bij de oorspronkelijke kern bevinden. We spreken dan van excitatie of ionisatie. 3. e en of meerdere elektronen bevinden zich bij de andere kern na de botsing (eventueel in aangeslagen toestand). We spreken dan van elek- tronenoverdracht. In het eerste deel van deze dissertatie worden botsingsexperimenten tussen heliumionen en natriumatomen beschreven waarbij het proces van elek- tronenoverdracht wordt onderzocht. Bij dit mechanisme is het buitenste 117?Samenvatting natriumelektron betrokken. Deze kan relatief gemakkelijk `overspringen' naar het heliumion wanneer deze zich dicht in de buurt van het natrium- atoom bevindt. Het elektron kan hierbij een

  19. Tussenrapportage Validatie Onderwijsvernieuwingen (Validation Assistant in Instructional Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    validatie onderwij svemieuwingen D)atum mei 2007 Auteur (s) drs. J.P. van Meer drs. G,J. Veldhuis dr. M.L. van Ernmerik M.G. van Schaik Rubricering...als doel om nog beter is het van belang dat het maken van keuzes Auteur (s) passende adviezen te kunnen genereren. binnen een moeilijk grijpbaar...benaderd door de theorie achter de onderwijsconcepten te toetsen aan het oordeel van de expert. Er zijn echter beperkingen in deze opzet denkbaar die

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of the vanC Cluster from Enterococcus gallinarum Strains with Constitutive and Inducible Vancomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Abadía-Patiño, Lorena; Vanegas, Natasha; Reynolds, Peter E.; Courvalin, Patrice; Arias, Cesar A.

    2005-01-01

    The vanC glycopeptide resistance gene cluster encodes enzymes required for synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala-d-Ser. Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 and SC1 are constitutively and inducibly resistant to vancomycin, respectively. Analysis of peptidoglycan precursors in both strains indicated that UDP-MurNAc-tetrapeptide and UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[d-Ser] were synthesized in E. gallinarum SC1 only in the presence of vancomycin (4 μg/ml), whereas the “resistance” precursors accumulated in the cytoplasm of BM4174 cells under both inducing and noninducing conditions. Northern hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR experiments revealed that all the genes from the cluster, vanC-1, vanXYC, vanT, vanRC, and vanSC, were transcribed from a single promoter. In the inducible SC1 isolate, transcriptional regulation appeared to be responsible for inducible expression of resistance. Promoter mapping in E. gallinarum BM4174 revealed that the transcriptional start site was located 30 nucleotides upstream from vanC-1 and that the −10 promoter consensus sequence had high identity with that of the vanA cluster. Comparison of the deduced sequence of the vanSC genes from isolates with constitutive and inducible resistance revealed several amino acid substitutions located in the X box (R200L) and in the region between the F and G2 boxes (D312N, D312A, and G320S) of the putative sensor kinase proteins from isolates with constitutive resistance. PMID:15728903

  1. The Local Group in LCDM - Shapes and masses of dark halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift bestuderen we de eigenschappen van donkere materie halo's in het LCDM paradigma. Het eerste deel richt zich op de vorm van de massadistributie van dergelijke objecten. We hebben gevonden dat de vorm van ge"isoleerde Melkweg-achtige donkere materie halo's significant afwijkt van bolsymmetrie. De lokale omgeving heeft invloed op de halo's en deze worden daarbij sterk be"invloed door de manier waarop massa aangroeit. We hebben ook de structuur en de baanstructuur van de satellieten van dergelijke halo's in detail onderzocht. In het algemeen zijn deze objecten sferischer dan de halo's zelf. Ze vertonen ook duidelijke afdrukken van getijdenwerking in zowel hun geometrische vorm als in de baanstructuur. Daarna gebruiken we het aantal massieve objecten rond de Melkweg om limieten te zetten op de totale massa van de donkere materie halo van de Melkweg. De eigenschappen van de massaverdeling van de Melkweg worden verder onderzocht in het laatste hoofdstuk. Daar maken we gebruik van de Sagittarius sterstroom om de vorm van de galactische potentiaal beter te bepalen. We komen met een nieuw model dat rekening houdt met de galactische schijf en de invloed van satellietstelsels en die bovendien consistent is met het LCDM paradigma.

  2. Dispersion of the Vancomycin Resistance Genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus Isolated from Nile Tilapia on Retail Sale: A Public Health Hazard.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Mohamed N; Radwan, Ismail; ElHofy, Fatma; Abed, Ahmed H; Orabi, Ahmed; Fawzy, Nehal M

    2016-01-01

    Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options. With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van-mediated glycopeptide (vanA and vanC) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) using conventional and molecular methods. The cultural, biochemical (Vitek 2 system) and polymerase chain reaction results revealed eight Enterococcus isolates from the 80 fish samples (10%) to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile tilapia with the eight Enterococcus isolates caused significant morbidity (70%) within 3 days and 100% mortality at 6 days post-injection with general signs of septicemia. All of the eight Enterococcus isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. The 6/6 E. faecalis isolates were susceptible for penicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. On the other hand 5/6 were susceptible for ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The two isolates of E. gallinarum were sensitive to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Molecular characterization proved that they all presented the prototypic vanC element. On the whole, one of the two vancomycin resistance gene was present in 3/8 of the enterococci isolates, while the esp virulence gene was present in 1/8 of the enterococci isolates. The results in this study emphasize the

  3. Inventory of Materials to be Used in Explosive Effects Mitigating Structures (Inventarisatie van materialen te gebruiken in constructies ter afscherming van explosie-effecten)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    F +31 15 284 39 91 info-DenV@tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV 2008 A357 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) ir. O.C. van der Jagt...een keramisch materiaal (ZrSiO.*). TNO-rapport | TNO-DV 2008 A357 32/44 K, 04 035 0.3 0 25 02 0 15 01 005 0 O a 0 X A • • Theory ...47] Molinari. A., et al., Modeling plastic shocks in periodic laminates with gradient plasticity theories . Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of

  4. A 600,000 year long continental pollen record from Lake Van, eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, T.; Pickarski, N.; Heumann, G.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (38.5°N, 43 °E, volume 607 km3, area 3570 km2, maximum water depth 460 m), extending for 130 km WSW-ENE on the Eastern Anatolian High Plateau, Turkey. The sedimentary record of Lake Van, partly laminated, obtains a long and continuous continental sequence that covers multiple interglacial-glacial cycles. Promoted by the potential of the sedimentary sequence for reconstructing the paleoecological and paleoclimate development of the Near East, a deep drilling operation was carried out in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The 119 m long continental record is based on a well-dated composite profile drilled on the so-called Ahlat Ridge in water depth of 360 m encompassing the last 600,000 years. It contains the longest continuous continental pollen record of the Quaternary in the entire Near East and central Asia obtained to date. It documents glacial and interglacial stages as well as pronounced interstadials encompassing the entire 600 ka of the sedimentary record. The cold-adapted vegetation in the Lake Van region during glacial stages and stadial substages can be described as dwarf-shrub steppe and desert steppe very similar to each other. The climax vegetation of the interglacial stages in the Lake Van region is characterized by an oak steppe-forest with pistachio and juniper. It is interesting to note that, in contrast to the atmospheric CO2 concentration from Antarctic ice cores or marine isotope values based on benthic foraminifera, there is no clear subdivision in the Lake Van pollen record between low-amplitude interglacials (cooler cycles) prior the mid-Brunhes event (MBE) at 430 ka and high-amplitude, post MBE interglacials. Lower CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere might be compensated by stronger insolation forcing during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 13a and 15a. A similar pattern can be observed during the triplicate interglacial complex MIS 7

  5. Determination of radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Van by mineral magnetic and geochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Namik Cagatay, M.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van is the largest soda lake in the world, located on the east Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. Its varved sediments provide an excellent archive of high-resolution paleoclimate record for the Near East. Varve counting and radiocarbon methods are therefore important dating techniques for investigating the Lake Van sedimentary paleoclimate record. In here we present detailed magnetic and geochemical record of Lake Van. We have studied 4.56 m (core VP0801) and 4.70 m (core VP0807) long cores recovered from 80 m and 65 m water depths located in SE and SW of Lake Van, respectively. Here, we have benefited from magnetic properties with associated remanent magnetization of the sediments from Lake Van to correlate the cores which contain of tephra layers. The cores cover the last 8.4 ka and lithologically include three laminated sedimentary units. From top to the bottom, the units were dated 4.2 ka BP-present, 5.4-4.2 ka BP and older than 5.4 ka BP. We identified tephra layers previously dated by varve counting, and used the varve ages to obtain age models for the cores. We also obtained a total of eight Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from total organic carbon (TOC) in the two cores, close to the tephra layers. Comparison of the varve ages of the AMS 14C dated samples with their corresponding AMS 14C dates indicates large differences, suggesting significant reservoir ages that range from 2.8 to 2.5 ka for 3.0-2.4 varve ka BP and from 2.8 to 3.3 ka for 8.0-5.9 varve ka BP. The results suggest that the reservoir age of the organic matter increases with the varve age of the sediments. This increase is mainly related to the rate of supply of "dead" carbon from the old carbonate rocks in the watershed of Lake Van, which was relatively higher during 8.4-5.9 ka than during 3.0-2.4 ka BP because of the higher atmospheric precipitation and higher rate of biochemical weathering during the former period.

  6. Significant viscosity dependent deviations from classical van Deemter theory in liquid chromatography with porous silica monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Pavel N; Rybalko, Marina A; Paull, Brett

    2005-06-01

    Significant deviations from classical van Deemter behaviour, indicative of turbulent flow liquid chromatography, has been recorded for mobile phases of varying viscosity on porous silica monolithic columns at elevated mobile phase flow rates.

  7. Combination Vancomycin/Cefazolin (VAN/CFZ) for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bloodstream Infections (BSI)

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Trang D; Zasowski, Evan J; Lagnf, Abdalhamid M; Bhatia, Sahil; Dhar, Sorabh; Mynatt, Ryan; Pogue, Jason M; Rybak, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background VAN remains the standard for MRSA BSI but has been associated with treatment failures and resulted in prolonged BSI durations and recurrences. In vitro studies of VAN/CFZ against MRSA demonstrated synergy and prevention of VAN resistance. However, clinical use of VAN/CFZ has not been reported. The objective of this study was to compare patient outcomes treated with VAN/CFZ vs. VAN for MRSA BSI. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort, comparative-effectiveness study of hospitalized adults ≥18y with ≥1 MRSA blood culture and received VAN/CFZ combination for ≥24h or VAN alone initiated within 72h of index infection between 1/1/08 and 5/1/17. Patients who received >24h β-lactams other than CFZ, MRSA-active antibiotics other than VAN, with polymicrobial BSI, or had a second MRSA BSI episode during the study period were excluded. The primary composite failure outcome included: 30d mortality, MRSA BSI ≥7d, and 60d recurrence. Demographics were compared by Χ2, Fisher’s exact, Student’s t, or Mann–Whitney U tests. Multivariable regression models compared outcomes between the two treatment groups. Covariates with p-values ≤0.2 in bivariate analyses were included in the model. Results A total of 101 patients were included (CFZ/VAN = 41, VAN = 60). Demographics were similar except VAN patients were older (mean (±SD) age 58 (±14) v. 51 (±18) y, P = 0.04), had higher median (IQR) Charlson Comorbidity Index (3 (2-5) v. 1 (0–4), P < 0.01), APACHE II scores (13 (8-18) v. 11 (8-18), P = 0.2), and more endocarditis BSI source (37% v. 20%, P = 0.06). After accounting for BSI source, VAN/CFZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.33, 0.13-0.83) and low APACHE II scores (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1–1.15) were independently associated with fewer failures. Bivariate outcomes are in table below: Variable, n (%) VAN/CFZ VAN P value Composite failure 10 (24) 31 (52) 0.006 30d mortality 3 (7.3) 5 (8.3) 1 BSI ≥7d 6 (15

  8. Vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the van der Waals Bond: A new look at intermolecular forces

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.C.; Saykally, R.J.

    Measurements of the low-frequency van der Waals vibrations in weakly bound complexes by high-resolution laser spectroscopy provide a means to probe intermolecular forces at unprecedented levels of detail and precision. Several new methods are presently being used to record vibration/rotation-tunneling (VRT) transitions associated with the motions of the weak bonds in van der Waals clusters. The most direct measurements are those probing only the van der Waals modes themselves, which occur at far-infrared wavelengths. This article presents a review of the information on both intramolecular forces and intramolecular dynamics that has been obtained from far-infrared VRT spectra of 18 complexesmore » during the past several years. Some rotationally resolved measurements of van der Waals modes observed in combination with electronic or vibrational excitation are also discussed. 185 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. The Van Hiele geometry thinking levels of mild mental retardation students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shomad, Z. A.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi

    2017-12-01

    This research is to investigate the level of mild mental retardation geometry students thinking. This research focuses on the geometry thinking level based on Van Hiele theory. This study uses qualitative methods with case study strategy. Data obtained from observation and tests result. The subjects are 12 mental retardation students. The result show that ability of mild mental retardation students with each other is different but have same level of level thinking geometry. The geometry thinking level of mental retardation students was identified in level 1 of the Van Hiele theory. Based on the level thinking geometry of mental retardation students simplify geometry thinking teachers in selecting appropriate learning methods, choose the materials in accordance with ability, and can modify the material following the geometry thinking level of mental retardation students.

  10. Episodic cluster headache from a textbook of 1745: van Swieten's classic description.

    PubMed

    Isler, H

    1993-06-01

    The first description of cluster headache is usually attributed to authors who published between 1867 and 1939, but lately several researchers have found accounts dating back to the 18th or even the 17th century which are incomplete or do not account for cluster headache in the strict sense. However, Gerhard van Swieten gave a full description of a case of episodic cluster headache meeting the IHS criteria in 1745, in his textbook of clinical medicine, the mainstream textbook of Continental medicine in those years, since van Swieten was the founder of the then leading medical centre, the Vienna School. That the case was found again only in 1992 is due to the circumstance that it was published in Latin. It is presented here in an English translation facing the original Latin text.

  11. Van tells residential conservation story. [Potomac Edison Co. of Allegheny Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1976-01-15

    Potomac Edison Co. is taking its residential energy-conservation story to the public via a mobile van that will be on display at schools, service clubs, shopping centers, fairs, and exhibits. The van is equiped with exhibits featuring the latest in energy-saving equipment and techniques in insulation, ventilation, hot water, solar energy, load control, fireplace heat control, utility billing, appliances, appliance efficiency, lighting, heat pump, and furnace heat recovery. The exhibits are not limited to electrical applications. One shows the effect that an orifice installed in a shower head has on the amount of hot water used. The device cuts themore » amounts of both water and energy use to about one-half. Each display item is readily available from local sources. (MCW)« less

  12. Measuring the thermal boundary resistance of van der Waals contacts using an individual carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Jun; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2013-01-16

    Interfacial thermal transport via van der Waals interaction is quantitatively evaluated using an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube bonded on a platinum hot-film sensor. The thermal boundary resistance per unit contact area was obtained at the interface between the closed end or sidewall of the nanotube and platinum, gold, or a silicon dioxide surface. When taking into consideration the surface roughness, the thermal boundary resistance at the sidewall is found to coincide with that at the closed end. A new finding is that the thermal boundary resistance between a carbon nanotube and a solid surface is independent of the materials within the experimental errors, which is inconsistent with a traditional phonon mismatch model, which shows a clear material dependence of the thermal boundary resistance. Our data indicate the inapplicability of existing phonon models when weak van der Waals forces are dominant at the interfaces.

  13. Astronaut James van Hoften on RMS tracking Syncom IV-3 after deployment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-01

    51I-41-086 (1 September 1985) --- Astronaut James D. van Hoften, mission specialist, flexes his muscles in celebration of a triumphant extravehicular task. Clouds over the ocean form the backdrop for this 70mm scene, toward the end of a two-day effort to capture, repair and release the previously errant Syncom IV-3 communications satellite. Van Hoften, anchored to a special foot restraint device on the end of Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS), had just performed the final "shove" that started the relative separation of the Shuttle and the Syncom, which is not far out of frame. He had been joined by astronaut William F. Fisher for the busy two days of EVA.

  14. Giant magnetic splitting inducing near-unity valley polarization in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Philipp; Ballottin, Mariana V; Mitioglu, Anatolie A; Mooshammer, Fabian; Paradiso, Nicola; Strunk, Christoph; Huber, Rupert; Chernikov, Alexey; Christianen, Peter C M; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias

    2017-11-16

    Monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit intriguing fundamental physics of strongly coupled spin and valley degrees of freedom for charge carriers. While the possibility of exploiting these properties for information processing stimulated concerted research activities towards the concept of valleytronics, maintaining control over spin-valley polarization proved challenging in individual monolayers. A promising alternative route explores type II band alignment in artificial van der Waals heterostructures. The resulting formation of interlayer excitons combines the advantages of long carrier lifetimes and spin-valley locking. Here, we demonstrate artificial design of a two-dimensional heterostructure enabling intervalley transitions that are not accessible in monolayer systems. The resulting giant effective g factor of -15 for interlayer excitons induces near-unity valley polarization via valley-selective energetic splitting in high magnetic fields, even after nonselective excitation. Our results highlight the potential to deterministically engineer novel valley properties in van der Waals heterostructures using crystallographic alignment.

  15. Two dimensional graphene nanogenerator by coulomb dragging: Moving van der Waals heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Huikai; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian

    2015-06-15

    Harvesting energy from environment is the current focus of scientific community. Here, we demonstrate a graphene nanogenerator, which is based on moving van der Waals heterostructure formed between graphene and two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO). This nanogenerator can convert mechanical energy into electricity with a voltage output of around 10 mV. Systematic experiments reveal the generated electricity originates from the coulomb interaction induced momentum transfer between 2D GO and holes in graphene. 2D boron nitride was also demonstrated to be effective in the framework of moving van der Waals heterostructure nanogenerator. This investigation of nanogenerator based on the interaction betweenmore » 2D macromolecule materials will be important to understand the origin of the flow-induced potential in nanomaterials and may have great potential in practical applications.« less

  16. Strong interlayer coupling in phosphorene/graphene van der Waals heterostructure: A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Ming; Ren, Zhao-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Based on first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we study the electronic properties of phosphorene/graphene heterostructures. Band gaps with different sizes are observed in the heterostructure, and charges transfer from graphene to phosphorene, causing the Fermi level of the heterostructure to shift downward with respect to the Dirac point of graphene. Significantly, strong coupling between two layers is discovered in the band spectrum even though it has a van der Waals heterostructure. A tight-binding Hamiltonian model is used to reveal that the resonance of the Bloch states between the phosphorene and graphene layers in certain K points combines with the symmetry matching between band states, which explains the reason for the strong coupling in such heterostructures. This work may enhance the understanding of interlayer interaction and composition mechanisms in van der Waals heterostructures consisting of two-dimensional layered nanomaterials, and may indicate potential reference information for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  17. Polynomial-interpolation algorithm for van der Pauw Hall measurement in a metal hydride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.; Ares, J. R.; Leardini, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Ferrer, I. J.

    2008-10-01

    We apply a four-term polynomial-interpolation extension of the van der Pauw Hall measurement technique to a 330 nm Mg-Pd bilayer during both absorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature. We show that standard versions of the van der Pauw DC Hall measurement technique produce an error of over 100% due to a drifting offset signal and can lead to unphysical interpretations of the physical processes occurring in this film. The four-term technique effectively removes this source of error, even when the offset signal is drifting by an amount larger than the Hall signal in the time interval between successive measurements. This technique can be used to increase the resolution of transport studies of any material in which the resistivity is rapidly changing, particularly when the material is changing from metallic to insulating behavior.

  18. The nonlinear effect of resistive inhomogeneities on van der Pauw measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2005-03-01

    The resistive weighting function [D. W. Koon and C. J. Knickerbocker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 207 (1992)] quantifies the effect of small local inhomogeneities on van der Pauw resistivity measurements, but assumes such effects to be linear. This talk will describe deviations from linearity for a square van der Pauw geometry, modeled using a 5 x 5 grid network of discrete resistors and introducing both positive and negative perturbations to local resistors, covering nearly two orders of magnitude in -δρ/ρ or -δσ/σ. While there is a relatively modest quadratic nonlinearity for inhomogeneities of decreasing conductivity, the nonlinear term for inhomogeneities of decreasing resistivity is approximately cubic and can exceed the linear term.

  19. Selectively enhanced photocurrent generation in twisted bilayer graphene with van Hove singularity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianbo; Wang, Huan; Peng, Han; Tan, Zhenjun; Liao, Lei; Lin, Li; Sun, Xiao; Koh, Ai Leen; Chen, Yulin; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-01-01

    Graphene with ultra-high carrier mobility and ultra-short photoresponse time has shown remarkable potential in ultrafast photodetection. However, the broad and weak optical absorption (∼2.3%) of monolayer graphene hinders its practical application in photodetectors with high responsivity and selectivity. Here we demonstrate that twisted bilayer graphene, a stack of two graphene monolayers with an interlayer twist angle, exhibits a strong light–matter interaction and selectively enhanced photocurrent generation. Such enhancement is attributed to the emergence of unique twist-angle-dependent van Hove singularities, which are directly revealed by spatially resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. When the energy interval between the van Hove singularities of the conduction and valance bands matches the energy of incident photons, the photocurrent generated can be significantly enhanced (up to ∼80 times with the integration of plasmonic structures in our devices). These results provide valuable insight for designing graphene photodetectors with enhanced sensitivity for variable wavelength. PMID:26948537

  20. Generalization of the van der Pauw Method: Analyzing Longitudinal Magnetoresistance Asymmetry to Quantify Doping Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, M.; Zhou, Wang; Yoo, Heun-Mo; Prabhu-Gaunkar, S.; Tiemann, L.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.

    A longitudinal magnetoresistance asymmetry (LMA) between a positive and negative magnetic field is known to occur in both the extreme quantum limit and the classical Drude limit in samples with a nonuniform doping density. By analyzing the current stream function in van der Pauw measurement geometry, it is shown that the electron density gradient can be quantitatively deduced from this LMA in the Drude regime. Results agree with gradients interpolated from local densities calibrated across an entire wafer, establishing a generalization of the van der Pauw method to quantify density gradients. Results will be shown of various semoconductor systems where this method is applied, from bulk doped semiconductors, to exfoliated 2D materials. McCormick Catalyst Award from Northwestern University, EECS Bridge Funding, and AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0247.

  1. Pattern-free thermal modulator via thermal radiation between Van der Waals materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianglei; Shen, Jiadong; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-10-01

    Modulating heat flux provides a platform for a plethora of emerging devices such as thermal diodes, thermal transistors, and thermal memories. Here, a pattern-free noncontact thermal modulator is proposed based on the mechanical rotation between two Van der Waals films with optical axes parallel to the surfaces. A modulation contrast can reach a value higher than 5 for hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) films separated by a nanoscale gap distance. The dominant radiative heat exchange comes from the excitation of both Type I and Type II hyperbolic surface phonon polaritons (HSPhPs) at the vacuum-hBN interface for different orientations, while the large modulation contrast is mainly attributed to the mismatching Type I HSPhPs induced by rotation. This work opens the possibility to design cheap thermal modulators without relying on nanofabrication techniques, and paves the way to apply natural Van der Waals materials in manipulating heat currents in an active way.

  2. Charge carrier mobility in thin films of organic semiconductors by the gated van der Pauw method

    PubMed Central

    Rolin, Cedric; Kang, Enpu; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Thin film transistors based on high-mobility organic semiconductors are prone to contact problems that complicate the interpretation of their electrical characteristics and the extraction of important material parameters such as the charge carrier mobility. Here we report on the gated van der Pauw method for the simple and accurate determination of the electrical characteristics of thin semiconducting films, independently from contact effects. We test our method on thin films of seven high-mobility organic semiconductors of both polarities: device fabrication is fully compatible with common transistor process flows and device measurements deliver consistent and precise values for the charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage in the high-charge carrier density regime that is representative of transistor operation. The gated van der Pauw method is broadly applicable to thin films of semiconductors and enables a simple and clean parameter extraction independent from contact effects. PMID:28397852

  3. Van der Waals model for phase transitions in thermoresponsive surface films.

    PubMed

    McCoy, John D; Curro, John G

    2009-05-21

    Phase transitions in polymeric surface films are studied with a simple model based on the van der Waals equation of state. Each chain is modeled by a single bead attached to the surface by an entropic-Hooke's law spring. The surface coverage is controlled by adjusting the chemical potential, and the equilibrium density profile is calculated with density functional theory. The interesting feature of this model is the multivalued nature of the density profile seen at low temperature. This van der Waals loop behavior is resolved with a Maxwell construction between a high-density phase near the wall and a low-density phase in a "vertical" phase transition. Signatures of the phase transition in experimentally measurable quantities are then found. Numerical calculations are presented for isotherms of surface pressure, for the Poisson ratio, and for the swelling ratio.

  4. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens.

  5. van der Waals Interactions on the Mesoscale: Open-Science Implementation, Anisotropy, Retardation, and Solvent Effects.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Daniel M; Hopkins, Jaime C; Denoyer, Lin K; Poudel, Lokendra; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Ching, Wai-Yim; Podgornik, Rudolf; Parsegian, Adrian; French, Roger H

    2015-09-22

    The self-assembly of heterogeneous mesoscale systems is mediated by long-range interactions, including van der Waals forces. Diverse mesoscale architectures, built of optically and morphologically anisotropic elements such as DNA, collagen, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and inorganic materials, require a tool to calculate the forces, torques, interaction energies, and Hamaker coefficients that govern assembly in such systems. The mesoscale Lifshitz theory of van der Waals interactions can accurately describe solvent and temperature effects, retardation, and optically and morphologically anisotropic materials for cylindrical and planar interaction geometries. The Gecko Hamaker open-science software implementation of this theory enables new and sophisticated insights into the properties of important organic/inorganic systems: interactions show an extended range of magnitudes and retardation rates, DNA interactions show an imprint of base pair composition, certain SWCNT interactions display retardation-dependent nonmonotonicity, and interactions are mapped across a range of material systems in order to facilitate rational mesoscale design.

  6. Ductal carcinoma in situ: USC/Van Nuys Prognostic Index and the impact of margin status.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Melvin J; Buchanan, Claire

    2003-12-01

    As our knowledge of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) continues to evolve, treatment decision-making has become increasingly complex and controversial for both patients and physicians. Treatment options include mastectomy, and breast conservation with or without radiation therapy. Data produced from the randomized clinical trials for DCIS has provided the basis for important treatment recommendations, but are not without limitations. In this article, we review our prospectively collected database consisting of 1036 patients with DCIS treated at the Van Nuys Breast Center and the USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. We review the use of the USC/Van Nuys Prognostic Index, a clinical algorithm designed to assist physicians in selection of appropriate treatments, and examine the impact of margin status as a sole predictor of local recurrence.

  7. A simplified implementation of van der Waals density functionals for first-principles molecular dynamics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Gygi, François

    2012-06-01

    We present a simplified implementation of the non-local van der Waals correlation functional introduced by Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)] and reformulated by Román-Pérez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009)]. The proposed numerical approach removes the logarithmic singularity of the kernel function. Complete expressions of the self-consistent correlation potential and of the stress tensor are given. Combined with various choices of exchange functionals, five versions of van der Waals density functionals are implemented. Applications to the computation of the interaction energy of the benzene-water complex and to the computation of the equilibrium cell parameters of the benzene crystal are presented. As an example of crystal structure calculation involving a mixture of hydrogen bonding and dispersion interactions, we compute the equilibrium structure of two polymorphs of aspirin (2-acetoxybenzoic acid, C9H8O4) in the P21/c monoclinic structure.

  8. Fermi surface properties of NbAs2 studied by de Haas-van Alphen oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Ratnadwip; Mandal, Prabhat

    2018-04-01

    We have grown high quality single crystal of NbAs2, a member of the transition metal dipnictide family and measured magnetotransport properties. Very large magnetoresistance ˜1.3×105 % has been observed at 2 K with 9 T magnetic field. The Fermi surface properties have been studied by de Haas-van Alphen oscillation technique. The Fermi surface is highly anisotropic and consists of multiple Fermi pockets. From quantum oscillation results, different Fermi surface related parameters have been quantified.

  9. Van der Waals equation of state revisited: importance of the dispersion correction.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Sam P

    2011-04-28

    One of the most basic equations of state describing nonideal gases and liquids is the van der Waals equation of state, and as a consequence, it is generally taught in most first year undergraduate chemistry courses. In this work, we show that the constants a and b in the van der Waals equation of state are linearly proportional to the polarizability volume of the molecules in a gas or liquid. Using this information, a new thermodynamic one-parameter equation of state is derived that contains experimentally measurable variables and physics constants only. This is the first equation of state apart from the Ideal Gas Law that contains experimentally measurable variables and physics constants only, and as such, it may be a very useful and practical equation for the description of dilute gases and liquids. The modified van der Waals equation of state describes pV as the sum of repulsive and attractive intermolecular interaction energies that are represented by an exponential repulsion function between the electron clouds of the molecules and a London dispersion component, respectively. The newly derived equation of state is tested against experimental data for several gas and liquid examples, and the agreement is satisfactory. The description of the equation of state as a one-parameter function also has implications on other thermodynamic functions, such as critical parameters, virial coefficients, and isothermal compressibilities. Using our modified van der Waals equation of state, we show that all of these properties are a function of the molecular polarizability volume. Correlations of experimental data confirm the derived proportionalities.

  10. And then there were 12--distinguishing Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes from old or new copies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of announcements of the authentications of two previously unknown Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes in one month, this paper reviews the possibilities and potential pitfalls that might be involved in distinguishing 17th/18th century single-lensed microscopes from historical and modern copies. It is clear that a combination of characteristics must be considered, no single parameter will do. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Estimation of Some Parameters from Morse-Morse-Spline-Van Der Waals Intermolecular Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroiu, I.

    2007-04-01

    Some parameters such as transport cross-sections and isotopic thermal diffusion factor have been calculated from an improved intermolecular potential, Morse-Morse-Spline-van der Waals (MMSV) potential proposed by R.A. Aziz et al. The treatment was completely classical and no corrections for quantum effects were made. The results would be employed for isotope separations of different spherical and quasi-spherical molecules.

  12. Pontobulbar palsy and neurosensory deafness (Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome) with possible autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, S A; Nevin, N C; Harding, A E

    1990-01-01

    A female with the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is described. The patient's father, a paternal uncle, and possibly a paternal first cousin had neurosensory deafness and a paternal aunt had clinical symptoms indicative of the syndrome. This family raises the possibility that the disorder is genetically heterogeneous with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms. Alternatively, it could be caused by a mutant gene on the X chromosome. Images PMID:2325091

  13. The evaluation of damage mechanism of unreinforced masonry buildings after Van (2011) and Elazig (2010) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, D.; Aydin, E.; Öztürk, B.

    2015-07-01

    On March 8th, 2010 Karakocan-Elazig earthquake of magnitude 6.0 occurred at a region where masonry and adobe construction is very common. Karakocan-Elazig is located in a high seismicity region on Eastern Anatolian Fault System (EAFS). Due to the earthquake, 42 people were killed and 14’113 buildings were damaged. Another city, Van located at South east of Turkey is hit by earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on October 23rd, 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanli village) and M = 5.6 on November 9th, 2011 with an epicenter near the town of Edremit, south of Van and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 10’000 buildings were seriously damaged. There are many traditional types of structures existing in the region hit by earthquakes (both Van and Elazig). These buildings were built as adobe, unreinforced masonry or mixed type. These types of buildings are very common in rural areas (especially south and east) of Turkey because of easy workmanship and cheap construction cost. Many of those traditional type structures experienced serious damages. The use of masonry is very common in some of the world's most hazard-prone regions, such as in Latin America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia, the Middle East, and southern Europe. Based on damage and failure mechanism of those buildings, the parameters affecting the seismic performance of those traditional buildings are analyzed in this paper. The foundation type, soil conditions, production method of the masonry blocks, construction method, the geometry of the masonry walls, workmanship quality, existence of wooden beams, type of roof, mortar between adobe blocks are studied in order to understand the reason of damage for these types of buildings.

  14. Providing Support to Inner-city Students and Teachers Through the Physics Van Inservice Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Mel S.

    2007-02-01

    There are many programs for the professional development of high school physics teachers that have proven to be effective in preparing these teachers to conduct inquiry-based activities in the classroom. In this paper, we describe a small-scale professional development program called the Physics Van Inservice Institute. During the program, teachers are engaged in inquiry-based physics modules and are then able to borrow the equipment so that they can conduct the activities in their own classes.

  15. Approximating the Basset force by optimizing the method of van Hinsberg et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, G.; Ferrer, A.; Oñate, E.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we put the method proposed by van Hinsberg et al. [29] to the test, highlighting its accuracy and efficiency in a sequence of benchmarks of increasing complexity. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of systematizing the way in which the method's free parameters are determined by generalizing the optimization problem that was considered originally. Finally, we provide a list of worked-out values, ready for implementation in large-scale particle-laden flow simulations.

  16. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang

    Here, the success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherentmore » charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the

  17. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; ...

    2016-05-10

    Here, the success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherentmore » charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the

  18. The ambivalence of the maternal body: psychoanalytic readings of the legend of Van Gogh.

    PubMed

    Pollock, G

    1994-08-01

    This article aims to identify the collective social investment in 'Van Gogh' as a cultural icon, and to ask what function his life story, colourfully illustrated by his art work, has performed in the West since the 1890s. It argues that the life and work of a Dutch artist have become the raw materials for a series of secular 'mystery' plays and christological psychodramas that reflect the ills of twentieth-century experience. The key moments when Van Gogh was made into a figure in a popular imagination were psychologically significant: the Depression and the immediate aftermath of World War II. 'Van Gogh', a fantasy figure of modern man, has been over-'psychologised', his work becoming only the testament to the myth of modern man. Using social-art-historical techniques, the author tries to distance this kind of reading in the case of one drawing of a peasant woman, bending over. Situating the fantasy that the drawing services in precise social and historical terms of bourgeois men formed in childhood in relation to a split feminine/maternal figure of the lady/mother and the working-class nursemaid, the article examines how to use psychoanalysis to read the formal oddities of the work--distortion and monumentality, attention to a fragmented, eroticised but also punished body--for the oscillation between pre-oedipal fantasies of maternal plenitude and awe and oedipal anxieties which sadistically inflict humiliation on the maternal body. Finally, instead of producing Van Gogh as the extreme case of an 'other', the author recognises the drawing as a space where present fantasies of the reader encounter those of the producer. Psychoanalysis informing historically-precise interpretation becomes a demythologising hermeneutic.

  19. Quality of Expert Systems: Methods and Techniques (Kwaliteit van Expertsystemen: Methoden en Technieken)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    en Elektroniscb Laboratorium TNO (FEL-TNO), de Rijksuniversiteit Limburg (RL) en bet Research Instituut voor Kennis-Systemen (RIKS). In dit rapport...kwaliteitsbeheersing van kennissystemen. TNO rapport Pagina 2 report no : FEL-89-A267 bee Quality of Expert Systems: Methods and Techniques author(s) J.H.J. Lenting MA...Defence Research and Development. Participants in the project are TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory (FEL-TNO), University of Limburg (RL) and

  20. Calculations of predissociative lifetimes of RG...Hal2 Van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Stepanov, N. F.

    1992-07-01

    Good examples of combined energy- and time-resolved techniques linked by the theoretical solution of a nuclear problem may be found in investigations of the dynamics of weakly bound Van der Waals (VdW) complexes, such as Ar-OH and He-stilbene. Our report concerns only the theoretical aspect of this complex approach. However, we shall stress the importance of energy-resolved spectroscopy for the dynamics and try to illustrate this with some numerical results.