Science.gov

Sample records for aapprox130 mass region

  1. {gamma}-ray Spectroscopy of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei in the A{approx}130 Region using SPIRAL beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stezowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Rosse, B.; Schmitt, Ch.; De France, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.

    2008-11-11

    A fusion-evaporation experiment has been performed with a SPIRAL {sup 76}Kr radioactive beam in order to study the deformation of rare-earth nuclei near the proton drip-line. The experimental setup consisted in the EXOGAM {gamma}-array, coupled to the light-charged particles (LCP) DIAMANT detector and to the VAMOS heavy-ion spectrometer. The difficulties inherent to such measurements are enlightened. The coupling between EXOGAM and DIAMANT has been used to decrease the huge background caused by the radioactivity of the beam. It further permits assigning new {gamma}-ray transitions to specific residual nuclei. A {gamma}-ray belonging to the {sup 130}Pm level scheme has thus been observed for the first time.

  2. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  3. Mass extrapolations in the region of deformed rare Earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Borcea, C.; Audi, G.

    1998-12-21

    A procedure based on the regularity property of the mass surface is proposed to make predictions for the masses of neutron rich deformed nuclei in the rare earth region. Tables are given for the estimated masses; they extend up to the presumed limit of the deformation region.

  4. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  5. Systematic description of superdeformed bands in the mass-190 region

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yang; Guidry, M. |; Zhang, Jing-ye

    1996-12-31

    Superdeformed bands for the mass-190 region are described by the Projected Shell Model. Even-even, odd mass and odd-odd nuclei are equally well described. Good agreement with available data for all isotopes studied is obtained. The authors calculation of electromagnetic properties and pairing correlations provides an understanding of the observed gradual increase of dynamical moments of inertia with angular momentum observed in many bands in this mass region.

  6. Mass Outflow in the Narrow Line Region of Markarian 573

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revalski, Mitchell; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, Steven B.; Schmitt, Henrique R.

    2016-01-01

    We present our progress toward determining the mass outflow rate in the narrow emission line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Markarian 573. Mass outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) drive gas away from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) into the circumnuclear environment, and may play an important role in regulating the growth of the SMBH, and its coevolution with the host galaxy bulge. Recent work by Crenshaw et al. (2015, ApJ, 799, 83) found that the mass outflow rate in the NLR of NGC 4151 is too large for the outflowing mass to have originated only from the central region, indicating a significant amount of gas is picked up by the outflow as it travels away from the nucleus. Using archival spectra taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), we are working to determine the mass outflow rates in a sample of 10 Seyfert galaxies to determine if correlations exist between their outflows and other properties including galaxy luminosity. To accomplish this, we will analyze the emission line spectra using photoionization models to determine the mass of the outflowing gas. Combining this information with previous kinematic modeling from Fischer et al. (2013, ApJS, 209, 1), we can determine the mass outflow rates and kinetic luminosities as a function of radius from the nucleus. These quantities will provide a direct comparison between observation and theoretical feedback models, allowing us to determine the significance of these outflows in regulating AGN feedback.

  7. Slowly enlarging, nontender mass in the right submandibular region.

    PubMed

    Correll, R W; DeBoom, G W; Jensen, J L

    1986-10-01

    Slow-growing, soft tissue masses in the submandibular region of the neck frequently are caused by tumors of the submandibular salivary gland. These neoplasms are most commonly benign and characteristically develop during a prolonged period--often, during 15 or more years. The recommended treatment is excision of the gland, and, if adequately performed, the probability of the tumor's recurring is insignificant.

  8. Chemistry in low-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions.

    PubMed

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2006-08-15

    When interstellar clouds collapse to form new stars and planets, the surrounding gas and dust become part of the infalling envelopes and rotating disks, thus providing the basic material from which new solar systems are formed. Instrumentation to probe the chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions has only recently become available. The results of a systematic program to study the abundances in solar-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions are presented. Surveys at submillimeter and infrared wavelengths reveal a rich chemistry, including simple and complex (organic) gases, ices, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and silicates. Each of these species traces different aspects of the physical and chemical state of the objects as they evolve from deeply embedded protostars to pre-main sequence stars with planet-forming disks. Quantitative information on temperatures, densities, and abundances is obtained through molecular excitation and radiative transfer models as well as from analysis of solid-state line profiles. The chemical characteristics are dominated by freeze-out in the coldest regions and ice evaporation in the warmer zones. In the surface layers of disks, UV radiation controls the chemistry. The importance of complementary laboratory experiments and calculations to obtain basic molecular data is emphasized.

  9. Very extended shpaes in the A {approximately} 150 mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    There was a report of a rotational band in {sup 152}Dy or {sup 153}Dy that is characterized by a dynamic moment of inertia of 130h{sup 2} MeV{sup -1}. For purposes of orientation, it should be noted that the well known superdeformed bands in this region are characterized by moments of inertia of {approximately}90. Some calculations were carried out in two- and three-dimensional shape spaces, in order to understand this experimental observation. These calculations show either very shallow minima and/or minima that do not become yrast below I = 90 at the very large deformations that would seem to be required to explain such a large moment of inertia. We extended our four-dimensional deformation space Strutinsky calculations to a study of this mass region, with the hope of gaining some insight into the nature of this band. We are also analyzing the other nuclides of this mass region with the hope of finding other instances of such very extended shapes. This analysis is almost complete.

  10. Chemistry in low-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions

    PubMed Central

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2006-01-01

    When interstellar clouds collapse to form new stars and planets, the surrounding gas and dust become part of the infalling envelopes and rotating disks, thus providing the basic material from which new solar systems are formed. Instrumentation to probe the chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions has only recently become available. The results of a systematic program to study the abundances in solar-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions are presented. Surveys at submillimeter and infrared wavelengths reveal a rich chemistry, including simple and complex (organic) gases, ices, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and silicates. Each of these species traces different aspects of the physical and chemical state of the objects as they evolve from deeply embedded protostars to pre-main sequence stars with planet-forming disks. Quantitative information on temperatures, densities, and abundances is obtained through molecular excitation and radiative transfer models as well as from analysis of solid-state line profiles. The chemical characteristics are dominated by freeze-out in the coldest regions and ice evaporation in the warmer zones. In the surface layers of disks, UV radiation controls the chemistry. The importance of complementary laboratory experiments and calculations to obtain basic molecular data is emphasized. PMID:16894165

  11. Mass Wasting Processes in Vesta's South Polar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, K.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Stephan, K.; Sykes, M. V.; Schenk, P.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Images of Asteroid Vesta taken by the Dawn framing camera give insight to a wide range of geologic phenomena on Vesta's surface. In this abstract we focus on the evidence of different types of gravity-driven mass wasting that can be seen on Vesta with an emphasis on the south polar region where the formation of the giant impact basin of Rheasilvia (1, 2) caused significant mass movements and lateral displacement. During the formation of the impact basin various processes such as uplift and stretching moved material of the impact site (3). The remnant are fault scarps, ridges, and uplift features inside the Rheasilvia basin (2). Beside these mass movements, there are also three types of debris movement associated with the Rheasilvia impact basin: block slumping of solid material, granular landslides, and flow-like features. They all occur on the rim of the basin and the central peak with slopes varying from 10° to 40°. The movement, however, is in different directions. While the block slumping and landslides occur on the steep slopes of the crater wall facing inward, the flow-like movements go outward from the crater rim on less steep slopes. The block slumping is most prominent in the region between 80° and 120° east and 50° and 60° south (4). The slump blocks in a rotational movement showing multiple scarps and ridges. Landslides on the steep slopes inward of Rheasilvia have a length to height ratio of about 1. The flow-like features occur in the region between 50° and 90° east and 20° to 40° south. They are in a relatively young area and have a length to height ratio up to 35. Additionally, many small elongate depressions of about 1.5 km length can be found near the central peak of Rheasilvia. They are mainly arranged parallel to the slope with a slight curvature and are related to instability of granular material on a slope. References: (1) Jaumann et al., Science 336, 687 (2012); (2) Schenk et al., Science 336, 694 (2012); (3) Melosh, Impact Cratering

  12. Microscopic study of superdeformation in the A = 150 mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Rigollet, C.; Gall, B.; Bonche, P.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are presently investigating the properties of superdeformed (SD) nuclear states in the A=150 mass region. For that purpose, they use the cranked HFB method in which pairing correlations are treated dynamically by means of the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Their goal is to take advantage of the large amount of experimental data to test the predictive power of their microscopic approach and of the effective interaction. In the present communication, they focus on {sup 152}Dy and {sup 153}Dy for which there are recent experimental data. In particular lifetime measurements have allowed to extract electric quadrupole moments. The new Skyrme effective force SLy4 is used to describe the nucleon-nucleon interaction, while for the pairing channel the authors use a density-dependent zero-range interaction.

  13. Estimation of regional mass anomalies from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, S. K.; Rajawat, A. S.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    Time-variable gravity changes are caused by a combination of postglacial rebound, redistribution of water and snow/ice on land and as well as in the ocean. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, launched in 2002, provides monthly average of the spherical harmonic co-efficient. These spherical harmonic co-efficient describe earth's gravity field with a resolution of few hundred kilometers. Time-variability of gravity field represents the change in mass over regional level with accuracies in cm in terms of Water Equivalent Height (WEH). The WEH reflects the changes in the integrated vertically store water including snow cover, surface water, ground water and soil moisture at regional scale. GRACE data are also sensitive towards interior strain variation, surface uplift and surface subsidence cover over a large area. GRACE data was extracted over the three major Indian River basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, in the Himalayas which are perennial source of fresh water throughout the year in Northern Indian Plain. Time series analysis of the GRACE data was carried out from 2003-2012 over the study area. Trends and amplitudes of the regional mass anomalies in the region were estimated using level 3 GRACE data product with a spatial resolution at 10 by 10 grid provided by Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas at Austin. Indus basin has shown a subtle decreasing trend from 2003-2012 however it was observed to be statistically insignificant at 95 % confidence level. Ganga and Brahmaputra basins have shown a clear decreasing trend in WEH which was also observed to be statistically significant. The trend analysis over Ganga and Brahamputra basins have shown an average annual change of -1.28 cm and -1.06 cm in terms of WEH whereas Indus basin has shown a slight annual change of -0.07 cm. This analysis will be helpful to understand the loss of mass in terms of WEH over Indian Himalayas and will be crucial for hydrological and

  14. The structure of star formation regions. III - Individual regions - Spatial extent, mass, and age of SFR Sagittarius I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalbovsky, O. I.; Shevchenko, V. S.

    1981-02-01

    Photoelectric UBV photometry was used to study selected stars in the clusters NGC 6530, 6531, 6611, 6613 and near the nebulae M17 and M20. These clusters as well as Bo 14, NGC 6544, 6546, 6595, 6604, Cr 367 and Cr 469, along with field stars in the region and the molecular cloud common to all the objects, make up the unified star formation region Sgr I. Distended along the galactic plane, this region measures 900 x 140 pc. Its stars have a combined mass of about 100,000 solar masses; the mass of the molecular cloud is 10 million to 40 million solar masses. Thirteen Cepheids occur in the region; CR Ser and X Sct are about 50 million years old. The age of the oldest clusters in the region is 20 million to 30 million years old; Sgr I itself is more than 100 million years old.

  15. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. STATISTICS AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I.; Utz, D.

    2011-09-10

    We use high time cadence images acquired by the STEREO EUVI and COR instruments to study the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from their initiation through impulsive acceleration to the propagation phase. For a set of 95 CMEs we derived detailed height, velocity, and acceleration profiles and statistically analyzed characteristic CME parameters: peak acceleration, peak velocity, acceleration duration, initiation height, height at peak velocity, height at peak acceleration, and size of the CME source region. The CME peak accelerations we derived range from 20 to 6800 m s{sup -2} and are inversely correlated with the acceleration duration and the height at peak acceleration. Seventy-four percent of the events reach their peak acceleration at heights below 0.5 R{sub sun}. CMEs that originate from compact sources low in the corona are more impulsive and reach higher peak accelerations at smaller heights. These findings can be explained by the Lorentz force, which drives the CME accelerations and decreases with height and CME size.

  16. Systematic study of iodine nuclei in A∼125 mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, H. P.; Chakraborty, S.; Kumar, A.; Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, A.; Kaur, N.; Kumar, S.; Chaturvedi, L.; Jain, A. K.; Laxminarayan, S.

    2014-08-14

    Excited states of {sup 127}I were populated via {sup 124}Sn({sup 7}Li,{sup 4}nγ){sup 127}I fusion-evaporation reaction at beam energy of 33 MeV. Multipolarities of several transitions were determined and spins of corresponding states have been confirmed. The band-head spin and parity of an already reported band at 2901.2 keV has been confirmed. Based on the observed characteristic features and by comparing with the systematics of odd mass iodine nuclei, a πg{sub 7/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2}{sup 2} configuration has been proposed for this band. The experimental B(M1)/B(E2) values for πg{sub 7/2} band were compared with the theoretical results of semi classical model of Frauendorf and Donau and found in well agreement.

  17. 13CO Survey of Northern Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Kerton, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 13CO with the OSO 20-m telescope toward 68 intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) visible in the northern hemisphere. These regions have mostly been excluded from previous CO surveys and were selected from IRAS colors that specify cool dust and large PAH contribution. These regions are known to host stars up to, but not exceeding, about 8 solar masses. We detect 13CO in 57 of the 68 IM SFRs down to a typical RMS of ~50 mK. We present kinematic distances, minimum column densities, and minimum masses for these IM SFRs.

  18. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Emprechtinger, M.; Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Neufeld, D.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J = 1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC 6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC 6334 I the HF line is seen in absorption in foreground clouds and the source itself, while in AFGL 2591 HF is partially in emission. We find an HF abundance with respect to H{sub 2} of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in the diffuse foreground clouds, whereas in the denser parts of NGC 6334 I we derive a lower limit on the HF abundance of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Lower HF abundances in dense clouds are most likely caused by freezeout of HF molecules onto dust grains in high-density gas. In AFGL 2591, the view of the hot core is obstructed by absorption in the massive outflow, in which HF is also very abundant (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) due to the desorption by sputtering. These observations provide further evidence that the chemistry of interstellar fluorine is controlled by freezeout onto gas grains.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parallaxes of high mass star forming regions (Reid+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Zheng, X. W.; Dame, T. M.; Xu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Sato, M.; Hachisuka, K.; Choi, Y. K.; Immer, K.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Bartkiewicz, A.

    2016-04-01

    Table1 lists the parallaxes and proper motions of 103 regions of high-mass star formation measured with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques, using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA; http://veraserver.mtk.nao.ac.jp) project, and the European VLBI Network (EVN). We have include three red supergiants (NML Cyg, S Per, VY CMa) as indicative of high-mass star forming regions. (2 data files).

  20. Bridging the gap: A Spitzer Census of Intermediate-Mass Star Forming Regions from Galactic Surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerton, Charles; Kobulnicky, Chip

    2008-03-01

    High-mass star formation (M>10 Msun) appears to proceed through different channels than low-mass star formation (M<2 Msun). The differences between these two regimes are thought to include not only the timescales and masses involved but also the initial conditions and operative physics within the parent molecular clouds. We propose an archival analysis of ~50 *intermediate-mass* star formation (SF) regions that straddle the boundary between these two regimes---regions forming stars up to 4-8 Msun. These, relatively unknown and unstudied IR sources are selected by their IRAS colors and lie within the Spitzer GLIMPSE+MIPSGAL legacy survey fields. Compared to their more famous high-mass SF cousins (e.g., the Westerhout 'W' HII objects), these regions are radio-quiet, relatively nearby, and structurally less complex. We will use complementary public-domain 13CO, 21-cm, and radio continuum Galactic surveys to 1) confirm the intermediate-mass SF nature of these objects, 2) compile a catalog and an atlas of mid-IR morphologies, 3) estimate distances, 4) calculate total luminosities and gas masses of affiliated molecular and atomic material, and 5) identify associated young stellar objects using IRAC+[24] colors. This work will provide a benchmark useful for contrasting the star formation process in both lower-mass and higher-mass SF environments.

  1. Developing a Regional Occupational Education Center, 1973--King Philip Regional School District, Wrentham, Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, David F.

    To determine the research and planning tasks necessary for a regional career development program, the educational consulting firm of Engelhardt and Engelhardt, Inc. surveyed the needs and suggested a way to expand occupational education for adults and secondary students served by the King Philip Regional Schools. The need for career education and…

  2. A Multi-Wavelength Survey of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Current research into Galactic star formation has focused on either massive star-forming regions or nearby low-mass regions. We present results from a survey of Galactic intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs). These regions were selected from IRAS colors that specify cool dust and large PAH contribution, suggesting that they produce stars up to but not exceeding about 8 solar masses. Using WISE data we have classified 984 candidate IM SFRs as star-like objects, galaxies, filamentary structures, or blobs/shells based on their mid-infrared morphologies. Focusing on the blobs/shells, we combined follow-up observations of deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging with optical and NIR spectroscopy to study the stellar content, confirming the intermediate-mass nature of these regions. We also gathered CO data from OSO and APEX to study the molecular content and dynamics of these regions. We compare these results to those of high-mass star formation in order to better understand their role in the star-formation paradigm.

  3. Estimates of Regional Equilibrium Line Altitudes and Net Mass Balance from MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. M.; Menounos, B.; Moore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Glacier mass balance is a key variable used to assess the health of glaciers and ice sheets. Estimates of glacier mass balance are required to model the dynamic response of glaciers and ice sheets to climate change, estimate sea-level contribution from surface melt, and document the response of glaciers to climate forcing. Annually resolved estimates of regional mass balance for mountain ranges is often inferred from a sparse network of ground-based measurements of mass balance for individual glaciers. Given that net mass balance is highly correlated with the annual equilibrium line altitude (ELA), we develop an automated approach to estimate the ELA, and by inference net mass balance, on large glaciers and icefields using MODIS 250 m imagery (MOD02QKM). We discriminate areas of bare ice and snow/firn using the product of MODIS' red (0.620 - 0.670 μ m) and near infrared (0.841 - 0.876 μ m) bands. To assess the skill in estimating glacier ELAs, we compare ELAs derived from (1) manual delineation and (2) unsupervised classification of the band product to ground-based observations of ELA and net mass balance at seven long term mass-balance monitoring sites in western North America (Gulkana, Wolverine, Lemon Creek, Taku, Place, Peyto, and South Cascade). Spatial and temporal variations in MODIS-derived ELAs provide an opportunity to validate regional mass-balance models, estimate surface melt contributions to sea-level rise, and examine the cryospheric response to climate change.

  4. Inferring regional surface mass anomalies from GRACE KBRR data by energy integral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bo; Luo, Zhicai; Li, Qiong; Zhou, Hao

    2016-04-01

    GRACE mission provides an effective technique to detect the mass redistribution through its effects on Earth gravity. Although the mass anomalies on the earth's surface inferred from the monthly average of the spherical harmonic coefficients has been largely successful, this approach has not revealed the submonthly time scale information and fundamental resolution of the GRACE observations. As the GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) can reveal the local signature more sensitively, the regional recovered approach based on regional basic function is offered to recovery the local mass redistribution with submonthly and high spatial resolution. We established an approach to estimate regional surface mass anomalies by inverting GRACE-based potential difference anomalies at satellite altitude. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between the mass concentrations are introduced to stabilize the linear system to eliminate the effects of the north-south striping. The efficiency of our approach has been validated using a closed-loop simulation study over South America. It is demonstrated that spatial constraints assist the solutions on reducing striping error inherent in the measurement configuration and temporal aliasing. Finally, time series of 10-day and 30-day regional surface mass anomalies over Tibet plateau also prove to be consistent with independent hydrological models. The time series of mass anomalies reveal the seasonal changes in the source area of three rivers and the accumulation in the north-east Gan-Qing block and Tibet block. Keywords: regional surface mass anomalies, GRACE KBRR, spatial constraints Acknowledgements: This research was jointly supported by the National 973 Program of China (No.2013CB733302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.41474019, No.41131067,No. 41504014).

  5. The Radial Mass Profile within the Entire Virial Region of a Fossil Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buote, David A.; Su, Yuanyuan; Gastaldello, Fabio; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    We present a hydrostatic analysis of the azimuthally averaged hot intracluster medium (ICM) of the entire virial region of the relaxed fossil cluster RXJ 1159+5531. For a model consisting of ICM, stellar mass from the central galaxy (BCG), and an NFW dark matter (DM) halo, we obtain a good description of the projected radial profiles of ICM temperature and emission-measure that yield precise constraints on the total mass profile. The BCG stellar mass component is clearly detected with a K-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M_star/L_K = 0.61 +/- 0.11 solar, consistent with stellar population synthesis models. We obtain a halo concentration, c_200 = 8.4 +/- 1.0, and virial mass, M_200 = 7.9 +/- 0.6 x 10^{13} M_sun. For its mass, the inferred concentrationis larger than most relaxed halos produced in cosmological simulations with Planck parameters, consistent with RXJ 1159+5531 forming earlier than the general halo population. The detection of a plausible stellar BCG mass component distinct from the NFW DM halo in the total gravitational potential supports the suggestion by Newman et al. (2015) that 10^{14} M_sun represents the mass scale above which dissipation is unimportant in the formation of the central regions of galaxy clusters.

  6. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  7. On the Identification of High-Mass Star Forming Regions Using IRAS: Contamination by Low-Mass Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, Tyler L.; Hyland, A. R.; Robinson, Garry

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a survey of a small sample (14) of low-mass protostars (LIR<103 Lsolar) for 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission performed using the ATNF Parkes radio telescope. No new masers were discovered. We find that the lower luminosity limit for maser emission is near 103 Lsolar by comparison of the sources in our sample with previously detected methanol maser sources. We examine the IRAS properties of our sample and compare them with sources previously observed for methanol maser emission, almost all of which satisfy the Wood & Churchwell criterion for selecting candidate UC H II regions. We find that about half of our sample satisfy this criterion, and in addition, almost all of this subgroup have integrated fluxes between 25 and 60 μm that are similar to sources with detectable methanol maser emission. By identifying a number of low-mass protostars in this work and from the literature that satisfy the Wood & Churchwell criterion for candidate UC H II regions, we show conclusively for the first time that the fainter flux end of their sample is contaminated by lower mass nonionizing sources, confirming the suggestion by van der Walt and Ramesh & Sridharan.

  8. The Stellar Content of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, H.; Alexander, M.; Vargas Alvarez, C.; Arvidsson, K.; Kerton, C.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to understand the factors that govern the transition from low- to high-mass star formation, we report near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of stars within a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IMSFRs). Some IMSFRs appear to contain compact <1 pc embedded clusters at an early evolutionary stage similar to compact HII regions, but lacking the massive ionizing central star(s). The IMSFRs have photodissociation regions with diameters 1 pc powered by the equivalent of an early B star, but because all sources lack radio free-free emission, they must host a collection of less massive stars. These spectroscopic observations using FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope, coupled with 2MASS and UKIDSS infrared imaging, identify which candidate IMSFRs host probable stellar clusters and address the nature of their most massive stellar constituents.

  9. A {sup 13}CO SURVEY OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim

    2015-06-10

    We have conducted a {sup 13}CO survey of a sample of 128 infrared color-selected intermediate-mass star-forming region (IM SFR) candidates. We utilized the Onsala 20 m telescope to observe {sup 13}CO (1–0) toward 67 northern IM SFRs, used the 12 m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope to observe {sup 13}CO (2–1) toward 22 southern IM SFRs, and incorporated an additional 39 sources from the Boston University Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey which observed {sup 13}CO (1–0). We detect {sup 13}CO (1–0) in 58 of the 67 northern sources and {sup 13}CO (2–1) in 20 of the 22 southern sources. The mean molecular column densities and {sup 13}CO linewidths in the inner Galaxy are higher by factors of 3.4 and 1.5, respectively, than the outer Galaxy. We attribute this difference to molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy being more massive and hosting star forming regions with higher luminosities on average than the outer Galaxy. IM SFRs have mean a molecular column density of 7.89 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −2}, a factor of 3.1 lower than that for a sample of high-mass regions, and have a mean {sup 13}CO linewidth of 1.84 km s{sup −1}, a factor of 1.5 lower than that for high-mass regions. We demonstrate a correlation between {sup 13}CO linewidth and infrared luminosity as well as between molecular column density and infrared luminosity for the entire sample of intermediate-mass and high-mass regions. IM SFRs appear to form in distinctly lower-density environments with mean linewidths and beam-averaged column densities a factor of several lower than high-mass star-forming regions.

  10. A 13CO Survey of Intermediate-mass Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted a 13CO survey of a sample of 128 infrared color-selected intermediate-mass star-forming region (IM SFR) candidates. We utilized the Onsala 20 m telescope to observe 13CO (1-0) toward 67 northern IM SFRs, used the 12 m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope to observe 13CO (2-1) toward 22 southern IM SFRs, and incorporated an additional 39 sources from the Boston University Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey which observed 13CO (1-0). We detect 13CO (1-0) in 58 of the 67 northern sources and 13CO (2-1) in 20 of the 22 southern sources. The mean molecular column densities and 13CO linewidths in the inner Galaxy are higher by factors of 3.4 and 1.5, respectively, than the outer Galaxy. We attribute this difference to molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy being more massive and hosting star forming regions with higher luminosities on average than the outer Galaxy. IM SFRs have mean a molecular column density of 7.89 × 1021 cm-2, a factor of 3.1 lower than that for a sample of high-mass regions, and have a mean 13CO linewidth of 1.84 km s-1, a factor of 1.5 lower than that for high-mass regions. We demonstrate a correlation between 13CO linewidth and infrared luminosity as well as between molecular column density and infrared luminosity for the entire sample of intermediate-mass and high-mass regions. IM SFRs appear to form in distinctly lower-density environments with mean linewidths and beam-averaged column densities a factor of several lower than high-mass star-forming regions.

  11. Microscopic study of deformation systematics in some isotones in the A ≈ 100 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Arun; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Khosa, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    Variation after projection (VAP) calculations in conjunction with Hartree-Bogoliubov (HB) ansatz have been carried out for N=60, 62 isotones in the mass region A=100. In this framework, the yrast spectra with JΠ >= 10+ B(E2) transition probabilities, quadrupole deformation parameter and occupation numbers for various shell model orbits have been obtained. The results of calculations indicate that the simultaneous increase in polarization of p1/2, p3/2 and f5/2 proton sub-shells is a significant factor into the development of the deformation in neutron rich isotones in the mass region A=100.

  12. The Initial Mass Function in the Taurus Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, César; Luhman, K. L.; Hartmann, Lee; Stauffer, John R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2002-11-01

    By combining a deep optical imaging (I,z') survey of 8 deg2 in the Taurus star-forming region with data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and follow-up spectroscopy, we have performed a search for low-mass Taurus members that is complete to 0.02 Msolar for reddenings of AV<~4. We report the discovery of nine new members with spectral types of M5.75-M9.5, corresponding to masses of 0.1-0.015 Msolar by recent evolutionary models. The new M9.5 member is the least massive brown dwarf found to date in the Taurus star-forming region. We derive an initial mass function (IMF) for the fields surveyed in this work and in our previous studies, which encompass 54% of the known Taurus membership. We compare the Taurus IMF with a similarly derived one for the Trapezium Cluster and to mass functions for the M35 and Pleiades open clusters. While the IMFs in all of these regions flatten near ~0.8 Msolar, the mass function in Taurus is more narrow and sharply peaked at this mass. Our survey indicates that Taurus has ~2 × fewer brown dwarfs at 0.02-0.08 Msolar than the Trapezium. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of the IMF, and suggest that the lower frequency of brown dwarfs in Taurus relative to the Trapezium may result from the low-density star-forming environment, leading to larger minimum Jeans masses. Based on observations obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Keck Observatory, Steward Observatory, and the MMT Observatory. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  13. Pathways of F region thermospheric mass density enhancement via soft electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Varney, R. H.; Lotko, W.; Brambles, O. J.; Wang, W.; Lei, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J. G.

    2015-07-01

    The efficiencies of pathways of thermospheric heating via soft electron precipitation in the dayside cusp region are investigated using the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere model (CMIT). Event-based data-model comparisons show that the CMIT model is capable of reproducing the thermospheric mass density variations measured by the CHAMP satellite during both quite and active periods. During the 24 August 2005 storm event (Kp = 6-) while intense Joule heating rate occurs in the polar cusp region, including soft electron precipitation is important for accurately modeling the F region thermospheric mass density distribution near the cusp region. During the 27 July 2007 event (Kp = 2-) while little Joule heating rate occurs in the polar cusp region, the controlled CMIT simulations suggest that the direct pathway through the energy exchange between soft electrons and thermospheric neutrals is the dominant process during this event, which only has a small effect on the neutral temperature and mass density at 400 km altitude. Comparisons between the two case studies show that the indirect pathway via increasing the F region Joule heating rate is a dominant process during the 24 August 2005 storm event, which is much more efficient than the direct heating process.

  14. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  15. Investigation of Aapprox100 mass region up to exotic with interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Uluer, I.

    2010-04-26

    Even-even nuclei in the Aapprox100 mass region are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). The parametrization established on the basis of known elements is then used to predict properties of the unknown. This paper includes the predicted energy spectra and the potential energy surface obtained from the IBM-1 hamiltonian in the classical limit.

  16. Qβ Measurements of Neutron-Rich Isotopes in the Mass Region 147≤A≤152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawade, Kiyoshi; Kawase, Yoichi

    1995-09-01

    The systematic Qβ measurements of 14 neutron-rich nuclei in the mass region from A=147 to A=152 have been performed with an HPGe detector. Neutron rich nuclei were mass separated from the thermal neutron induced fission of 235U using a He-jet type on-line isotope separator which has been developed at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). From β-ray singles and β-γ coincidence measurements, the Qβ values of 147La, 147-150Ce, 147-152Pr, 152Nd and 152Pm have been determined. The Qβ values of 152Pr and 152Nd have been measured for the first time. The atomic masses derived from the Qβ values are compared with the predictions of theoretical mass calculations.

  17. 233U mass yield measurements around and within the symmetry region with the ILL Lohengrin spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebboubi, A.; Kessedjian, G.; Sage, C.; Bernard, D.; Blanc, A.; Faust, H.; Köster, U.; Litaize, O.; Mutti, P.; Serot, O.

    2016-03-01

    The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. The LPSC in collaboration with ILL and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the ILL, with a special focus on the masses constituting the heavy peak. We will present in this paper our measurement of the very low fission yields in the symmetry mass region and the heavy mass wing of the distribution for 233U thermal neutron induced fission. The difficulty due to the strong contamination by other masses with much higher yields will be addressed in the form of a new analysis method featuring the required contaminant correction. The apparition of structures in the kinetic energy distributions and possible interpretations will be discussed, such as a possible evidence of fission modes.

  18. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  19. Process and rate of dedolomitization: mass transfer and C14 dating in a regional carbonate aquifer.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rahn, P.H.; Rightmire, C.T.; Rubin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Regional dedolomitization is the major process that controls the chemical character of water in the Mississippian Pahasapa Limestone (Madison equivalent) surrounding the Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming. The process of dedolomitization consists of dolomite dissolution and concurrent precipitation of calcite; it is driven by dissolution of gypsum. Deuterium and oxygen isotopic data from the ground water, coupled with regional potentiometric maps, show that recharge occurs on the western slope of the Black Hills and that the water flows N and W toward the Powder River Basin. Mass-balance and mass-transfer calculations were used to adjust 14C values to determine a range of groundwater flow velocities between 2 and 20 m/yr. The close agreement among the model results demonstrates that dedolomitization is controlling water-rock interactions in this regional carbonate aquifer system.-from Authors

  20. Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions: What are the Most Massive Stars Formed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Chip; Vargas, Carlos; Kerton, Charles; Arvidsson, Kim

    2010-08-01

    High-mass star formation cannot be viewed as simply a scaled-up version of the paradigm for low-mass star formation. The high-mass regime (M> 10 Msun) appears to require significant differences in cloud fragmentation, accretion, radiation, turbulence, and overall molecular density compared to the low-mass regime. We have identified a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) hosting embedded clusters that straddle the boundary of these two regimes and can be used to understand the factors that govern the transition between these extremes. Most notable among these factors is the possibility of a critical cloud mass column density that appears to divide high-mass SFRs from IM SFRs. Yet, the very nature of IM SFRs and their stellar content are almost completely unknown, primarily because of the previous difficulty in identifying such objects. We propose HK band spectroscopy of the brightest stellar sources near nine IM SFRs to identify probable members, confirm the IM nature of the most massive stars, and characterize their evolutionary state. Three nights with FLAMINGOS on the 4 m (or equivalent IR spectrograph) will suffice to obtain classification spectra and several spectral diagnostics sensitive to accretion for at least 8-10 stars per object.

  1. First results from a NIR survey of High Mass Star Forming Regions on the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuernberger, Dieter; Bronfman, Leonardo

    In spite of the lower formation rate and shorter evolutionary time scale of high mass stars (M > 8 M_{\\odot}) in comparison to low mass stars (M < 3 M_{\\odot}) there is no doubt that young OB stars have a more severe impact on their parental environment. On the one hand they are associated both with high energetic winds and massive molecular outflows, on the other hand they emit a large amount of Lyman-Continuum photons, which ionize the circumstellar material resulting in the formation of ultracompact H ii regions (UCHIIs). Here we present first results from a JHK^{'} survey of 42 regions of high mass star formation, showing FIR colour characteristics of UCHIIs (Wood & Churchwell 1989) and strong emission in the CS(2--1) rotational transition (Bronfman etal.\\ 1996). As all regions are mapped at mm wavelengths we are able to study the interplay between the young (deeply embedded) high mass stars and their ambient medium of gas and dust. Furthermore, we investigate the multiplicity of the sources as well as the spatial shape and spectral (NIR) characteristic of the UCHIIs.

  2. Infrared Mass-to-Light Profile throughout the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rines, K.; Geller, M. J.; Kurtz, M. J.; Diaferio, A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Huchra, J. P.

    2001-11-01

    Using a redshift survey of 1779 galaxies and photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey covering 200 deg2, we calculate independent mass and light profiles for the infall region of the Coma Cluster of galaxies. The redshift survey is complete to Ks=12.2 (622 galaxies), 1.2 mag fainter than M*Ks at the distance of Coma. We confirm the mass profile obtained by Geller, Diaferio, and Kurtz. The enclosed mass-to-light ratio measured in the Ks band is approximately constant to a radius of 10 h-1 Mpc, where M/LKs=75+/-23 h Msolar/Lsolar, in agreement with weak-lensing results on similar scales. Within 2.5 h-1 Mpc, X-ray estimates yield similar mass-to-light ratios (67+/-32 h). The constant enclosed mass-to-light ratio with radius suggests that the K-band light from bright galaxies in clusters traces the total mass on scales <~10 h-1 Mpc. Uncertainties in the mass profile imply that the mass-to-light ratio inside r200 may be as much as a factor of 2.5 larger than that outside r200. These data demonstrate that the K-band light is not positively biased with respect to the mass; we cannot rule out antibias. These results imply that Ωm=0.17+/-0.05. Estimates of possible variations in M/LKs with radius suggest that the density parameter is no smaller than Ωm~0.08.

  3. Regional Variation in Causes of Injuries among Terrorism Victims for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Schultheiss, Amy; Mould, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The efficient allocation of medical resources to prepare for and respond to mass casualty events (MCEs) attributable to intentional acts of terrorism is a major challenge confronting disaster planners and emergency personnel. This research article examines variation in regional patterns in the causes of injures associated with 77,258 successful terrorist attacks that occurred between 1970 and 2013 involving the use of explosives, firearms, and/or incendiaries. The objective of this research is to estimate regional variation in the use of different conventional weapons in successful terrorist attacks in each world region on variation in injury cause distributions. Indeed, we find that the distributions of the number of injuries attributable to specific weapons types (i.e., by cause) vary greatly among the 13 world regions identified within the Global Terrorism Database. PMID:26347857

  4. Regional Variation in Causes of Injuries among Terrorism Victims for Mass Casualty Events.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Schultheiss, Amy; Mould, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The efficient allocation of medical resources to prepare for and respond to mass casualty events (MCEs) attributable to intentional acts of terrorism is a major challenge confronting disaster planners and emergency personnel. This research article examines variation in regional patterns in the causes of injures associated with 77,258 successful terrorist attacks that occurred between 1970 and 2013 involving the use of explosives, firearms, and/or incendiaries. The objective of this research is to estimate regional variation in the use of different conventional weapons in successful terrorist attacks in each world region on variation in injury cause distributions. Indeed, we find that the distributions of the number of injuries attributable to specific weapons types (i.e., by cause) vary greatly among the 13 world regions identified within the Global Terrorism Database.

  5. Low-Spin States From Decay Studies in the Mass 80 Region

    PubMed Central

    Döring, J.; Aprahamian, A.; Wiescher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron-deficient nuclei in the mass 80 region are known to exhibit strongly deformed ground states deduced mainly from yrast-state properties measured in-beam via heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. Vibrational excitations and non-yrast states as well as their interplay with the observed rotational collectivity have been less studied to date within this mass region. Thus, several β-decay experiments have been performed to populate low-spin states in the neutron-deficient 80,84Y and 80,84Sr nuclei. An overview of excited 0+ states in Sr and Kr nuclei is given and conclusions about shape evolution at low-spins are presented. In general, the non-yrast states in even-even Sr nuclei show mainly vibration-like collectivity which evolves to rotational behavior with increasing spin and decreasing neutron number. PMID:27551586

  6. Level spins of superdeformed bands in A ˜ 80 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H. M.; Sharma, Neha

    2016-06-01

    The models variable moment of inertia (VMI), two-parameter (ab) formula and Harris ω2 expansion have been applied to 16 rotational superdeformed bands in the A ˜ 80 mass region to obtain band head spin (I0). The band head spins of these 16 bands in the A ˜ 80 mass region are predicted by least-squares fitting method. Intraband γ-rays energies are fitted in these models to extract model parameters so as to obtain a minimum root mean square (RMS) deviation between calculated and the observed transition energies. The calculated transition energies depend upon the prescribed spins. When a legitimate band head spin is assigned, the calculated transition energies are in good agreement with the observed transition energies.

  7. Analysis of hemodynamic fluid phase mass transport in a separated flow region.

    PubMed

    Lutostansky, Elizabeth M; Karner, Gerhard; Rappitsch, Gerhard; Ku, David N; Perktold, Karl

    2003-04-01

    The mass transfer behavior in the recirculation region downstream of an axisymmetric sudden expansion was examined. The Reynolds number, 500, and Schmidt number, 3200, were selected to model the mass transfer of molecules, such as ADP, in the arterial system. In a first step the transient mass transport applying zero diffusive flux at the wall was analyzed using experiments and two computational codes. The two codes were FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume method, and FTSP, a finite element code developed at Graz University of Technology. The comparison of the transient wall concentration values determined by the three methods was excellent and provides a measure of confidence for computational mass transfer calculations in convection dominated, separated flows. In a second step the effect of the flow separation on the stationary mass transport applying a permeability boundary condition at the water-permeable wall was analyzed using the finite element code FTSP. The results show an increase of luminal ADP surface concentration in the upstream and in the downstream tube of the sudden expansion geometry in the range of six and twelve percent of the bulk flow concentration. The effect of flow separation in the downstream tube on the wall concentration is a decrease of about ten percent of the difference between wall concentration and bulk concentration occurring at nearly fully developed flow at the downstream region at a distance of 66 downstream tube diameters from the expansion. The decrease of ADP flux into the wall is in the range of three percent of the flux at the downstream region. PMID:12751280

  8. Neonatal and pediatric regionalized systems in pediatric emergency mass critical care

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Wanda D.; Krug, Steven E.; Kanter, Robert K.; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Brantley, Mary D.; Chung, Sarita; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Improved health outcomes are associated with neonatal and pediatric critical care in well-organized, cohesive, regionalized systems that are prepared to support and rehabilitate critically ill victims of a mass casualty event. However, present systems lack adequate surge capacity for neonatal and pediatric mass critical care. In this document, we outline the present reality and suggest alternative approaches. Methods In May 2008, the Task Force for Mass Critical Care published guidance on provision of mass critical care to adults. Acknowledging that the critical care needs of children during disasters were unaddressed by this effort, a 17-member Steering Committee, assembled by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education with guidance from members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, convened in April 2009 to determine priority topic areas for pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations. Steering Committee members established subcommittees by topic area and performed literature reviews of MEDLINE and Ovid databases. The Steering Committee produced draft outlines through consensus-based study of the literature and convened October 6–7, 2009, in New York, NY, to review and revise each outline. Eight draft documents were subsequently developed from the revised outlines as well as through searches of MEDLINE updated through March 2010. The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29–30, 2010. Feedback on each manuscript was compiled and the Steering Committee revised each document to reflect expert input in addition to the most current medical literature. Task Force Recommendations States and regions (facilitated by federal partners) should review current emergency operations and devise appropriate plans to address the population-based needs of infants and children in large-scale disasters. Action at

  9. An all-sky sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, Michael J.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim

    2014-04-01

    We present an all-sky sample of 984 candidate intermediate-mass Galactic star-forming regions that are color selected from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog and morphologically classify each object using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images. Of the 984 candidates, 616 are probable star-forming regions (62.6%), 128 are filamentary structures (13.0%), 39 are point-like objects of unknown nature (4.0%), and 201 are galaxies (20.4%). We conduct a study of four of these regions, IRAS 00259+5625, IRAS 00420+5530, IRAS 01080+5717, and IRAS 05380+2020, at Galactic latitudes |b| > 5° using optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory, along with near-infrared photometry from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, to investigate their stellar content. New optical spectra, color-magnitude diagrams, and color-color diagrams reveal their extinctions, spectrophotometric distances, and the presence of small stellar clusters containing 20-78 M {sub ☉} of stars. These low-mass diffuse star clusters contain ∼65-250 stars for a typical initial mass function, including one or more mid-B stars as their most massive constituents. Using infrared spectral energy distributions we identify young stellar objects near each region and assign probable masses and evolutionary stages to the protostars. The total infrared luminosity lies in the range 190-960 L {sub ☉}, consistent with the sum of the luminosities of the individually identified young stellar objects.

  10. On the width and shape of the corotation region for low-mass planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2009-04-01

    We study the coorbital flow for embedded, low-mass planets. We provide a simple semi-analytic model for the corotation region, which is subsequently compared to high-resolution numerical simulations. The model is used to derive an expression for the half-width of the horseshoe region, xs, which in the limit of zero softening is given by xs/rp = 1.68(q/h)1/2, where q is the planet to central star mass ratio, h is the disc aspect ratio and rp is the orbital radius. This is in very good agreement with the same quantity measured from simulations. This result is used to show that horseshoe drag is about an order of magnitude larger than the linear corotation torque in the zero-softening limit. Thus, the horseshoe drag, the sign of which depends on the gradient of specific vorticity, is important for estimates of the total torque acting on the planet. We further show that phenomena, such as the Lindblad wakes, with a radial separation from corotation of approximately a pressure scaleheight H can affect xs, even though for low-mass planets xs << H. The effect is to distort streamlines and reduce xs through the action of a back pressure. This effect is reduced for smaller gravitational softening parameters and planets of higher mass, for which xs becomes comparable to H.

  11. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Smorra, C.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-15

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard {sup 12}C. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, {delta}V{sub pn}(Z,N).

  12. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Dworschak, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-01

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard C12. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, δVpn(Z,N).

  13. Observations of HDO in the High-Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczak-Jastrzębska, M.

    2016-06-01

    I present observations of the ground state (10,1-00,0) rotational transition of HDO at 464.925 GHz toward several high-mass star forming regions carried out with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The spectra are modeled together with observations of higher-energy HDO transitions and submillimeter dust continuum fluxes present in the literature. Spherically symmetric radiative transfer model was used to derive the radial distribution of the HDO abundance in the target sources. The abundance profile is divided into an inner hot core region, with kinetic temperatures higher than 100 K, and a cold outer envelope. The derived HDO abundances relative to H2 are: (0.6-3.5)×10-8 and (0.1-25)×10-11 in the hot inner region and the cold outer envelope, respectively.

  14. Systematics of low-lying electric dipole excitations in the A{approx_equal}130{endash}200 mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, C.; von Brentano, P.; Herzberg, R.; Pietralla, N.; Zilges, A.; Beck, O.; Eckert, T.; Kneissl, U.; Maser, H.; Nord, A.; Pitz, H.H.; Zilges, A.

    1998-01-01

    The data from numerous high resolution photon scattering experiments allow an extensive survey of the lowest electric dipole excitations in the A{approx_equal}130{endash}200 mass region. In this mass region one can find spherical as well as transitional and strongly quadrupole deformed nuclei. The measured absolute E1 strengths are typically of the order of several milli Weisskopf units and exhibit in general a smooth variation with mass number. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. 1. Transport of Mass, Momentum and Energy in Planetary Magnetodisc Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleos, Nicholas; André, Nicolas; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Brandt, Pontus C.; Delamere, Peter A.; Winglee, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The rapid rotation of the gas giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, leads to the formation of magnetodisc regions in their magnetospheric environments. In these regions, relatively cold plasma is confined towards the equatorial regions, and the magnetic field generated by the azimuthal (ring) current adds to the planetary dipole, forming radially distended field lines near the equatorial plane. The ensuing force balance in the equatorial magnetodisc is strongly influenced by centrifugal stress and by the thermal pressure of hot ion populations, whose thermal energy is large compared to the magnitude of their centrifugal potential energy. The sources of plasma for the Jovian and Kronian magnetospheres are the respective satellites Io (a volcanic moon) and Enceladus (an icy moon). The plasma produced by these sources is globally transported outwards through the respective magnetosphere, and ultimately lost from the system. One of the most studied mechanisms for this transport is flux tube interchange, a plasma instability which displaces mass but does not displace magnetic flux—an important observational constraint for any transport process. Pressure anisotropy is likely to play a role in the loss of plasma from these magnetospheres. This is especially the case for the Jovian system, which can harbour strong parallel pressures at the equatorial segments of rotating, expanding flux tubes, leading to these regions becoming unstable, blowing open and releasing their plasma. Plasma mass loss is also associated with magnetic reconnection events in the magnetotail regions. In this overview, we summarise some important observational and theoretical concepts associated with the production and transport of plasma in giant planet magnetodiscs. We begin by considering aspects of force balance in these systems, and their coupling with the ionospheres of their parent planets. We then describe the role of the interaction between neutral and ionized species, and how it determines

  16. Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations.

    PubMed

    Wojtalewicz, Cliff; Kirby, Adam; Dietz, J Eric

    2014-01-01

    When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quickresponse mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care

  17. Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations.

    PubMed

    Wojtalewicz, Cliff; Kirby, Adam; Dietz, J Eric

    2014-01-01

    When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quickresponse mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care

  18. Precision mass measurements of some isotopes of tungsten and mercury for an adjustment to the mass table in the region A = 184 to A = 204

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillari, Domenico K.

    This thesis concerns the precise re-measurement of mass values in the region of the mercury isotopes, such that important discrepancies in the high-mass end of the mass table could be resolved. Scope and contents. Four mass spectroscopic doublets involving a comparison between 201Hg, 199Hg and 183W (and using a chlorocarbon reference) are reported from measurements made with the upgraded Manitoba 11 deflection instrument. The measurements address the problem of a mass table mis-adjustment in the region of the valley of β-stability between the tungsten group and the noble metals. The results, forming a well-closed loop of mass differences, support the earlier results of Kozier [Ko(1977)] regarding the (stable) mercury isotope masses and confirm an approximate 20 μu discrepancy in the mass adjustment of Audi et al [Au(1993)]. A local least- square re-adjustment conducted using these and existing mass table data suggests that the error originates with mass differences pertaining to one or more other nuclide pairs, perhaps 193Ir-192Ir. The work on upgrading the precision voltage supply and potentiometry system of the Manitoba II instrument is also reported, as is a new assessment on the data processing method. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Two New SiO Maser Sources in High-Mass Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Se-Hyung; Yun, Youngjoo; Kim, Jaeheon; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Choi, Minho

    2016-08-01

    Silicon monoxide (SiO) masers are rare in star-forming regions, with the exception of five known SiO maser sources. However, we detected two new SiO maser sources from infrared-loud clumps of the high-mass star-forming regions G19.61‑0.23 and G75.78+0.34. High angular resolution observations toward G19.61‑0.23 suggest that the deeply embedded young stellar object (YSO) of SMA1 is powering the SiO masers. In addition, the SiO v = 1, J = 1 \\to 0 line shows four spike features, while the v = 2 maser shows combined features of one spike and broad wing components, implying energetic activities of the YSO of SMA1 in the G19.61‑0.23 hot molecular core. The SiO v = 0, J = 2 \\to 1 emission shows bipolar outflows in the NE–SW direction with respect to the center of the SiO maser source. A high angular resolution map of the SiO v = 1, J = 2 \\to 1 maser in G75.78+0.34 shows that the SiO maser is associated with the CORE source at the earliest stage of high-mass star formation. Therefore, the newly detected SiO masers and their associated outflows will provide good probes for investigating this early high-mass star formation.

  20. Superdeformation in the a Approximately 190 Mass Region and Shape Coexistence in LEAD-194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, Matthew James

    Near-yrast states in ^{194 }Pb have been identified up to a spin of {~}35hbar following the ^{176}Yb(^ {24}Mg,6n)^{194} Pb^{*} reaction at a beam energy of 134 MeV, measured with the High Energy -Resolution Array located at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron facility. Eighteen new transitions were placed. Examples of non-collective prolate and oblate and collective oblate excitations are seen. In addition a rotational band consisting of twelve transitions, with energy spacings characteristic of superdeformed shapes, were also seen. These results have been interpreted using both Nilsson model calculations and previously published potential energy surface calculations. The superdeformed bands in the A ~ 190 mass region are discussed with primary emphasis on ten superdeformed bands in ^{192,193,194 }Hg and ^{192,194,196,198 }Pb discovered or codiscovered by our collaboration. The discussion of superdeformation in these nuclei have been broken into three portions, focusing on the population of, the physics associated with, and the depopulation of these bands, respectively. The population behavior of the superdeformed structures is presented, and discussed with respect to theoretical predictions for nuclei near A ~ 190 expected to support superdeformation. A detailed analysis of the population of the ^{193} Hg^{rm 1a} band is provided, and the results are compared with statistical model calculations predictions. Significant differences were found between the population of the superdeformed bands in the A ~ 150 and 190 mass regions. The systematics of the intraband region are presented. Nilsson model calculations are carried out, with nucleon configurations for the primary superdeformed bands proposed. A discussion of possible mechanisms for reproducing the smooth increase in dynamic moments of inertia observed in all superdeformed bands in this mass region is provided. A number of superdeformed bands in the A ~ 190 mass region have transition energies

  1. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  2. The complex high-mass star-forming region IRAS 15507-5359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Elia, D.; López-Vázquez, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The far-infrared IRAS 15507-5359 source is known to be a medium-mass star-forming region associated with a compact H II region and a near-infrared embedded cluster. We present a survey of infrared-calibrated images ranging from 1.2 to 500 μm obtained with the Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Herschel space telescope with additional archive Spitzer data. We confirm the distance to the complex to be 5.0 kpc. Three Herschel far-infrared sources are found, I, II, III, identified with dense cores at different evolutionary stages. One (III) is a starless infrared dark cloud showing, near its edge, two infrared reflection nebulae (R1) and (R2) with dispersed young stellar populations, including a knot of shocked H2 line emission. Both show considerable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. Core II has associated a radio H II region and a deeply embedded one-million-year-old cluster (Cl 1) that contains more than 45 young stellar objects, reddened by at least 20 visual magnitudes. About 20 per cent of them show considerable infrared excess emission. Core I appears void of a near-infrared population, and coincides with a long emission bar that resembles a photodissociation front. We determine the properties of the two most luminous Class I sources in the region by fitting models of young stars with accreting discs and envelopes to their 1-500 μm spectral energy distributions. This is another example of a medium-mass region with at least three well-defined active centres of star formation separated by about 1 pc and at different evolutionary stages.

  3. Modeling the water line emission from the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelman, D. R.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Observations of water lines are a sensitive probe of the geometry, dynamics and chemical structure of dense molecular gas. The launch of Herschel with on board HIFI and PACS allows to probe the behaviour of multiple water lines with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Aims: We investigate the diagnostic value of specific water transitions in high-mass star-forming regions. As a test case, we apply our models to the AFGL 2591 region. Methods: A multi-zone escape probability method is used in two dimensions to calculate the radiative transfer. Similarities and differences of constant and jump abundance models are displayed, as well as when an outflow is incorporated. Results: In general, for models with a constant water abundance, the ground state lines, i.e., 110-101, 111-000, and 212-101, are predicted in absorption, all the others in emission. This behaviour changes for models with a water abundance jump profile in that the line profiles for jumps by a factor of ~10-100 are similar to the line shapes in the constant abundance models, whereas larger jumps lead to emission profiles. Asymmetric line profiles are found for models with a cavity outflow and depend on the inclination angle. Models with an outflow cavity are favoured to reproduce the SWAS observations of the 110-101 ground-state transition. PACS spectra will tell us about the geometry of these regions, both through the continuum and through the lines. Conclusions: It is found that the low-lying transitions of water are sensitive to outflow features, and represent the excitation conditions in the outer regions. High-lying transitions are more sensitive to the adopted density and temperature distribution which probe the inner excitation conditions. The Herschel mission will thus be very helpful to constrain the physical and chemical structure of high-mass star-forming regions such as AFGL 2591.

  4. Search for Majorana Neutrinos Near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen.

    PubMed

    Gando, A; Gando, Y; Hachiya, T; Hayashi, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Karino, Y; Koga, M; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Obara, S; Oura, T; Ozaki, H; Shimizu, I; Shirahata, Y; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takai, T; Tamae, K; Teraoka, Y; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Kozlov, A; Takemoto, Y; Yoshida, S; Fushimi, K; Banks, T I; Berger, B E; Fujikawa, B K; O'Donnell, T; Winslow, L A; Efremenko, Y; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2016-08-19

    We present an improved search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of ^{136}Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment. Owing to purification of the xenon-loaded liquid scintillator, we achieved a significant reduction of the ^{110m}Ag contaminant identified in previous searches. Combining the results from the first and second phase, we obtain a lower limit for the 0νββ decay half-life of T_{1/2}^{0ν}>1.07×10^{26}  yr at 90% C.L., an almost sixfold improvement over previous limits. Using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations, the corresponding upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass are in the range 61-165 meV. For the most optimistic nuclear matrix elements, this limit reaches the bottom of the quasidegenerate neutrino mass region. PMID:27588852

  5. Search for Majorana Neutrinos Near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen.

    PubMed

    Gando, A; Gando, Y; Hachiya, T; Hayashi, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Karino, Y; Koga, M; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Obara, S; Oura, T; Ozaki, H; Shimizu, I; Shirahata, Y; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takai, T; Tamae, K; Teraoka, Y; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Kozlov, A; Takemoto, Y; Yoshida, S; Fushimi, K; Banks, T I; Berger, B E; Fujikawa, B K; O'Donnell, T; Winslow, L A; Efremenko, Y; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2016-08-19

    We present an improved search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of ^{136}Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment. Owing to purification of the xenon-loaded liquid scintillator, we achieved a significant reduction of the ^{110m}Ag contaminant identified in previous searches. Combining the results from the first and second phase, we obtain a lower limit for the 0νββ decay half-life of T_{1/2}^{0ν}>1.07×10^{26}  yr at 90% C.L., an almost sixfold improvement over previous limits. Using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations, the corresponding upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass are in the range 61-165 meV. For the most optimistic nuclear matrix elements, this limit reaches the bottom of the quasidegenerate neutrino mass region.

  6. Search for Majorana Neutrinos Near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashi, A.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Karino, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oura, T.; Ozaki, H.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takai, T.; Tamae, K.; Teraoka, Y.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND-Zen Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We present an improved search for neutrinoless double-beta (0 ν β β ) decay of 136Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment. Owing to purification of the xenon-loaded liquid scintillator, we achieved a significant reduction of the Agm110 contaminant identified in previous searches. Combining the results from the first and second phase, we obtain a lower limit for the 0 ν β β decay half-life of T1/2 0 ν>1.07 ×1 026 yr at 90% C.L., an almost sixfold improvement over previous limits. Using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations, the corresponding upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass are in the range 61-165 meV. For the most optimistic nuclear matrix elements, this limit reaches the bottom of the quasidegenerate neutrino mass region.

  7. A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS: MAKING STARS AT MASS COLUMN DENSITIES <1 g cm{sup -2}

    SciTech Connect

    Arvidsson, K.; Kerton, C. R.; Alexander, M. J.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Uzpen, B. E-mail: kerton@iastate.ed E-mail: chipk@uwyo.ed E-mail: buzpen@itt-tech.ed

    2010-08-15

    In an effort to understand the factors that govern the transition from low- to high-mass star formation, for the first time we identify a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) where stars up to (but not exceeding) {approx}8 M{sub sun} are being produced. We use IRAS colors and Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR images, in conjunction with millimeter continuum and {sup 13}CO maps, to compile a sample of 50 IM SFRs in the inner Galaxy. These are likely to be precursors to Herbig AeBe stars and their associated clusters of low-mass stars. IM SFRs constitute embedded clusters at an early evolutionary stage akin to compact H II regions, but they lack the massive ionizing central star(s). The photodissociation regions that demarcate IM SFRs have typical diameters of {approx}1 pc and luminosities of {approx}10{sup 4} L{sub sun}, making them an order of magnitude less luminous than (ultra-)compact H II regions. IM SFRs coincide with molecular clumps of mass {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub sun} which, in turn, lie within larger molecular clouds spanning the lower end of the giant molecular cloud mass range, 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M{sub sun}. The IR luminosity and associated molecular mass of IM SFRs are correlated, consistent with the known luminosity-mass relationship of compact H II regions. Peak mass column densities within IM SFRs are {approx}0.1-0.5 g cm{sup -2}, a factor of several lower than ultra-compact H II regions, supporting the proposition that there is a threshold for massive star formation at {approx}1 g cm{sup -2}.

  8. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  9. Theoretical studies of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light-mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszczak, Andrzej; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2016-05-01

    We review our theoretical knowledge of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light mass region in 28≤A≤52 obtained previously in cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations. We report additional toroidal high-spin isomers in 56Ni with I=114ħ and 140ħ, which follow the same (multi-particle)-(multi-hole) systematics as other toroidal high-spin isomers. We examine the production of these exotic nuclei by fusion of various projectiles on 20Ne or 28Si as an active target in time-projection-chamber (TPC) experiments.

  10. Theoretical studies of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light-mass region

    DOE PAGES

    Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2016-05-11

    We review our theoretical knowledge of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light mass region in 28 A 52 obtained previously in cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations. We report additional toroidal high-spin isomers in 56Ni with I=114 and 140, which follow the same (multi-particle) (multi-hole) systematics as other toroidal high-spin isomers. We examine the production of these exotic nuclei by fusion of various projectiles on 20Ne or 28Si as an active target in time-projection-chamber (TPC) experiments.

  11. New supersymmetric quartet of nuclei in the A{approx}190 mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Barea, J.; Bijker, R.; Frank, A.; Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Christen, S.; Jolie, J.; Tonev, D.; Balodis, M.; Berzins, J.; Kramere, N.; Egidy, T. von

    2009-03-15

    We present evidence for a new supersymmetric quartet in the A{approx}190 region of the nuclear mass table. New experimental information on transfer and neutron capture reactions to the odd-odd nucleus {sup 194}Ir strongly suggests the existence of a new supersymmetric quartet, consisting of the {sup 192,193}Os and {sup 193,194}Ir nuclei. We make explicit predictions for the odd-neutron nucleus {sup 193}Os and suggest that its spectroscopic properties be measured in dedicated experiments.

  12. A better GRACE solution for improving the regional Greenland mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, E.; Xu, Z.

    2012-04-01

    In most GRACE based researches, a variety of smoothing methods is employed to remove alternating bands of positive and negative stripes stretching in the north-south direction. Many studies have suggested to smooth the GRACE maps, on which mass variations are represented as equivalent water height (EWH). Such maps are capable of exposing the redistribution of earth surface mass over time. In Greenland the shrinking of the ice cap becomes significant in the last decade. Our present study confirms that the dominating melting trends are in the east and southeast coastal zones, however, the smoothed signals along the coastline in these areas do not represent the original but averaged measurements from GRACE satellites which means the signal strength indicating that negative mass variations are mixed with some positive signals that are very close to this area. An exact identification of the topographic edge is not possible and visually the EWH maps appear to be blurred. To improve this, we firstly used spherical harmonic coefficients of GRACE level-2 data from CSR-RL04 and produced a smoothed EWH map. Empirical Orthogonal Functions(EOF)/Principal Component Analysis(PCA) have been introduced as well, in order to extract the melting information associated with the recent warming climate. Next, the Greenland area is redefined by 16 basins and the corresponding melting zones are quantified respectively. Least Squares methods are invoked to interpolate the mass distribution function on each basin. In this way we are able to estimate more accurately regional ice melting rate and we sharpen the EWH map. After comparing our results with a hydrological model the combination SMB - D is established which contains the surface mass balance (SMB) and ice-discharge (D). A general agreement can be reached and it turns out this method is capable to enhance our understanding of the shrinking global cryosphere

  13. Distinguishing benign mediastinal masses from malignancy in a histoplasmosis-endemic region

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Fouzia; Metzger, Monika L.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of benign and malignant mediastinal masses, which may predict their etiology and facilitate the safe and timely management of patients, especially those residing in histoplasmosis-endemic regions. Study design We conducted a retrospective review of the health records of 131 patients aged <19 years who were referred to two tertiary care children's hospitals from 2005-2010 for the evaluation of mediastinal masses. Results Most patients (79%) had benign masses, including 98 with confirmed or suspected histoplasmosis. Overall, patients with benign etiologies were younger, more likely to be African American, more likely to complain of cough and to have pulmonary nodules by chest computed tomographs than patients with cancer. Patients with malignant disease were more likely to complain of malaise and to have neck swelling, abnormal extrathoracic lymphadenopathy, lymphopenia, anterior mediastinal involvement and/or pleural effusion. Positive histoplasmosis serologic tests were specific but insensitive for a benign etiology. No single clinical, laboratory or radiologic feature was sufficiently sensitive and specific to distinguish between benign and malignant masses. For cancer, however, the presence of lymphopenia, anterior mediastinal involvement or enlarged cervical lymph nodes on computerized tomography had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 97% for cancer. Sixty-four patients (49%) underwent invasive testing, including 37 (36%) of patients with benign masses. Conclusions Patients in this series who had involvement of the anterior mediastinum, lymphopenia or enlarged cervical lymph nodes had a high likelihood of cancer. Expectant management of patients lacking these characteristics may be safe and reduce unnecessary invasive testing. PMID:26009018

  14. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  15. Associations between accelerated glacier mass wastage and increased summer temperature in coastal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyurgerov, M.; McCabe, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-elevation glaciers in coastal regions of Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, individual ice caps around the Greenland ice sheet, and the Patagonia Ice Fields have an aggregate glacier area of about 332 ?? 103 km 2 and account for approximately 42% of all the glacier area outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. They have shown volume loss, especially since the end of the 1980s, increasing from about 45% in the 1960s to nearly 67% in 2003 of the total wastage from all glaciers on Earth outside those two largest ice sheets. Thus, a disproportionally large contribution of coastal glacier ablation to sea level rise is evident. We examine cumulative standardized departures (1961-2000 reference period) of glacier mass balances and air temperature data in these four coastal regions. Analyses indicate a strong association between increases in glacier volume losses and summer air temperature at regional and global scales. Increases in glacier volume losses in the coastal regions also coincide with an accelerated rate of ice discharge from outlet glaciers draining the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. These processes imply further increases in sea level rise. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  16. Structural interrogation of phosphoproteome identified by mass spectrometry reveals allowed and disallowed regions of phosphoconformation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput mass spectrometric (HT-MS) study is the method of choice for monitoring global changes in proteome. Data derived from these studies are meant for further validation and experimentation to discover novel biological insights. Here we evaluate use of relative solvent accessible surface area (rSASA) and DEPTH as indices to assess experimentally determined phosphorylation events deposited in PhosphoSitePlus. Results Based on accessibility, we map these identifications on allowed (accessible) or disallowed (inaccessible) regions of phosphoconformation. Surprisingly a striking number of HT-MS/MS derived events (1461/5947 sites or 24.6%) are present in the disallowed region of conformation. By considering protein dynamics, autophosphorylation events and/or the sequence specificity of kinases, 13.8% of these phosphosites can be moved to the allowed region of conformation. We also demonstrate that rSASA values can be used to increase the confidence of identification of phosphorylation sites within an ambiguous MS dataset. Conclusion While MS is a stand-alone technique for the identification of vast majority of phosphorylation events, identifications within disallowed region of conformation will benefit from techniques that independently probe for phosphorylation and protein dynamics. Our studies also imply that trapping alternate protein conformations may be a viable alternative to the design of inhibitors against mutation prone drug resistance kinases. PMID:24618394

  17. Class I methanol masers in low-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, S. V.; Kurtz, S.; Bergman, P.

    2013-02-01

    Results of observations of Class I methanol masers in regions of low-mass star formation (MMIL) are summarized and analyzed. Four masers were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz towards "chemically active" bipolar outflows in the low-mass star-forming regions NGC1333 I4A, NGC 1333 I2A, HH 25, and L1157. Another maser was found at 36 GHz towards a similar outflow in NGC 2023. Thus, all the detected MMILs are associated with chemically active outflows. The brightness temperatures of the strongest 44-GHz maser spots in NGC 1333 I4A, HH 25, and L1157 exceed 2000 K, whereas the brightness temperature in NGC 1333 I2A is only 176 K, although a rotational-diagram analysis shows that this last source is also amaser. The flux densities of the newly detectedmasers are no higher than 18 Jy, and are much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation (MMIH). The MMIL luminosities match the maser luminosity-protostar luminosity relation established earlier for MMIHs. No MMIL variability was detected in 2004-2011. The radial velocities of the newly detected masers are close to the systemic velocities of the associated regions, except for NGC 2023, where the maser radial velocity is lower than the systemic velocity by approximately 3.5 km/s. Thus, the main MMILproperties are similar to those of MMIHs. MMILs are likely to be an extension of the MMIH population toward lower luminosities of both the masers and the associated young stellar objects. The results of VLA observations of MMILs can be explained using a turbulent-cloud model, which predicts that compact maser spots can arise in extended sources because the coherence lengths along some directions randomly appear to be longer than the mean coherence length in a turbulent velocity field. However, one must assume that the column density of methanol towardM1, the strongest maser in L1157, is appreciably higher than the mean column density of the clump B0a where the maser arises. The shape of the maser lines

  18. Increased body mass index is associated with specific regional alterations in brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Medic, N; Ziauddeen, H; Ersche, K D; Farooqi, I S; Bullmore, E T; Nathan, P J; Ronan, L; Fletcher, P C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although obesity is associated with structural changes in brain grey matter, findings have been inconsistent and the precise nature of these changes is unclear. Inconsistencies may partly be due to the use of different volumetric morphometry methods, and the inclusion of participants with comorbidities that exert independent effects on brain structure. The latter concern is particularly critical when sample sizes are modest. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between cortical grey matter and body mass index (BMI), in healthy participants, excluding confounding comorbidities and using a large sample size. Subjects: A total of 202 self-reported healthy volunteers were studied using surface-based morphometry, which permits the measurement of cortical thickness, surface area and cortical folding, independent of each other. Results: Although increasing BMI was not associated with global cortical changes, a more precise, region-based analysis revealed significant thinning of the cortex in two areas: left lateral occipital cortex (LOC) and right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). An analogous region-based analysis failed to find an association between BMI and regional surface area or folding. Participants' age was also found to be negatively associated with cortical thickness of several brain regions; however, there was no overlap between the age- and BMI-related effects on cortical thinning. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the key effect of increasing BMI on cortical grey matter is a focal thinning in the left LOC and right vmPFC. Consistent implications of the latter region in reward valuation, and goal control of decision and action suggest a possible shift in these processes with increasing BMI. PMID:27089992

  19. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  20. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  1. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within contrast-enhanced region of CTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer on CTU. The bladder was automatically segmented with our Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS). In this preliminary study, we developed a system for detecting mass within the contrast-enhanced (C) region of the bladder. The C region was delineated from the segmented bladders using a method based on maximum intensity projection. The bladder wall of the C region was extracted using thresholding to remove the contrast material. The wall on each slice was transformed into a wall profile. Morphology and voxel intensity along the profile were analyzed and suspicious locations were labeled as lesion candidates. The candidates were segmented and 20 morphological features were extracted from each candidate. A data set of 35 patients with 45 biopsy-proven bladder lesions within the C region was used for system evaluation. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out method was used for training and validation. For each partition in the leave-one-case-out method, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the lesion candidates into bladder lesions and normal findings in the left-out case. A single score was generated for each lesion candidate. The performance of the CAD system was evaluated by FROC analysis. At an FP rate of 2.5 FPs/case, the system achieved a sensitivity of 82%, while at 1.7 FPs/case, a sensitivity of 71%.

  2. Searching for high-K isomers in the proton-rich A ∼ 80 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhi-Jun; Jiao, Chang-Feng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2016-09-01

    Configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations have been performed to investigate the K isomerism in the proton-rich A ∼ 80 mass region. An abundance of high-K states are predicted. These high-K states arise from two and four-quasi-particle excitations, with Kπ = 8+ and Kπ = 16+, respectively. Their excitation energies are comparatively low, making them good candidates for long-lived isomers. Since most nuclei under study are prolate spheroids in their ground states, the oblate shapes of the predicted high-K states may indicate a combination of K isomerism and shape isomerism. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235001, 11320101004 and 11575007)

  3. Searching for high-K isomers in the proton-rich A ˜ 80 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhi-Jun; Jiao, Chang-Feng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2016-09-01

    Configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations have been performed to investigate the K isomerism in the proton-rich A ˜ 80 mass region. An abundance of high-K states are predicted. These high-K states arise from two and four-quasi-particle excitations, with Kπ = 8+ and Kπ = 16+, respectively. Their excitation energies are comparatively low, making them good candidates for long-lived isomers. Since most nuclei under study are prolate spheroids in their ground states, the oblate shapes of the predicted high-K states may indicate a combination of K isomerism and shape isomerism. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235001, 11320101004 and 11575007)

  4. Magnetic Rotation in {sup 106}Ag and Systematics of A{approx}110 Mass Region

    SciTech Connect

    He, C. Y.; Zhu, L. H.; Wu, X. G.; Wen, S. X.; Li, G. S.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z. M.; Li, X. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Yang, C. X.; Cui, X. Z.

    2008-11-11

    The high spin states of {sup 106}Ag were populated via the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 100}Mo({sup 11}B,5n){sup 106}Ag at a beam energy of 60 MeV. A new level scheme of {sup 106}Ag is built on basis of the present experiment. The positive parity band with the configuration of {pi}g{sub 9/2} x V[h{sub 11/2}{sup 2}(g{sub 7/2}/d{sub 5/2})] is discussed on the ground of shears mechanism. Theoretical calculation of the effective interaction performed by TAC model agrees well with the experimental value. Systematics study shows that Ag isotopes are probably at the boundary of magnetic rotation in A{approx}110 mass region.

  5. Broad-line region kinematics and black hole mass in Markarian 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, V. T.; Sergeev, S. G.; Klimanov, S. A.; Pronik, V. I.; Efimov, Yu. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of optical spectral and photometric observations of the nucleus of Markarian 6 made with the 2.6-m Shajn telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. The continuum and emission Balmer-line intensities varied by more than a factor of two during 1992-2008. The lag between the continuum and Hβ emission-line flux variations is 21.1 ± 1.9 days. For the Hα line the lag is about 27 days, but its uncertainty is much larger. We use Monte Carlo simulations of random time series to check the effect of our data sampling on the lag uncertainties and we compare our simulation results with those obtained by the random subset selection (RSS) method of Peterson et al. The lags in the high-velocity wings are shorter than those in the line core in accordance with virial motion. However, the lag is slightly larger in the blue wing than in the red wing. This is a signature of infall gas motion. Probably the broad-line region kinematic in the Mrk 6 nucleus is a combination of Keplerian and infall motions. The velocity-delay dependence is similar for individual observational seasons. Measurements of the Hβ line width in combination with the reverberation lag permit us to determine the black hole mass, MBH = (1.8 ± 0.2) × 108 M⊙. This result is consistent with active galactic nucleus scaling relationships between the broad-line region radius and the optical continuum luminosity (RBLR ∝ L0.5) as well as with the black hole mass-luminosity relationship (MBH-L) under an Eddington luminosity ratio for Mrk 6 of Lbol/LEdd ˜ 0.01.

  6. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  7. Mammographical mass detection and classification using local seed region growing-spherical wavelet transform (LSRG-SWT) hybrid scheme.

    PubMed

    Görgel, Pelin; Sertbas, Ahmet; Ucan, Osman N

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement accurate methods of detection and classification of benign and malignant breast masses in mammograms. Our new proposed method, which can be used as a diagnostic tool, is denoted Local Seed Region Growing-Spherical Wavelet Transform (LSRG-SWT), and consists of four steps. The first step is homomorphic filtering for enhancement, and the second is detection of the region of interests (ROIs) using a Local Seed Region Growing (LSRG) algorithm, which we developed. The third step incoporates Spherical Wavelet Transform (SWT) and feature extraction. Finally the fourth step is classification, which consists of two sequential components: the 1st classification distinguishes the ROIs as either mass or non-mass and the 2nd classification distinguishes the masses as either benign or malignant using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). The mammograms used in this study were acquired from the hospital of Istanbul University (I.U.) in Turkey and the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS). The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme LSRG-SWT achieves 96% and 93.59% accuracy in mass/non-mass classification (1st component) and benign/malignant classification (2nd component) respectively when using the I.U. database with k-fold cross validation. The system achieves 94% and 91.67% accuracy in mass/non-mass classification and benign/malignant classification respectively when using the I.U. database as a training set and the MIAS database as a test set with external validation.

  8. Observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at low frequency radio region on 15th April 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Z. S.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Shariff, N. N. M.; Monstein, C.

    2013-05-01

    We have carried out a case study on Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as a massive burst of solar wind and magnetic fields rising above the solar corona. During 15th April 2012, solar filament eruption was accompanied by intense CMEs. This explosion of CMEs observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory with sunspot AR1458 is crackling with C-class solar flares. Solar flare type B3 and C2 were observed beginning 2241 UT and 0142 UT in the active region AR1458. In the present work, we focus in the range of the low frequency region from 150 MHz to 400 MHz. At preliminary stage, starting from 12.00 UT till 1.00 UT there is a strong signal which indicates a formation of burst. Type II burst originated from solar corona can be observed in the range of 150 MHz to 230 MHz. Instead of type II, a moving type IV and continuum type III burst can be detected at 150 MHz and lasting for 1 hours. This event is considered as second largest CMEs been detected since five (5) years. We can then conclude that currently, the Sun is in the phase of gradually increase to reach maximum 24th solar cycle.

  9. Targeted and untargeted mass spectrometric approaches in discrimination between Myrtus communis cultivars from Sardinia region.

    PubMed

    Sarais, G; D'Urso, G; Lai, C; Pirisi, F M; Pizza, C; Montoro, P

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the discrimination of phytochemical content of Myrtus communis berries from different geographical origin and cultivars was explored by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Fourier Transform-Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-FT-MS) metabolic profiling and quantitative analysis. Experiments were carried on myrtle plants grown in an experimental area of Sardinia region, obtained by the germination of seeds taken from berries collected in each part of the region. A preliminary untargeted approach on fruit's extracts was realized by collecting LC-ESI-FT-(Orbitrap)-MS data obtained by operating in negative ion mode and performing principal component analysis with the result of differentiation of samples. In a second step, targeted analysis with a reduced number of variables was realized. A data matrix was obtained by the data fusion of positive and negative ionization LC-ESI-MS results, by using as variables the peak areas of each known compounds. By the observation of principal component analysis, results found that anthocyanins, and mainly derivatives of cyanidin, are the principal marker compounds responsive for the discrimination of samples based on the geographical origin of the seeds. Based on this finding, finally, an LC-diode array detector method was developed, validated and applied for the quantitative analysis of berries' extracts based on 11 commercial standard compounds corresponding to the identified markers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27416492

  10. Hierarchical fragmentation and collapse signatures in a high-mass starless region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Henning, Th.; Linz, H.; Feng, S.; Ragan, S. E.; Smith, R. J.; Bihr, S.; Sakai, T.; Kuiper, R.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We study the fragmentation and collapse properties of the dense gas during the onset of high-mass star formation. Methods: We observed the massive (~800 M⊙) starless gas clump IRDC 18310-4 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) at subarcsecond resolution in the 1.07 mm continuum and N2H+(3-2) line emission. Results: Zooming from a single-dish low-resolution map to previous 3 mm PdBI data, and now the new 1.07 mm continuum observations, the substructures hierarchically fragment on the increasingly smaller spatial scales. While the fragment separations may still be roughly consistent with pure thermal Jeans fragmentation, the derived core masses are almost two orders of magnitude larger than the typical Jeans mass at the given densities and temperatures. However, the data can be reconciled with models using non-homogeneous initial density structures, turbulence, and/or magnetic fields. While most subcores remain (far-)infrared dark even at 70 μm, we identify weak 70 μm emission toward one core with a comparably low luminosity of ~16 L⊙, supporting the notion of the general youth of the region. The spectral line data always exhibit multiple spectral components toward each core with comparably small line widths for the individual components (in the 0.3 to 1.0 km s-1 regime). Based on single-dish C18O(2-1) data we estimate a low virial-to-gas-mass ratio ≤ 0.25. We propose that the likely origin of these spectral properties may be the global collapse of the original gas clump that results in multiple spectral components along each line of sight. Even within this dynamic picture the individual collapsing gas cores appear to have very low levels of internal turbulence. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).The continuum and spectral line data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130

  11. High field FT-ICR mass spectrometry for molecular characterization of snow board from Moscow regions.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Dmitry M; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polyakova, Olga V; Lebedev, Albert T

    2016-07-01

    High field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry analysis of eight snow samples from Moscow city allowed us to identify more than 2000 various elemental compositions corresponding to regional air pollutants. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data showed good concordance of three main groups of samples with the main wind directions. The North-West group (A1) is represented by several homologous CHOS series of aliphatic organic aerosols. They may form as a result of enhanced photochemical reactions including oxidation of hydrocarbons with sulfonations due to higher amount of SO2 emissions in the atmosphere in this region. Group A2, corresponding to the South-East part of Moscow, contains large amount of oxidized hydrocarbons of different sources that may form during oxidation in atmosphere. These hydrocarbons appear correlated to emissions from traffic, neighboring oil refinery, and power plants. Another family of compounds specific for this region involves CHNO substances formed during oxidation processes including NOx and NO3 radical since emissions of NOx are higher in this part of the city. Group A3 is rich in CHO type of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios, which is characteristic of oxidized hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. CHNO types of compounds in A3 group are probably nitro derivatives of condensed hydrocarbons such as PAH. This non-targeted profiling revealed site specific distribution of pollutants and gives a chance to develop new strategies in air quality control and further studies of Moscow environment. PMID:26994789

  12. High field FT-ICR mass spectrometry for molecular characterization of snow board from Moscow regions.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Dmitry M; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polyakova, Olga V; Lebedev, Albert T

    2016-07-01

    High field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry analysis of eight snow samples from Moscow city allowed us to identify more than 2000 various elemental compositions corresponding to regional air pollutants. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data showed good concordance of three main groups of samples with the main wind directions. The North-West group (A1) is represented by several homologous CHOS series of aliphatic organic aerosols. They may form as a result of enhanced photochemical reactions including oxidation of hydrocarbons with sulfonations due to higher amount of SO2 emissions in the atmosphere in this region. Group A2, corresponding to the South-East part of Moscow, contains large amount of oxidized hydrocarbons of different sources that may form during oxidation in atmosphere. These hydrocarbons appear correlated to emissions from traffic, neighboring oil refinery, and power plants. Another family of compounds specific for this region involves CHNO substances formed during oxidation processes including NOx and NO3 radical since emissions of NOx are higher in this part of the city. Group A3 is rich in CHO type of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios, which is characteristic of oxidized hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. CHNO types of compounds in A3 group are probably nitro derivatives of condensed hydrocarbons such as PAH. This non-targeted profiling revealed site specific distribution of pollutants and gives a chance to develop new strategies in air quality control and further studies of Moscow environment.

  13. The Magnetic Helicity Budget of Solar Active Regions and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nindos, A.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.

    2003-01-01

    We compute the magnetic helicity injected by transient photospheric horizontal flows in six solar active regions associated with halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that produced major geomagnetic storms and magnetic clouds (MCs) at 1 AU. The velocities are computed using the local correlation tracking (LCT) method. Our computations cover time intervals of 1 10-150 hr, and in four active regions the accumulated helicities due to transient flows are factors of 8-12 larger than the accumulated helicities due to differential rotation. As was first pointed out by DCmoulin and Berger, we suggest that the helicity computed with the LCT method yields not only the helicity injected from shearing motions but also the helicity coming from flux emergence. We compare the computed helicities injected into the corona with the helicities carried away by the CMEs using the MC helicity computations as proxies to the CME helicities. If we assume that the length of the MC flux tubes is I = 2 AU, then the total helicities injected into the corona are a factor of 2.94 lower than the total CME helicities. If we use the values of 1 determined by the condition for the initiation of the kink instability in the coronal flux rope or I = 0.5 AU then the total CME helicities and the total helicities injected into the corona are broadly consistent. Our study, at least partially, clears up some of the discrepancies in the helicity budget of active regions because the discrepancies appearing in our paper are much smaller than the ones reported in previous studies. However, they point out the uncertainties in the MC/CME helicity calculations and also the limitations of the LCT method, which underestimates the computed helicities.

  14. Homologous Jet-driven Coronal Mass Ejections from Solar Active Region 12192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-05-01

    We report observations of homologous coronal jets and their coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by instruments onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. The homologous jets originated from a location with emerging and canceling magnetic field at the southeastern edge of the giant active region (AR) of 2014 October, NOAA 12192. This AR produced in its interior many non-jet major flare eruptions (X- and M- class) that made no CME. During October 20 to 27, in contrast to the major flare eruptions in the interior, six of the homologous jets from the edge resulted in CMEs. Each jet-driven CME (˜200-300 km s-1) was slower-moving than most CMEs, with angular widths (20°-50°) comparable to that of the base of a coronal streamer straddling the AR and were of the “streamer-puff” variety, whereby the preexisting streamer was transiently inflated but not destroyed by the passage of the CME. Much of the transition-region-temperature plasma in the CME-producing jets escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the transition-region plasma in non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. Also, the CME-producing jets tended to be faster and longer-lasting than the non-CME-producing jets. Our observations imply that each jet and CME resulted from reconnection opening of twisted field that erupted from the jet base and that the erupting field did not become a plasmoid as previously envisioned for streamer-puff CMEs, but instead the jet-guiding streamer-base loop was blown out by the loop’s twist from the reconnection.

  15. Active Mass Wasting of Ices in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Pathare, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered two forms of mass-wasting in the north-polar region. One is the scarpward retreat of bright layers of the north polar basal unit (BU, immediately underlying the north polar layered deposits, NPLD) and the overlying NPLD by fracture-controlled and undercutting-assisted piecewise failure of layer edges, resulting in rockfalls and rockslides, called blockfalls here. This is important as it suggests an alternative, significant mode of erosion in addition to sublimation which is traditionally held account-able for erosion of polar surfaces. The other form, caught in-action during imaging, comprises falls and avalanches of frost and dust over a few steep NPLD scarps during early spring. Here we report the latest findings in both of these dramatic and currently active processes and assess their role in the evolution and history of polar deposits. NPLD and BU mass wasting: Typical evidence of recent blockfall activity is in the form of blocks, flows, and debris on BU slopes. In a few cases, the appearance of new blocks in subsequent images proves this process is ongo-ing. In general, [likely] active outcrops have a higher overall MOLA-derived slope than [likely] quiescent outcrops (those with a lack of debris and abundance of sand on the BU). Furthermore, none of the NPLD peripheral scarps without BU exposure have slopes above 40°. This suggests BU exposure and this type of mass wasting play a role in maintaining and possibly creating over-steepened NPLD scarps (often 45°-65°, with sections approaching vertical). The lower-sloped NPLD scarps with no BU present also do not display the severe fracturing that characterizes steep NPLD cliffs directly above BU exposures. This may be due to fracture propagation from undercutting by the BU, thermal stresses induced by rapid and intense heating on steepened slopes with high solar incidence angles, or rapid uncovering of ice that was under compressive stresses

  16. Coronal mass ejection-related particle acceleration regions during a simple eruptive event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Matamoros, Carolina; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Rouillard, Alexis P.

    2016-05-01

    An intriguing feature of many solar energetic particle (SEP) events is the detection of particles over a very extended range of longitudes in the heliosphere. This may be due to peculiarities of the magnetic field in the corona, to a broad accelerator, to cross-field transport of the particles, or to a combination of these processes. The eruptive flare on 26 April 2008 provided an opportunity to study relevant processes under particularly favourable conditions since it occurred in a very quiet solar and interplanetary environment. This enabled us to investigate the physical link between a single well-identified coronal mass ejection (CME), electron acceleration as traced by radio emission, and the production of SEPs. We conduct a detailed analysis, which combines radio observations (Nançay Radio Heliograph and Nançay Decametre Array, Wind/Waves spectrograph) with remote-sensing observations of the corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white light, as well as in situ measurements of energetic particles near 1AU (SoHO and STEREO spacecraft). By combining images taken from multiple vantage points, we were able to derive the time-dependent evolution of the 3D pressure front that was developing around the erupting CME. Magnetic reconnection in the post-CME current sheet accelerated electrons, which remained confined in closed magnetic fields in the corona, while the acceleration of escaping particles can be attributed to the pressure front ahead of the expanding CME. The CME accelerated electrons remotely from the parent active region, owing to the interaction of its laterally expanding flank, which was traced by an EUV wave, with the ambient corona. SEPs detected at one STEREO spacecraft and SoHO were accelerated later, when the frontal shock of the CME intercepted the spacecraft-connected interplanetary magnetic field line. The injection regions into the heliosphere inferred from the radio and SEP observations are separated in longitude by about 140°. The

  17. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  18. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  19. The X-ray/SZ view of the virial region. II. Gas mass fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, D.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Vazza, F.; Paltani, S.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: Several recent studies used the hot gas fraction of galaxy clusters as a standard ruler to constrain dark energy, which provides competitive results compared to other techniques. This method, however, relies on the assumption that the baryon fraction in clusters agrees with the cosmic value Ωb/Ωm, and does not differ from one system to another. We test this hypothesis by measuring the gas mass fraction over the entire cluster volume in a sample of local clusters. Methods: Combining the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich thermal pressure from Planck and the X-ray gas density from ROSAT, we measured for the first time the average gas fraction (fgas) out to the virial radius and beyond in a large sample of clusters. We also obtained azimuthally-averaged measurements of the gas fraction for 18 individual systems, which we used to compute the scatter of fgas around the mean value at different radii and its dependence on the cluster's temperature. Results: The gas mass fraction increases with radius and reaches the cosmic baryon fraction close to R200. At R200, we measure fgas,200 = 0.176 ± 0.009 (0.166 ± 0.012 for the subsample of 18 clusters in common between Planck and ROSAT). We find significant differences between the baryon fraction of relaxed, cool-core (CC) systems and unrelaxed, non-cool core (NCC) clusters in the outer regions. On average, the gas fraction in NCC clusters slightly exceeds the cosmic baryon fraction, while in CC systems the gas fraction converges to the expected value when accounting for the stellar content, without any evidence for variations from one system to another. Conclusions: We find that fgas estimates in NCC systems slightly disagree with the cosmic value approaching R200. This result could be explained either by a violation of the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium or by an inhomogeneous distribution of the gas mass. Conversely, CC clusters are found to provide reliable constraints on fgas at overdensities Δ > 200, which makes them

  20. Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer and of a miniature hemispherical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer were made. The extremely high sensitivity of these instruments and their ability to operate at D region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D region ion composition measurements.

  1. 13C Isotopic Fractionation of HC3N in Star-forming Regions: Low-mass Star-forming Region L1527 and High-mass Star-forming Region G28.28-0.36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    We observed the J = 9–8 and 10–9 rotational lines of three 13C isotopologues of HC3N in L1527 and G28.28-0.36, with the 45 m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, in order to constrain the main formation mechanisms of HC3N in each source. The abundance ratios of the three 13C isotopologues of HC3N are found to be 0.9 (±0.2) : 1.00 : 1.29 (±0.19) (1σ), and 1.0 (±0.2) : 1.00 : 1.47 (±0.17) (1σ), for [H13CCCN : HC13CCN : HCC13CN] in L1527 and G28.28-0.36, respectively. We recognize, from a similar 13C isotopic fractionation pattern, that the abundances of H13CCCN and HC13CCN are comparable, and HCC13CN is more abundant than the others. Based on the results, we discuss the main formation pathway of HC3N. The 13C isotopic fractionation pattern derived from our observations can be explained by the neutral-neutral reaction between C2H2 and CN in both the low-mass (L1527) and high-mass (G28.28-0.36) star-forming regions.

  2. OT1_cvastel_2: Deuterated water chemistry towards high-mass star-forming regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, C.

    2010-07-01

    Observations of the HDO molecules are an important complement for studies of water, since they give strong constraints on the formation processes: grain surfaces versus gas-phase chemistry through energetic process as shocks. HIFI observations of multiple transitions of HDO in SgrB2(M) combined with ground-based observations allowed for the first time the determination of its abundance throughout the envelope. In the framework of the PRISMAS Key Program, a large sample of high-mass star-forming regions have been observed with the detection of many species in their line of sight. The HDO (111-000) fundamental transition has also been detected in absorption at the velocity of the hot core towards the 2 sources that have been observed so far, probably tracing the colder envelope in its surrounding. We propose to observe higher energy level HDO transitions towards a sample of three compact HII regions that will be targeted by the PRISMAS Key Program (G34.3+0.1, W33A, W49N) in order to perform a full modeling from the hot core through the envelope using a spherical Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, RATRAN, which takes into account radiative pumping by continuum emission from dust. We will use for an optimum accuracy of the modeling the HDO and D2O collision rates with H2, recently computed within our group, that are not available in the public so far. This study will hopefully give strong constrains on the formation processes of water, combining the proposed observations with published or soon to be published high resolution H2O observations with HIFI towards the same sources.

  3. Coronal Mass Ejections from the Same Active Region Cluster: Two Different Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Crescitelli, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The cluster formed by active regions (ARs) NOAA 11121 and 11123, approximately located on the solar central meridian on 11 November 2010, is of great scientific interest. This complex was the site of violent flux emergence and the source of a series of Earth-directed events on the same day. The onset of the events was nearly simultaneously observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescope onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVI) on the Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite of telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft. The progression of these events in the low corona was tracked by the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraphs (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the SECCHI/COR coronagraphs on STEREO. SDO and SOHO imagers provided data from the Earth's perspective, whilst the STEREO twin instruments procured images from the orthogonal directions. This spatial configuration of spacecraft allowed optimum simultaneous observations of the AR cluster and the coronal mass ejections that originated in it. Quadrature coronal observations provided by STEREO revealed many more ejective events than were detected from Earth. Furthermore, joint observations by SDO/AIA and STEREO/SECCHI EUVI of the source region indicate that all events classified by GOES as X-ray flares had an ejective coronal counterpart in quadrature observations. These results directly affect current space weather forecasting because alarms might be missed when there is a lack of solar observations in a view direction perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line.

  4. Nuclear energy surfaces at high-spin in the A{approximately}180 mass region

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.; Egido, J.L.; Robledo, L.M.

    1995-08-01

    We are studying nuclear energy surfaces at high spin, with an emphasis on very deformed shapes using two complementary methods: (1) the Strutinsky method for making surveys of mass regions and (2) Hartree-Fock calculations using a Gogny interaction to study specific nuclei that appear to be particularly interesting from the Strutinsky method calculations. The great advantage of the Strutinsky method is that one can study the energy surfaces of many nuclides ({approximately}300) with a single set of calculations. Although the Hartree-Fock calculations are quite time-consuming relative to the Strutinsky calculations, they determine the shape at a minimum without being limited to a few deformation modes. We completed a study of {sup 182}Os using both approaches. In our cranked Strutinsky calculations, which incorporate a necking mode deformation in addition to quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, we found three well-separated, deep, strongly deformed minima. The first is characterized by nuclear shapes with axis ratios of 1.5:1; the second by axis ratios of 2.2:1 and the third by axis ratios of 2.9:1. We also studied this nuclide with the density-dependent Gogny interaction at I = 60 using the Hartree-Fock method and found minima characterized by shapes with axis ratios of 1.5:1 and 2.2:1. A comparison of the shapes at these minima, generated in the two calculations, shows that the necking mode of deformation is extremely useful for generating nuclear shapes at large deformation that minimize the energy. The Hartree-Fock calculations are being extended to larger deformations in order to further explore the energy surface in the region of the 2.9:1 minimum.

  5. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  6. Design, measurement and processing of region-specific DNA methylation assays: the mass spectrometry-based method EpiTYPER

    PubMed Central

    Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Slieker, Roderick C.; Kremer, Dennis; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Tobi, Elmar W.

    2015-01-01

    EpiTYPER® is a mass spectrometry-based bisulfite sequencing method that enables region-specific DNA methylation analysis in a quantitative and high-throughput fashion. The technology targets genomic regions of 100–600 base pairs and results in the quantitative measurement of DNA methylation levels largely at single-nucleotide resolution. It is particularly suitable for larger scale efforts to study candidate regions or to validate regions from genome-wide DNA methylation studies. Here, we describe in detail how to design and perform EpiTYPER measurements and preprocess the data, providing details for high quality measurements not provided in the standard EpiTYPER protocol. PMID:26442105

  7. Quantification of regional DNA methylation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongfa; Wu, Jiejun; Xie, Zhiliang; Liu, Shujun; Fan-Havard, Patty; Huang, Tim H-M; Plass, Christoph; Marcucci, Guido; Chan, Kenneth K

    2009-08-15

    Promoter hypermethylation-associated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing has been explored as a therapeutic target for hypomethylating agents. Promoter methylation change may serve as a pharmacodynamic endpoint for evaluation of the efficacy of these agents and predict the patient's clinical response. Here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been developed for quantitative regional DNA methylation analysis using the molar ratio of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) to 2'-deoxycytidine (2dC) in the enzymatic hydrolysate of fully methylated bisulfite-converted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons as the methylation indicator. The assay can differentiate 5% of promoter methylation level with an intraday precision ranging from 3 to 16% using two TSGs: HIN-1 and RASSF1A. This method was applied to characterize decitabine-induced promoter DNA methylation changes of these two TSGs in a breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. Promoter methylation of these TSGs was found to decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, the expression of these TSGs was enhanced. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method make it a valuable tool for specific gene methylation analysis that could aid characterization of hypomethylating activity on specific genes by hypomethylating agents in a clinical setting.

  8. WAITING TIMES OF QUASI-HOMOLOGOUS CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM SUPER ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuming; Liu Lijuan; Shen Chenglong; Liu Rui; Ye Pinzhong; Wang, S.

    2013-02-01

    Why and how do some active regions (ARs) frequently produce coronal mass ejections (CMEs)? These are key questions for deepening our understanding of the mechanisms and processes of energy accumulation and sudden release in ARs and for improving our space weather prediction capability. Although some case studies have been performed, these questions are still far from fully answered. These issues are now being addressed statistically through an investigation of the waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs from super ARs in solar cycle 23. It is found that the waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hr. The first component is a Gaussian-like distribution with a peak at about 7 hr, which indicates a tight physical connection between these quasi-homologous CMEs. The likelihood of two or more occurrences of CMEs faster than 1200 km s{sup -1} from the same AR within 18 hr is about 20%. Furthermore, the correlation analysis among CME waiting times, CME speeds, and CME occurrence rates reveals that these quantities are independent of each other, suggesting that the perturbation by preceding CMEs rather than free energy input is the direct cause of quasi-homologous CMEs. The peak waiting time of 7 hr probably characterizes the timescale of the growth of the instabilities triggered by preceding CMEs. This study uncovers some clues from a statistical perspective for us to understand quasi-homologous CMEs as well as CME-rich ARs.

  9. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE INITIATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN ACTIVE REGION NOAA 9415

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Poedts, S.; Meliani, Z. E-mail: Stefaan.Poedts@wis.kuleuven.be

    2012-10-20

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are the main drivers of weather in space. Understanding how these events occur and what conditions might lead to eruptive events is of crucial importance for up to date and reliable space weather forecasting. The aim of this paper is to present a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) data-inspired model suitable for the simulation of the CME initiation and their early evolution. Starting from a potential magnetic field extrapolation of the active region (AR) NOAA 9415, we solve the full set of ideal MHD equations in a non-zero plasma-{beta} environment. As a consequence of the applied twisting motions, a force-free-magnetic field configuration is obtained, which has the same chirality as the investigated AR. We investigate the response of the solar corona when photospheric motions resembling the ones observed for AR 9415 are applied at the inner boundary. As a response to the converging shearing motions, a flux rope is formed that quickly propagates outward, carrying away the plasma confined inside the flux rope against the gravitational attraction by the Sun. Moreover, a compressed leading edge propagating at a speed of about 550 km s{sup -1} and preceding the CME is formed. The presented simulation shows that both the initial magnetic field configuration and the plasma-magnetic-field interaction are relevant for a more comprehensive understanding of the CME initiation and early evolution phenomenon.

  10. Collective and non-collective structures in nuclei of mass region A ≈ 125

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A. K.; Collaboration: INGA Collaboration; Gammasphere Collaboration

    2014-08-14

    Generation of angular momentum in nuclei is a key question in nuclear structure studies. In single particle model, it is due to alignment of spin of individual nucleon available in the valence space, whereas coherent motion of nucleons are assumed in the collective model. The nuclei near the closed shell at Z = 50 with mass number A ≈ 120-125 represent ideal cases to explore the interplay between these competing mechanisms and the transition from non-collective to collective behavior or vice versa. Recent spectroscopic studies of nuclei in this region reveal several non-collective maximally aligned states representing the first kind of excitation mechanism, where 8-12 particles above the {sup 114}Sn align their spins to generate these states. Deformed rotational bands feeding the non-collective states in the spin range I=20-25 and excitation energies around 10 MeV have also been observed. Structure of the collective and non-collective states are discussed in the framework of Cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky model.

  11. Regional spatial and temporal interpolation of atmospheric PCBs: Interpretation of Lake Michigan mass balance data

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.L.; Depinto, J.V.; Sweet, C.; Hornbuckle, K.C.

    2000-05-01

    During the Lake Michigan Mass Balance (LMMB) Project, over 600 atmospheric samples were collected at eight shoreline sites and during seven cruises. These samples were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, including PCB congeners, atrazine, and trans-nonachlor. The authors have developed a method for interpreting the gas-phase data that includes fractionating the observed PCB concentration into land- and water-based sources. This approach accounts for differences in gas-phase atmospheric PCB concentration over water and over land. Using this fractionation approach, they have interpolated the measured data over time and space to predict PCB air concentrations over the lake during the LMMB field period. The results predict gas-phase {Sigma}PCB (sum of {approximately}98 congener groups) concentrations for each of 2,319 grid cells over the lake, on a monthly basis. The authors estimate that lake-wide monthly average {sigma}PCB gas-phase concentrations range from 0.136 to 1.158 ng/m{sup 3}, with an annual average PCB concentration of 0.457 ng/m{sup 3}. As expected, the highest concentrations of PCBs over the lake when the winds are from the southwest (out of the Chicago-Gary region) and when land surface temperatures are elevated. The predicted influence of Chicago is described on a monthly basis as a zone of elevated PCB concentrations for approximately 40 km into Lake Michigan.

  12. Classification of Superdeformed Bands in the Mass A{approx}60 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.-L.; Rudolph, D.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Carlsson, B. G.; Ragnarsson, I.; Torres, D. A.

    2008-11-11

    The experimental knowledge of the {sub 29}{sup 61}Cu{sub 32} and {sub 30}{sup 61}Zn{sub 31} nuclei has been largely extended via the joint results from three experiments. The fusion-evaporation reaction used a {sup 36}Ar beam and a {sup 28}Si target foil to produce the two nuclei via the evaporation of either three protons ({sup 61}Cu) or two protons and a neutron ({sup 61}Zn). The experimental set-ups comprised the Ge-array GAMMASPHERE as well as neutron and charged-particle detectors placed around the target position.The resulting level schemes include around ten rotational superdeformed structures in each isotope. Most of them are linked to normally deformed states and in many cases spins and parities of the low-lying states in each structure have been determined.The collective structures are compared with results from configuration dependent Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations. The different structures are in general well understood from the calculation but the results do also suggest modifications of the standard Nilsson parameters in the mass A{approx}60 region.

  13. Isomer Studies for Nuclei near the Proton Drip Line in the Mass 130-160 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R.; Khan, S.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P.; Rahkila, P.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A. P.; Nyman, M.; Uusitalo, J.; Grahn, T.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.

    2007-11-30

    This report details the status of an experimental research programme which has studied isomeric states in the mass 130-160 region of the nuclear chart. Several new isomers have been established and characterised near the proton drip line using a recoil isomer tagging technique at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The latest experiments have been performed with a modified setup where the standard GREAT focal-plane double-sided silicon-strip detector was changed to a dual multi-wire proportional-counter arrangement. This new setup has improved capability for short-lived isomer studies where high focal-plane rates can be tolerated. The results of key recent experiments for nuclei situated above ({sup 153}Yb,{sup 152}Tm) and below ({sup 136}Pm,{sup 142}Tb) the N = 82 shell gap were presented along with an interpretation for the isomers. Finally, the future prospects of the technique, using an isomer-tagged differential-plunger setup, were discussed. This technique will be capable of establishing the deformation of the states above the isomers and will aid in the process of assigning underlying single-particle configurations to the isomeric states.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF SUPER- AND SUBCRITICAL REGIONS IN SHOCKS DRIVEN BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Mancuso, S.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we focus on the analysis of a coronal mass ejection (CME) driven shock observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. We show that white-light coronagraphic images can be employed to estimate the compression ratio X = {rho}{sub d}/{rho}{sub u} all along the front of CME-driven shocks. X increases from the shock flanks (where X {approx_equal} 1.2) to the shock center (where X {approx_equal} 3.0 is maximum). From the estimated X values, we infer the Alfven Mach number for the general case of an oblique shock. It turns out that only a small region around the shock center is supercritical at earlier times, while higher up in the corona the whole shock becomes subcritical. This suggests that CME-driven shocks could be efficient particle accelerators at the initiation phases of the event, while at later times they progressively loose energy, also losing their capability to accelerate high-energy particles. This result has important implications on the localization of particle acceleration sites and in the context of predictive space weather studies.

  15. Regional sea level change in response to ice mass loss in Greenland, the West Antarctic and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, S.-E.; Schröter, J.; Rietbroek, R.; Kusche, J.

    2015-11-01

    Besides the warming of the ocean, sea level is mainly rising due to land ice mass loss of the major ice sheets in Greenland, the West Antarctic, and the Alaskan Glaciers. However, it is not clear yet how these land ice mass losses influence regional sea level. Here, we use the global Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) to simulate sea surface height (SSH) changes caused by these ice mass losses and combine it with the passive ocean response to varying surface loading using the sea level equation. We prescribe rates of fresh water inflow, not only around Greenland, but also around the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the mountain glaciers in Alaska with approximately present-day amplitudes of 200, 100, and 50 Gt/yr, respectively. Perturbations in sea level and in freshwater distribution with respect to a reference simulation are computed for each source separately and in their combination. The ocean mass change shows an almost globally uniform behavior. In the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean, mass is redistributed toward coastal regions. Steric sea level change varies locally in the order of several centimeters on advective timescales of decades. Steric effects to local sea level differ significantly in different coastal locations, e.g., at North American coastal regions the steric effects may have the same order of magnitude as the mass driven effect, whereas at the European coast, steric effects remain small during the simulation period.

  16. Characteristics of aerosols and mass closure study at two WMO GAW regional background stations in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Renjian; Huan, Ning; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhou, Huaigang; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-12-01

    In the summer and winter of 2004 and 2005, size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were sampled with modified Andersen KA200 Multi-stage impactor at two regional background stations in the eastern China, the Shangdianzi station (SDZ) in the suburb of Beijing and the Lin'An station (LA) in the Yangtze river delta region, both are WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station, which represent the regional background of air pollutions of the two rapid developing economical zone of China, the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin region. The aerosol mass size distributions, ionic compositions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and elemental components were analyzed. The mass concentrations for TSP (total suspend particle), PM11 (aerodynamic diameter less than 11 μm), and PM2.1 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) at both sites showed obviously different between the winter and summer, with higher mass concentrations measured in the winter time. All seasonal mean mass concentrations of PM2.1 accounted for over 50% of PM11 at both sites. The aerosol mass closure study indicated that the total mass concentration reconstructed from the aerosol chemical composition agreed well with the measured gravimetric mass at the two stations. The fine aerosol particles at the two stations were composed mainly of sulfate and organic matter. In the summer, more than half of the PM2.1 mass was sulfate, suggesting a dominant contribution of secondary aerosol to the fine particles in these two regions. In the winter, the contribution of nitrate to the fine particles increased significantly due to the lower volatile losses under the cold weather. The proportions of soil type components in the PM2.1 showed similar magnitude in the winter and summer at Lin'An station but significant seasonal differences with higher fractions in the winter at Shangdianzi station. On average EC accounted for about 2%-6% of the fine particle mass (PM2.1) at both sites with proportionally lower EC

  17. Performance of 12 DIR algorithms in low-contrast regions for mass and density conserving deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, U. J.; Supple, J. R.; Franich, R. D.; Taylor, M. L.; Smith, R.; Kron, T.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a key tool for adaptive radiotherapy to account for inter- and intrafraction organ deformation. Of contemporary interest, the application to deformable dose accumulation requires accurate deformation even in low contrast regions where dose gradients may exist within near-uniform tissues. One expects high-contrast features to generally be deformed more accurately by DIR algorithms. The authors systematically assess the accuracy of 12 DIR algorithms and quantitatively examine, in particular, low-contrast regions, where accuracy has not previously been established.Methods: This work investigates DIR algorithms in three dimensions using deformable gel (DEFGEL) [U. J. Yeo, M. L. Taylor, L. Dunn, R. L. Smith, T. Kron, and R. D. Franich, “A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 39, 2203–2213 (2012)], for application to mass- and density-conserving deformations. CT images of DEFGEL phantoms with 16 fiducial markers (FMs) implanted were acquired in deformed and undeformed states for three different representative deformation geometries. Nonrigid image registration was performed using 12 common algorithms in the public domain. The optimum parameter setup was identified for each algorithm and each was tested for deformation accuracy in three scenarios: (I) original images of the DEFGEL with 16 FMs; (II) images with eight of the FMs mathematically erased; and (III) images with all FMs mathematically erased. The deformation vector fields obtained for scenarios II and III were then applied to the original images containing all 16 FMs. The locations of the FMs estimated by the algorithms were compared to actual locations determined by CT imaging. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed by evaluation of three-dimensional vectors between true marker locations and predicted marker locations.Results: The mean magnitude of 16 error vectors per sample ranged from 0.3 to 3.7, 1.0 to 6.3, and 1.3 to 7

  18. RADIO JETS AND DISKS IN THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION NGC2071IR

    SciTech Connect

    Trinidad, M. A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rodriguez, L. F.

    2009-11-20

    We report the results of simultaneous radio continuum and water maser observations toward the NGC 2071IR star-forming region, carried out with the VLA in its A configuration. We detect continuum emission toward the infrared sources IRS 1 and IRS 3 at 1.3 and 3.6 cm. In addition, a new continuum source, VLA 1, is also detected at both wavelengths, which is located between IRS 1 and IRS 3. IRS 1 breaks up into three continuum peaks (IRS 1E, 1C, and 1W), aligned in the east-west direction (P.A. = 100{sup 0}). IRS 1 is the central source, while the sources E and W seem to be condensations ejected by IRS 1. In the same way, IRS 3 is also forming a triple system (IRS 3N, 3C and 3S), which is elongated in the northeast-southwest direction and the condensations, IRS 3N and IRS 3S, are symmetrically located along the major axis. Based on the morphology and the continuum emission, we suggest that both IRS 1 and IRS 3 are radio jets, which have ejected condensations into the interstellar medium. Moreover, IRS 1 and IRS 3 seem to be the driving sources of the large-scale outflows observed in H{sub 2} and CO, respectively. In addition, we also detected water emission toward the systems IRS 1, IRS 3, and the new source VLA 1. Based on the spatial-kinematic distribution of the water masers, we find evidence that the water masers are tracing part of circumstellar disks around IRS 1C and IRS 3C. Moreover, we estimate that the sources IRS 1C and IRS 3C have central masses of approx5 and approx1 M {sub sun}, respectively. We conclude that the radio continuum and water maser emission are tracing disk-YSO-outflow systems toward IRS 1 and IRS 3, which are low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects, respectively.

  19. Trigonometric parallaxes of high mass star forming regions: the structure and kinematics of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Sato, M.; Choi, Y. K.; Immer, K.; Zheng, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Hachisuka, K.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Bartkiewicz, A.

    2014-03-10

    Over 100 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for masers associated with young, high-mass stars have been measured with the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey, a Very Long Baseline Array key science project, the European VLBI Network, and the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry project. These measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of spiral arms in the Milky Way, accurately locating many arm segments and yielding spiral pitch angles ranging from about 7° to 20°. The widths of spiral arms increase with distance from the Galactic center. Fitting axially symmetric models of the Milky Way with the three-dimensional position and velocity information and conservative priors for the solar and average source peculiar motions, we estimate the distance to the Galactic center, R {sub 0}, to be 8.34 ± 0.16 kpc, a circular rotation speed at the Sun, Θ{sub 0}, to be 240 ± 8 km s{sup –1}, and a rotation curve that is nearly flat (i.e., a slope of –0.2 ± 0.4 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}) between Galactocentric radii of ≈5 and 16 kpc. Assuming a 'universal' spiral galaxy form for the rotation curve, we estimate the thin disk scale length to be 2.44 ± 0.16 kpc. With this large data set, the parameters R {sub 0} and Θ{sub 0} are no longer highly correlated and are relatively insensitive to different forms of the rotation curve. If one adopts a theoretically motivated prior that high-mass star forming regions are in nearly circular Galactic orbits, we estimate a global solar motion component in the direction of Galactic rotation, V {sub ☉} = 14.6 ± 5.0 km s{sup –1}. While Θ{sub 0} and V {sub ☉} are significantly correlated, the sum of these parameters is well constrained, Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉} = 255.2 ± 5.1 km s{sup –1}, as is the angular speed of the Sun in its orbit about the Galactic center, (Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉})/R {sub 0} = 30.57 ± 0.43 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}. These parameters improve the accuracy of

  20. ARE DECAYING MAGNETIC FIELDS ABOVE ACTIVE REGIONS RELATED TO CORONAL MASS EJECTION ONSET?

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Welsch, B. T.; Li, Y.

    2012-10-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are powered by magnetic energy stored in non-potential (current-carrying) coronal magnetic fields, with the pre-CME field in balance between outward magnetic pressure of the proto-ejecta and inward magnetic tension from overlying fields that confine the proto-ejecta. In studies of global potential (current-free) models of coronal magnetic fields-Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) models-it has been reported that model field strengths above flare sites tend to be weaker when CMEs occur than when eruptions fail to occur. This suggests that potential field models might be useful to quantify magnetic confinement. One straightforward implication of this idea is that a decrease in model field strength overlying a possible eruption site should correspond to diminished confinement, implying an eruption is more likely. We have searched for such an effect by post facto investigation of the time evolution of model field strengths above a sample of 10 eruption sites. To check if the strengths of overlying fields were relevant only in relatively slow CMEs, we included both slow and fast CMEs in our sample. In most events we study, we find no statistically significant evolution in either (1) the rate of magnetic field decay with height, (2) the strength of overlying magnetic fields near 50 Mm, or (3) the ratio of fluxes at low and high altitudes (below 1.1 R{sub Sun }, and between 1.1 and 1.5 R{sub Sun }, respectively). We did observe a tendency for overlying field strengths and overlying flux to increase slightly, and their rates of decay with height to become slightly more gradual, consistent with increased confinement. The fact that CMEs occur regardless of whether the parameters we use to quantify confinement are increasing or decreasing suggests that either (1) the parameters that we derive from PFSS models do not accurately characterize the actual large-scale field in CME source regions, (2) systematic evolution in the large-scale magnetic

  1. Cluster of solar active regions and onset of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, JingXiu; Zhang, YuZong; He, Han; Chen, AnQin; Jin, ChunLan; Zhou, GuiPing

    2015-09-01

    Abstract round-the-clock solar observations with full-disk coverage of vector magnetograms and multi-wavelength images demonstrate that solar active regions (ARs) are ultimately connected with magnetic field. Often two or more ARs are clustered, creating a favorable magnetic environment for the onset of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we describe a new type of magnetic complex: cluster of solar ARs. An AR cluster is referred to as the close connection of two or more ARs which are located in nearly the same latitude and a narrow span of longitude. We illustrate three examples of AR clusters, each of which has two ARs connected and formed a common dome of magnetic flux system. They are clusters of NOAA (i.e., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ARs 11226 & 11227, 11429 & 11430, and 11525 & 11524. In these AR clusters, CME initiations were often tied to the instability of the magnetic structures connecting two partner ARs, in the form of inter-connecting loops and/or channeling filaments between the two ARs. We show the evidence that, at least, some of the flare/CMEs in an AR cluster are not a phenomenon of a single AR, but the result of magnetic interaction in the whole AR cluster. The observations shed new light on understanding the mechanism(s) of solar activity. Instead of the simple bipolar topology as suggested by the so-called standard flare model, a multi-bipolar magnetic topology is more common to host the violent solar activity in solar atmosphere.

  2. Probing the Low-Mass End of the IMF in Star-Forming Regions: AWIRCam/CFHT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Moraux, Estelle; Bouvier, Jerôme; Burgess, Andrew; Bouy, Hervé; Marmo, Chiara; Hudelot, Patrick

    One of the most attempted goals of star formation theories is to determine the dominant process by which brown dwarfs form and the implications of the environment on its outcome. Current theories must be able to reproduce not only the observed shape of the IMF, but predict observable properties of clusters such as multiplicity, mass segregation, frequency and sizes of discs, accretion, etc. The new observational frontier is therefore the detection and characterization of very low mass objects in star forming regions, to confront model predictions from numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular clouds to the observed properties of YSOs. This is the main driver behind a WIRCam large program that has been conducted at CFHT to detect BD with masses between 1 and 30 Jupiter masses in a sample of 6 young clusters. I will present the main results obtained so far for the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud and IC 348, where a spectroscopic follow-up of many of these candidates is being conducted using several facilities (TNG, GTC, NTT, VLT, Gemini) to ascertain their spectral types and masses, and ultimately, to construct the low-mass end of the IMF for those star forming regions.

  3. Star and jet multiplicity in the high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, R.; Massi, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Busoni, L.; Riccardi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Bisogni, S.; McCarthy, D.; Kulesa, C.

    2015-09-01

    Context. We present a study of the complex high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919 (also known as Mol8), where multiple jets and a rich stellar cluster have been described in previous works. Aims: Our goal is to determine the number of jets and shed light on their origin, and thus determine the nature of the young stars powering these jets. We also wish to analyse the stellar clusters by resolving the brightest group of stars. Methods: The star forming region was observed in various tracers and the results were complemented with ancillary archival data. The new data represent a substantial improvement over previous studies both in resolution and frequency coverage. In particular, adaptive optics provides us with an angular resolution of 80 mas in the near IR, while new mid- and far-IR data allow us to sample the peak of the spectral energy distribution and thus reliably estimate the bolometric luminosity. Results: Thanks to the near-IR continuum and millimetre line data we can determine the structure and velocity field of the bipolar jets and outflows in this star forming region. We also find that the stars are grouped into three clusters and the jets originate in the richest of these, whose luminosity is ~ 2.4 × 104L⊙. Interestingly, our high-resolution near-IR images allow us to resolve one of the two brightest stars (A and B) of the cluster into a double source (A1+A2). Conclusions: We confirm that there are two jets and establish that they are powered by B-type stars belonging to cluster C1. On this basis and on morphological and kinematical arguments, we conclude that the less extended jet is almost perpendicular to the line of sight and that it originates in the brightest star of the cluster, while the more extended one appears to be associated with the more extincted, double source A1+A2. We propose that this is not a binary system, but a small bipolar reflection nebula at the root of the large-scale jet, outlining a still undetected circumstellar

  4. Rotational Properties of N = 75 Isotones in the a Equivalent to 135 Mass Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruimei

    1990-01-01

    /2} state, which has been isolated both in ^{137}Sm and also possible in ^{139}Gd, appears to be the vital mechanism for achieving superdeformation in this mass region.

  5. Stream Interaction Regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections at 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Skoug, R. M.; Steinberg, J. T.

    2007-05-01

    Two major types of large-scale solar wind structures, stream interaction regions (SIRs) and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are observed in the heliosphere. Both types of structures evolve as they propagate out from the Sun. Using Ulysses SWOOPS and VHM/FGM observations near 5 AU within +/- 10 degrees of the solar ecliptic plane, we have completed surveys of these two types of structures in 1992, 1997- 1998, and 2003-2005, which cover different phases of the solar activity cycle. About 70 precent of the SIRs in our survey are associated with shocks, many of which are reverse shocks. As at 1 AU, magnetic field and total perpendicular pressure (Pt) signatures are prominent for most SIRs, but some plasma signatures (e.g., a gradual and monotonic increase of velocity, a compression of proton number density, and a sharp increase of proton temperature) are not always apparent at larger radial distances. Most SIRs do not have sharp stream interfaces. The majority of ICMEs drive leading forward shocks. In previous work, we found 1 AU ICME observations could be sorted roughly into three categories, based on the temporal profile of Pt, and we interpreted the different categories as indicators of the impact parameter of the spacecraft with respect to the central causative flux rope. At 5 AU, we find such a sorting can not be applied to quite a few ICMEs, indicating ICMEs become more complicated as they propagate. In contrast with 1 AU ICMEs, several ICMEs seem to contain more than one flux rope, and these ropes differ in size, field strength, and even plasma content. Such events may be caused by the interaction of separate CMEs from the Sun, or may contain flux ropes formed by reconnection at the heliospheric current sheet between the Sun and 5 AU. Frequently, ICMEs and SIRs are merged and hard to separate. The number of such combined events decreases as solar activity declines. We quantitatively examine the occurrence rate, shock association rate, radial extent

  6. The deformation behavior of soil mass in the subsidence region of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, F.; Liu, J.-R.; Luo, Y.; Zhu, L.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence induced by excessive groundwater withdrawal has been a major environmental and geological problem in the Beijing plain area. The monitoring network of land subsidence in Beijing has been established since 2002 and has covered the entire plain area by the end of 2008. Based on data from extensometers and groundwater observation wells, this paper establishes curves of variations over time for both soil mass deformation and water levels and the relationship between soil mass deformation and water level. In addition, an analysis of deformation behavior is carried out for soil mass with various lithologies at different depths depending on the corresponding water level. Finally, the deformation behavior of soil mass is generalized into five categories. The conclusions include: (i) the current rate of deformation of the shallow soil mass is slowing, and most of the mid-deep and deep soil mass continue to compress at a more rapid speed; (ii) the sand strata behaves elastically, while the clay soil mass at different depths is usually characterized by elastic-plastic and creep deformation, which can be considered as visco-elastoplastic.

  7. CFD model of ITER CICC. Part VI: Heat and mass transfer between cable region and central channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Richard, L. Savoldi

    2010-03-01

    Dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are used in the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As the CICC axial/transverse size ratio is typically ˜1000, 1D axial models are customarily used for the CICC, but they require constitutive relations for the transverse fluxes. A novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was recently proposed by these authors to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in an ITER CICC from first principles. Multidimensional (2D, 3D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes models implemented in the commercial CFD code FLUENT were validated against compact heat exchanger and ITER-relevant experimental data, and applied to compute the friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient in fully turbulent spiral rib-roughened pipes, mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC. That analysis is extended here to the problem of heat and mass transfer through the perforated spiral separating the central channel from the cable bundle region, by combining the previously developed central channel model with a porous medium model for the cable region. The resulting 2D model is used to analyze several key features of the transport processes occurring between the two regions including the relation between transverse mass transfer and transverse pressure drop, the influence of transverse mass transfer on axial pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient between central channel and annular cable bundle region.

  8. (abstract) The Initiation of Quiescent-Filament Associated Coronal Mass Ejections by New Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Martin, S. F.

    1993-01-01

    We will present observational evidence that the eruption of filaments and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur as a consequence of the destabilization of large scale coronal arcades due to newly emerging magnetic flux reconnecting with the preexisting arcades.

  9. Atmospheric pressure ion lens extends the stable operational region of an electrospray ion source for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuai Sherry; Zhong, Xuefei; Chen, David D Y

    2012-04-01

    An atmospheric ion lens incorporated into an electrospray ion source for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is found to extend the stable operational regions for both flow rates and electrospray ionization (ESI) voltages. The stable operating conditions for the ESI source with and without the ion lens were characterized. The results showed that the stable operation region was widest when the voltage difference between the sprayer and the ion lens ranges from 2.6 to 2.8 kV, and under these condition, the CE-MS interface can be adapted to a broader range of electroosmotic and modifier flow rates. Modeling of the electric field in the electrospray ion source with the ion lens suggests that the extension of the stable region is attributed to the flatter equipotential surfaces around the sprayer tip and higher electric field strengths in the rest of the interface region. PMID:22589113

  10. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within non-contrast-enhanced region of CT Urography (CTU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Zhou, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). We have previously developed methods for detection of bladder masses within the contrast-enhanced region of the bladder. In this study, we investigated methods for detection of bladder masses within the non-contrast enhanced region. The bladder was first segmented using a newly developed deep-learning convolutional neural network in combination with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensityprojection- based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and a gray level threshold was employed to segment the bladder wall and potential masses. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify lesion candidates as a prescreening step. The lesion candidates were segmented using our autoinitialized cascaded level set (AI-CALS) segmentation method, and 27 morphological features were extracted for each candidate. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out resampling were used for training and validation of a false positive (FP) classifier. In each leave-one-case-out cycle, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the left-out test case. A data set of 33 cases with 42 biopsy-proven lesions in the noncontrast enhanced region was collected. During prescreening, the system obtained 83.3% sensitivity at an average of 2.4 FPs/case. After feature extraction and FP reduction by LDA, the system achieved 81.0% sensitivity at 2.0 FPs/case, and 73.8% sensitivity at 1.5 FPs/case.

  11. Impacts of ionospheric outflow on storm-time F-region thermospheric mass density modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lei, J.; Wang, W.; Lotko, W.; Lyon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric outflow plays an important role during storm-time magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling. In this study, we use the coupled multifluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (MFLFM) model and NCAR-Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) to investigate the impacts of ionospheric outflow on the evolutions of high-latitude F-region thermospheric mass density during CME storms. Various physical processes that affect the energy input from the magnetosphere to ionosphere-thermosphere system are also implemented in the coupled global model including localized electromagnetic energy deposition, direct-entry cusp particle precipitation, broadband electron precipitation. The accuracy of modeling polar cap F-region thermospheric mass density during intense CME storms (kp>8) are estimated through event-based data-model comparisons (CHAMP/GRACE). These comparison studies are also used to investigate the relative importantce of various physical processes that relate to the coupling between the magnetosphere and high-latitude ionosphere-thermosphere.

  12. SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) CORE MASS FUNCTION AND THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION (IMF) IN THE S140 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2011-05-10

    We present the results of C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) mapping observations of a 20' x 18' area in the Lynds 1204 molecular cloud associated with the Sharpless 2-140 (S140) H II region. The C{sup 18}O cube ({alpha}-{delta}-v{sub LSR}) data show that there are three clumps of sizes {approx}1 pc in the region. Two of these have peculiar redshifted velocity components at their edges, which can be interpreted as the results of the interaction between the cloud and the Cepheus Bubble. From the C{sup 18}O cube data, clumpfind identified 123 C{sup 18}O cores, which have mean radius, velocity width in FWHM, and LTE mass of 0.36 {+-} 0.07 pc, 0.37 {+-} 0.09 km s{sup -1}, and 41 {+-} 29 M{sub sun}, respectively. Considering the uncertainty in the C{sup 18}O abundance, all the cores in S140 are most likely to be gravitationally bound. We derived a C{sup 18}O core mass function (CMF), which shows a power-law-like behavior above a turnover at 30 M{sub sun}. The best-fit power-law index of -2.1 {+-} 0.2 is quite consistent with that of the initial mass function (IMF) and the C{sup 18}O CMF in the OMC-1 region as found by Ikeda and Kitamura. Kramer et al. estimated the power-law index of -1.65 in S140 from the C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) data, which is inconsistent with this study. The C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) data are spatially limited to the central part of the cloud and are likely to be biased toward high-mass cores, leading to the flatter CMF. Consequently, this study and our previous study strongly support that the power-law form of the IMF has already been determined at the density of {approx}< 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, traced by the C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) line.

  13. Latitudinal variation of speed and mass flux in the acceleration region of the solar wind inferred from spectral broadening measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Goldstein, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral broadening measurements conducted at S-band (13-cm wavelength) during solar minimum conditions in the heliocentric distance range of 3-8 R(sub O) by Mariner 4, Pioneer 10, Mariner 10, Helios 1, Helios 2, and Viking have been combined to reveal a factor of 2.6 reduction in bandwidth from equator to pole. Since spectral broadening bandwidth depends on electron density fluctuation and solar wind speed, and latitudinal variation of the former is available from coherence bandwidth measurements, the remote sensing spectral broadening measurements provide the first determination of the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed in the acceleration region. When combined with electron density measurements deduced from white-light coronagraphs, this result also leads to the first determination of the latitudinal variation of mass flux in the acceleration region. From equator to pole, solar wind speed increases by a factor of 2.2, while mass flux decreases by a factor of 2.3. These results are consistent with measurements of solar wind speed by multi-station intensity scintillation measurements, as well as measurements of mass flux inferred from Lyman alpha observations, both of which pertain to the solar wind beyond 0.5 AU. The spectral broadening observations, therefore, strengthen earlier conclusions about the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed and mass flux, and reinforce current solar coronal models and their implications for solar wind acceleration and solar wind modeling.

  14. The Intermediate-mass Star-forming Region Lynds 1340. An Optical View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Mária; Moór, Attila; Szegedi-Elek, Elza; Reipurth, Bo

    2016-05-01

    We have performed an optical spectroscopic and photometric search for young stellar objects associated with the molecular cloud Lynds 1340, and examined the structure of the cloud by constructing an extinction map, based on SDSS data. The new extinction map suggests a shallow, strongly fragmented cloud, having a mass of some 3700 M ⊙. Longslit spectroscopic observations of the brightest stars over the area of L1340 revealed that the most massive star associated with L1340 is a B4-type, ˜5 M ⊙ star. The new spectroscopic and photometric data of the intermediate-mass members led to a revised distance of {825}-80+110 pc, and revealed seven members of the young stellar population with M ≳ 2 M ⊙. Our search for Hα emission line stars, conducted with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii and covering a 30‧ × 40‧ area, resulted in the detection of 75 candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars, 58 of which are new. We constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our target stars, based on SDSS, 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE photometric data, derived their spectral types, extinctions, and luminosities from BVRIJ fluxes, estimated masses by means of pre-main sequence evolutionary models, and examined the disk properties utilizing the 2-24 μm interval of the SED. We measured the equivalent width of the Hα lines and derived accretion rates. The optically selected sample of pre-main sequence stars has a median effective temperature of 3970 K, a stellar mass of 0.7 M ⊙, and an accretion rate of 7.6 × 10-9 M ⊙ yr-1.

  15. Bronchogenic cyst mimicking an adrenal mass in the retroperitoneal region: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Gulay; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Bahadır, Inci; Kotan, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    We report the surgical excision of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst that presented as a nonfunctioning left adrenal mass in a 25-year-old woman with continuous pain in the left flank. Preoperative biochemical testing confirmed that the mass was nonfunctional. Bronchogenic cysts are mostly benign congenital abnormalities that originate from the remnants of the primitive foregut and typically occur in the lung. Subdiaphragmatic and especially, retroperitoneal locations are rare. Despite the rarity of this pathologic entity, bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions. Diagnosis must be definitively confirmed by histology.

  16. Far-infrared molecular lines from low- to high-mass star forming regions observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karska, A.; Herpin, F.; Bruderer, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; San José-García, I.; Contursi, A.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Fedele, D.; Baudry, A.; Braine, J.; Chavarría, L.; Cernicharo, J.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the response of the gas-to-energetic processes associated with high-mass star formation and compare it with previously published studies on low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) using the same methods. The quantified far-IR line emission and absorption of CO, H2O, OH, and [O i] reveals the excitation and the relative contribution of different atomic and molecular species to the gas cooling budget. Methods: Herschel/PACS spectra covering 55-190 μm are analyzed for ten high-mass star forming regions of luminosities Lbol ~ 104-106 L⊙ and various evolutionary stages on spatial scales of ~104 AU. Radiative transfer models are used to determine the contribution of the quiescent envelope to the far-IR CO emission. Results: The close environments of high-mass protostars show strong far-IR emission from molecules, atoms, and ions. Water is detected in all 10 objects even up to high excitation lines, often in absorption at the shorter wavelengths and in emission at the longer wavelengths. CO transitions from J = 14 - 13 up to typically 29 - 28 (Eu/kB ~ 580-2400 K) show a single temperature component with a rotational temperature of Trot ~ 300 K. Typical H2O excitation temperatures are Trot ~250 K, while OH has Trot ~ 80 K. Far-IR line cooling is dominated by CO (~75%) and, to a smaller extent, by [O i] (~20%), which becomes more important for the most evolved sources. H2O is less important as a coolant for high-mass sources because many lines are in absorption. Conclusions: Emission from the quiescent envelope is responsible for ~45-85% of the total CO luminosity in high-mass sources compared with only ~10% for low-mass YSOs. The highest- J lines (Jup ≥ 20) originate most likely in shocks, based on the strong correlation of CO and H2O with physical parameters (Lbol, Menv) of the sources from low- to high-mass YSOs. The excitation of warm CO described by Trot ~ 300 K is very similar for all mass regimes, whereas H2O

  17. Regional Differences as Barriers to Body Mass Index Screening Described by Ohio School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in…

  18. Studies of the central regions in globular clusters: Kinematics, mass modeling, and a search for binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bingrong

    Globular clusters (GCs) are one of the oldest structures in the universe. The strongest constraints on the predictions of dynamical models of GCs come from the kinematics in the central few arcminutes, where the effects of mass segregation, core collapse, or a possible massive black hole (if any) are most significant. In my dissertation, I have conducted a variety of studies in the central regions of GCs using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot Imaging Spectrometer, including the kinematics, mass modeling, searching for binary stars, and searching for the correlation between kinematics and the metallicity. We performed non-parametric mass modeling of NGC 6752 and found that there is no evidence of a large central mass-to-light ratio for NGC 6752 from the measured velocity dispersion. We addressed a series of studies of o Centauri (NGC 5139, hereafter o Cen). In one, we measured the velocity dispersion profile, the projected rotation map, and the mass-to-light ratio profile. In another, we correlated our kinematics data and the metallicities from Stromgren photometry to give constraints on the pictures of the origin of o Cen. In another, we used Monte Carlo simulations to calculate a binary fraction and found that o Cen is not deficient in binary stars compared to other GCs.

  19. Assessing the Sensitivity of Satellite-Derived Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance to Regional Climate Model Simulations of Snow Accumulation and Firn Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.; Shepherd, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.; Nagler, T.; Wuite, J.; Muir, A.; Gilbert, L.; Mouginot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are fundamental for assessing and understanding ice sheet mass trends. Mass budget and altimetry assessments rely on RCMs both directly for estimates of the SMB contribution to the total mass trend, and indirectly for ancillary data in the form of firn compaction corrections. As such, mass balance assessments can be highly sensitive to RCM outputs and therefore their accuracy. Here we assess the extent to which geodetic measurements of mass balance are sensitive to RCM model outputs at different resolutions. We achieve this by comparing SMB dependent estimates of mass balance from the mass budget method and altimetry, with those from satellite gravimetry that are independent of SMB estimates. Using the outputs of the RACMO/ANT 2.3 model at 5.5 km and 27 km horizontal spatial resolution, we generate estimates of mass balance using the mass budget method and altimetry for the Western Palmer Land region of the Antarctic Peninsula between 2003 and 2014. We find a 19% increase in the long-term (1980 to 2014) mean annual SMB for the region when enhancing the model resolution to 5.5 km. This translates into an approximate 50% reduction in the total mass loss from 2003 to 2014 calculated with the mass budget method and a 15% increase in the altimetry estimate. The use of the enhanced resolution product leads to consistency between the estimates of mass loss from the altimetry and the mass budget method that is not observed with the coarser resolution product, in which estimates of cumulative mass fall beyond the relative errors. Critically, when using the 5.5 km product, we find excellent agreement, both in pattern and magnitude, with the independent estimate derived from gravimetry. Our results point toward the crucial need for high resolution SMB products from RCMs for mass balance assessments, particularly in regions of high mass turnover and complex terrain as found over the Antarctic Peninsula.

  20. Speeding up low-mass planetary microlensing simulations and modeling: The caustic region of influence

    SciTech Connect

    Penny, Matthew T.

    2014-08-01

    Extensive simulations of planetary microlensing are necessary both before and after a survey is conducted: before to design and optimize the survey and after to understand its detection efficiency. The major bottleneck in such computations is the computation of light curves. However, for low-mass planets, most of these computations are wasteful, as most light curves do not contain detectable planetary signatures. In this paper, I develop a parameterization of the binary microlens that is conducive to avoiding light curve computations. I empirically find analytic expressions describing the limits of the parameter space that contain the vast majority of low-mass planet detections. Through a large-scale simulation, I measure the (in)completeness of the parameterization and the speed-up it is possible to achieve. For Earth-mass planets in a wide range of orbits, it is possible to speed up simulations by a factor of ∼30-125 (depending on the survey's annual duty-cycle) at the cost of missing ∼1% of detections (which is actually a smaller loss than for the arbitrary parameter limits typically applied in microlensing simulations). The benefits of the parameterization probably outweigh the costs for planets below 100 M{sub ⊕}. For planets at the sensitivity limit of AFTA-WFIRST, simulation speed-ups of a factor ∼1000 or more are possible.

  1. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  2. Electric field measurements in an NLC/PMSE region during the MASS/ECOMA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogawa, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Robertson, S.; Knappmiller, S.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Multiple high-impedance electric field probes were flown from Norway in August 2007 on each of the two MASS rockets, which were launched through NLC and PMSE events. Within the cloud layer, the probe potentials relative to the rocket skin were driven negative by incident heavy charged aerosols. In the first flight, the amplitude of voltage spikes caused by probe shadowing were large, and followed a profile similar to the probe potential and heavy charged aerosol density. The relationship between the shadowing spike amplitudes and heavy charged aerosol density is used to infer ion conductivity within the cloud layer.

  3. The evolution of a rapidly-expanding active region loop into a trans-equatorial coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. M.; Hudson, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    On 23 February 1997, a coronal mass ejection erupted off the NE limb of the sun from a coronal loop system which had earlier been visible soft X-rays and Fe XIV. The ejection coincided with the onset of a small soft X-ray event, and it left the corona at a position angle of around 60 deg at around 880 km s(exp -1). This ejection then merged with a much larger event which spanned the equator and became indistinguishable, in projection, with the primary event. The soft X-ray images indicate that the highest temperature plasma was associated with the loop system near the original erupting loop. A large loop system became visible south of the equator as the coronal mass ejection developed. It appears that there are high closed coronal magnetic loops linking the northern region to that in the south.

  4. Assessing the regional impact of Indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engling, G.; He, J.; Betha, R.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA), and are particularly intense in Indonesia during dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass back trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  5. Assessing the regional impact of indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engling, G.; He, J.; Betha, R.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA), and are particularly intense in Indonesia during the dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and the diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass backward trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  6. Study of the Source Regions of Coronal Mass Ejections Using Yohkoh SXT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.; Kahler, Stephen W.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific objective of the program was to better understand how CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections) are initiated at the sun by examining structures on the disk which are related to the origins of CMEs. CMEs represent important disruptions of large-scale structures of closed magnetic fields in the corona, and result in significant disturbances of the interplanetary medium and near-Earth space. The program pertained to NASA's objectives of understanding the physics of solar activity and the structured and evolution of the corona, and the results are being applied to understanding CMEs currently being observed by SOHO near the sun and by WIND and Ulysses in the heliosphere. Three general areas of research were pursued in the program. One was to use Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope (SXT) images of eruptive events visible against the solar disk to examine the coronal structures and the boundaries of the large-scale magnetic fields considered to be involved in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The second area involved a survey and study of SXT X-ray arcade events which exhibit dimming, or the possible depletion of coronal material above and possibly before onset of the bright long-duration event (LDE). Finally, we studied the SXT data during periods when white light CMEs were observed the HAO Mauna Loa K-coronameter and, conversely, we examined the white light data during periods when expanding X-ray loops were observed at the limb.

  7. The Oklo natural reactor: Cumulative fission yields and retentivity of the symmetric mass region fission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Laeter, J. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Smith, C. L.

    1980-10-01

    Solid source mass spectrometry has been used to determine the relative cumulative fission yields of five elements in three samples of uranium ore from reactor zones in the Oklo mine site. Eighteen fission chains covering the mass range from 105 ≤ A ≤ 130 have been measured for Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn and Te. These measurements have enabled a number of nuclear parameters to be calculated including the relative proportions of 235U, 238U and 239Pu involved in the fission process. The concentration of the five elements in the Oklo samples have also been measured using the stable isotope dilution technique. These values have then been compared to the estimates of the amount of these elements produced by fission under the conditions that are appropriate to the three samples. This procedure enables the retentivity of the elements in the reactor zones to be evaluated. Our work confirms the fact that Pd and Te are retained almost in their entirety in the samples, whereas the other three elements have been partially lost from the reactor site. Almost all the Cd fission products have been lost, and more than 50% of the Ag and Sn fission-produced material has been removed.

  8. A Mid-Infrared View of the High Mass Star Formation Region W51A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C. L.; Blum, R. D.; Damineli, A.; Conti, P. S.; Gusmão, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of a mid-infrared study of G49.5-0.4, or W51A, part of the massive starbirth complex W51. Combining public data from the Spitzer IRAC camera, and Gemini mid-infrared camera T-ReCS at 7.73, 9.69, 12.33, and 24.56 μm, with a spatial resolution of ˜0.″5, we have identified the mid-infrared counterparts of eight ultracompact H ii regions, showing that two radio sources are deeply embedded in molecular clouds and another is a cloud of ionized gas. From the T-ReCS data we have unveiled the central core of the W51 region, revealing massive young stellar candidates. We modeled the spectral energy distribution of the detected sources. The results suggest that the embedded objects are sources with spectral types ranging from B3 to O5, but the majority of the fits indicate stellar objects with B1 spectral types. We also present an extinction map of IRS 2, showing that a region with lower extinction corresponds to the region where a proposed jet of gas has impacted the foreground cloud. From this map, we also derived the total extinction toward the enigmatic source IRS 2E, which amounts to ˜60 mag in the V band. We calculated the color temperature due to thermal emission of the circumstellar dust of the detected sources; the temperatures are in the interval of ˜100-150 K, which corresponds to the emission of dust located at 0.1 pc from the central source. Finally, we show a possible mid-infrared counterpart of a detected source at millimeter wavelengths that was found by Zapata et al. to be a massive young stellar object undergoing a high accretion rate.

  9. The energetics and mass structure of regions of star formation: S201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Smith, H. A.; Lada, C. J.; Glaccum, W.; Harper, D. A.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Smith, J.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical predictions about dust and gas in star forming regions are tested by observing a 4 arcmin region surrounding the radio continuum source in 5201. The object was mapped in two far infrared wavelengths and found to show significant extended emission. Under the assumption that the molecular gas is heated solely via thermal coupling with the dust, the volume density was mapped in 5201. The ratios of infrared optical depth to CO column density were calculated for a number of positions in the source. Near the center of the cloud the values are found to be in good agreement with other determinations for regions with lower column density. In addition, the observations suggest significant molecular destruction in the outer parts of the object. Current models of gas heating were used to calculate a strong limit for the radius of the far infrared emitting grains, equal to or less than 0.15 micron. Grains of about this size are required by the observation of high temperature (T equal to or greater than 20 K) gas in many sources.

  10. Study of magnetic helicity injection in the active region NOAA 9236 producing multiple flare-associated coronal mass ejection events

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Kusano, Kanya; Chae, Jongchul; Park, So-Young

    2013-11-20

    To better understand a preferred magnetic field configuration and its evolution during coronal mass ejection (CME) events, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in the active region NOAA 9236 that produced eight flare-associated CMEs during the time period of 2000 November 23-26. The time variations of the total magnetic helicity injection rate and the total unsigned magnetic flux are determined and examined not only in the entire active region but also in some local regions such as the main sunspots and the CME-associated flaring regions using SOHO/MDI magnetogram data. As a result, we found that (1) in the sunspots, a large amount of positive (right-handed) magnetic helicity was injected during most of the examined time period, (2) in the flare region, there was a continuous injection of negative (left-handed) magnetic helicity during the entire period, accompanied by a large increase of the unsigned magnetic flux, and (3) the flaring regions were mainly composed of emerging bipoles of magnetic fragments in which magnetic field lines have substantially favorable conditions for making reconnection with large-scale, overlying, and oppositely directed magnetic field lines connecting the main sunspots. These observational findings can also be well explained by some MHD numerical simulations for CME initiation (e.g., reconnection-favored emerging flux models). We therefore conclude that reconnection-favored magnetic fields in the flaring emerging flux regions play a crucial role in producing the multiple flare-associated CMEs in NOAA 9236.

  11. Differential interferometry of QSO broad-line regions - I. Improving the reverberation mapping model fits and black hole mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Petrov, Romain G.; Meilland, Anthony; Hönig, Sebastian F.

    2015-03-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) estimates the size and kinematics of broad-line regions (BLR) in quasars and type I AGNs. It yields size-luminosity relation to make QSOs standard cosmological candles, and mass-luminosity relation to study the evolution of black holes and galaxies. The accuracy of these relations is limited by the unknown geometry of the BLR clouds distribution and velocities. We analyse the independent BLR structure constraints given by super-resolving differential interferometry. We developed a three-dimensional BLR model to compute all differential interferometry and RM signals. We extrapolate realistic noises from our successful observations of the QSO 3C 273 with AMBER on the VLTI. These signals and noises quantify the differential interferometry capacity to discriminate and measure BLR parameters including angular size, thickness, spatial distribution of clouds, local-to-global and radial-to-rotation velocity ratios, and finally central black hole mass and BLR distance. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model-fit, of data simulated for various VLTI instruments, gives mass accuracies between 0.06 and 0.13 dex, to be compared to 0.44 dex for RM mass-luminosity fits. We evaluate the number of QSOs accessible to observe with current (AMBER), upcoming (GRAVITY) and possible (OASIS with new generation fringe trackers) VLTI instruments. With available technology, the VLTI could resolve more than 60 BLRs, with a luminosity range larger than four decades, sufficient for a good calibration of RM mass-luminosity laws, from an analysis of the variation of BLR parameters with luminosity.

  12. Water abundance variations around high-mass protostars: HIFI observations of the DR21 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Marseille, M. G.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Doty, S.; Frieswijk, W.; Melnick, G.; Shipman, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G.; Jørgensen, J.; Kristensen, L.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; McCoey, C.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago, J.; Saraceno, P.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S.; Yıldız, U.; Ravera, L.; Roelfsema, P.; Siebertz, O.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in the star formation process, but its spatial distribution in star-forming regions is not well known. Aims: We study the distribution of dust continuum and H2O and 13CO line emission in DR21, a luminous star-forming region with a powerful outflow and a compact H ii region. Methods: Herschel-HIFI spectra near 1100 GHz show narrow 13CO 10-9 emission and H2O 111-000 absorption from the dense core and broad emission from the outflow in both lines. The H2O line also shows absorption by a foreground cloud known from ground-based observations of low-J CO lines. Results: The dust continuum emission is extended over 36” FWHM, while the 13CO and H2O lines are confined to ≈24” or less. The foreground absorption appears to peak further North than the other components. Radiative transfer models indicate very low abundances of ~2×10-10 for H2O and ~8×10-7 for 13CO in the dense core, and higher H2O abundances of ~4×10-9 in the foreground cloud and ~7×10-7 in the outflow. Conclusions: The high H2O abundance in the warm outflow is probably due to the evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles, while the H2O abundance is kept down by freeze-out in the dense core and by photodissociation in the foreground cloud. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. Dynamics of solar filaments. IV - Structure and mass flow of an active region filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Simon, G.; Poland, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    An active region filament near the center of the solar disk was observed on September 29-30, 1980, with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass Spectrograph of the Meudon solar tower and the UV Spectrograph and Polarimeter aboard the SMM satellite. H-alpha and C IV measurements are presently used to study brightness and material velocity in the 10,000 and 100,000 K temperature ranges, and photospheric magnetograms are used to investigate the underlying magnetic field. Attention is given to the constraints imposed on possible filament structures by observations, as well as the expected MHD relationships.

  14. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  15. Nuclear Structure Studies with Radioactive Ion Beams in the Mass A = 80 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Padilla, E.; Beene, James R; Lagergren, Karin B; Mueller, Paul Edward; Radford, David C; Stracener, Daniel W; Urrego-Blanco, J. P.; Varner Jr, Robert L; Yu, Chang-Hong

    2009-01-01

    An experimental program to measure spectroscopic properties of neutron-rich nuclei in the A = 80 region is underway at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Our approach has been to get a comprehensive picture of the shell structure in this region by studying a series of properties of low lying states (E (2+), B (E2), g-factors and quadrupole moments). The beams, instrumentation and techniques developed specifically for this purpose have allowed us to systematically study the behavior of these observables along isotopic and isotonic chains using both stable and radioactive nuclei under almost identical experimental conditions. We have developed many techniques and detectors for in-beam gamma spectroscopy and decay studies with radioactive ion beams. Most of the detectors can be used individually or in combination. Generally these detector systems have very large efficiencies. We give examples of their use from three recent experiments; namely, Coulomb excitation of n-rich nuclei along the N = 50 shell closure, the static quadrupole moment of the first 2+ in 78Ge and g-factor measurements of n-rich isotopes near N = 50.

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Production by Coronal Mass Ejection-driven Shocks in Solar Fast-Wind Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Reames, D. V.

    2003-02-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events at 1 AU are produced by coronal/interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Fast (vCME>~900 km s-1) CMEs might produce stronger shocks in solar slow-wind regions, where the flow and fast-mode MHD wave speeds are low, than in fast-wind regions, where those speeds are much higher. At 1 AU the O+7/O+6 ratios distinguish between those two kinds of wind streams. We use the 20 MeV proton event intensities from the EPACT instrument on Wind, the associated CMEs observed with the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO, and the ACE SWICS solar wind values of O+7/O+6 to look for variations of peak SEP intensities as a function of O+7/O+6. No significant dependence of the SEP intensities on O+7/O+6 is found for either poorly connected or well-connected CME source regions or for different CME speed ranges. However, in the 3 yr study period we find only five cases of SEP events in fast wind, defined by regions of O+7/O+6<0.15. We suggest that in coronal holes SEP acceleration may take place only in the plume regions, where the flow and Alfvén speeds are low. A broad range of angular widths are associated with fast (vCME>=900 km s-1) CMEs, but we find that no fast CMEs with widths less than 60° are associated with SEP events. On the other hand, nearly all fast halo CMEs are associated with SEP events. Thus, the CME widths are more important in SEP production than previously thought, but the speed of the solar wind source regions in which SEPs are produced may not be a factor.

  17. Mass measles immunization campaign: experience in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shuk Kwan; Lau, Yu Lung; Lim, Wei Ling; Chow, Chun Bong; Tsang, Thomas; Tse, Lai Yin

    2002-01-01

    After the 1988 measles outbreak, annual notification rates for measles in Hong Kong SAR between 1989 and 1999 were 0.4-4.9 per 100 000, with peaks in 1992, 1994 and 1997. The first half-year incidence rates per 100 000 were 2.3 in 1997, 0.5 in 1995 and 1.2 in 1996. Monthly notification rates increased from a baseline of <10 cases to 59 in May 1997. Serological surveillance showed only 85.5% of children aged 1-19 years had measles antibodies. An epidemic, mainly because of failure of the first dose to produce immunity, seemed imminent in mid-1997. A mass immunization campaign targeted children aged 1-19 from July to November 1997. The overall coverage was 77%. The rate of adverse events was low. After the campaign, measles notification fell to 0.9 per 100 000 in 1998. A two-dose strategy and supplementary campaigns will maintain measles susceptibility at levels low enough to make measles elimination our goal. PMID:12163924

  18. Transport of symmetric mass region fission products at the Oklo natural reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, R. D.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    The isotopic composition of Pd, Ag, Cd and Te has been measured by solid source mass spectrometry for four samples from reactor zones 2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7, and from four host rock samples external to the reactor zones from the Oklo mine site. The concentrations of these elements have also been determined in the eight samples using the stable isotope dilution technique. Cumulative fission yields have been derived from the reactor zone samples after correcting where necessary for the terrestrial component of the element concerned. It has been shown that fission-produced Pd and Te are retained almost in their entirety in the uraninite reactor zone samples, whereas a significant fraction of fission-produced Ag and Cd have migrated from the reactor zones. Fission product Cd is observed in the host rock samples, whereas no strong evidence of fission-produced Ag could be found. Thus the fission-produced Ag which has migrated from the reactor zones has not been retained in the four host rock samples analysed, although the presence of fission product Ag may be masked by the presence of natural Ag. It is possible that the fission product Ag has been retained in the Oklo mine-site, and further host rock samples will be studied to evaluate this possibility. The implications of these results to the storage of radioactive wastes in natural geological repositories is discussed.

  19. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  20. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

    PubMed Central

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Parham, James F.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M.; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Suárez, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  1. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

  2. A Regional, Integrated Monitoring System for the Hydrology of the Pan-Arctic Land Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serreze, Mark; Barry, Roger; Nolin, Anne; Armstrong, Richard; Zhang, Ting-Jung; Vorosmarty, Charles; Lammers, Richard; Frolking, Steven; Bromwich, David; McDonald, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Work under this NASA contract developed a system for monitoring and historical analysis of the major components of the pan-Arctic terrestrial water cycle. It is known as Arctic-RIMS (Regional Integrated Hydrological Monitoring System for the Pan-Arctic Landmass). The system uses products from EOS-era satellites, numerical weather prediction models, station records and other data sets in conjunction with an atmosphere-land surface water budgeting scheme. The intent was to compile operational (at 1-2 month time lags) gridded fields of precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), P-ET, soil moisture, soil freeze/thaw state, active layer thickness, snow extent and its water equivalent, soil water storage, runoff and simulated discharge along with estimates of non-closure in the water budget. Using "baseline" water budgeting schemes in conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses and pre-EOS satellite data, water budget fields were conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses and pre-EOS satellite data, water budget fields were compiled to provide historical time series. The goals as outlined in the original proposal can be summarized as follows: 1) Use EOS data to compile hydrologic products for the pan-Arctic terrestrial regions including snowcover/snow water equivalent (SSM/A MODIS, AMSR) and near-surface freeze/thaw dynamics (Sea Winds on QuikSCAT and ADEOS I4 SSMI and AMSR). 2) Implement Arctic-RIMS to use EOS data streams, allied fields and hydrologic models to produce allied outputs that fully characterize pan-Arctic terrestrial and aerological water budgets. 3) Compile hydrologically-based historical products providing a long-term baseline of spatial and temporal variability in the water cycle.

  3. Influence of air mass source region on nanoparticle events and hygroscopicity in central Virginia, U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, T. L.; Fuentes, J. D.; Collins, D. R.; Cleveland, M. J.; Keene, W. C.

    During autumn, 2006, variation in the frequency of aerosol nucleation events, as inferred from nanoparticle growth events, and associated hygroscopicity were investigated as a function of air mass transport history at a mixed deciduous forest in central Virginia, U.S. Above-canopy size distributions of aerosols between 0.012 and 0.700 μm diameter, size-resolved particle hygroscopicity at eight dry diameters between 0.012 and 0.400 μm, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity were characterized. Air mass back trajectories were clustered to identify source regions. Growth events were most frequent in fast-moving air masses (mean = 9 m s -1) that originated over the north central U.S. Under these flow regimes, mean values for preexisting sub-μm aerosol number concentrations (4700 cm -3), corresponding surface area (142 μm 2 cm -3), air temperature (6.2 °C), and relative humidity (RH, 49.4%) were relatively low compared to other regimes. Under stagnant flow conditions (mean = 3 m s -1), mean number concentrations were higher (>6000 cm -3) and size fractions <0.1 μm diameter exhibited enhanced hygroscopicity compared to other source regions. These results indicate that precursors emitted into relatively clean, cold, and dry air transported over the southeastern U.S. reacted to form condensable intermediates that subsequently produced new aerosols via nucleation and growth. This pathway was an important source for CCN. During events in October, nanoparticles were produced in greater numbers and grew more rapidly compared to November and December.

  4. H{sub 2}D{sup +} IN THE HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS X

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, T.; Lis, D. C.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Zhang, Q.; Thompson, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    H{sub 2}D{sup +} is a primary ion that dominates the gas-phase chemistry of cold dense gas. Therefore, it is hailed as a unique tool in probing the earliest, prestellar phase of star formation. Observationally, its abundance and distribution is, however, just beginning to be understood in low-mass prestellar and cluster-forming cores. In high-mass star-forming regions, H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been detected only in two cores, and its spatial distribution remains unknown. Here, we present the first map of the ortho-H{sub 2}D{sup +} J{sub k{sup +},k{sup -}} = 1{sub 1,0} {yields} 1{sub 1,1} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 4-3 transition in the DR21 filament of Cygnus X with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and N{sub 2}D{sup +} 3-2 and dust continuum with the Submillimeter Array. We have discovered five very extended ({<=}34, 000 AU diameter) weak structures in H{sub 2}D{sup +} in the vicinity of, but distinctly offset from, embedded protostars. More surprisingly, the H{sub 2}D{sup +} peak is not associated with either a dust continuum or N{sub 2}D{sup +} peak. We have therefore uncovered extended massive cold dense gas that was undetected with previous molecular line and dust continuum surveys of the region. This work also shows that our picture of the structure of cores is too simplistic for cluster-forming cores and needs to be refined: neither dust continuum with existing capabilities nor emission in tracers like N{sub 2}D{sup +} can provide a complete census of the total prestellar gas in such regions. Sensitive H{sub 2}D{sup +} mapping of the entire DR21 filament is likely to discover more of such cold quiescent gas reservoirs in an otherwise active high-mass star-forming region.

  5. Paraglacial rock mass damage during repeat glacial cycles in preparing slope instabilities (Aletsch region, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grämiger, Lorenz; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Gischig, Valentin S.; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Glacier advance and retreat imposes mechanical stress cycles on underlying bedrock. Stress changes propagate rock mass damage and act as preparatory factors for slope instabilities, however, the mechanics of paraglacial rock slope damage remains poorly understood. In this study, we present results of detailed, conceptual numerical models, based on extensive field mapping and characterization at our Aletsch valley study site, Switzerland. We illustrate how simple stress changes associated with repeat glacial cycles can propagate fractures, enhance slip along discontinuities, and lead to failure of intact rock bridges, conditioning adjacent valley slopes for failure. We describe the timing and location of induced damage, stress redistribution, and displacement associated with Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial cycles, and compare numerical predictions with the spatial and temporal distribution of landslides around the Great Aletsch Glacier. Our results help clarify mechanical linkages between glacial cycles and damage propagation in alpine valley rock slopes. In our simulations, most damage occurs during first deglaciation. This is in good agreement with the relative initiation timing (post-LGM / post-Egesen) for the majority of identified landslides at Aletsch. Large Holocene glacial cycles with high amplitude ice elevation changes in our models have a significant impact on displacement patterns in adjacent slopes. This correlates with a concentrated area of landslides located around the present-day glacier terminus, where the Great Aletsch Glacier fluctuated most during the Holocene. The kinematics and dimensions of an unstable rock slope produced in our models also generally resembles field observations of toppling-mode landslides on the eastern slope. No substantial displacement was generated on the western slope, although compound rock slides are observed on the western flank in the Aletsch.

  6. Forecasting flares and Coronal Mass Ejections by the evolution of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitta Korsos, Marianna

    2015-04-01

    We present newly discovered pre-flare behaviour of the evolution of sunspot groups by analysing the SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data (SDD) catalogue. Our method employes the horizontal gradient of magnetic field (G_M) defined between two spots with opposite polarities at the polarity inversion line of ARs. The G_M is a n excellent proxy measure of magnetic non-potentiality at the photosphere, derived from the observed line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. The value and temporal variation of this proxy is found to possess important diagnostic information about the intensity of expected flares.Next, we address the benefits of introducing the generalisation of this proxy, i.e. the weighted horizontal magnetic gradient, WG_M. This new approach does not limit anymore the analysis to two spots having the largest horizontal magnetic gradient value. Instead, all spots are now taken into account within an appropriately defined small region in the AR.This new tool greatly enhances the capability of forecast, including (i) the accuracy of onset time prediction, (ii) CME risk assessment, (iii) whether a flare, stronger than M5 in terms of the GOES classification, is followed by another event within 18 hours. We argue that our method is currently one of the bests to forecast these eruptive events. Finally, we discuss the limitations of our approach and propose how to potentially mitigate these shortcomings.

  7. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: Water masses, currents, and the ASF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The specific objectives of ESASSI, the sampling strategy and the overall distribution of the main variables across the 11 sections covered by the cruise are presented in a poster. Here we focus on three specific issues: i) the observation of strong tidal currents over some of the sampled slopes; ii) the path of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) over the SSR; and iii) the outflow of dense, ventilated water from the Weddell Sea into the South Scotia Sea. The main results are: i) Strong tidal currents with a significant diurnal component were observed over the southern slope of the SSR. Three tidal models are compared with the observations and used to de-tide ADCP currents. ii) The signature of the ASF is clearly detected on the southern slopes of the SSR (on the Weddell Sea flank). Over the northern slopes (the Scotia Sea flank), however, only weak signatures of frontal structures are observed; an in-depth biochemical analysis will be required to link the structures observed over the two flanks of the SSR. What seems clear is that the ASF does not extend further than Elephant Island, since southwestward of that island the shelf and the slope are fully occupied by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. iii) The shallower component of Weddell Sea Deep Water (Upper WSDW) flows over the SSR and pours into the Scotia Sea except to the east of Elephant Island, where the channels are less than 1500 m deep. The densest component of WSDW (Lower WSDW) is observed at both flanks of the SSR, but again a more detailed analysis of biochemical data will be required to prove a direct flux of this water mass across the SSR. Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is not observed in any of the sampled sections.

  8. Gray and White Matter Structures in the Midcingulate Cortex Region Contribute to Body Mass Index in Chinese Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly becoming a central public health challenge around the world. Previous studies have suggested that elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) might be associated with structural changes in both gray and white matter, but this association is still not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and brain structure with a relatively large sample of young adults (N = 336) in a small age range (20 ± 1 years). VBM results showed significant negative correlations between BMI and Gray Matter Volumes (GMV) in the MCC, left OFC, and left VMPFC. There was also a significant negative correlation between BMI and white matter integrity as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in bilateral cingulum. Further tractography analysis showed a significant negative correlation between BMI and the number of fibers passing the MCC region. Regression analysis showed that gray matter and white matter in these regions both contributed to the variance of BMI. These results remained significant even when analysis was restricted to the subjects with normal-weights. Finally, we found that decision making ability (as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task) mediated the association between the structure of the MCC (a region responsible for impulse control and decision making) and BMI. These results shed light on the structural neural basis of weight variations. PMID:24146133

  9. Challenging shock models with SOFIA OH observations in the high-mass star-forming region Cepheus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusdorf, A.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.; Flower, D. R.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Heyminck, S.; Jacobs, K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Leurini, S.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-01-01

    Context. OH is a key molecule in H2O chemistry, a valuable tool for probing physical conditions, and an important contributor to the cooling of shock regions around high-mass protostars. OH participates in the re-distribution of energy from the protostar towards the surrounding Interstellar Medium. Aims: Our aim is to assess the origin of the OH emission from the Cepheus A massive star-forming region and to constrain the physical conditions prevailing in the emitting gas. We thus want to probe the processes at work during the formation of massive stars. Methods: We present spectrally resolved observations of OH towards the protostellar outflows region of Cepheus A with the GREAT spectrometer onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope. Three triplets were observed at 1834.7 GHz, 1837.8 GHz, and 2514.3 GHz (163.4 μm, 163.1 μm between the 2Π1/2 J = 1/2 states, and 119.2 μm, a ground transition between the 2Π3/2 J = 3/2 states), at angular resolutions of 16.̋3, 16.̋3, and 11.̋9, respectively. We also present the CO (16-15) spectrum at the same position. We compared the integrated intensities in the redshifted wings to the results of shock models. Results: The two OH triplets near 163 μm are detected in emission, but with blending hyperfine structure unresolved. Their profiles and that of CO (16-15) can be fitted by a combination of two or three Gaussians. The observed 119.2 μm triplet is seen in absorption, since its blending hyperfine structure is unresolved, but with three line-of-sight components and a blueshifted emission wing consistent with that of the other lines. The OH line wings are similar to those of CO, suggesting that they emanate from the same shocked structure. Conclusions: Under this common origin assumption, the observations fall within the model predictions and within the range of use of our model only if we consider that four shock structures are caught in our beam. Overall, our comparisons suggest that

  10. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: BROAD-LINE REGION RADII AND BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING OF Hbeta

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Misty C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Barth, Aaron J.; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Greene, Jenny E.; Hidas, Marton G.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Hiner, Kyle D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Serduke, Frank J. D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.; Gates, Elinor L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu

    2009-11-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z < 0.05) Seyfert 1 galaxies with expected masses in the range approx10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M {sub sun} and also the well-studied nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. Nine of the objects in the sample (including NGC 5548) showed optical variability of sufficient strength during the monitoring campaign to allow for a time lag to be measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hbeta emission. We present here the light curves for all the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hbeta time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hbeta lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region (BLR) in AGNs, and by combining the Hbeta lag time with the measured width of the Hbeta emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supermassive black hole in these nine AGNs. The absolute calibration of the black hole masses is based on the normalization derived by Onken et al., which brings the masses determined by reverberation mapping into agreement with the local M {sub BH}-sigma{sub *}relationship for quiescent galaxies. We also examine the time lag response as a function of velocity across the Hbeta line profile for six of the AGNs. The analysis of four leads to rather ambiguous results with relatively flat time lags as a function of velocity. However, SBS 1116+583A exhibits a symmetric time lag response around the line center reminiscent of simple models for circularly orbiting BLR clouds, and Arp 151 shows an asymmetric profile that is most easily explained by a simple gravitational infall model. Further investigation will be necessary to fully understand the constraints placed on the physical models of the BLR by the velocity-resolved response

  11. An HST Imaging Survey of Low-mass Stars in the Chamaeleon I Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robberto, M.; Spina, L.; Da Rio, N.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ricci, L.; Goddi, C.; Testi, L.; Palla, F.; Bacciotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of 20 fields centered around T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region. Images have been obtained in the F631N ([O I] λ6300), F656N (Hα), and F673N ([S II] λλ6716, 6731) narrow-band filters, plus the Johnson V-band equivalent F547M filter. We detect 31 T Tauri stars falling within our fields. We discuss the optical morphology of 10 sources showing evidence of either binarity, circumstellar material, or mass loss. We supplement our photometry with a compilation of optical, infrared, and submillimeter (sub-mm) data from the literature, together with new sub-mm data for three objects, to build the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 19 single sources. Using an SED model fitting tool, we self-consistently estimate a number of stellar and disk parameters, while mass accretion rates are directly derived from our Hα photometry. We find that bolometric luminosities derived from dereddened optical data tend to be underestimated in systems with high α2-24 IR spectral index, suggesting that disks seen nearly edge-on may occasionally be interpreted as low-luminosity (and therefore more evolved) sources. On the other hand, the same α2-24 IR spectral index, a tracer of the amount of dust in the warmer layers of the circumstellar disks, and the mass accretion rate appear to decay with the isochronal stellar age, suggesting that the observed age spread (sime 0.5-5 Myr) within the cluster is real. Our sample contains a few outliers that may have dissipated their circumstellar disks on a shorter timescale.

  12. On the mass and salt budgets for a region of the continental shelf in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo Yin; Weatherly, Georges L.; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.

    2001-12-01

    Two field studies were conducted across and along the continental shelf, one from February to May 1996 (deployment 1) and the other from July to October 1996 (deployment 2), in part to determine the mass and salt budgets of shelf water from south of Cape Henry to north of Cape Hatteras, the southernmost portion of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The temporal means of current meter records indicated that most of the water enters the region across its northern boundary near the shelf break as part of a southward, alongshore current and exits the southeast corner as a southeastward flowing current. Estimates of the volume transports indicated that not all the transport across the northern boundary was accounted for by transport across the southern boundary, and that the remainder occurred as a broad, diffusive flow across the eastern boundary at the shelf break. Time series of volume transport across northern and southern boundaries were very similar and associated with variations in the alongshore wind stress and sea level, indicative of a geostrophic balance. Examination of the individual current meter records indicated these fluctuations were very barotropic even during deployment 2, which included the stratified summer season. Time series of the volume transport across the eastern boundary at the shelf break strongly mirrored the volume transport across the northern boundary minus that across the southern boundary, suggesting that the inferred eastern boundary transport was real and accommodated whatever the southern boundary could not. The turbulent salt flux across each boundary contributes very little to the net respective mass fluxes because the salt fluxes are almost governed by current velocity fields. The instantaneous and mean salt fluxes across each boundary were very well approximated by the instantaneous and mean volume transports across the boundary times the deployment average salinity across that boundary, respectively. The Ocean Margins Program (OMP) moored

  13. Very high resolution surface mass balance over Greenland modeled by the regional climate model MAR with a downscaling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Christoph; Lang, Charlotte; Agosta, Cécile; Prignon, Maxime; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2016-04-01

    This study presents surface mass balance (SMB) results at 5 km resolution with the regional climate MAR model over the Greenland ice sheet. Here, we use the last MAR version (v3.6) where the land-ice module (SISVAT) using a high resolution grid (5km) for surface variables is fully coupled while the MAR atmospheric module running at a lower resolution of 10km. This online downscaling technique enables to correct near-surface temperature and humidity from MAR by a gradient based on elevation before forcing SISVAT. The 10 km precipitation is not corrected. Corrections are stronger over the ablation zone where topography presents more variations. The model has been force by ERA-Interim between 1979 and 2014. We will show the advantages of using an online SMB downscaling technique in respect to an offline downscaling extrapolation based on local SMB vertical gradients. Results at 5 km show a better agreement with the PROMICE surface mass balance data base than the extrapolated 10 km MAR SMB results.

  14. On-Line Desalting of Crude Oil in the Source Region of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthamontri, C. Ken; Stopford, Andrew P.; Snowdon, Ryan W.; Oldenburg, Thomas B. P.; Larter, Stephen R.

    2014-08-01

    The presence of dissolved metal ions in waters associated with crude oils has many negative implications for the transport, processing, and refining of petroleum. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis of sodium containing crude oil samples suffers from ionization suppression, unwanted adduct formation, and an increase in the complexity of data analysis. Here, we describe a method for the reduction/elimination of these adverse effects by modification of the source region gas-inlet system of a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Several acids were examined as part of this study, with the most suitable for on-line desalting found to have both high vapor pressure and low pKa; 12.1 M HCl showed the strongest desalting effect for crude oil samples with a sodium removal index (SRI) of 88%-100% ± 7% for the NaOS compound class. In comparison, a SRI of only 38% ± 9% was observed for a H2O/toluene solution-phase extraction of Oil 1. These results clearly demonstrate the increased efficacy of pseudo-vapor phase desalting with the additional advantages that initial sample solution conditions are preserved and no sample preparation is required prior to analysis.

  15. On-line desalting of crude oil in the source region of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chanthamontri, C Ken; Stopford, Andrew P; Snowdon, Ryan W; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Stephen R

    2014-08-01

    The presence of dissolved metal ions in waters associated with crude oils has many negative implications for the transport, processing, and refining of petroleum. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis of sodium containing crude oil samples suffers from ionization suppression, unwanted adduct formation, and an increase in the complexity of data analysis. Here, we describe a method for the reduction/elimination of these adverse effects by modification of the source region gas-inlet system of a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Several acids were examined as part of this study, with the most suitable for on-line desalting found to have both high vapor pressure and low pK(a); 12.1 M HCl showed the strongest desalting effect for crude oil samples with a sodium removal index (SRI) of 88%-100% ± 7% for the NaOS compound class. In comparison, a SRI of only 38% ± 9% was observed for a H₂O/toluene solution-phase extraction of oil 1. These results clearly demonstrate the increased efficacy of pseudo-vapor phase desalting with the additional advantages that initial sample solution conditions are preserved and no sample preparation is required prior to analysis.

  16. Geomagnetic storms and transient depressions in cosmic rays due to coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anand; Badruddin, B.

    We study selected geomagnetic storms and transient depressions (Forbush decreases) in cosmic ray intensity. We use ground-based neutron monitors as a measure of cosmic ray intensity. Geomagnetic index Dst is used as a measure of level of geomagnetic activity. We identify coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and high-speed streams from coronal holes on the solar surface and corresponding structures evolved in the interplanetary space e.g. shock/sheath regions, interplanetary counterpart of CMEs (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs), responsible for these phenomenon e.g. geomagnetic storms (GS) and Forbush decrease (FD) in cosmic ray intensity. An ICME or CIR that is strongly geo-effective is not necessarily effective in producing large depressions in cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore, important to study solar wind plasma/field parameters during the passage of such structures and identify the solar/interplanetary parameters of major importance and physical mechanism responsible for GS and FDs. This has been attempted by detailed study of the observed differences in geomagnetic and cosmic-ray response to same solar sources. Space weather implication of this study is also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the CMIP5 models in the aim of regional modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, C.; Fettweis, X.; Datta, R.

    2015-12-01

    The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic Ice Sheet cannot be reliably deduced from global climate models (GCMs), both because their spatial resolution is insufficient and because their physics are not adapted for cold and snow-covered regions. By contrast, regional climate models (RCMs) adapted for polar regions can physically and dynamically downscale SMB components over the ice sheet using large-scale forcing at their boundaries. Polar-oriented RCMs require appropriate GCM fields for forcing because the response of the cryosphere to a warming climate is dependent on its initial state and is not linear with respect to temperature increase. In this context, we evaluate the current climate in 41 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data set over Antarctica by focusing on forcing fields which may have the greatest impact on SMB components simulated by RCMs. Our inter-comparison includes six reanalyses, among which ERA-Interim reanalysis is chosen as a reference over 1979-2014. Model efficiency is assessed taking into account the multi-decadal variability of the fields over the 1850-1980 period. We show that fewer than 10 CMIP5 models show reasonable biases compared to ERA-Interim, among which ACCESS1-3 is the most pertinent choice for forcing RCMs over Antarctica, followed by ACCESS1-0, CESM1-BGC, CESM1-CAM5, NorESM1-M, CCSM4 and EC-EARTH. Finally, climate change over the Southern Ocean in CMIP5 is less sensitive to the global warming signal than it is to the present-day simulated sea-ice extent and to the feedback between sea-ice decrease and air temperature increase around Antarctica.

  18. Reconstructing the annual mass balance of the Echaurren Norte glacier (Central Andes, 33.5° S) using local and regional hydroclimatic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiokas, Mariano H.; Christie, Duncan A.; Le Quesne, Carlos; Pitte, Pierre; Ruiz, Lucas; Villalba, Ricardo; Luckman, Brian H.; Berthier, Etienne; Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; González-Reyes, Álvaro; McPhee, James; Barcaza, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great number and variety of glaciers in southern South America, in situ glacier mass-balance records are extremely scarce and glacier-climate relationships are still poorly understood in this region. Here we use the longest (> 35 years) and most complete in situ mass-balance record, available for the Echaurren Norte glacier (ECH) in the Andes at ˜ 33.5° S, to develop a minimal glacier surface mass-balance model that relies on nearby monthly precipitation and air temperature data as forcing. This basic model is able to explain 78 % of the variance in the annual glacier mass-balance record over the 1978-2013 calibration period. An attribution assessment identified precipitation variability as the dominant forcing modulating annual mass balances at ECH, with temperature variations likely playing a secondary role. A regionally averaged series of mean annual streamflow records from both sides of the Andes between ˜ 30 and 37° S is then used to estimate, through simple linear regression, this glacier's annual mass-balance variations since 1909. The reconstruction model captures 68 % of the observed glacier mass-balance variability and shows three periods of sustained positive mass balances embedded in an overall negative trend over the past 105 years. The three periods of sustained positive mass balances (centered in the 1920s-1930s, in the 1980s and in the first decade of the 21st century) coincide with several documented glacier advances in this region. Similar trends observed in other shorter glacier mass-balance series suggest that the Echaurren Norte glacier reconstruction is representative of larger-scale conditions and could be useful for more detailed glaciological, hydrological and climatological assessments in this portion of the Andes.

  19. Water mass bio-optical properties in the Monterey Bay region: Fluorescence-based inference of shifts in phytoplankton photophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, J. K.; Gould, R. W., Jr.; Penta, B.; Teague, W. J.; DeRada, S.; Chavez, F. P.; Arnone, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    A physical and bio-optical field survey of the Monterey Bay area was conducted during May-June 2008. The combined bio-optical and physical data may be summarized as a transition between two end-member states during the late spring to summer upwelling season: (1) the mesotrophic, nanoflagellate-dominated, low-salinity surface waters (chlorophyll-a ˜ 0.5-2 mg m-3; S < 33.4) of the California Current and (2) the eutrophic, diatomaceous, higher salinity surface waters (chlorophyll-a > 2 mg m-3; S > 33.8) of Monterey Bay and adjacent continental shelf areas. High-resolution and collocated spectrophotometric, fluorometric and CTD data obtained from a towed platform indicated low-salinity subarctic-origin surface waters intruded into Monterey Bay on 4 June. The dark in vivo fluorometry (IVF) phytoplankton response normalized to particle absorption at 676 nm (the apparent fluorescence efficiency, AFE) was nearly fourfold larger in this water mass type compared to higher salinity surface waters more typical of Monterey Bay. The collocated fluorescence and optical data were then used to estimate in situ irradiance values and determine apparent light saturation intensities (I'k) based on the remarkably consistent AFE water column inflection points. I'kvalues retrieved from the low-salinity surface waters were approximately half those obtained over the continental shelf. An analysis of concomitant HPLC data, in addition to historical data for the region, suggest these observed fluorescence trends may be indicative of taxon-specific variation in photophysiology. Specifically, the subarctic water mass-associated pelagic nanoflagellate group likely possesses a fundamentally different photosynthetic architecture than large diatoms prototypical of coastal upwelling regimes.

  20. Atmospheric flux, transport and mass balance of (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiotracers in different regions of Romania.

    PubMed

    Begy, R Cs; Kovacs, T; Veres, D; Simon, H

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the determination of (210)Pb and (137)Cs fluxes from different areas in Transylvania, Romania and on the determination of transport and mass balance within the lacustrine system of Red Lake. In order to achieve this, samples were taken from six different locations (Bihor County area, Ighiel area, Red Lake area, Mluha Peatbog, Mohos Peatbog and Zanoaga Rosie Peat bog in the Semenic Mountains) throughout Romania, these being compared to the values of the Danube Delta area. The activity concentrations of the soil samples were measured by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) for both (210)Pbtotal, (210)Pbsup ((226)Ra) and (137)Cs, while peat samples were measured by both alpha ((210)Po) spectrometry (PIPS detectors) as well. The mean value for the (210)Pb flux was measured in the Danube Delta region (42±8Bqm(-2) yr(-1)), while the highest was measured in the Semenic Peatbog (227±54Bqm(-2) yr(-1)); the average being 132±8Bqm(-2) yr(-1). In case of (137)Cs the mean was 298±3Bqm(-2) yr(-1), maximum being 1683±15Bqm(-2) yr(-1) in case of Ighiel area and minimum being 32±1Bqm(-2) yr(-1) in the Danube Delta region. In case of the Red Lake, from the total inventory of 410±23Bqm(-2) yr(-1) in the sediments, the loss by outflows is 100±12Bqm(-2) yr(-1), the catchment to lake transfer factor being 0.84%. PMID:26922393

  1. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  2. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  3. Feasibility analysis of municipal solid waste mass burning in the Region of East Macedonia--Thrace in Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, C J; Tsalkidis, D A; Kalogirou, E; Voudrias, E A

    2015-06-01

    The present work conducts a preliminary techno-economic feasibility study for a single municipal solid waste mass burning to an electricity plant for the total municipal solid waste potential of the Region of Eastern Macedonia - Thrace, in Greece. For a certain applied and highly efficient technology and an installed capacity of 400,000 t of municipal solid waste per year, the available electrical power to grid would be approximately 260 GWh per year (overall plant efficiency 20.5% of the lower heating value). The investment for such a plant was estimated at €200m. Taking into account that 37.9% of the municipal solid waste lower heating value can be attributed to their renewable fractions, and Greek Law 3851/2010, which transposes Directive 2009/28/EC for Renewable Energy Sources, the price of the generated electricity was calculated at €53.19/MWhe. Under these conditions, the economic feasibility of such an investment depends crucially on the imposed gate fees. Thus, in the gate fee range of 50-110 € t(-1), the internal rate of return increases from 5% to above 15%, whereas the corresponding pay-out time periods decrease from 11 to about 4 years.

  4. Study of the geoeffectiveness of coronal mass ejections, corotating interaction regions and their associated structures observed during Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, A.; Falak, Z.

    2016-08-01

    The interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and the corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the two most important structures of the interplanetary medium affecting the Earth and the near-Earth space environment. We study the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during the passage of ICMEs and CIRs, in the Solar Cycle 23 (Jan. 1995-Dec. 2009), and their relative geoeffectiveness. We utilize the timings of different features of these structures, their arrival and duration. As geomagnetic parameter, we utilize high time resolution data of Dst and AE indices. In addition to these geomagnetic indices, we utilize the simultaneous and similar time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field, namely, solar wind velocity, interplanetary magnetic field, its north-south component and dawn-dusk electric field. We apply the method of superposed epoch analysis. Utilizing the properties of various structures during the passage of ICMEs and CIRs, and variations observed in plasma and field parameters during their passage along with the simultaneous changes observed in geomagnetic parameters, we identify the interplanetary conditions, plasma/field parameters and their relative importance in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Geospace consequences of ICMEs and CIRs, and the implications of these results for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling are discussed.

  5. Feasibility analysis of municipal solid waste mass burning in the Region of East Macedonia--Thrace in Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, C J; Tsalkidis, D A; Kalogirou, E; Voudrias, E A

    2015-06-01

    The present work conducts a preliminary techno-economic feasibility study for a single municipal solid waste mass burning to an electricity plant for the total municipal solid waste potential of the Region of Eastern Macedonia - Thrace, in Greece. For a certain applied and highly efficient technology and an installed capacity of 400,000 t of municipal solid waste per year, the available electrical power to grid would be approximately 260 GWh per year (overall plant efficiency 20.5% of the lower heating value). The investment for such a plant was estimated at €200m. Taking into account that 37.9% of the municipal solid waste lower heating value can be attributed to their renewable fractions, and Greek Law 3851/2010, which transposes Directive 2009/28/EC for Renewable Energy Sources, the price of the generated electricity was calculated at €53.19/MWhe. Under these conditions, the economic feasibility of such an investment depends crucially on the imposed gate fees. Thus, in the gate fee range of 50-110 € t(-1), the internal rate of return increases from 5% to above 15%, whereas the corresponding pay-out time periods decrease from 11 to about 4 years. PMID:26060234

  6. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION AT LOW FREQUENCIES DURING A SOLAR ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M. E-mail: kathir@iiap.res.in E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in

    2012-01-10

    We carried out radio observations of the solar corona in the frequency range 109-50 MHz during the annular eclipse of 2010 January 15 from the Gauribidanur Observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The radio emission in the above frequency range originates typically in the radial distance range Almost-Equal-To 1.2-1.5 R{sub Sun} in the 'undisturbed' solar atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that (1) the angular size of the smallest observable radio source (associated with a coronal mass ejection in the present case) is Almost-Equal-To 1' {+-} 0.'3, (2) the source size does not vary with radial distance, (3) the peak brightness temperature of the source corresponding to the above size at a typical frequency like 77 MHz is Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K, and (4) the coronal magnetic field near the source region is Almost-Equal-To 70 mG.

  7. [Evidence-based planning: the case of mass screening for colorectal cancer in the Lazio region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Federici, A; Borgia, P; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    Several population-based trials have shown the efficacy of colorectal cancer mass-screening based on guaiac faecal blood testing in a generic risk population. SCCR represents a very complex and resource-demanding public health intervention and, for this reason, its planning requires actual efficacy as a main goal. Since evidence of efficacy demonstrated by population-based trials may not actually generate effectiveness, the Regional Government of Latium Region decided to implement some experimental studies before introducing a screening programme, in order to define an evidence-based organisational model of SCCR and a feasibility evaluation of the real needs for screening. The aims of the pilot studies were to define an evidence-based organisational model, to evaluate the necessary resources and the actual quality standard of clinical examination, treatment and surgery. The aim of the feasibility study is to test the organisational model for SCCR for about 300,000 citizens residing in the Latium region. The present article illustrates the scheduling path set out, which is based on the involvement of experts, GP representatives and specialists from scientific societies and it is planned by the following actions: Definition of evidence-based recommendations; identification of further investigations; realization of experimental studies; definition of an evidence-based organisational model. The main research areas have been dealt with using randomised trials, in order to evaluate the efficacy of the involvement of GPs and the kind of test for RSOF Our work has produced evidences which were sometimes in contrast with information in the literature, demonstrating that guaiac RSOF testing is less reproducible and determines lower uptake than immunochemical testing. Our work also shows that the involvement of GPs should be based on their personal skills rather than on their role. Such evidences are fundamental to the definition of the organisational model and confirm the

  8. Factors affecting acid neutralizing capacity in the Adirondack region of New York: a solute mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mari; Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2005-06-01

    -watersheds with low DOC (IV) were probably due to the mobilization of Al as an ANC source in these watersheds that were highly sensitive to strong acid inputs. Our analysis of various drainage lakes across the Adirondacks on the basis of solute mass balances, coupled with the use of a lake classification system and GIS data, demonstrates that the lake-watersheds characterized by shallow deposits of glacial till are highly sensitive to acidic deposition not only in the southwestern Adirondack region where previous field-based studies were intensively conducted but also across the entire Adirondack region. Moreover, the supply of organic acids and Al mobilization substantially modify the acid-base status of surface waters.

  9. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  10. Analysis of wine volatile profile by purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to the analysis of red and white wines from different Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Margarita; Arroyo, Teresa

    2007-09-21

    The purge-and-trap extraction method, coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry detection, has been applied to the determination of 26 aromatic volatiles in wine. The method was optimized, validated and applied to the analyses of 40 red and white wines from 7 different Spanish regions. Principal components analyses of data showed the correlation between wines of similar origin.

  11. A Tool for Empirical Forecasting of Major Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Solar Particle Events from a Proxy of Active-Region Free Magnetic Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, James; Barghouty, Abdulnasser; Falconer, D. A.

    This presentation describes a new forecasting tool developed for and is currently being tested by NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at JSC, which is responsible for the monitoring and forecasting of radiation exposure levels of astronauts. The new software tool is designed for the empirical forecasting of M and X-class flares, coronal mass ejections, as well as solar energetic particle events. It's algorithm is based on an empirical relationship between the various types of events rates and a proxy of the active region's free magnetic energy, determined from a data set of approximately 40,000 active-region magnetograms from approximately 1,300 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI that have known histories of flare, coronal mass ejection, and solar energetic particle event production. The new tool automatically extracts each strong-field magnetic areas from an MDI full-disk magnetogram, identifies each as an NOAA active region, and measures a proxy of the active region's free magnetic energy from the extracted magnetogram. For each active region, the empirical relationship is then used to convert the free magnetic energy proxy into an expected event rate. The expected event rate in turn can be readily converted into the probability that the active region will produce such an event in a given forward time window. Descriptions of the datasets, algorithm, and software in addition to sample applications and a validation test are presented. Further development and transition of the new tool in anticipation of SDO/HMI is briefly discussed.

  12. SIMBA survey of southern high-mass star forming regions. I. Physical parameters of the 1.2 mm/IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faúndez, S.; Bronfman, L.; Garay, G.; Chini, R.; Nyman, L.-Å.; May, J.

    2004-10-01

    We report the results of a 1.2 mm continuum emission survey toward 146 IRAS sources thought to harbour high-mass star forming regions. The sources have FIR colors typical of UCHII regions and were detected in the CS(2->1) line survey of Bronfman et al. (\\cite{bnm}). Regions of 15 arcmin × 10 arcmin, centered on each IRAS source, were mapped with an angular resolution of ˜24 arcsec, using the SIMBA array on the SEST telescope. 1.2 mm emission was detected toward all IRAS sources. We find that the dust cores associated with these sources have typical sizes of 0.4 pc and masses of 5× 103 M⊙. Dust temperatures and luminosities, derived from the SED, are typically 32 K and 2.3 × 105 L⊙. Table 1 and Figs. 6 to 23 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  13. Use of Chiral Signatures of Organochlorine Pesticides in Asian, Trans-Pacific, and Western U.S. Air Masses to Identify Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S.; Genualdi, S.; Primbs, T.; Ryoo, K.; Bidleman, T.; Jantunen, L.

    2008-12-01

    Chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses on Okinawa Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern U.S.: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a coastal site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m; Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2300 m in Oregon's Cascade range. The chiral signature of composite soil samples collected from agricultural areas in China and South Korea were also measured. Racemic alpha-HCH was measured in Asian air masses and soil from China and South Korea. Non-racemic (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.528 ± 0.0048) alpha-HCH was measured in regional air masses at CPO, a marine boundary layer site, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the EFs were significantly (p-value <0.001) more racemic (EF = 0.513 ± 0.0003). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured in trans- Pacific air masses at MPO and MBO. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were positively correlated (p-value = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer along the 10-day back air mass trajectory prior to being sampled. This suggests that the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. The racemic signatures of cis and trans chlordane in air masses at all four air sampling sites suggest that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordanes that have not yet undergone biotransformation.

  14. Direct Mass Measurements in the Light Neutron-Rich Region Using a Combined Energy and Time-of-Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, C.; Swenson, L. W.; Vieira, D. J.; Butler, G. W.; Wouters, J. M.; Rokni, S. H.; Vaziri, K.; Remsberg, L. P.

    This experiment has demonstrated that direct mass measurements can be performed (albeit of low precision in this first attempt) using the M proportional to ET(2) method. This technique has the advantage that many particle-bound nuclei, produced in fragmentation reactions can be measured simultaneously, independent of their N or Z. The main disadvantage of this approach is that both energy and time-of-flight must be measured precisely on an absolute scale. Although some mass walk with N and Z was observed in this experiment, these uncertainties were largely removed by extrapolating the smooth dependence observed for known nuclei which lie closer to the valley of (BETA)-stability. Mass measurements for several neutron-rich light nuclei ranging from C-17 to NE-26 have been performed. In all cases these measurements agree with the latest mass compilation of Wapstra and Audi. The masses of N-20 N and F-24 have been determined for the first time.

  15. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. 5: The low mass stars of the Upper Scorpius association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Brown, Alexander; Myers, Philip C.

    1994-01-01

    We report followup investigations of Einstein x-ray observations of the Upper Scorpius OB association. We identify 28 low mass pre-main sequence stars as counterparts of x-ray sources in the approximately = 7 square degrees of the OB association observed. Based on kinematics and lithium abundances, these stars are low mass members of the OB association. We use optical spectra and optical and near-IR photometry to determine the stellar luminosities, effective temperatures, masses, and ages. We show that the bolometric corrections and effective temperatures of the G and K stars are consistent with those of subgiants. The low mass stars have isochronal ages of 1-2 Myr, depending on the choice of evolutionary models, with very small dispersion (sigma approximately = 1 Myr). This age is significantly younger than the 5-6 Myr found for the more massive B stars. The small dispersion in stellar ages, less than 10% the sound-crossing time of the association, suggests that star formation was triggered. We present two scenarios for star formation in this association. In the two-episode scenario, formation of the low mass stars was triggered by a supernova explosion, and the low mass stars form quickly, with high efficiency. Alternatively, high and low mass star formation was all initiated at the same time, some 5-6 Myr ago, and the apparent systematic age difference is an artifact of how the isochrones are dated. The effect of the supernova is to terminate mass accretion and yield an apparently coeval population. We show that the incompleteness in the x-ray sampling is about 65%, and is strongly dependent on stellar mass. After correction for incompleteness, we estimate there are about 2000 low mass members (stellar mass less than 2 solar mass) of this association. The mass function in this association is indistinguishable from that of the field. The ratio of naked to classical T Tauri stars is much larger than in Tau-Aur, and may be attributable to the local environment. We

  16. Apparent unitarity violation in high mass region of MbW from a "hidden" top partner at high energy colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chengcheng; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Park, Myeonghun

    2016-09-01

    Perturbative unitarity conditions have been playing an important role in estimating the energy scale of new physics, including the Higgs mass as the most important example. In this letter, we show that there is a possibility to see the hint of a new physics (top quark partner) indirectly by observing an "apparent" unitarity violation in the distribution of invariant mass of b-jet and W-boson (Mbw) well above the mass of a top quark in a process of a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of top quarks.

  17. First observation of the decay D0 → K-π+μ+μ- in the ρ0-ω region of the dimuon mass spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-06-01

    A study of the decay D0 →K-π+μ+μ- is performed using data collected by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.0 fb-1. Decay candidates with muon pairs that have an invariant mass in the range 675- 875 MeV /c2 are considered. This region is dominated by the ρ0 and ω resonances. The branching fraction in this range is measured to be

  18. Reducing Uncertainties in Greenland Surface Mass Balance Using IceBridge and ICESat Altimetry, GRACE Data and Regional Atmospheric Climate Model Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajerani, Y.; Sutterley, T. C.; Velicogna, I.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Fettweis, X.

    2015-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet is undergoing rapid changes due to increase in surface melt and ice discharge. Considerable progress has been made to reduce the overall uncertainty of mass balance assessments. Here, we address the uncertainty in runoff production, which is of the largest remaining uncertainty in ice sheet mass balance. Runoff model outputs are difficult to evaluate due to a lack of in-situ monitoring networks. We document the uncertainty in runoff and how it varies spatially by comparing runoff products from different regional climate models (RCM) with two other sets of observations: 1) GRACE regional time series calculated using a least-squares mascon approach and corrected for regional ice discharge - with an emphasis on regions where ice dynamics is less significant: southwest and north Greenland; 2) At the smaller scale, NASA IceBridge and ICESat surface elevation change products, dh/dt, in the ablation zone to compare the observed volume changes with those predicted by RCMs. These two comparisons help evaluate how well seasonal melt and runoff are modeled by RCMs. The results help constrain uncertainties in present-day surface mass balance and runoff, as well as identify sources of RCM error. We also examine the constraints applied to the models (re-analysis data, albedo, energy budget, scheme to implement water retention, etc.) to gain insights into the processes responsible for the difference between models. Overall, we find substantial differences between MAR and RACMO results, and the results vary by region in terms of magnitude, timing and duration of surface melt. For instance, melt-water production and refreeze in the southwest are greater in RACMO, but total runoff is greater in MAR, and RACMO agrees better with GRACE. In the northeast, MAR predicts less runoff than RACMO and agrees better with GRACE. In the southeast, we find that the current version of MAR over-predicts runoff production. This work was funded by NASA

  19. Recent surface mass balance from Syowa Station to Dome F, East Antarctica: comparison of field observations, atmospheric reanalyses, and a regional atmospheric climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yetang; Hou, Shugui; Sun, Weijun; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Wessem, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Stake measurements at 2 km intervals are used to determine the spatial and temporal surface mass balance (SMB) in recent decades along the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition traverse route from Syowa Station to Dome F. To determine SMB variability at regional scales, this traverse route is divided into four regions, i.e., coastal, lower katabatic, upper katabatic and inland plateau. We also perform a regional evaluation of large scale SMB simulated by the regional atmospheric climate model versions 2.1 and 2.3 (RACMO2.1 and RACMO2.3), and the four more recent global reanalyses. Large-scale spatial variability in the multi-year averaged SMB reveals robust relationships with continentality and surface elevation. In the katabatic regions, SMB variability is also highly associated with surface slope, which in turn is affected by bedrock topography. Stake observation records show large inter-annual variability in SMB, but did not indicate any significant trends over both the last 40 years for the coastal and lower katabatic regions, and the last 20 years record for the upper katabatic and inland plateau regions. The four reanalyses and the regional climate model reproduce the macro-scale spatial pattern well for the multi-year averaged SMB, but fail to capture the mesoscale SMB increase at the distance interval ~300 to ~400 km from Syowa station. Thanks to the updated scheme in the cloud microphysics, RACMO2.3 shows the best spatial agreement with stake measurements over the inland plateau region. ERA-interim, JRA-55 and MERRA exhibit high agreement with the inter-annual variability of observed SMB in the coastal, upper katabatic and inland plateau regions, and moderate agreement in the lower katabatic region, while NCEP2 and RACMO2.1 inter-annual variability shows no significant correlation with the observations for the inland plateau region.

  20. Mass and chemical composition of size-segregated aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) over Athens, Greece: local versus regional sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodosi, C.; Grivas, G.; Zarmpas, P.; Chaloulakou, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-03-01

    To identify the relative contribution of local versus regional sources of particulate matter (PM) in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), simultaneous mass and chemical composition measurements of size segregated particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) were carried out from September 2005 to August 2006 at three locations: one urban (Goudi, Central Athens) and one suburban (Lykovrissi, Athens) in GAA and the third in a regional background site (Finokalia, Crete). The two stations in GAA exceeded the EU-legislated PM10 limit values, both in terms of annual average (59.0 and 53.6 μg m-3 for Lykovrissi and Goudi, respectively) and of 24-h value, while the concentration levels at the remote site of Finokalia indicated an elevated background. High levels of PM2.5 and PM1 were also found at all locations (23.5 and 18.6 for Lykovrissi, while 29.4 and 20.2 μg m-3 for Goudi, respectively). Significant correlations were observed between same PM fractions at both GAA sites indicating important spatial homogeneity within GAA. During the warm season, the PM1 ratio between the GAA and the background site ranged from 1.1 to 1.3. On the other hand this ratio was significantly higher (1.6-1.7) during the cold season highlighting the role of long-range transport and local sources during the warm and cold seasons respectively. Similar seasonal and geographical patterns were observed for nss-SO42-, a secondary compound characteristic of regional sources, confirming the above hypothesis. Regarding the coarse fraction no such seasonal trend was observed for both GAA sites with their ratio (GAA site/Finokalia) being higher than 2 indicating significant contribution from local sources such as road dust and/or constructions as confirmed by Ca2+ measurements. Chemical speciation data showed that on a yearly basis, ionic and crustal mass represent up to 78% of the gravimetrically determined mass for PM10 samples in GAA. The unidentified mass might be attributed to organic carbon (OC) and

  1. ΔI = 1 staggering in signature partner pairs of super-deformed rotational bands in the A = 190 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, V. S.; Goel, Alpana

    2015-06-01

    Several signature partner pairs in super-deformed rotational bands in the A = 190 mass region have exhibited ΔI = 1 staggering effects in its transition energies. A total of twenty signature partner pairs of super-deformed (SD) rotational bands in the A = 190 mass region were investigated in this study. The intrinsic structure and the band head moment of inertia J 0 of these signature partner pairs were found to be identical. The band head spin I 0 and the band head moment of inertia J 0 of these pairs were assigned by using the VMI (variable moment of inertia) equation. The ΔI = 1 staggering was also examined through the staggering index S( I) formula, where interlinking transition energies between signature partner pairs were experimentally known. A large amplitude staggering was observed in these signature partner pairs. The paper indicates the possibility of a high signature splitting property and will be useful for further studies.

  2. Region-wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central Tien Shan between ~ 1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczonka, Tino; Bolch, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The meltwater released by the glaciers in the Central Tien Shan feeds in particular the Tarim River which is the main artery for the oases at the northern margin of the Taklamakan desert. The correct assessment of the contribution of the glaciers' meltwater to the total runoff is hampered by the lack of long-term measurements of glacier mass budgets. Digital terrain models (DTMs) for the different regions in the Central Tien Shan were generated based on ~ 1975 KH-9 Hexagon imagery and compared to the SRTM3 DTM acquired in February 2000. Moreover, glacier area changes for the period ~ 1975-2008 have been measured by means of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery. The geodetic mass budget estimates for a glacierized area of 5000 km2 revealed increasing mass loss east to west and from the inner to the outer ranges. Highest mass loss accompanied by the most pronounced glacier retreat was found for the Ak-Shirak massif with a region-wide mass balance of - 0.51 ± 0.36 m w.e. a- 1 and a rate of area change of - 0.27 ± 0.15% a- 1, whilst moderate mass loss was observed for the Inylchek (0.20 ± 0.44 m w.e. a- 1) and Tomur area (0.33 ± 0.30 m w.e. a- 1) despite partly debris cover. These latter regions also revealed the lowest glacier shrinkage within the entire Central Tien Shan. The total glacier mass loss of 0.35 ± 0.34 m w.e. a- 1 is, however, within the global average whilst the glacier area shrinkage is comparatively low. On average, the investigated glacierized area of ~ 6600 km2 shrank by 0.11 ± 0.15% a- 1 only. We could also identify several surge-type glaciers. The results are consistent with in-situ mass balance measurements for Karabatkak Glacier and previously published results of the Ak-Shirak range proving the suitability of declassified imagery for glacier change investigations. The contribution to the runoff of Aksu River, the largest tributary of the Tarim River, due to glacier imbalance has been determined at ~ 20% for the 1975-2000 period.

  3. Estimation of regional myocardial mass at risk based on distal arterial lumen volume and length using 3D micro-CT images

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huy; Wong, Jerry T.; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-01-01

    The determination of regional myocardial mass at risk distal to a coronary occlusion provides valuable prognostic information for a patient with coronary artery disease. The coronary arterial system follows a design rule which allows for the use of arterial branch length and lumen volume to estimate regional myocardial mass at risk. Image processing techniques, such as segmentation, skeletonization, and arterial network tracking, are presented for extracting anatomical details of the coronary arterial system using micro-computed tomography (CT). Moreover, a method of assigning tissue voxels to their corresponding arterial branches is presented to determine the dependent myocardial region. The proposed micro-CT technique was utilized to investigate the relationship between the sum of the distal coronary arterial branch lengths and volumes to the dependent regional myocardial mass using a polymer cast of a porcine heart. The correlations of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lengths (L) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass (M) for the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX) and right coronary (RCA) arteries were log(L) = 0.73log(M)+ 0.09 (R= 0.78), log(L) = 0.82log(M)+ 0.05 (R= 0.77), and log(L) = 0.85log(M)+ 0.05 (R= 0.87)s, respectively. The correlation of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lumen volumes (V) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass for the LAD, LCX and RCA were log(V) = 0.93log(M)− 1.65 (R= 0.81), log(V) = 1.02log(M) −1.79 (R= 0.78), and log(V) = 1.17log(M)− 2.10 (R= 0.82), respectively. These morphological relations did not change appreciably for diameter truncations of 600 to 1400 µm. The results indicate that the image processing procedures successfully extracted information from a large 3D dataset of the coronary arterial tree to provide prognostic indications in the form of arterial tree parameters and anatomical area at risk. PMID:18595659

  4. CHROMOSPHERIC MASS MOTIONS AND INTRINSIC SUNSPOT ROTATIONS FOR NOAA ACTIVE REGIONS 10484, 10486, AND 10488 USING ISOON DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Hardersen, Paul S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Shkolyar, Svetlana

    2013-08-10

    This work utilizes Improved Solar Observing Optical Network continuum (630.2 nm) and H{alpha} (656.2 nm) data to: (1) detect and measure intrinsic sunspot rotations occurring in the photosphere and chromosphere, (2) identify and measure chromospheric filament mass motions, and (3) assess any large-scale photospheric and chromospheric mass couplings. Significant results from 2003 October 27-29, using the techniques of Brown et al., indicate significant counter-rotation between the two large sunspots in NOAA AR 10486 on October 29, as well as discrete filament mass motions in NOAA AR 10484 on October 27 that appear to be associated with at least one C-class solar flare.

  5. A tool for empirical forecasting of major flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar particle events from a proxy of active-region free magnetic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor; Moore, Ron

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a new forecasting tool developed for and currently being tested by NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at Johnson Space Center, which is responsible for the monitoring and forecasting of radiation exposure levels of astronauts. The new software tool is designed for the empirical forecasting of M- and X-class flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar energetic particle events. For each type of event, the algorithm is based on the empirical relationship between the event rate and a proxy of the active region's free magnetic energy. Each empirical relationship is determined from a data set of ˜40,000 active-region magnetograms from ˜1300 active regions observed by SOHO/Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) that have known histories of flare, coronal mass ejection, and solar energetic particle event production. The new tool automatically extracts each strong-field magnetic area from an MDI full-disk magnetogram, identifies each as a NOAA active region, and measures the proxy of the active region's free magnetic energy from the extracted magnetogram. For each active region, the empirical relationship is then used to convert the free-magnetic-energy proxy into an expected event rate. The expected event rate in turn can be readily converted into the probability that the active region will produce such an event in a given forward time window. Descriptions of the data sets, algorithm, and software in addition to sample applications and a validation test are presented. Further development and transition of the new tool in anticipation of SDO/HMI are briefly discussed.

  6. A Tool for Empirical Forecasting of Major Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Solar Particle Events from a Proxy of Active-Region Free Magnetic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Falconer, D. A.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new forecasting tool developed for and is currently being tested by NASA s Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at JSC, which is responsible for the monitoring and forecasting of radiation exposure levels of astronauts. The new software tool is designed for the empirical forecasting of M and X-class flares, coronal mass ejections, as well as solar energetic particle events. Its algorithm is based on an empirical relationship between the various types of events rates and a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy, determined from a data set of approx.40,000 active-region magnetograms from approx.1,300 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI that have known histories of flare, coronal mass ejection, and solar energetic particle event production. The new tool automatically extracts each strong-field magnetic areas from an MDI full-disk magnetogram, identifies each as an NOAA active region, and measures a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy from the extracted magnetogram. For each active region, the empirical relationship is then used to convert the free magnetic energy proxy into an expected event rate. The expected event rate in turn can be readily converted into the probability that the active region will produce such an event in a given forward time window. Descriptions of the datasets, algorithm, and software in addition to sample applications and a validation test are presented. Further development and transition of the new tool in anticipation of SDO/HMI is briefly discussed.

  7. [A case of corticosteroid-responsive Lemierre syndrome with clivus osteomyelitis and a mass in the cavernous sinus-suprasellar region].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shotaro; Ito, Satoru; Tagashira, Shugo; Yasui, Kenichi; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre syndrome is a clinical syndrome that presents with internal jugular thrombophlebitis, septicemia and systemic abscess formations. In general, the condition is preceded by oropharyngeal infections. We report a case of a 73-year-old man with Lemierre syndrome, clivus osteomyelitis and a steroid-responsive mass in the cavernous sinus-suprasellar region. He complained of fever, occipital pain, diplopia and right ptosis. Administration of oral steroids ameliorated the ophthalmic symptoms for a period before he was admitted to our hospital. After admission, the severity of his headache advanced, and his ophthalmic symptoms progressed bilaterally. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement of the clivus and revealed a mass lesion contrast-enhancement effect in the cavernous sinus-suprasellar region. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected by blood culture, and computed tomography revealed multiple bacterial emboli in both lung fields and thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein; thus, he was diagnosed with Lemierre syndrome. After venous administration of antibiotics, his fever and headache markedly improved, but the ophthalmic symptoms did not. We prescribed an oral steroid because the cavernous sinus-suprasellar lesion was probably an inflammatory granuloma caused by a para-infectious mechanism rather than by infection. After the series of treatments, his ophthalmic symptoms improved, and the cavernous sinus-suprasellar region mass lesion decreased. He was eventually discharged in a fully ambulatory state and had no ophthalmic difficulties. We thought that the osteomyelitis of clivus was caused by Lemierre syndrome and its inflammatory processes formed the granuloma in the cavernous sinus-suprasellar region. This was a case of Lemierre syndrome with a rare combination of clivus osteomyelitis and a steroid-responsive tumour in the cavernous sinus-suprasellar region that was successfully treated. PMID:26028195

  8. Global distribution of soil organic carbon - Part 1: Masses and frequency distributions of SOC stocks for the tropics, permafrost regions, wetlands, and the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köchy, M.; Hiederer, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2015-04-01

    The global soil organic carbon (SOC) mass is relevant for the carbon cycle budget and thus atmospheric carbon concentrations. We review current estimates of SOC stocks and mass (stock × area) in wetlands, permafrost and tropical regions and the world in the upper 1 m of soil. The Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) v.1.2 provides one of the most recent and coherent global data sets of SOC, giving a total mass of 2476 Pg when using the original values for bulk density. Adjusting the HWSD's bulk density (BD) of soil high in organic carbon results in a mass of 1230 Pg, and additionally setting the BD of Histosols to 0.1 g cm-3 (typical of peat soils), results in a mass of 1062 Pg. The uncertainty in BD of Histosols alone introduces a range of -56 to +180 Pg C into the estimate of global SOC mass in the top 1 m, larger than estimates of global soil respiration. We report the spatial distribution of SOC stocks per 0.5 arcminutes; the areal masses of SOC; and the quantiles of SOC stocks by continents, wetland types, and permafrost types. Depending on the definition of "wetland", wetland soils contain between 82 and 158 Pg SOC. With more detailed estimates for permafrost from the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (496 Pg SOC) and tropical peatland carbon incorporated, global soils contain 1325 Pg SOC in the upper 1 m, including 421 Pg in tropical soils, whereof 40 Pg occurs in tropical wetlands. Global SOC amounts to just under 3000 Pg when estimates for deeper soil layers are included. Variability in estimates is due to variation in definitions of soil units, differences in soil property databases, scarcity of information about soil carbon at depths > 1 m in peatlands, and variation in definitions of "peatland".

  9. Jets, Coronal “Puffs,” and a Slow Coronal Mass Ejection Caused by an Opposite-polarity Region within an Active Region Footpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzate, N.; Morgan, H.

    2016-06-01

    During a period of three days beginning 2013 January 17, twelve recurrent reconnection events occur within a small region of opposing flux embedded within one footpoint of an active region, accompanied by flares and jets observed in EUV and fast and faint structureless “puffs” observed by coronagraphs. During the same period a slow structured CME gradually erupts, with one end anchored close to, or within, the jetting region. Four of the jet events occur in pairs—a narrow, primary jet followed within a few tens of minutes by a wider, more massive, jet. All the jets are slow, with an apparent speed of ˜100 km s-1. The speed of the wide puffs in the coronagraph data is ˜300 km s-1, and the timing of their appearance rules out a direct association with the EUV jetting material. The jet material propagates along large-scale closed-field loops and does not escape to the extended corona. The rapid reconfiguration of the closed loops following reconnection causes an outwardly propagating disturbance, or wave front, which manifests as puffs in coronagraph data. Furthermore, the newly expanded closed flux tube forms a pressure imbalance, which can result in a secondary jet. The reconnection events, through recurrent field reconfiguration, also leads to the gradual eruption of the structured flux tube appearing as the slow CME. Faint propagating coronal disturbances resulting from flares/jets may be common, but are usually obscured by associated ejections. Occasionally, the associated material ejections are absent, and coronal puffs may be clearly observed.

  10. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Weike

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5σ) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  11. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  12. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  13. Regional anesthesia for an upper extremity amputation for palliative care in a patient with end-stage osteosarcoma complicated by a large anterior mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Mumin; Burrier, Candice; Bhalla, Tarun; Raman, Vidya T; Martin, David P; Dairo, Olamide; Mayerson, Joel L; Tobias, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression during end-of-life care can lead to significant pain, which at times may be refractory to routine analgesic techniques. Although regional anesthesia is commonly used for postoperative pain care, there is limited experience with its use during home hospice care. We present a 24-year-old male with end-stage metastatic osteosarcoma who required anesthetic care for a right-sided above-the-elbow amputation. The anesthetic management was complicated by the presence of a large mediastinal mass, limited pulmonary reserve, and severe chronic pain with a high preoperative opioid requirement. Intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative pain management were provided by regional anesthesia using an interscalene catheter. He was discharged home with the interscalene catheter in place with a continuous local anesthetic infusion that allowed weaning of his chronic opioid medications and the provision of effective pain control. The perioperative applications of regional anesthesia in palliative and home hospice care are discussed. PMID:26442759

  14. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khor, Ee-Cheng; Fanshawe, Bruce; Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K; Croucher, Peter I; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease

  15. Prediction of postoperative loss of lung function in patients with malignant lung mass. Quantitative regional ventilation-perfusion scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Ryo, U.Y. )

    1990-05-01

    The quantitative measurement of regional ventilation and perfusion distribution is simply and reliably accomplished by using routinely available radioactive gas and perfusion lung scanning agents, and a large field-of-view gamma camera with an on-line computer. The preoperative prediction of postsurgical loss in lung function can be made accurately by using the quantitative ventilation-perfusion lung scan technique. Either a regional ventilation study or perfusion study may be used for the prediction, but analysis of regional ventilation distribution appears to be a better parameter than that of perfusion distribution for the prediction of postoperative loss of FEV1. In the rare case of a patient with a marked ventilation-perfusion deficit, quantitative distribution of both ventilation and perfusion may be needed for an accurate assessment of postsurgical lung function. 18 references.

  16. Correlation of the Coronal Mass Ejection Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images show qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions where the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. We present measurements from active region vector magnetograms that start to quantify the dependence of an active region's CME productivity on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we measured the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three separate measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line: I(sub N), the net electric current connecting one polarity to the other; and alpha = (mu)I(sub N)/phi), a flux normalized measure of the field twist). From these measurements and the observed CME productivity of the active regions, we find that: (1) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are statistically correlated with the active region flux content and with each other; (2) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are significantly correlated with CME productivity. The flux content correlates with CME productivity, but at a lower statistically significant confidence level (less than 95%); (3) The net current is less closely correlated with CME productivity than alpha and the correlation of CME productivity with flux content is even weaker. If these differences in correlation strength, and a significant correlation of alpha with flux content, persist to larger active regions, this would imply that the size of active regions does not affect CME productivity except through global nonpotentiality; and (4) For each of the four global magnetic quantities, the correlation with CME productivity is stronger for a two-day time window for the CME production than for windows half as wide or twice as wide. This plausibly is a

  17. Experimental Exploration on Rainfall-induced Mass Re-mobilization after Giant Earthquake: A case study in Wenchuan earthquake hit region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zongji; Bogaard, Thom. A.; Qiao, Jianping; Jiang, Yuanjun

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of rainfall induced geological hazards after the Ms=8 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008 were gained more significance for the rebuild of earthquake hit regions in China. After the Wenchuan earthquake, there were thousands of slopes failure, which were much more susceptible to subsequent heavy rainfall and many even transformed into potential debris flows. An typical example can be found in the catastrophic disaster occurred in Zhongxing County, Chengdu City on 10th July, 2013 in which the unknown fractured slope up the mountain was triggered by a downpour and transformed into subsequent debris flow which wiped the community downstream, about 200 victims were reported in that tragic event. The transform patterns of rainfall-induced mass re-mobilization was categorized into three major type as the erosion of fractured slopes, initiate on loosen deposit and outbreak of landslide (debris flow) dams according to vast field investigation in the earthquake hit region. Despite the widespread and hidden characters,the complexity of the process also demonstrated in the transforms of the mass re-mobilized by the erosion of both gravity and streams in the small watersheds which have never been reported before the giant Wenchuan Earthquake in many regions. As a result, an increasing number of questions for disaster relief and mitigation were proposed including the threshold of early warning and measurement of the volume for the design of mitigation measures on rainfall-induced mass re-mobilization in debris flow gullies. This study is aimed for answer the essential questions about the threshold and amount of mass initiation triggered by the subsequent rainfall in post earthquake time. In this study, experimental tests were carried out for simulating the failure of the rainfall-induced mass re-mobilization in respectively in a natural co-seismic fractured slope outside and the debris flow simulation platform inside the laboratory. A natural

  18. Feasibility of improving a priori regional climate model estimates of Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss through assimilation of measured ice surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Fettweis, X.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent changes and would help to better estimate the past, current and future contribution of the GrIS to sea level rise. Though the estimates of the GrIS surface mass fluxes have improved significantly over the last decade, there is still considerable disparity between the results from different methodologies (e.g., Rae et al., 2012; Vernon et al., 2013). The data assimilation approach can merge information from different methodologies in a consistent way to improve the GrIS surface mass fluxes. In this study, an ensemble batch smoother data assimilation approach was developed to assess the feasibility of generating a reanalysis estimate of the GrIS surface mass fluxes via integrating remotely sensed ice surface temperature measurements with a regional climate model (a priori) estimate. The performance of the proposed methodology for generating an improved posterior estimate was investigated within an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework using synthetically generated ice surface temperature measurements. The results showed that assimilation of ice surface temperature time series were able to overcome uncertainties in near-surface meteorological forcing variables that drive the GrIS surface processes. Our findings show that the proposed methodology is able to generate posterior reanalysis estimates of the surface mass fluxes that are in good agreement with the synthetic true estimates. The results also showed that the proposed data assimilation framework improves the root-mean-square error of the posterior estimates of runoff, sublimation/evaporation, surface condensation, and surface mass loss fluxes by 61, 64, 76, and 62 %, respectively, over the nominal a priori climate model estimates.

  19. Large-scale analysis reveals a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of PRDM16 gene associated with lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Tomohiko; Shiraki, Masataka; Sasaki, Noriko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors are important for the development of sarcopenia, a geriatric disorder characterized by low lean body mass. The aim of this study was to search for novel genes that regulate lean body mass in humans. We performed a large-scale search for 250K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) using SNP arrays in 1081 Japanese postmenopausal women. We focused on an SNP (rs12409277) located in the 5′-flanking region of the PRDM16 (PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein 16) gene that showed a significant P value in our screening. We demonstrated that PRDM16 gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with total body BMD in 1081 postmenopausal Japanese women. The rs12409277 SNP affected the transcriptional activity of PRDM16. The subjects with one or two minor allele(s) had a higher lean body mass than the subjects with two major alleles. Genetic analyses uncovered the importance of the PRDM16 gene in the regulation of lean body mass. PMID:24863034

  20. Proposal for a New Calibration Experiment at Chacaltaya for a Primary Mass Estimation in the ``Knee'' Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procureur, J.; Stamenov, J. N.

    1997-02-01

    A new EAS experiment at the observation level 550 g/cm 2 and a new shower selection devoted to unbiased estimations of the mass composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic radiation at energies 10 4 - 10 5 GeV is proposed and analyzed in an attempt to carry calibration between the direct and indirect methods for primary cosmic flux studies. For this purpose, the existing Chacaltaya EAS array has to be designed with 4 new triggering systems and a powerful (1600 m 2) muon detector with E μ ≥ 0.6 GeV.

  1. Regional inversion of GRACE data for continental water mass time-variations. Comparison with global hydrology models, classical spherical harmonics and "mascons" solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, L.; Ramillien, G.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Bourgogne, S.

    2010-12-01

    Time series of 2°-by-2° constrained/unconstrained GRACE geoid solutions have been computed with a 10-day resolution by using a new regional method recently implemented at GRGS (Toulouse, France). This approach uses the dynamical orbit analysis of GRACE Level-1 measurements, and specially accurate along-track KBRR residuals to estimate the continental water mass changes over large geographical regions. For validation, our GRACE-derived regional maps are compared to: (1) the global hydrological model outputs (WGHM, LaD, NOAH), (2) the NASA "mascons" solutions based on spherical harmonics and (3) the global solutions produced by GRGS and CSR, GFZ, JPL filtered with different methodologies (Gaussian, destriped and smoothed, ICA). In this study, we focus on the annual time scale of water mass redistributions occuring in drainage basins like Amazon or Congo. Each 2°-averaged surface element is characterized by its seasonal amplitude and phase. Even if the all sources are expected to provide quite comparable results for the continental water cycle, we suspect the residual differences are from smoothing effects of the spatial constraints included in the "mascons" solutions and the underestimating the seasonal amplitudes by global hydrological models.

  2. Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Cesaroni, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Galli, D.; Walmsley, C. M.; Etoka, S.; Furuya, R. S.; Moscadelli, L.; Stanke, T.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vig, S.; Wang, K.-S.; Zinnecker, H.; Elia, D.; Schisano, E.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Theoretical scenarios propose that high-mass stars are formed by disk-mediated accretion. Aims: To test the theoretical predictions on the formation of massive stars, we wish to make a thorough study at high-angular resolution of the structure and kinematics of the dust and gas emission toward the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35, which harbors a disk candidate around a B-type (proto)star. Methods: We carried out ALMA Cycle 0 observations at 870 μm of dust of typical high-density, molecular outflow, and cloud tracers with resolutions of < 0''&dotbelow;5. Complementary Subaru COMICS 25 μm observations were carried out to trace the mid-infrared emission toward this star-forming region. Results: The submillimeter continuum emission has revealed a filamentary structure fragmented into six cores, called A-F. The filament could be in quasi-equilibrium taking into account that the mass per unit length of the filament, 200-375 M⊙/pc, is similar to the critical mass of a thermally and turbulently supported infinite cylinder, ~335 M⊙/pc. The cores, which are on average separated by ~0.02 pc, have deconvolved sizes of 1300-3400 AU, temperatures of 35-240 K, H2 densities >107 cm -3, and masses in the range 1-5 M⊙, and they are subcritical. Core A, which is associated with a hypercompact Hii region and could be the driving source of the molecular outflow observed in the region, is the most chemically rich source in G35.03+0.35 with strong emission of typical hot core tracers such as CH3CN. Tracers of high density and excitation show a clear velocity gradient along the major axis of the core, which is consistent with a disk rotating about the axis of the associated outflow. The PV plots along the SE-NW direction of the velocity gradient show clear signatures of Keplerian rotation, although infall could also be present, and they are consistent with the pattern of an edge-on Keplerian disk rotating about a star with a mass in the range 5-13 M⊙. The high

  3. Effects of water conditions on clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of mallards and gadwalls in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.; Brandt, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between local water conditions (measured as the percent of total area of basins covered by water) and clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Gadwalls (A. strepera) on four study sites in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and Minnesota, 1988-1994. We also examined the relationship between pond density and clutch size of Mallards and Gadwalls, using data collected at another North Dakota site, 1966-1981. For Mallards, we found no relationships to be significant. For Gadwalls, clutch size increased with percent basin area wet and pond density; hatchling mass marginally increased with percent basin area wet. These species differences may reflect, in part, that Mallards acquire lipid reserves used to produce early clutches before they reach the breeding grounds, whereas Gadwalls acquire lipid reserves locally; thus Gadwall clutches are more likely to be influenced by local food resources.

  4. Effects of water conditions on clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of mallards and gadwalls in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Krapu, Gary L.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Brandt, David A.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between local water conditions (measured as the percent of total area of basins that was covered by water) and clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Gadwalls (A. strepera) on four study sites in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and Minnesota, 1988-1994. We also examined the relationship between pond density and clutch size of Mallards and Gadwalls, using data collected at another North Dakota site, 1966-1981. For Mallards, we found no relationships to be significant. For Gadwalls, clutch size increased with percent basin area wet and pond density; hatchling mass marginally increased with percent basin area wet. These species differences may reflect, in part, that Mallards acquire lipid reserves used to produce early clutches before they reach the breeding grounds, whereas Gadwalls acquire lipid reserves locally; thus Gadwall clutches are more likely to be influenced by local food resources.

  5. Cannibalization of a continental margin by regional scale mass wasting: an example from the Central Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiocci, F. L.; Martorelli, E.; Bosman, A.

    2003-04-01

    Over the last decade instability features, due to different kind of processes (sliding, slumping, debris flow), were recognized to be very common on continental margin, thus highlighting the significant role of mass wasting processes. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, the complete cannibalization of a whole span of continental margin is quite rare. Pontine Islands continental slope (Central Tyrrhenian Sea) has been investigated by long- range side scan sonar (T.O.B.I.), high-resolution seismics and gravity coring. TOBI data were collected on the whole continental slope, from the shelf break (150 m w.d.) down to the abyssal plain (3600 m w.d.), covering an area of 2.000 km2. Pontine islands slope is located at the apex of the Vavilov Basin, one of the two abyssal plains of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. The continental slope is extremely narrow and steep (5-10°, locally up to 30°), with a complex morphology characterized by wide channels and ridges. The complex morphology is mainly due to instability-erosional phenomena that produce the complete cannibalization of the continental margin, so that only 2% of the area is not affected by erosion and covered by hemipelagic sediments. Instability features range in size from hundreds of sq. meters to tens of sq. kilometres. Processes involved are very different and inter-related. They seem to be controlled by seafloor gradient, i.e. slides/slumps are located on the steepest areas (i.e. the upper continental slope and flank of slope ridges), while wide mass flow deposits are located on deeper areas characterized by smoother topography. When gradient is low also exfoliation of stratified deposits occurs both on semicircular scars and on flat surface, producing a step-like morphology. Slides and slumps are both characterized by isolated and coalescing scarps highlighting simple or complex failure. In some areas a retrogressive pattern was recognized; in the upper slope it produced a several hundred of meters

  6. Calculated masses and half-lives for nuclei in the region 100 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 110

    SciTech Connect

    Leander, G.A.; Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Howard, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    We have calculated nuclear masses and the corresponding ..cap alpha..-decay energies O/sub ..cap alpha../ and ..cap alpha.. half-lives T/sub ..cap alpha../ by use of the folded-Yukawa macroscopic-microscopic model, for nuclei at the end of the peninsula of known elements. We have also calculated, by use of the modified oscillator model, fission half-lives for even-even nuclei with Z between 100 and 110. The results agree well with data in this region, but an interpretation of the experimental data required further and extensive theoretical studies of odd particle effects. 13 references.

  7. Origin of the High-speed Jets Fom Magnetic Flux Emergence in the Solar Transition Region as well as Their Mass and Energy Contribuctions to the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liping, Y.; He, J.; Peter, H.; Tu, C. Y.; Feng, X. S.

    2015-12-01

    In the solar atmosphere, the jets are ubiquitous and found to be at various spatia-temporal scales. They are significant to understand energy and mass transport in the solar atmosphere. Recently, the high-speed transition region jets are reported from the observation. Here we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate the mechanism in their formation, as well as their mass and energy contributions to the solar wind. Driven by the supergranular convection motion, the magnetic reconnection between the magnetic loop and the background open flux occurring in the transition region is simulated with a two-dimensional MHD model. The simulation results show that not only a fast hot jet, much resemble the found transition region jets, but also a adjacent slow cool jet, mostly like classical spicules, is launched. The force analysis shows that the fast hot jet is continually driven by the Lorentz force around the reconnection region, while the slow cool jet is induced by an initial kick through the Lorentz force associated with the emerging magnetic flux. Also, the features of the driven jets change with the amount of the emerging magnetic flux, giving the varieties of both jets.With the developed one-dimensional hydrodynamic solar wind model, the time-dependent pulses are imposed at the bottom to simulate the jet behaviors. The simulation results show that without other energy source, the injected plasmas are accelerated effectively to be a transonic wind with a substantial mass flux. The rapid acceleration occurs close to the Sun, and the resulting asymptotic speeds, number density at 0.3 AU, as well as mass flux normalized to 1 AU are compatible with in site observations. As a result of the high speed, the imposed pulses lead to a train of shocks traveling upward. By tracing the motions of the injected plasma, it is found that these shocks heat and accelerate the injected plasma to make part of them propagate upward and eventually escape. The parametric study shows

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18–C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18–C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys. PMID:27010944

  9. Quantitative Determination of Irinotecan and the Metabolite SN-38 by Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Different Regions of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    A new and simple method was developed to evaluate the distribution of therapeutics in three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by combining serial trypsinization and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). This methodology was validated with quantitative measurements of irinotecan and its bioactive metabolite, SN-38, in distinct spatial regions of HCT 116 MCTS. Irinotecan showed a time-dependent permeability into MCTS with most of the drug accumulating in the core after 24 hours of treatment. The amount of SN-38 detected was 30 times lower than that of the parent drug, and was more abundant in the outer rim and intermediate regions of MCTS where proliferating cells were present. This method can be used to investigate novel and established drugs. It enables investigation of drug penetration properties and identification of metabolites with spatial specificity in MCTS. The new approach has great value in facilitating the drug evaluation process. PMID:25604392

  10. Quantitative Determination of Irinotecan and the Metabolite SN-38 by Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Different Regions of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    A new and simple method was developed to evaluate the distribution of therapeutics in three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by combining serial trypsinization and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). This methodology was validated with quantitative measurements of irinotecan and its bioactive metabolite, SN-38, in distinct spatial regions of HCT 116 MCTS. Irinotecan showed a time-dependent permeability into MCTS with most of the drug accumulating in the core after 24 h of treatment. The amount of SN-38 detected was 30 times lower than that of the parent drug, and was more abundant in the outer rim and intermediate regions of MCTS where proliferating cells were present. This method can be used to investigate novel and established drugs. It enables investigation of drug penetration properties and identification of metabolites with spatial specificity in MCTS. The new approach has great value in facilitating the drug evaluation process.

  11. Source apportionment for sediment PAHs using hybrid genetic pattern search treatment of a chemical mass balance receptor model: application to the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Teng, Yanguo; Chen, Haiyang

    2014-10-01

    In order to solve the collinear problem and improve the estimation accuracy of the chemical mass balance (CMB) model which can be essentially regarded as a constrained optimization process, in this study, a hybrid genetic pattern search algorithm (HGPS) was proposed and applied to apportion the source contributions for sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Simulation results with developed synthetic datasets indicated that the estimated source contributions by HGPS were more close to the true values than CMB8.2. Utilizing the HGPS-CMB, residential coal and traffic tunnel were apportioned as the major sources of sediment PAHs in the PRD region. For freshwater surface sediments, the average contribution from residential coal ranged from 32 to 55%, and traffic tunnel ranged from 13 to 33%, while the major sources for marine sediments were traffic tunnel (10 ~ 56%). These results provide information for developing better PAH pollution control strategies for the PRD.

  12. Displaced narrow absorption components in the spectra of mass-losing OB stars - Indications of corotating interaction regions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of displaced narrow components (DNCs) in an increasingly large number of stars of various spectral types suggests that an explanation of these features may contribute significantly to understanding of winds from stars of all types. The reported properties of DNCs are summarized here with a view to evaluating one particular scenario for DNC formation which involves corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in the stellar wind. The relevant features of the CIR scenario are summarized, and the extent to which DNC properties support the CIR scenario is discussed.

  13. Li^+ attachment mass spectrometric investigation of high-mass neutral species in the downstream region of Ar/CF4, Ar/CF4/O2 and Ar/CF4/H2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Kenji; Okumura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yuji; Ide, Akihiro; Harata, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Recently gaseous high-mass species have received significant attentions as important contributors to the nucleation of films and particulates in fluorocarbon plasmas. We have unambiguously identified the gaseous high-mass neutral species in the downstream region of the Ar/CF4 plasma [1], using the Li^+ attachment ionization technique that is a fragment-free ionization method. In this report, we show the results of mass analysis of high-mass neutral species in the Ar/CF4/O2 and Ar/CF4/H2 plasmas as well as Ar/CF4. In the Ar/CF4 plasma, we observed CnF2n+2 (n = 2-7) and CnF2n (n = 4-8) as neutral species. Adding O2 to the Ar/CF4 plasma resulted in the intensity decrease of CnF2n+2 and CnF2n, especially of those with relatively small n values. CnF2nO (n = 1-7) were newly observed in the Ar/CF4/O2 plasma. In contrast, adding H2 to the Ar/CF4 plasma resulted in the production of various new compounds, such as CnF2n-2 (n=3-8), CnF2n-4 (n=3-9), CnF2n+1H (n=1-7), CnF2n-1H (n=2-8), CnF2n-3H (n=4-9) and CnF2n-5H (n=5-9). These species are produced through the abstraction of F from various CnFm species by the H radical and the addition of H to them. [1] K. Furuya, S. Yukita, H. Okumura, A. Harata, Chem. Lett. 34, 224 (2005).

  14. The Precise Radio Observation of the 13C Isotopic Fractionation for Carbon Chain Molecule HC3N in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We observed the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N with the high signal-to-noise ratios in L1527 using Green Bank 100 m telescope and Nobeyama 45 m telescope to explore the production scheme of HC3N, where L1527 is the low-mass star forming region in the phase of a warm carbon chain chemistry region. The spectral lines of the J = 5--4, 9--8, 10--9, and 12--11 transitions in the 44-109 GHz region were used to measure isotopic ratios. The abundance of HCCCN was determined from the line intensities of the two weak hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 transition. The isotopic ratios were precisely determined to be 1.00 : 1.01 : 1.35 : 86.4 for [H13CCCN] : [HC13CCN] : [HCC13CN] : [HCCCN]. It was found that the abundance of H13CCCN is equal to that of HC13CCN, and it was implied that HC3N is mainly formed by the reaction schemes via C2H2 and C2H2+ in L1527. This would suggest a universality of dicarbide chemistry producing HC3N irrespective of evolutional phases from a starless dark cloud to a warm carbon chain chemistry region. Sakai, N., Sakai, T., Hirota, T., & Yamamoto, S. 2008, ApJ, 672, 371 Takano, S., Masuda, A., Hirahara, Y., et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 1156

  15. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  16. Short Reads Phasing to Construct Haplotypes in Genomic Regions That Are Associated with Body Mass Index in Korean Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kichan; Han, Seonggyun; Tark, Yeonjeong

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have found many important genetic variants that affect various traits. Since these studies are useful to investigate untyped but causal variants using linkage disequilibrium (LD), it would be useful to explore the haplotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the same LD block of significant associations based on high-density variants from population references. Here, we tried to make a haplotype catalog affecting body mass index (BMI) through an integrative analysis of previously published whole-genome next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of 7 representative Korean individuals and previously known Korean GWA signals. We selected 435 SNPs that were significantly associated with BMI from the GWA analysis and searched 53 LD ranges nearby those SNPs. With the NGS data, the haplotypes were phased within the LDs. A total of 44 possible haplotype blocks for Korean BMI were cataloged. Although the current result constitutes little data, this study provides new insights that may help to identify important haplotypes for traits and low variants nearby significant SNPs. Furthermore, we can build a more comprehensive catalog as a larger dataset becomes available. PMID:25705154

  17. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bigg, G. R.; Wei, H. L.; Wilton, D. J.; Zhao, Y.; Billings, S. A.; Hanna, E.; Kadirkamanathan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean–iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1–3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources. PMID:24910517

  18. Nutrients and water masses in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region: Variability and importance to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, D. W.; McGillicuddy, D. J.; Thomas, M. A.; Rebuck, N. D.

    2014-05-01

    We report here the results of ten oceanographic survey cruises carried out in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region of the Northwest Atlantic during the late spring to summer period in 2007, 2008 and 2010, for which we examine and characterize relationships among dissolved inorganic nutrient fields, water mass dynamics and cell densities of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Nutrients are supplied to continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region by inflows of deep offshore water masses; once in the Gulf they are transported with the residual circulation and mix with surface waters, both in the Gulf and on the Bank. Those fluxes of offshore water masses and their nutrient loads are the major source of nutrients for phytoplankton production in the region, including annual blooms of A. fundyense in the Gulf and on Georges Bank. This much is already known. We suggest here that the locations and magnitude of A. fundyense blooms are controlled in part by variable nutrient fluxes to the interior Gulf of Maine from offshore, and, those interior Gulf of Maine waters are, in turn, the main nutrient source to Georges Bank, which are brought onto the Bank by tidal pumping on the Northern Flank. We present evidence that nitrate is the initial form of nitrogenous nutrient for A. fundyense blooms, but it is quickly depleted to limiting concentrations of less than 0.5 μM, at which time continued growth and maintenance of the population is likely fueled by recycled ammonium. We also show that phosphate may be the limiting nutrient over much of Georges Bank in summer, allowing recycled ammonium concentrations to increase. Our temperature-salinity analyses reveal spatial and temporal (seasonal and interannual) variability in the relative proportions of two deep source waters that enter the Gulf of Maine at depth through the Northeast Channel: Warm Slope Water (WSW) and Labrador Slope Water (LSW). Those two source waters are known to vary in their

  19. Nutrients and water masses in the Gulf of Maine - Georges Bank region: Variability and importance to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, D.W.; McGillicuddy, D.J.; Thomas, M.A.; Rebuck, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the results of ten oceanographic survey cruises carried out in the Gulf of Maine - Georges Bank region of the Northwest Atlantic during the late spring to summer period in 2007, 2008 and 2010, for which we examine and characterize relationships among dissolved inorganic nutrient fields, water mass dynamics and cell densities of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Nutrients are supplied to continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Maine - Georges Bank region by inflows of deep offshore water masses; once in the Gulf they are transported with the residual circulation and mix with surface waters, both in the Gulf and on the Bank. Those fluxes of offshore water masses and their nutrient loads are the major source of nutrients for phytoplankton production in the region, including annual blooms of A. fundyense in the Gulf and on Georges Bank. This much is already known. We suggest here that the locations and magnitude of A. fundyense blooms are controlled in part by variable nutrient fluxes to the interior Gulf of Maine from offshore, and, those interior Gulf of Maine waters are, in turn, the main nutrient source to Georges Bank, which are brought onto the Bank by tidal pumping on the Northern Flank. We present evidence that nitrate is the initial form of nitrogenous nutrient for A. fundyense blooms, but it is quickly depleted to limiting concentrations of less than 0.5 μM, at which time continued growth and maintenance of the population is likely fueled by recycled ammonium. We also show that phosphate may be the limiting nutrient over much of Georges Bank in summer, allowing recycled ammonium concentrations to increase. Our temperature-salinity analyses reveal spatial and temporal (seasonal and interannual) variability in the relative proportions of two deep source waters that enter the Gulf of Maine at depth through the Northeast Channel: Warm Slope Water (WSW) and Labrador Slope Water (LSW). Those two source waters are known to vary in their

  20. BROAD-LINE REGION PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN EXTREME POPULATION A QUASARS: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE MASS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W. E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es

    2012-09-20

    We describe a method for estimating physical conditions in the broad-line region (BLR) for a significant subsample of Seyfert 1 nuclei and quasars. Several diagnostic ratios based on intermediate (Al III {lambda}1860, Si III] {lambda}1892) and high (C IV {lambda}1549, Si IV {lambda}1397) ionization lines in the UV spectra of quasars are used to constrain density, ionization, and metallicity of the emitting gas. We apply the method to two extreme Population A quasars-the prototypical NLSy1 I Zw 1 and higher z source SDSS J120144.36+011611.6. Under assumptions of spherical symmetry and pure photoionization we infer BLR physical conditions: low ionization (ionization parameter <10{sup -2}), high density (10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), and significant metal enrichment. Ionization parameter and density can be derived independently for each source with an uncertainty that is less than {+-}0.3 dex. We use the product of density and ionization parameter to estimate the BLR radius and derive an estimation of the virial black hole mass (M{sub BH}). Estimates of M{sub BH} based on the 'photoionization' analysis described in this paper are probably more accurate than those derived from the mass-luminosity correlations widely employed to compute black hole masses for high-redshift quasars.

  1. Changes in brain regions associated with food-intake regulation, body mass and metabolic profiles during acute antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Robin; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; du Plessis, Stefan; Carr, Jonathan; Kidd, Martin; Malhotra, Anil K; Vink, Matthijs; Kahn, Rene S

    2015-08-30

    We investigated whether morphological brain changes occurred in brain regions associated with body-weight homeostasis during acute antipsychotic treatment, and if so, whether they were related to changes in body mass and metabolic profile. Twenty-two antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia received either risperidone long acting injection or flupenthixol decanoate over 13 weeks and were compared by structural MRI with 23 matched healthy volunteers at weeks 0, 4 and 13. Images were reconstructed using freesurfer fully-automated whole brain segmentation. The ventral diencephalon and prefrontal cortex were selected to represent the homeostatic and hedonic food intake regulatory systems respectively. Body mass was measured at weeks 0, 7 and 13 and fasting glucose and lipid profiles at weeks 0 and 13. Linear mixed effect models indicated significant group(⁎)time interactions for the ventral diencephalon volumes bilaterally. Ventral diencephalon volume reduction was strongly correlated bilaterally with body mass increase and HDL-cholesterol reductions, and unilaterally with blood glucose elevation. There were no significant changes in prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings implicate the ventral diencephalon, of which the hypothalamus is the main component, in the acute adipogenic and dyslipidaemic effects of antipsychotic medication. PMID:26184461

  2. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  3. Analysis of spatial and seasonal distributions of MODIS aerosol optical properties and ground-based measurements of mass concentrations in the Yellow Sea region in 2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Chung, Yong-Seung; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-retrieved data on aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) using a moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) were used to analyze large-scale distributions of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia. AOD was relatively high in March (0.44 ± 0.25) and low in September (0.24 ± 0.21) in the East Asian region in 2009. Sandstorms originating from the deserts and dry areas in northern China and Mongolia were transported on a massive scale during the springtime, thus contributing to the high AOD in East Asia. However, whereas PM10 with diameters ≤10 μm was the highest in February at Anmyon, Cheongwon, and Ulleung, located leeward about halfway through the Korean Peninsula, AOD rose to its highest in May. The growth of hygroscopic aerosols attendant on increases in relative humidity prior to the Asian monsoon season contributed to a high AOD level in May. AE typically appears at high levels (1.30 ± 0.37) in August due to anthropogenic aerosols originating from the industrial areas in eastern China, while AOD stays low in summer due to the removal process caused by rainfall. The linear correlation coefficients of the MODIS AOD and ground-based mass concentrations of PM10 at Anmyon, Cheongwon, and Ulleung were measured at 0.4~0.6. Four cases (6 days) of mineral dustfall from sandstorms and six cases (12 days) of anthropogenically polluted particles were observed in the central area of the Korean Peninsula in 2009. PM10 mass concentrations increased at both Anmyon and Cheongwon in the cases of mineral dustfall and anthropogenically polluted particles. Cases of dustfall from sandstorms and anthropogenic polluted particles, with increasing PM10 mass concentrations, showed higher AOD values in the Yellow Sea region.

  4. Child and adolescent body mass index data according to who new child growth standards in Georgia (Kakheti region).

    PubMed

    Kharabadze, M; Betaneli, M; Khetsuriani, R; Rainauli, Z; Khutsishvili, L

    2012-10-01

    The Studies were carried in Georgia among 6-18 years old 854 children and adolescent; (417girls, 437 boys). Measurements of weight, height and chest circumference were taken from following standard techniques. The Body Mass Index of each child was computed as weight/height2. The calculated BMI was compared to the World Health Organization BMI - for-age centiles tables (5-19 years old girls and boys). According the given results the nutritional status was defined: thinness-2.6%, overweight- 13%, obesity-7.2%. The most 6-18 years old children BMI is adequate to 25th, 50th and 75th centiles of the World Health Organization standard BMI -for-age percentile tables. The thinness was revealed only among the children of 6-12 age group. With the prevalence among the girls. The high number of thin children is fixed with both 6 years. old girls and boys(6.4%).12 years old girls (11.1%),but the number of underweight children is less than the number of the same age schoolchildren in Tbilisi. The number of fat and overweighted children increases within the age and dominates among the boys. The highest percent of obesity was revealed among the children of both sex at the age of 11 (21.5%) also among the 18 years old boys(17.6%). The data analysis of the carried studies, allow comparisons with the other studies, carried out in different countries of the world. The data analysis showed that underweight, overweight and obesity distribution among the schoolchildren in Georgia is close to the statistics data of the Eastern and Central Europian countries. PMID:23131985

  5. In-situ investigation of the influence of the long-term shear strength of faults on the regional stress field in a granite rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Bruno; Cornet, Francois; Lamas, Luís; Muralha, José

    2016-04-01

    A case study is presented to show how stress field measurements may be used to assess the long-term rheological behaviour of an equivalent geo-material. The example concerns a granitic rock mass at the km3 scale, where an underground hydropower scheme including a new 10 km long power conduit and a powerhouse complex will be constructed. For design of the underground cavern and hydraulic pressure tunnel, several in situ stress measurements were carried out, using hydraulic borehole testing, overcoring and flat jack techniques. A first continuum mechanics model, with a homogenous material, was developed to integrate the several in situ test results and to assess the regional stress field. This model is based on elasticity and relaxation of the elastic properties measured through laboratory tests conducted on cores. Results of integration show that the long-term behavior of this granite rock mass differs markedly from the short-term behaviour as defined by laboratory tests. This suggests that the in-situ stress field depends mostly on the softer material that fills up the faults and hence results from the shear stress relaxation over a large number of pre-existing fractures and faults. A second continuum mechanics model, with consideration of two fault planes located nearby the hydraulic tests, was studied. This model is based on elasticity for the overall rock mass, with the elastic properties extracted from laboratory measurements, and visco-elasticity with small long-term shear strength for the two fault planes. Results show that the overall granite rock mass may be viewed as a combination of stiff elastic blocks separated by soft low strength material, leading to a fairly large scale homogeneous axisymmetrical stress field with vertical axis. Advantages and limitations of the two modelling approaches are discussed.

  6. Mass absorption efficiency of light absorbing organic aerosols from source region of paddy-residue burning emissions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, B.; Rastogi, N.; Sarin, M. M.; Singh, A.; Singh, D.

    2016-01-01

    The mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of light absorbing water-soluble organics, representing a significant fraction of brown carbon (BrC), has been studied in fine mode aerosols (PM2.5) from a source region (Patiala: 30.2 °N, 76.3 °E) of biomass burning emissions (BBEs) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The mass absorption coefficient of BrC at 365 nm (babs-365), assessed from absorption spectra of aqueous extracts, exhibits significant linear relationship with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for day (R2 = 0.37) and night time (R2 = 0.77) samples; and slope of regression lines provides a measure of MAE of BrC (daytime: ˜0.75 m2 g-1 and night time: 1.13 m2 g-1). A close similarity in the temporal variability of babs-365 (for BrC) and K+ in all samples suggests their common source from BBEs. The babs-365 of BrC follows a power law (babs-λ ≈ λ-α; where α = angstrom exponent) and averages around 5.2 ± 2.0 M m-1 (where M = 10-6). A significant decrease in the MAE of BrC from the source region (this study) to the downwind oceanic region (over Bay of Bengal, Srinivas and Sarin, 2013) could be attributed to relative increase in the contribution of non-absorbing WSOC and/or photo-bleaching of BrC during long-range atmospheric transport. The atmospheric radiative forcing due to BrC over the study site accounts for ˜40% of that from elemental carbon (EC).

  7. A composition dependent energy scale and the determination of the cosmic ray primary mass in the ankle region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Melo, D.; Sanchez, F.

    2015-08-01

    primary mass and has an almost linear dependence with primary energy.

  8. Habitat Use and Body Mass Regulation among Warblers in the Sahel Region during the Non-Breeding Season.

    PubMed

    Vafidis, James O; Vaughan, Ian P; Jones, T Hefin; Facey, Richard J; Parry, Rob; Thomas, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds face significant challenges across their annual cycle, including occupying an appropriate non-breeding home range with sufficient foraging resources. This can affect demographic processes such as over-winter survival, migration mortality and subsequent breeding success. In the Sahel region of Africa, where millions of migratory songbirds attempt to survive the winter, some species of insectivorous warblers occupy both wetland and dry-scrubland habitats, whereas other species are wetland or dry-scrubland specialists. In this study we examine evidence for strategic regulation of body reserves and competition-driven habitat selection, by comparing invertebrate prey activity-density, warbler body size and extent of fat and pectoral muscle deposits, in each habitat type during the non-breeding season. Invertebrate activity-density was substantially higher in wetland habitats than in dry-scrubland. Eurasian reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus occupying wetland habitats maintained lower body reserves than conspecifics occupying dry-scrub habitats, consistent with buffering of reserves against starvation in food-poor habitat. A similar, but smaller, difference in body reserves between wet and dry habitat was found among subalpine warblers Sylvia cantillans but not in chiffchaffs Phylloscopus collybita inhabiting dry-scrub and scrub fringing wetlands. Body reserves were relatively low among habitat specialist species; resident African reed warbler A. baeticatus and migratory sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus exclusively occupying wetland habitats, and Western olivaceous warblers Iduna opaca exclusively occupying dry habitats. These results suggest that specialists in preferred habitats and generalists occupying prey-rich habitats can reduce body reserves, whereas generalists occupying prey-poor habitats carry an increased level of body reserves as a strategic buffer against starvation. PMID:25426716

  9. Habitat Use and Body Mass Regulation among Warblers in the Sahel Region during the Non-Breeding Season

    PubMed Central

    Vafidis, James O.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Jones, T. Hefin; Facey, Richard J.; Parry, Rob; Thomas, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds face significant challenges across their annual cycle, including occupying an appropriate non-breeding home range with sufficient foraging resources. This can affect demographic processes such as over-winter survival, migration mortality and subsequent breeding success. In the Sahel region of Africa, where millions of migratory songbirds attempt to survive the winter, some species of insectivorous warblers occupy both wetland and dry-scrubland habitats, whereas other species are wetland or dry-scrubland specialists. In this study we examine evidence for strategic regulation of body reserves and competition-driven habitat selection, by comparing invertebrate prey activity-density, warbler body size and extent of fat and pectoral muscle deposits, in each habitat type during the non-breeding season. Invertebrate activity-density was substantially higher in wetland habitats than in dry-scrubland. Eurasian reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus occupying wetland habitats maintained lower body reserves than conspecifics occupying dry-scrub habitats, consistent with buffering of reserves against starvation in food-poor habitat. A similar, but smaller, difference in body reserves between wet and dry habitat was found among subalpine warblers Sylvia cantillans but not in chiffchaffs Phylloscopus collybita inhabiting dry-scrub and scrub fringing wetlands. Body reserves were relatively low among habitat specialist species; resident African reed warbler A. baeticatus and migratory sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus exclusively occupying wetland habitats, and Western olivaceous warblers Iduna opaca exclusively occupying dry habitats. These results suggest that specialists in preferred habitats and generalists occupying prey-rich habitats can reduce body reserves, whereas generalists occupying prey-poor habitats carry an increased level of body reserves as a strategic buffer against starvation. PMID:25426716

  10. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM AN ANEMONE ACTIVE REGION: RECONNECTION AND DEFLECTION OF THE 2005 AUGUST 22 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lugaz, N.; Shibata, K.; Downs, C.; Roussev, I. I.; Asai, A.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2011-09-10

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a three-dimensional thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic model, the space weather modeling framework. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of an H{alpha} filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find that the effect of the Lorentz force is a deflection of the CME by about 3{sup 0} R{sup -1}{sub sun} toward the east during the first 30 minutes of the propagation. We also produce coronagraphic and EUV images of the CME, which we compare with real images, identifying a dimming region associated with the reconnection process. We discuss the implication of our results for the arrival at Earth of CMEs originating from the limb and for models to explain the presence of open field lines in magnetic clouds.

  11. Numerical Investigation of a Coronal Mass Ejection from an Anemone Active Region: Reconnection and Deflection of the 2005 August 22 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, N.; Downs, C.; Shibata, K.; Roussev, I. I.; Asai, A.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2011-09-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a three-dimensional thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic model, the space weather modeling framework. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of an Hα filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find that the effect of the Lorentz force is a deflection of the CME by about 3° R -1 sun toward the east during the first 30 minutes of the propagation. We also produce coronagraphic and EUV images of the CME, which we compare with real images, identifying a dimming region associated with the reconnection process. We discuss the implication of our results for the arrival at Earth of CMEs originating from the limb and for models to explain the presence of open field lines in magnetic clouds.

  12. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  13. High temperature mass spectrometric studies on Usbnd Ga system: Thermodynamic properties over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) phase regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, P.; Trinadh, V. V.; Bera, Suranjan; Narasimhan, T. S. Lakshmi; Joseph, M.

    2016-07-01

    Vaporisation studies over gallium rich biphasic regions (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) in the Usbnd Ga system were carried out by Knusen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature ranges of 1208-1366 K and 1133-1338 K, respectively. Ga(g) was the species observed in the mass spectra of the equilibrium vapour over both phase regions. From temperature dependence measurements, pressure-temperature relations were deduced as: log (pGa/Pa) = (-18216 ± 239)/(T/K) + (12.88 ± 0.18) over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and log (pGa/Pa) = (-16225 ± 124)/(T/K) + (11.78 ± 0.10) over (UGa2 + UGa3). From these data, Gibbs free energy changes for the reactions 3UGa2(s) = U3Ga5(s) + Ga(g) and UGa3(s) = UGa2(s) + Ga(g) were computed and subsequently Gibbs free energies of formation of U3Ga5(s) and UGa3(s) were deduced as ΔfGTo U3Ga5(s) (±5.5) = -352.4 + 0.133 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1208-1366 K) and ΔfGTo UGa3(s) (±3.8) = -191.9 + 0.082 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1133-1338 K). The Gibbs free energy of formation of U3Ga5(s) is being reported for the first time.

  14. O-Glycosylation of the N-terminal Region of the Serine-rich Adhesin Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae Explored by Mass Spectrometry *

    PubMed Central

    Chaze, Thibault; Guillot, Alain; Valot, Benoît; Langella, Olivier; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Mistou, Michel-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Serine-rich (Srr) proteins exposed at the surface of Gram-positive bacteria are a family of adhesins that contribute to the virulence of pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. Lectin-binding experiments have previously shown that Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated. We report here the first mass-spectrometry analysis of the glycosylation of Streptococcus agalactiae Srr1. After Srr1 enrichment and trypsin digestion, potential glycopeptides were identified in collision induced dissociation spectra using X! Tandem. The approach was then refined using higher energy collisional dissociation fragmentation which led to the simultaneous loss of sugar residues, production of diagnostic oxonium ions and backbone fragmentation for glycopeptides. This feature was exploited in a new open source software tool (SpectrumFinder) developed for this work. By combining these approaches, 27 glycopeptides corresponding to six different segments of the N-terminal region of Srr1 [93–639] were identified. Our data unambiguously indicate that the same protein residue can be modified with different glycan combinations including N-acetylhexosamine, hexose, and a novel modification that was identified as O-acetylated-N-acetylhexosamine. Lectin binding and monosaccharide composition analysis strongly suggested that HexNAc and Hex correspond to N-acetylglucosamine and glucose, respectively. The same protein segment can be modified with a variety of glycans generating a wide structural diversity of Srr1. Electron transfer dissociation was used to assign glycosylation sites leading to the unambiguous identification of six serines and one threonine residues. Analysis of purified Srr1 produced in mutant strains lacking accessory glycosyltransferase encoding genes demonstrates that O-GlcNAcylation is an initial step in Srr1 glycosylation that is likely required for subsequent decoration with Hex. In summary, our data obtained by a combination of fragmentation mass spectrometry techniques

  15. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-01

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP. PMID:16987605

  16. APEX CO (9-8) MAPPING OF AN EXTREMELY HIGH VELOCITY AND JET-LIKE OUTFLOW IN A HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Keping; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Leurini, Silvia; Leinz, Christian

    2011-12-10

    Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) mapping observations in CO (9-8) and (4-3) toward a high-mass star-forming region, NGC 6334 I, are presented. The CO (9-8) map has a 6.''4 resolution, revealing a {approx}0.5 pc, jet-like, and bipolar outflow. This is the first map of a molecular outflow in a THz line. The CO (9-8) and (4-3) lines arising from the outflow lobes both show extremely high velocity line wings, and their ratios indicate a gas temperature greater than 100 K and a density higher than 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. The spatial-velocity structure of the CO (9-8) data is typical of a bow-shock-driven flow, which is consistent with the association between the bipolar outflow and the infrared bow-shaped tips. In short, the observations unveil a highly excited and collimated component in a bipolar outflow that is powered by a high-mass protostar, and provide insights into the driving mechanism of the outflow. Meanwhile, the observations demonstrate that high-quality mapping observations can be performed with the new THz receiver on APEX.

  17. Specifications for the development of a fully three-dimensional numerical groundwater model for regional mass transport of radionuclides from a deep waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Prickett, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Specifications are given which are necessary to develop a three-dimensional numerical model capable of simulating regional mass transport of radionuclides from a deep waste repository. The model to be developed will include all of the significant mass transport processes including flow, chemical, and thermal advection, mechanical dispersion, molecular diffusion, ion exchange reactions, and radioactive decay. The model specifications also include that density and viscosity fluid properties be functions of pressure, temperature, and concentration and take into account fluid and geologic heterogenieties by allowing possible assignment of individual values to every block of the model. The model specifications furthermore include the repository shape, input/output information, boundary conditions, and the need for documentation and a user's manual. Model code validation can be accomplished with the included known analytical or laboratory solutions. It is recommended that an existing finite-difference model (developed by INTERCOMP and INTERA, Inc.) be used as a starting point either as an acceptable basic code for modification or as a pattern for the development of a completely different numerical scheme. A ten-step plan is given to outline the general procedure for development of the code.

  18. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarría, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims: We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with luminosity, mass, and evolutionary stage. Methods: We decompose high-resolution Herschel-HIFI line spectra near 990, 1110 and 1670 GHz into three distinct physical components. Dense cores (protostellar envelopes) are usually seen as narrow absorptions in the H2O 1113 and 1669 GHz ground-state lines, the H2O 987 GHz excited-state line, and the H218O 1102 GHz ground-state line. In a few sources, the envelopes appear in emission in some or all studied lines, indicating higher temperatures or densities. Broader features due to outflows are usually seen in absorption in the H2O 1113 and 1669 GHz lines, in 987 GHz emission, and not seen in H218O, indicating a lower column density and a higher excitation temperature than the envelope component. A few outflows are detected in H218O, indicating higher column densities of shocked gas. In addition, the H2O 1113 and 1669 GHz spectra show narrow absorptions by foreground clouds along the line of sight. The lack of corresponding features in the 987 GHz and H218O lines indicates a low column density and a low excitation temperature for these clouds, although their derived H2O ortho/para ratios are close to 3. Results: The intensity of the ground state lines of H2O at 1113 and 1669 GHz does not show significant trends with source luminosity, envelope mass, or evolutionary state. In contrast, the flux in the excited-state 987 GHz line appears correlated with luminosity and the H218O line flux appears correlated with the envelope mass. Furthermore, appearance of the envelope in absorption in the 987 GHz and H218O lines seems to be a sign of an early evolutionary stage, as probed by the mid-infrared brightness and the Lbol/Menv ratio of

  19. Diagnostic performance of body mass index using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standards for body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Lull; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Kyung Mi; Noh, Hye Mi; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-02-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and health risks differ between Asian and European populations. BMI is commonly used to diagnose obesity; however, its accuracy in detecting adiposity in Koreans is unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the accuracy of BMI in determining BF%-defined obesity in 6,017 subjects (age 20-69 yr, 43.6% men) from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed the diagnostic performance of BMI using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standard for BF%-defined obesity by sex and age and identified the optimal BMI cut-off for BF%-defined obesity using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. BMI-defined obesity (≥25 kg/m(2)) was observed in 38.7% of men and 28.1% of women, with a high specificity (89%, men; 84%, women) but poor sensitivity (56%, men; 72% women) for BF%-defined obesity (25.2%, men; 31.1%, women). The optimal BMI cut-off (24.2 kg/m(2)) had 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity. BMI demonstrated limited diagnostic accuracy for adiposity in Korea. There was a -1.3 kg/m(2) difference in optimal BMI cut-offs between Korea and America, smaller than the 5-unit difference between the Western Pacific Regional Office and global World Health Organization obesity criteria.

  20. Characterization of organic composition in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y; Birks, S J; Cho, S; Gibson, J J

    2015-06-15

    This study was conducted to characterize the composition of dissolved organic compounds present in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) with the goal of identifying whether atmospherically-derived organic compounds present in snow are a significant contributor to the compounds detected in surface waters (i.e., rivers and lakes). We used electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) to characterize the dissolved organic compound compositions of snow and surface water samples. The organic profiles obtained for the snow samples show compositional differences between samples from near-field sites (<5 km from oil sands activities) and those from more distant locations (i.e., far-field sites). There are also significant compositional differences between samples collected in near-field sites and surface water samples in the AOSR. The composition of dissolved organic compounds at the upstream Athabasca River site (i.e., Athabasca River at Athabasca) is found to be different from samples obtained from downstream sites in the vicinity of oil sands operations (i.e., Athabasca River at Fort McMurray and Athabasca River at Firebag confluence). The upstream Athabasca River sites tended to share some compositional similarities with far-field snow deposition, while the downstream Athabasca River sites are more similar to local lakes and tributaries. This contrast likely indicates the relative role of regional snowmelt contributions to the Athabasca River vs inputs from local catchments in the reach downstream of Fort McMurray.

  1. Estimate of regional groundwater recharge rate in the Central Haouz Plain, Morocco, using the chloride mass balance method and a geographical information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait El Mekki, Ouassil; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Hanich, Lahoucine

    2015-09-01

    Located in the extreme northwest of Africa, the Kingdom of Morocco is increasingly affected by drought. Much of the country is characterised by an arid to semi-arid climate and the demand for water is considerably higher than the supply, particularly on the Haouz Plain in the centre of the country. The expansion of agriculture and tourism, in addition to industrial development and mining, have exacerbated the stress on water supplies resulting in drought. It is therefore necessary to adopt careful management practices to preserve the sustainability of the water resources in this region. The aquifer recharge rate in the piedmont region that links the High Atlas and the Central Haouz Plain was estimated using the chloride mass balance hydrochemical method, which is based on the relationship between the chloride concentrations in groundwater and rainwater. The addition of a geographical information system made it possible to estimate the recharge rate over the whole 400 km2 of the study area. The results are presented in the form of a map showing the spatialized recharge rate, which ranges from 13 to 100 mm/year and the recharge percentage of the total rainfall varies from 3 to 25 % for the hydrological year 2011-2012. This approach will enable the validation of empirical models covering areas >6200 km2, such as the Haouz nappe.

  2. Light extinction by fine atmospheric particles in the White Mountains region of New Hampshire and its relationship to air mass transport.

    PubMed

    Slater, John F; Dibb, Jack E; Keim, Barry D; Talbot, Robert W

    2002-03-27

    Chemical, optical, and physical measurements of fine aerosols (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) have been performed at a mountaintop location adjacent to the White Mountain National Forest in northern NH, USA. A 1-month long sampling campaign was conducted at Cranmore Mountain during spring 2000. We report on the apportionment of light extinction by fine aerosols into its major chemical components, and relationships between variations in aerosol parameters and changes in air mass origin. Filter-based, 24-h integrated samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic ions, as well as organic (OC), elemental (EC), and total carbon. Light scattering and light absorption coefficients were measured at 5-min intervals using an integrating nephelometer and a light absorption photometer. Fine particle number density was measured with a condensation particle counter. Air mass origins and transport patterns were investigated through the use of 3-day backward trajectories and a synoptic climate classification system. Two distinct transport regimes were observed: (1) flow from the north/northeast (N/NE) occurred during 9 out of 18 sample-days; and (2) flow from the west/southwest (W/SW) occurred 8 out of 18 sample-days. All measured and derived aerosol and meteorological parameters were separated into two categories based on these different flow scenarios. During W/SW flow, higher values of aerosol chemical concentration, absorption and scattering coefficients, number density, and haziness were observed compared to N/NE flow. The highest level of haziness was associated with the climate classification Frontal Atlantic Return, which brought polluted air into the region from the mid-Atlantic corridor. Fine particle mass scattering efficiencies of (NH4)2SO4 and OC were 5.35 +/- 0.42 m2 g(-1) and 1.56 +/- 0.40 m2 g(-1), respectively, when transport was out of the N/NE. When transport was from the W/SW the values were 4.94 +/- 0.68 m2 g(-1) for (NH4)2SO4 and 2.18 +/- 0

  3. Patterns of LGM precipitation in the U.S. Rocky Mountains: results from regional application of a glacier mass/energy balance and flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, E. M.; Laabs, B. J.; Refsnider, K. A.; Plummer, M. A.; Jacobsen, R. E.; Wollenberg, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Global climate model (GCM) simulations of the last glacial maximum (LGM) in the western United States predict changes in atmospheric circulation and storm tracks that would have resulted in significantly less-than-modern precipitation in the Northwest and northern Rockies, and significantly more-than-modern precipitation in the Southwest and southern Rockies. Model simulations also suggest that late Pleistocene pluvial lakes in the intermontane West may have modified local moisture regimes in areas immediately downwind. In this study, we present results of the application of a coupled energy/mass balance and glacier-flow model (Plummer and Phillips, 2003) to reconstructed paleoglaciers in Rocky Mountains of Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming to assess the changes from modern climate that would have been necessary to sustain each glacier in mass-balance equilibrium at its LGM extent. Results demonstrate that strong west-to-east and north-to-south gradients in LGM precipitation, relative to present, would be required if a uniform LGM temperature depression with respect to modern is assumed across the region. At an assumed 7oC temperature depression, approximately modern precipitation would have been necessary to support LGM glaciation in the Colorado Front Range, significantly less than modern precipitation to support glaciation in the Teton Range, and almost twice modern precipitation to sustain glaciers in the Wasatch and Uinta ranges of Utah and the New Mexico Sangre de Cristo Range. The observed west-to-east (Utah-to-Colorado) LGM moisture gradient is consistent with precipitation enhancement from pluvial Lake Bonneville, decreasing with distance downwind from the lake. The north-to-south (Wyoming-to-New Mexico) LGM moisture gradient is consistent with a southward LGM displacement of the mean winter storm track associated with the winter position of the Pacific Jet Stream across the western U.S. Our analysis of paleoglacier extents in the Rocky Mountain

  4. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075

  5. Superthermal >36-eV ions observed in the near-tail region of Venus by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter neutral mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kasprzak, W.T.; Grebowsky, J.M.; Niemann, H.B. ); Brace, L.H. )

    1991-07-01

    The Pioneer Venus orbiter neutral mass spectrometer (ONMS) has made measurements of >36-eV ions in the altitude range 1,300-3,700 km for solar zenith angles greater than 120 {degrees}. The superthermal ions form part of the near-tail region of Venus termed the ionotail. The ONMS superthermal ions represent only a small fraction (about 0.3%) of the plasma density in the ionotail region. The composition is mainly O{sup +}, but He{sup +}, N{sup +}, (CO{sup +} N{sub 2}{sup +}), NO{sup +}, and O{sub 2}{sup +} have been identified. CO{sub 2}{sup +} is very rarely observed in this region, and H{sup +} is not measured. The directions of the apparent O{sup +} ion flow in the ecliptic plane show predominantly tailward components with a similar number of nontailward components. Since the energy of the superthermal ions is sufficient for planetary escape, the >36-eV O{sup +} escape flux in the ionotail is estimated to be about 10{sup 5} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Other species observed also have enough energy to escape. The O{sup +} flux data show a factor of 2.5 increase from solar minimum to solar maximum implying a photoionization source for these ions. Neither the origin of the >36-eV ions nor the acceleration mechanism is precisely known. The O{sup +} flux observations do not appear to be correlated with the direction of the cross-tail magnetic field as might be expected if the ions were due to the asymmetric pickup of newly ionized atmospheric neutrals above the ionopause. The composition of the superthermal ions in the ionotail suggests that their source is most likely the high-altitude nightside ionosphere where O{sup +} and not O{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion. Transport of the superthermal O{sup +} across the terminator to the nightside has been observed, and measurements in the ionotail region at solar minimum near 2,000 km show that {sup +} is mainly superthermal.

  6. Distribution of body mass index among subjects with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: data from the BREATHE study

    PubMed Central

    Koniski, Marie-Louise; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2015-01-01

    Background Data describing the potential relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and body mass index (BMI) are limited within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Objective To evaluate the distribution of BMI among subjects with COPD in the general population of the MENA region. Methods This study was a subanalysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of ten countries in the MENA region and Pakistan. The study population consisted of subjects screened for COPD who documented their weight and height. A COPD questionnaire was administered to subjects who screened positively for COPD in order to collect data on patient characteristics, symptom severity, management and burden of disease, comorbidities, and health care resource utilization and data allowing calculation of the BMI. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) was administered to those screened positively for COPD to collect data on the impact of respiratory symptoms. Results Nine hundred and ninety-six subjects with COPD, who completed the detailed COPD questionnaire and documented their weight and height, were included in this analysis. The mean BMI was 27.7±5.7 kg/m2. The proportion of COPD patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is significantly higher than the proportion with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (64.6% [n=643] vs 35.4% [n=353], respectively; P<0.0001). There were no significant differences between the distribution of BMI, ages, sex, COPD symptoms, exacerbations, CAT scores, COPD-associated health care resource consumption, and GOLD severity groups. However, the occurrence of comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases seemed to be significantly associated with obese or morbidly obese status (P=0.02). Conclusion In the MENA region, the majority of COPD subjects were overweight or obese, and comorbidities such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases are likely to be associated with COPD when BMI is in the obese or morbidly

  7. HIGH D{sub 2}O/HDO RATIO IN THE INNER REGIONS OF THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    SciTech Connect

    Coutens, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Persson, M. V.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Vastel, C.; Taquet, V.

    2014-09-01

    Water plays a crucial role both in the interstellar medium and on Earth. To constrain its formation mechanisms and its evolution through the star formation process, the determination of the water deuterium fractionation ratios is particularly suitable. Previous studies derived HDO/H{sub 2}O ratios in the warm inner regions of low-mass protostars. We here report a detection of the D{sub 2}O 1{sub 1,} {sub 0}-1{sub 0,} {sub 1} transition toward the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A with the Plateau de Bure interferometer: this represents the first interferometric detection of D{sub 2}O—and only the second solar-type protostar for which this isotopologue is detected. Using the observations of the HDO 5{sub 4,} {sub 2}-6{sub 3,} {sub 3} transition simultaneously detected and three other HDO lines previously observed, we show that the HDO line fluxes are well reproduced with a single excitation temperature of 218 ± 21 K and a source size of ∼0.''5. The D{sub 2}O/HDO ratio is ∼(1.2 ± 0.5) × 10{sup –2}, while the use of previous H{sub 2}{sup 18}O observations give an HDO/H{sub 2}O ratio of ∼(1.7 ± 0.8) × 10{sup –3}, i.e., a factor of seven lower than the D{sub 2}O/HDO ratio. These results contradict the predictions of current grain surface chemical models and indicate that either the surface deuteration processes are poorly understood or that both sublimation of grain mantles and water formation at high temperatures (≳230 K) take place in the inner regions of this source. In the second scenario, the thermal desorption of the grain mantles would explain the high D{sub 2}O/HDO ratio, while water formation at high temperature would explain significant extra production of H{sub 2}O leading to a decrease of the HDO/H{sub 2}O ratio.

  8. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  9. Characterization of Molecules Binding to the 70K N-terminal Region of Fibronectin by IFAST Purification Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi-Harami, S. Farshid; Annis, Douglas S.; Ma, Wenjiang; Berry, Scott M.; Coughlin, Emma E.; Strotman, Lindsay N.; Maurer, Lisa M.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Mosher, Deane F.; Beebe, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Fibronectin (Fn) is a large glycoprotein present in plasma and extracellular matrix and is important for many processes. Within Fn the 70kDa N-terminal region (70k-Fn) is involved in cell-mediated Fn assembly, a process that contributes to embryogenesis, development, and platelet thrombus formation. In addition, major human pathogens including Staphlycoccus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, bind the 70k-Fn region by a novel form of protein-protein interaction called β-zipper formation, facilitating bacterial spread and colonization. Knowledge of blood plasma and platelet proteins that interact with 70k-Fn by β-zipper formation is incomplete. In the current study, we aimed to characterize these proteins through affinity purification. For this affinity purification, we used a novel purification technique termed immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension (IFAST). The foundation of this technology is immiscible phase filtration, using a magnet to draw paramagnetic particle (PMP)-bound analyte through an immiscible barrier (oil or organic solvent) that separates an aqueous sample from an aqueous eluting buffer. The immiscible barrier functions to remove unbound proteins via exclusion rather than dilutive washing used in traditional isolation methods. We identified 31 interactors from plasma, of which only seven were previously known to interact with Fn. Furthermore, five proteins were identified to interact with 70k-Fn from platelet lysate, of which one was previously known. These results demonstrate that IFAST offers advantages for proteomic studies of interacting molecules in that the technique requires small sample volumes, can be done with high enough throughput to sample multiple interaction conditions, and is amenable to exploratory mass spectrometric and confirmatory immuno-blotting read-outs. PMID:23750785

  10. Neutron Transfer Reactions on Neutron-Rich N=50 and N=82 Nuclei Near the r-Process Path

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, S. D.; Thomas, J. S.; Arbanas, Goran; Adekola, Aderemi S; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Dean, David Jarvis; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Johnson, Micah; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Paulauskas, Stanley V; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-01-01

    Neutron transfer (d,p) reaction studies on the N = 50 isotones, 82Ge and 84Se, and A{approx}130 nuclei, 130,132Sn and 134Te, have been measured. Direct neutron capture cross sections for 82Ge and 84Se (n,?) have been calculated and are combined with Hauser-Feshbach expectations to estimate total (n,?) cross sections. The A{approx}130 studies used an early implementation of the ORRUBA array of position-sensitive silicon strip detectors for reaction proton measurements. Preliminary excitation energy and angular distribution results from the A{approx}130 measurements are reported.

  11. Regional water-quality analysis of 2,4-D and dicamba in river water using gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Aga, D.S.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Gas chromatography with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in regional National Water Quality Assessment studies of the herbicides, 2,4-D and dicamba, in river water across the United States. The GC-MS method involved solid-phase extraction, derivatized with deutemted 2,4-D, and analysis by selected ion monitoring. The ELISA method was applied after preconcentration with solid-phase extraction. The ELISA method was unreliable because of interference from humic substances that were also isolated by solid-phase extraction. Therefore, GC-MS was used to analyzed 80 samples from river water from 14 basins. The frequency of detection of dicamba (28%) was higher than that for 2,4-D (16%). Concentrations were higher for dicamba than for 2,4-D, ranging from less than the detection limit (<0.05 ??g/L) to 3.77 ??g/L, in spite of 5 times more annual use of 2,4-D as compared to dicamba. These results suggest that 2,4-D degrades more rapidly in the environment than dicamba.

  12. Systematics of band moment of inertia of yrast and excited SD bands of even-even nuclei in A~150 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H. M.

    2015-07-01

    A four parameter formula has been applied to all the yrast and excited superdeformed (SD) bands of even-even nuclei in the A 150 mass region to obtain band moment of inertia J0. In even-even nuclei, totally three yrast SD bands and 16 excited SD bands have been fitted. The measured Qt values and hence the axes ratios have been used to calculate the rigid body J0 values and compared with the fitted values of J0. It is interesting to look at the yrast SD band 152Dy(1), the doubly magic SD nucleus and the first one to be discovered that the J0 values are quite larger than that extracted from Qt measurement. We found that all the excited SD bands in even-even nuclei are signature partner SD bands because the J0 value of each signature partner SD band is almost identical. Among all these excited SD bands, 150Gd(4) is found to be super-rigid in nature having J0 value larger than that observed from the measured Qt value.

  13. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found.

  14. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found. PMID:27147239

  15. Assessment of the Cape Cod phylogeographic break using the bamboo worm Clymenella torquata reveals the role of regional water masses in dispersal.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Robert M; Shank, Timothy M; Mullineaux, Lauren S; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2009-01-01

    Previous genetic studies suggest Cape Cod, MA, as a phylogenetic break for benthic marine invertebrates; however, diffuse sampling in this area has hindered fine-scale determination of the break's location and underlying causes. Furthermore, some species exhibit breaks in different places, and others exhibit no breaks in this region. We analyze the phylogeographic patterns of 2 mitochondrial genes from 10 populations of the bamboo worm Clymenella torquata (Annelida: Maldanidae) focused around Cape Cod but extending from the Bay of Fundy, Canada, to New Jersey. A common invertebrate along the US coast, C. torquata, possesses life-history characteristics that should make it sensitive to factors such as dispersal barriers, bottlenecks, and founder events. As an inhabitant of soft sediments, C. torquata offers a unique contrast to existing research dominated by organisms dwelling on hard substrates. Our genetic data show a clear phylogenetic break and a cline of haplotype frequencies from north to south. Fine-scale sampling of populations on Cape Cod, combined with other sampled populations, confirm that this distinct break is not on the Cape Cod peninsula itself but to the south near a boundary of oceanic water masses. Low levels of gene flow occur in these populations, in an asymmetric manner congruent with coastal current patterns. No significant effect of Pleistocene glaciation was seen in the pattern of genetic diversity over the sampled range.

  16. From superdeformation to extreme deformation and clusterization in the N ≈Z nuclei of the A ≈40 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Afanasjev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic search for extremely deformed structures in the N ≈Z nuclei of the A ≈40 mass region has been performed for the first time in the framework of covariant density functional theory. At spin zero such structures are located at high excitation energies, which prevents their experimental observation. The rotation acts as a tool to bring these exotic shapes to the yrast line or its vicinity so that their observation could become possible with future generation of γ -tracking (or similar) detectors such as GRETA and AGATA. The major physical observables of such structures (such as transition quadrupole moments, as well as kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia), the underlying single-particle structure and the spins at which they become yrast or near yrast, are defined. The search for the fingerprints of clusterization and molecular structures is performed and the configurations with such features are discussed. The best candidates for observation of extremely deformed structures are identified. For several nuclei in this study (such as 36Ar), the addition of several spin units above the currently measured maximum spin of 16 ℏ will inevitably trigger the transition to hyper- and megadeformed nuclear shapes.

  17. Influence of runoff, high frequency atmospheric forcing and model resolution on deep water mass formation regions and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, from a numerical model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quintana, Yarisbel; Courtois, Peggy; Hu, Xianmin; Pennelly, Clark; Myers, Paul G.

    2016-04-01

    Water mass formation regions act as windows to the deep ocean where surface waters are transformed to intermediate and deep waters. Within the North Atlantic, Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is convectively produced in the Labrador Sea while in the Nordic Seas the source waters for Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) and Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (NEADW) are formed. They are the main components of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) which forms the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We explore the changes of the LSW formation rates and in AMOC strength as consequence of runoff glacial melt, high frequency atmospheric forcing influence and variations in model's resolution. We use 1/4° resolution Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration from the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A nest using ANHA4 and the Adaptive Grid Refinement in FORTRAN (AGRIF) package was used to increase the resolution to 1/12° in the sub-polar gyre. The formation rate is calculated based upon a kinematic subduction approach where the exchange through the dynamic mixed layer base is calculated based on shallowing and deepening in the mixed layer, and convergence of horizontal transport into or out of the mixed layer. Lastly we use a Lagrangian tool (Ariane) to track the path of the DSOW and the NEADW from their formation source.

  18. The Surface Mass Balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution, as simulated by a regional atmospheric climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wessem, M.; Reijmer, C.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ligtenberg, S.; Scambos, T. A.; Barrand, N. E.; Van De Berg, W. J.; Thomas, E. R.; Wuite, J.; van Meijgaard, E.; Turner, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is one of the most rapidly changing regions on earth, but limited detailed information is available about AP climate due to a lack of observational data. Here, we present a high-resolution (5.5 km) estimate of the surface mass balance (SMB) for the AP, from 1979 to 2014, calculated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3, that is specifically adapted for use over the polar regions. Next to this, a firn densification model is used to calculate the processes in the snowpack, such as firn compaction and meltwater percolation, refreezing, and runoff. A comparison with the few available in-situ observations shows that the AP SMB is well modeled, but that discrepancies remain that are mainly related to the highly variable AP topography compared to the model resolution. Integrated over an ice sheet area of 4.1 105 km2, the climatological (1979-2014) SMB of the AP amounts to 351 Gt y-1 (with interannual variability = 58 Gt y-1), which mostly consists of snowfall (363 ± 56 Gt y-1). The other SMB components, sublimation, drifting snow erosion and meltwater runoff, are small (11, 0.5 and 4 Gt y-1, respectively). The AP mountains act as an important climate barrier, leading to distinct differences between the climate of the western AP (WAP) and the eastern AP (EAP). For instance, 77% of all AP snowfall falls over the WAP, where strong orographic forcing leads to snowfall rates >4 m w.e. y-1 on the northwestern slopes, while snowfall rates are <400 mm w.e. y-1 over the EAP ice shelves. These results, and further investigations of this sharp west-to-east climate distinction, clearly highlight the different forcing mechanisms of the SMB over the WAP and the EAP: over the WAP most snowfall is orographically induced, while over the EAP it is generated by depressions over the Weddell Sea. Furthermore, no significant trends are found in any of the SMB components, except for a slight decrease in snowmelt.

  19. On the accretion process in a high-mass star forming region. A multitransitional THz Herschel-HIFI study of ammonia toward G34.26+0.15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajigholi, M.; Persson, C. M.; Wirström, E. S.; Black, J. H.; Bergman, P.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Olberg, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Coutens, A.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to explore the gas dynamics and the accretion process in the early phase of high-mass star formation. Methods: The inward motion of molecular gas in the massive star forming region G34.26+0.15 is investigated by using high-resolution profiles of seven transitions of ammonia at THz frequencies observed with Herschel-HIFI. The shapes and intensities of these lines are interpreted in terms of radiative transfer models of a spherical, collapsing molecular envelope. An accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) method is used to compute the models. Results: The seven ammonia lines show mixed absorption and emission with inverse P-Cygni-type profiles that suggest infall onto the central source. A trend toward absorption at increasingly higher velocities for higher excitation transitions is clearly seen in the line profiles. The J = 3 ← 2 lines show only very weak emission, so these absorption profiles can be used directly to analyze the inward motion of the gas. This is the first time a multitransitional study of spectrally resolved rotational ammonia lines has been used for this purpose. Broad emission is, in addition, mixed with the absorption in the 10-00 ortho-NH3 line, possibly tracing a molecular outflow from the star forming region. The best-fitting ALI model reproduces the continuum fluxes and line profiles, but slightly underpredicts the emission and absorption depth in the ground-state ortho line 10-00. An ammonia abundance on the order of 10-9 relative to H2 is needed to fit the profiles. The derived ortho-to-para ratio is approximately 0.5 throughout the infalling cloud core similar to recent findings for translucent clouds in sight lines toward W31C and W49N. We find evidence of two gas components moving inwards toward the central region with constant velocities: 2.7 and 5.3 km s-1, relative to the source systemic velocity. Attempts to model the inward motion with a single gas cloud in free-fall collapse did not succeed. Herschel is an ESA space

  20. New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.

    2009-04-15

    The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.

  1. Reconstruction of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance over 1900-2015 with the help of the regional climate MARv3.6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Xavier; Agosta, Cécile; Gallée, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) Surface Mass Balance (SMB) decrease with respect to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR model (version 3.6) with the ERA-Interim (1979-2015), ERA-40 (1958-2001), NCEP1 (1948-2015), NCEP2 (1979-2015), JRA-55 (1958-2015), 20CRv2(c) (1880-2012) and ERA-20C (1900-2010) reanalysis. While all of these forcing products are reanalyses, MAR simulates differences in SMB over the common period. A temperature correction of +1°C (resp. -1°C) had notably to be applied to the MAR boundary conditions given that ERA-20C (resp. 20CRv2) is ~1° colder (resp. warmer) over Greenland than ERA-Interim data over 1980-2010. Comparisons with PROMICE daily temperature measurements valid these corrections. In most of regions, the SMB discrepancies between the different simulations are not significant except in the South-East where the maximum of precipitation occurs and where SMB measurements are missing. This suggests that uncertainties in the current SMB reconstruction remain and that observations are still needed. Comparisons with SMB measurements from the PROMICE data set, ice cores and satellite derived melt extent allows to select the best reanalysis forced data set. All of these simulations show that i) the period 1961-1990 usually chosen as reference for SMB and ice dynamics (stable ice sheet) over GrIS is a period when the SMB was abnormally high in respect to the last 120 years; ii) SMB has been significantly decreasing after this reference period due to increasing melt. Both ERA-20C and 20CRv2 forced simulations suggest a precipitation increase since the beginning of the last century and the ERA-20C forced simulation only suggests that SMB during the 1920-1930 warm period over Greenland was comparable with the SMB of the 2000's. Finally, the sensitivity of switching on the erosion of the snow by the wind in MARv3.6 over GrIS will be discussed.

  2. A study on subarcsecond scales of the ammonia and continuum emission toward the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscadelli, L.; Cesaroni, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Goddi, C.; Furuya, R. S.; Sanna, A.; Pestalozzi, M.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: We wish to investigate the structure, velocity field, and stellar content of the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region, where previous studies have established the presence of two almost perpendicular (NE-SW and SE-NW), massive outflows, and a rotating disk traced by methanol maser emission. Methods: We performed Very Large Array observations of the radio continuum and ammonia line emission, complemented by COMICS/Subaru and Hi-GAL/Herschel images in the mid- and far-infrared. Results: Our centimeter continuum maps reveal a collimated radio jet that is oriented E-W and centered on the methanol maser disk, placed at the SE border of a compact molecular core. The spectral index of the jet is negative, indicating non-thermal emission over most of the jet, except the peak close to the maser disk, where thermal free-free emission is observed. We find that the ammonia emission presents a bipolar structure consistent (on a smaller scale) in direction and velocity with that of the NE-SW bipolar outflow detected in previous CO observations. After analyzing our previous N2H+(1-0) observations again, we conclude that two scenarios are possible. In one case both the radio jet and the ammonia emission would trace the root of the large-scale CO bipolar outflow. The different orientation of the jet and the ammonia flow could be explained by precession and/or a non-isotropic density distribution around the star. In the other case, the N2H+(1-0) and ammonia bipolarity is interpreted as two overlapping clumps moving with different velocities along the line of sight. The ammonia gas also seems to undergo rotation consistent with the maser disk. Our infrared images complemented by archival data allow us to derive a bolometric luminosity of ~104 L⊙ and to conclude that most of the luminosity is due to the young stellar object associated with the maser disk. Conclusions: The new data suggest a scenario where the luminosity and the outflow activity of the whole region could

  3. Molecular line survey of the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I with Herschel/HIFI and the Submillimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zernickel, A.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Lis, D. C.; Brogan, C. L.; Ceccarelli, C.; Comito, C.; Emprechtinger, M.; Hunter, T. R.; Möller, T.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: We aim at deriving the molecular abundances and temperatures of the hot molecular cores in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I and consequently deriving their physical and astrochemical conditions. Methods: In the framework of the Herschel guaranteed time key program CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions), NGC 6334I is investigated by using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. A spectral line survey is carried out in the frequency range 480-1907 GHz, and further auxiliary interferometric data from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in the 230 GHz band provide spatial information for disentangling the different physical components contributing to the HIFI spectrum. The spectral lines in the processed Herschel data are identified with the aid of former surveys and spectral line catalogs. The observed spectrum is then compared to a simulated synthetic spectrum, assuming local thermal equilibrium, and best fit parameters are derived using a model optimization package. Results: A total of 46 molecules are identified, with 31 isotopologues, resulting in about 4300 emission and absorption lines. High-energy levels (Eu > 1000 K) of the dominant emitter methanol and vibrationally excited HCN (ν2 = 1) are detected. The number of unidentified lines remains low with 75, or <2% of the lines detected. The modeling suggests that several spectral features need two or more components to be fitted properly. Other components could be assigned to cold foreground clouds or to outflows, most visible in the SiO and H2O emission. A chemical variation between the two embedded hot cores is found, with more N-bearing molecules identified in SMA1 and O-bearing molecules in SMA2. Conclusions: Spectral line surveys give powerful insights into the study of the interstellar medium. Different molecules trace different physical conditions like the inner hot core, the envelope, the outflows or the cold foreground

  4. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). III. Far-infrared cooling lines in low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karska, A.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wampfler, S. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Visser, R.; Nisini, B.; San José-García, I.; Bruderer, S.; Śniady, P.; Doty, S.; Fedele, D.; Yıldız, U. A.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Liseau, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-04-01

    Context. Understanding the physical phenomena involved in the earlierst stages of protostellar evolution requires knowledge of the heating and cooling processes that occur in the surroundings of a young stellar object. Spatially resolved information from its constituent gas and dust provides the necessary constraints to distinguish between different theories of accretion energy dissipation into the envelope. Aims. Our aims are to quantify the far-infrared line emission from low-mass protostars and the contribution of different atomic and molecular species to the gas cooling budget, to determine the spatial extent of the emission, and to investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Analysis of the line cooling will help us characterize the evolution of the relevant physical processes as the protostar ages. Methods. Far-infrared Herschel-PACS spectra of 18 low-mass protostars of various luminosities and evolutionary stages are studied in the context of the WISH key program. For most targets, the spectra include many wavelength intervals selected to cover specific CO, H2O, OH, and atomic lines. For four targets the spectra span the entire 55-200 μm region. The PACS field-of-view covers ~47" with the resolution of 9.4". Results. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 out of 18 objects (except TMC1A), including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O 818-707 63.3 μm line (Eu/kB = 1071 K) is detected in 7 sources. CO transitions from J = 14-13 up to J = 49 - 48 are found and show two distinct temperature components on Boltzmann diagrams with rotational temperatures of ~350 K and ~700 K. H2O has typical excitation temperatures of ~150 K. Emission from both Class 0 and I sources is usually spatially extended along the outflow direction but with a pattern that depends on the species and the transition. In the extended sources, emission is stronger off source and extended on &≥10,000 AU

  5. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  6. Analysis of a coronal mass ejection and corotating interaction region as they travel from the Sun passing Venus, Earth, Mars, and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prise, A. J.; Harra, L. K.; Matthews, S. A.; Arridge, C. S.; Achilleos, N.

    2015-03-01

    During June 2010 a good alignment in the solar system between Venus, STEREO-B, Mars, and Saturn provided an excellent opportunity to study the propagation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and closely occurring corotating interaction region (CIR) from the Sun to Saturn. The CME erupted from the Sun at 01:30 UT on 20 June 2010,with v≈ 600 km s-1, as observed by STEREO-B, Solar Dynamics Observatory, and SOHO/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. It arrived at Venus over 2 days later, some 3.5 days after a CIR is also detected here. The CIR was also observed at STEREO-B and Mars, prior to the arrival of the CME. The CME is not directed earthward, but the CIR is detected here less than 2 days after its arrival at Mars. Around a month later, a strong compression of the Saturn magnetosphere is observed by Cassini, consistent with the scenario that the CME and CIR have merged into a single solar transient. The arrival times of both the CME and the CIR at different locations were predicted using the ENLIL solar wind model. The arrival time of the CME at Venus, STEREO-B, and Mars is predicted to within 20 h of its actual detection, but the predictions for the CIR showed greater differences from observations, all over 1.5 days early. More accurate predictions for the CIR were found by extrapolating the travel time between different locations using the arrival times and speeds detected by STEREO-B and ACE. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the propagation of solar transients.

  7. Eddy viscosity and flow properties of the solar wind: Co-rotating interaction regions, coronal-mass-ejection sheaths, and solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2006-05-15

    The coefficient of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) eddy viscosity of the turbulent solar wind is calculated to be {nu}{sub eddy}{approx_equal}1.3x10{sup 17} cm{sup 2}/s: this coefficient is appropriate for velocity shears with scale thicknesses larger than the {approx}10{sup 6} km correlation length of the solar-wind turbulence. The coefficient of MHD eddy viscosity is calculated again accounting for the action of smaller-scale turbulent eddies on smaller scale velocity shears in the solar wind. This eddy viscosity is quantitatively tested with spacecraft observations of shear flows in co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) and in coronal-mass-ejection (CME) sheaths and ejecta. It is found that the large-scale ({approx}10{sup 7} km) shear of the CIR fractures into intense narrow ({approx}10{sup 5} km) slip zones between slabs of differently magnetized plasma. Similarly, it is found that the large-scale shear of CME sheaths also fracture into intense narrow slip zones between parcels of differently magnetized plasma. Using the solar-wind eddy-viscosity coefficient to calculate vorticity-diffusion time scales and comparing those time scales with the {approx}100-h age of the solar-wind plasma at 1 AU, it is found that the slip zones are much narrower than eddy-viscosity theory says they should be. Thus, our concept of MHD eddy viscosity fails testing. For the freestream turbulence effect in solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, the eddy-viscous force of the solar wind on the Earth's magnetosphere is rederived accounting for the action of turbulent eddies smaller than the correlation length, along with other corrections. The improved derivation of the solar-wind driver function for the turbulence effect fails to yield higher correlation coefficients between measurements of the solar-wind driver and measurements of the response of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  8. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  9. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  10. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  11. Regional Course in the Production and Use of Mass Media and Family Planning Programmes in Asia (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 14-October 10, 1970). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This course was organized as a followup to the seminar on mass media and national family planning programs held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris (France), June 23-28, 1969. Among the topics included in the report are: principles and steps in mass media production and utilization; problems arising from the practice of planning, producing, utilizing,…

  12. Regional Seminar on Statistics of Culture and Mass Communication for Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean; Guadalajara, Mexico, 21 September-2 October 1970. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The three parts into which this paper is divided are: (1) Library statistics, (2) Statistics on book production and (3) Statistics on mass media. The following main topics are discussed: (1) Organization, methodology and use of national statistics on culture and mass communication: (a) libraries, (b) book production, (c) newspapers and other…

  13. The effect of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and co-rotating interaction regions on the Venusian 557.7 nm oxygen green line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Candace L.; Chanover, Nancy; Slanger, Tom; Molaverdikhani, Karan; Peter, Kerstin; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin; Witasse, Olivier; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Collinson, Glyn

    2015-11-01

    The Venusian 557.7nm OI (1S - 1D) (oxygen green line) nightglow emission is known to be highly temporally variable. The reason for this variability is unknown. We propose that the emission is due to electron precipitation from intense solar storms. For my dissertation, I observed the Venusian green line after solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and co-rotating interaction regions from December 2010 to April 2015 using the high resolution Astrophysical Research Consortium Echelle Spectrograph on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. Combining these observation with all other published observations, we find that the strongest detections occur after CME impacts and we conclude electron precipitation is required to produce green line emission. We do not detect emission from the 630.0nm OI (1D - 3P) oxygen red line for any observation.In an effort to determine the emitting altitude, thereby constraining the possible emission processes responsible for green line emission, and quantify the electron energy and flux entering the Venusian nightside, we conducted analyses of space-based observations of the Venusian nightglow and ionosphere collected by the Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft. We were unable to detect the green line but confirmed that electron energy and flux increases after CME impacts.In order to determine the effect of storm condition electron precipitation on the Venusian green line, we modeled the Venusian ionosphere using the TRANSCAR model (a 1-D magnetohydrodynamic ionospheric model that simulates auroral emission from electron precipitation) by applying observed electron energies and fluxes. We found that electron energy plays a primary role in producing increased green line emission in the Venusian ionosphere.Based on observation and modeling results, we conclude that the Venusian green line is an auroral-type emission that occurs after solar storms with the largest intensities observed after CMEs. Post-CME electron fluxes and energies

  14. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of

  15. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  16. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures.

    PubMed

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can

  17. Abundance Anomaly of the 13C Isotopic Species of c-C3H2 in the Low-mass Star Formation Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Sakai, Nami; Tokudome, Tomoya; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Takano, Shuro; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bachiller, Rafael; Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    The rotational spectral lines of c-C3H2 and two kinds of the 13C isotopic species, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 ({C}2v symmetry) and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 (Cs symmetry), have been observed in the 1–3 mm band toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527. We have detected 7, 3, and 6 lines of c-C3H2, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2, and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2, respectively, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and 34, 6, and 13 lines, respectively, with the IRAM 30 m telescope, where seven, two, and two transitions, respectively, are observed with both telescopes. With these data, we have evaluated the column densities of the normal and 13C isotopic species. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] ratio is determined to be 310 ± 80, while the [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio is determined to be 61 ± 11. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] and [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratios expected from the elemental 12C/13C ratio are 60–70 and 30–35, respectively, where the latter takes into account the statistical factor of 2 for the two equivalent carbon atoms in c-C3H2. Hence, this observation further confirms the dilution of the 13C species in carbon-chain molecules and their related molecules, which are thought to originate from the dilution of 13C+ in the gas-phase C+ due to the isotope exchange reaction: {}13{{{C}}}++{CO}\\to {}13{CO}+{{{C}}}+. Moreover, the abundances of the two 13C isotopic species are different from each other. The ratio of c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 species relative to c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 is determined to be 0.20 ± 0.05. If 13C were randomly substituted for the three carbon atoms, the [c-{}13{{CCCH}}2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio would be 0.5. Hence, the observed ratio indicates that c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 exists more favorably. Possible origins of the different abundances are discussed. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the NRO 45 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). NRO is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

  18. Gas and dust in the star-forming region ρ Oph A. The dust opacity exponent β and the gas-to-dust mass ratio g2d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseau, R.; Larsson, B.; Lunttila, T.; Olberg, M.; Rydbeck, G.; Bergman, P.; Justtanont, K.; Olofsson, G.; de Vries, B. L.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We aim at determining the spatial distribution of the gas and dust in star-forming regions and address their relative abundances in quantitative terms. We also examine the dust opacity exponent β for spatial and/or temporal variations. Methods: Using mapping observations of the very dense ρ Oph A core, we examined standard 1D and non-standard 3D methods to analyse data of far-infrared and submillimetre (submm) continuum radiation. The resulting dust surface density distribution can be compared to that of the gas. The latter was derived from the analysis of accompanying molecular line emission, observed with Herschel from space and with APEX from the ground. As a gas tracer we used N2H+, which is believed to be much less sensitive to freeze-out than CO and its isotopologues. Radiative transfer modelling of the N2H+ (J = 3-2) and (J = 6-5) lines with their hyperfine structure explicitly taken into account provides solutions for the spatial distribution of the column density N(H2), hence the surface density distribution of the gas. Results: The gas-to-dust mass ratio is varying across the map, with very low values in the central regions around the core SM 1. The global average, = 88, is not far from the canonical value of 100, however. In ρ Oph A, the exponent β of the power-law description for the dust opacity exhibits a clear dependence on time, with high values of 2 for the envelope-dominated emission in starless Class -1 sources to low values close to 0 for the disk-dominated emission in Class III objects. β assumes intermediate values for evolutionary classes in between. Conclusions: Since β is primarily controlled by grain size, grain growth mostly occurs in circumstellar disks. The spatial segregation of gas and dust, seen in projection toward the core centre, probably implies that, like C18O, also N2H+ is frozen onto the grains. Based on observations with APEX, which is a 12 m diameter submillimetre telescope at 5100 m altitude on Llano Chajnantor

  19. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, J. C.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; San José-García, I.; Karska, A.; Visser, R.; Santangelo, G.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.

    2014-12-01

    that this is due to the differences in shock properties and geometry between these positions. Class I sources have similar excitation conditions to Class 0 sources, but generally smaller line-widths and emitting region sizes. We suggest that it is the velocity of the wind driving the outflow, rather than the decrease in envelope density or mass, that is the cause of the decrease in H2O intensity between Class 0 and I sources. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgReduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A21

  20. Association of Egg Mass and Egg Sex: Gene Expression Analysis from Maternal RNA in the Germinal Disc Region of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Wit, Agnes A C; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2015-06-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying chickens (Gallus gallus) to induce a decrease in body condition and egg mass using 45 chicken hens in treatment and control groups. Feed restriction led to an overall decline of egg mass. In the second period of treatment (Days 9-18) with more severe feed restriction and a steeper decline of egg mass, the sex ratio per hen (proportion of male eggs) had a significant negative association with mean egg mass per hen. Based on this association, two groups of hens were selected from feed restriction group, that is, hens producing male bias with low egg mass and hens producing female bias with high egg mass with overall sex ratios of 0.71 and 0.44 respectively. Genomewide transcriptome analysis on the germinal disks of F1 preovulatory follicles collected at the time of occurrence of meiosis-I was performed. We did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in these two groups of hens. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of cellular processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus, and chromosomal movement were enriched in female-biased hens or high mean egg mass as compared with male-biased hens or low mean egg mass. The differentially expressed gene sets may be involved in meiotic drive regulating sex ratio in the chicken.

  1. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  2. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  3. Investigations of near region of surface of soda-lime-silica glass and lithium-silica glass with secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Blasek, G.

    1980-06-01

    Investigations on the layers near the surface of different glasses by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry are described. Both enrichment- and depletion zones can be demonstrated. The results are discussed on the basis of the model on corrosion behaviour by Hench.

  4. Indirect measurements of the τ ˜-χ˜10 mass difference and M g ˜ in the co-annihilation region of mSUGRA models at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnowitt, Richard; Aurisano, Adam; Dutta, Bhaskar; Kamon, Teruki; Kolev, Nikolay; Simeon, Paul; Toback, David; Wagner, Peter

    2007-05-01

    We study the prospects for the measurement of the τ˜-χ˜10 mass difference (ΔM) and the g˜ mass (Mg˜) in the supersymmetric co-annihilation region of mSUGRA at the LHC using tau leptons. Recent WMAP measurements of the amount of cold dark matter and previous accelerator experiments favor the co-annihilation region of mSUGRA, characterized by a small ΔM (5-15 GeV). Focusing on taus from χ˜20 → ττ˜ → ττχ˜10 decays in g˜ and q˜ production, we consider inclusive 3 τ +jet +E̸T production, with two τ's above a high ET threshold and a third τ above a lower threshold. Two observables, the number of opposite-signed τ pairs minus the number of like-signed τ pairs, and the peak of the di-tau invariant mass distribution, allow for the simultaneous determination of ΔM and Mg˜ for ΔM ≳ 6 GeV. For example, for ΔM = 9 GeV and Mg˜ = 850 GeV with 30 fb-1 of data, we can measure ΔM to 15% and Mg˜ to 6%.

  5. Global distribution of soil organic carbon, based on the Harmonized World Soil Database - Part 1: Masses and frequency distribution of SOC stocks for the tropics, permafrost regions, wetlands, and the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köchy, M.; Hiederer, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-09-01

    The global soil organic carbon (SOC) mass is relevant for the carbon cycle budget. We review current estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (mass/area) and mass (stock × area) in wetlands, permafrost and tropical regions and the world in the upper 1 m of soil. The Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) v.1.2 provides one of the most recent and coherent global data sets of SOC, giving a total mass of 2476 Pg. Correcting the HWSD's bulk density of organic soils, especially Histosols, results in a mass of 1062 Pg. The uncertainty of bulk density of Histosols alone introduces a range of -56 to +180 Pg for the estimate of global SOC in the top 1 m, larger than estimates of global soil respiration. We report the spatial distribution of SOC stocks per 0.5 arc minutes, the areal masses of SOC and the quantiles of SOC stocks by continents, wetland types, and permafrost types. Depending on the definition of "wetland", wetland soils contain between 82 and 158 Pg SOC. Incorporating more detailed estimates for permafrost from the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Data Base (496 Pg SOC) and tropical peatland carbon, global soils contain 1324 Pg SOC in the upper 1 m including 421 Pg in tropical soils, whereof 40 Pg occur in tropical wetlands. Global SOC amounts to just under 3000 Pg when estimates for deeper soil layers are included. Variability in estimates is due to variation in definitions of soil units, differences in soil property databases, scarcity of information about soil carbon at depths > 1 m in peatlands, and variation in definitions of "peatland".

  6. THE DEPENDENCE OF STELLAR MASS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM LOSSES ON LATITUDE AND THE INTERACTION OF ACTIVE REGION AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2015-11-01

    Rotation evolution of late-type stars is dominated by magnetic braking and the underlying factors that control this angular momentum loss are important for the study of stellar spin-down. In this work, we study angular momentum loss as a function of two different aspects of magnetic activity using a calibrated Alfvén wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic wind model: the strengths of magnetic spots and their distribution in latitude. By driving the model using solar and modified solar surface magnetograms, we show that the topology of the field arising from the net interaction of both small-scale and large-scale field is important for spin-down rates and that angular momentum loss is not a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength. We find that changing the latitude of magnetic spots can modify mass and angular momentum loss rates by a factor of two. The general effect that causes these differences is the closing down of large-scale open field at mid- and high-latitudes by the addition of the small-scale field. These effects might give rise to modulation of mass and angular momentum loss through stellar cycles, and present a problem for ab initio attempts to predict stellar spin-down based on wind models. For all the magnetogram cases considered here, from dipoles to various spotted distributions, we find that angular momentum loss is dominated by the mass loss at mid-latitudes. The spin-down torque applied by magnetized winds therefore acts at specific latitudes and is not evenly distributed over the stellar surface, though this aspect is unlikely to be important for understanding spin-down and surface flows on stars.

  7. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). VI. Constraints on UV and X-ray irradiation from a survey of hydrides in low- to high-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Melchior, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; van der Tak, F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Indriolo, N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Lis, D. C.; Mottram, J. C.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Hydrides are simple compounds containing one or a few hydrogen atoms bonded to a heavier atom. They are fundamental precursor molecules in cosmic chemistry and many hydride ions have become observable in high quality for the first time thanks to the Herschel Space Observatory. Ionized hydrides such as CH+ and OH+ (and also HCO+), which affect the chemistry of molecules such as water, provide complementary information on irradiation by far-UV (FUV) or X-rays and gas temperature. Aims: We explore hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements in an observational survey covering young stellar objects (YSOs) with different mass and evolutionary state. The focus is on hydrides associated with the dense protostellar envelope and outflows, contrary to previous work that focused on hydrides in diffuse foreground clouds. Methods: Twelve YSOs were observed with HIFI on Herschel in six spectral settings providing fully velocity-resolved line profiles as part of the Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) program. The YSOs include objects of low (Class 0 and I), intermediate, and high mass, with luminosities ranging from 4 L⊙ to 2 × 105 L⊙. Results: The targeted lines of CH+, OH+, H2O+, C+, and CH are detected mostly in blue-shifted absorption. H3O+ and SH+ are detected in emission and only toward some high-mass objects. The observed line parameters and correlations suggest two different origins related to gas entrained by the outflows and to the circumstellar envelope. The derived column densities correlate with bolometric luminosity and envelope mass for all molecules, best for CH, CH+, and HCO+. The column density ratios of CH+/OH+ are estimated from chemical slab models, assuming that the H2 density is given by the specific density model of each object at the beam radius. For the low-mass YSOs the observed ratio can be reproduced for an FUV flux of 2-400 times the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) at the location of the molecules. In two high-mass

  8. MUSCLE W49: A multi-scale continuum and line exploration of the most luminous star formation region in the Milky Way. I. Data and the mass structure of the giant molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Galván-Madrid, R.; Pineda, J. E.; Peng, T.-C.; Liu, H. B.; Ho, P. T. P.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Zhang, Q.; Keto, E. R.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Zapata, L.; Peters, T.; De Pree, C. G.

    2013-12-20

    The Multi-scale Continuum and Line Exploration of W49 is a comprehensive gas and dust survey of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) of W49A, the most luminous star-formation region in the Milky Way. The project covers, for the first time, the entire GMC at different scales and angular resolutions. In this paper, we present (1) an all-configuration Submillimeter Array mosaic in the 230 GHz (1.3 mm) band covering the central ∼3' × 3' (∼10 pc, known as W49N), where most of the embedded massive stars reside and (2) Purple Mountain Observatory 14 m telescope observations in the 90 GHz band, covering the entire GMC with maps of up to ∼35' × 35' in size, or ∼113 pc. We also make use of archival data from the Very Large Array, JCMT-SCUBA, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey. We derive the basic physical parameters of the GMC at all scales. Our main findings are as follows. (1) The W49 GMC is one of the most massive in the Galaxy, with a total mass M {sub gas} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} within a radius of 60 pc. Within a radius of 6 pc, the total gas mass is M {sub gas} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. At these scales, only ∼1% of the material is photoionized. The mass reservoir is sufficient to form several young massive clusters (YMCs) as massive as a globular cluster. (2) The mass of the GMC is distributed in a hierarchical network of filaments. At scales <10 pc, a triple, centrally condensed structure peaks toward the ring of HC H II regions in W49N. This structure extends to scales from ∼10 to 100 pc through filaments that radially converge toward W49N and its less-prominent neighbor W49S. The W49A starburst most likely formed from global gravitational contraction with localized collapse in a 'hub-filament' geometry. (3) Currently, feedback from the central YMCs (with a present mass M {sub cl} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) is still not enough to entirely disrupt the GMC, but further stellar

  9. MUSCLE W49: A Multi-Scale Continuum and Line Exploration of the Most Luminous Star Formation Region in the Milky Way. I. Data and the Mass Structure of the Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Madrid, R.; Liu, H. B.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Pineda, J. E.; Peng, T.-C.; Zhang, Q.; Keto, E. R.; Ho, P. T. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Zapata, L.; Peters, T.; De Pree, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Multi-scale Continuum and Line Exploration of W49 is a comprehensive gas and dust survey of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) of W49A, the most luminous star-formation region in the Milky Way. The project covers, for the first time, the entire GMC at different scales and angular resolutions. In this paper, we present (1) an all-configuration Submillimeter Array mosaic in the 230 GHz (1.3 mm) band covering the central ~3' × 3' (~10 pc, known as W49N), where most of the embedded massive stars reside and (2) Purple Mountain Observatory 14 m telescope observations in the 90 GHz band, covering the entire GMC with maps of up to ~35' × 35' in size, or ~113 pc. We also make use of archival data from the Very Large Array, JCMT-SCUBA, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey. We derive the basic physical parameters of the GMC at all scales. Our main findings are as follows. (1) The W49 GMC is one of the most massive in the Galaxy, with a total mass M gas ~ 1.1 × 106 M ⊙ within a radius of 60 pc. Within a radius of 6 pc, the total gas mass is M gas ~ 2 × 105 M ⊙. At these scales, only ~1% of the material is photoionized. The mass reservoir is sufficient to form several young massive clusters (YMCs) as massive as a globular cluster. (2) The mass of the GMC is distributed in a hierarchical network of filaments. At scales <10 pc, a triple, centrally condensed structure peaks toward the ring of HC H II regions in W49N. This structure extends to scales from ~10 to 100 pc through filaments that radially converge toward W49N and its less-prominent neighbor W49S. The W49A starburst most likely formed from global gravitational contraction with localized collapse in a "hub-filament" geometry. (3) Currently, feedback from the central YMCs (with a present mass M cl >~ 5 × 104 M ⊙) is still not enough to entirely disrupt the GMC, but further stellar mass growth could be enough to allow radiation pressure to clear the

  10. Surface mass balance of the Wilkes and Victoria Land region (90-180°E), East Antarctica, from 1950 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magand, O.; Genthon, C.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Fily, M.

    2005-12-01

    Based on thousands of field measurements and using improved interpolation techniques, the evaluation of the mean Antarctic Surface Mass Balance (SMB) was recently [Vaughan, et al., 1999] increased by 15% compared to accepted estimates [Giovinetto and Bentley, 1985], with differences exceeding 50% at drainage basin scales. Recent re-calculations of the Antarctic SMB [Giovinetto and Zwally, 2000], using essentially the same field data but applying different sorting and interpolation techniques, appear to agree better with [Vaughan, et al., 1999] than with the older evaluations. However, they still differ by as much as 30% at drainage basin scales, and even by 15% at the scale of East Antarctica as a whole [Rignot and Thomas, 2002]. Obviously, the current uncertainty on the SMB of Antarctica still needs to be reduced. In spite of more than 2000 reported field measurements [Giovinetto and Zwally, 2000], there are 3 major difficulties to building an accurate observation-based full map of the Antarctic SMB. 1) Depending on measurement technique and time sampling, the reliability, accuracy and representativeness of a given data is highly variable and may be very poor; 2) There are still huge gaps in the spatial coverage of the available measurements, and much of the Antarctic SMB estimation currently relies on interpolation; 3) Various measurements sample and various time periods are time-inconsistent, so that real temporal variability can induce spurious spatial variability. The primary goal of the present study is to provide a SMB data analysis that is, as much as possible, spatially and temporally representative of the Mass Balance occurring in the Antarctic sector of 90-180° E from 1950 to 2005. The previous database gathered published SMB data with few or no review about the reliability and validity of all the proposed values. The resulting SMB database for this sector is significantly different from the previously published compilations in [Vaughan, et al., 1999

  11. Infrared spectroscopy in the C-H stretching region towards embedded high-mass young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Dartois, Emmanuel; Onaka, Takashi; Boulanger, François

    2015-08-01

    Since cosmic metallicity is believed to be increasing in time with the evolution of our universe, interstellar chemistry in low metallicity environments is crucial to understand chemical processes in the past universe. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is an excellent target to study such low metallicity interstellar chemistry thanks to its metal-poor environment and proximity. We here report the results of infrared spectroscopic observations of embedded high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the LMC with the Very Large Telescope. We obtained medium resolution spectra in the 3-4 micron range for nine LMC YSOs and detected absorption bands due to solid H2O and CH3OH as well as the 3.47 micron absorption band. The properties of these bands are investigated based on comparisons with Galactic embedded sources. We found that the 3.53 micron CH3OH ice absorption band for the LMC high-mass YSOs is absent or very weak compared to that seen toward Galactic counterparts. We estimate the column densities and abundance of the CH3OH ice using the obtained spectra, which suggests that solid CH3OH is less abundant in the LMC than in our Galaxy. We propose that grain surface reactions at relatively high dust temperature (warm ice chemistry) are responsible for the observed characteristics of ice chemical compositions in the LMC; i.e., the low abundance of solid CH3OH presented in this work as well as the high abundance of solid CO2 reported in previous observations. The 3.47 micron absorption band, which is generally seen in embedded sources, is detected toward five out of nine LMC YSOs. In contrast to the CH3OH ice band, strength ratios of the 3.47 micron band and water ice band are found to be similar between LMC and Galactic samples. Although the carrier of the 3.47 micron band is still under debate, our result suggests that the low metallicity and different interstellar environment of the LMC have little effect on the formation of the band carrier. In this presentation, we

  12. Superthermal over 36-eV ions observed in the near-tail region of Venus by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The PVO neutral mass spectrometer has measured the over 36-eV ions in the 1300-3700 km altitude range for solar zenith angles greater than 120 deg. The composition is mainly O(+), but He(+), N(+), NO(+), and O2(+) have been identified. The average O(+) flux is about 100,000/sq cm/s, but higher fluxes from 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 8th/sq cm/s are observed about 10 percent of the time. The directions of the apparent O(+) flow in the ecliptic plane show predominantly tailward components with a smaller number of nontailward components. The over 36-eV O(+) escape flux in the ionotail is estimated to be about 100,000/sq cm/s. The O(+) flux data show a factor of 2.5 increase from solar minimum to maximum, implying a photoionization source for these ions. The composition of the superthermal ions in the ionotail suggests that their source is most likely the high-altitude nightside ionosphere. Transport of superthermal O(+) across the terminator to the nightside has been observed.

  13. Dipole strength distributions in the stable Ba isotopes 134 138 Ba : A study in the mass region of a nuclear shape transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck, M.; von Garrel, H.; Tsoneva, N.; Belic, D.; von Brentano, P.; Fransen, C.; Gade, A.; Jolie, J.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Linnemann, A.; Nord, A.; Pietralla, N.; Pitz, H. H.; Stedile, F.; Stoyanov, C.; Werner, V.

    2004-10-01

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions in the odd-mass isotopes 135,137 Ba were studied in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments (NRF) performed at the Stuttgart Dynamitron facility using bremsstrahlung beams with end point energies of 4.1, 3.1, and 2.5 MeV . Numerous excited states, most of them unknown so far, were observed in the excitation energy range up to 4 MeV . Detailed spectroscopic information has been obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, decay branching ratios, and transition probabilities. The results for 137Ba are compared with calculations in the framework of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model. The new data for 135,137 Ba complete the systematics of low-lying dipole excitations as observed for the even Ba isotopes 134,136,138 Ba in previous NRF experiments in Stuttgart. The complete systematics within the Ba isotopic chain, exhibiting a nuclear shape transition, is discussed with respect to E1 two-phonon excitations, M1 scissors mode excitations, and in regard to the new critical point symmetries.

  14. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan; Wang, Xiaobo; Mu, Shanxue; Sun, Lixin; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine seven constituents (umbelliferone, apigenin, triumbelletin, daphnoretin, arctigenin, genkwanin and emodin) in Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B). Multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive and negative electrospray ionization interface was carried out to detect the components. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability. Excellent linear behavior was observed over the certain concentration ranges with the correlation coefficient values higher than 0.999. The intraday and innerday precisions were within 2.0%. The recoveries of seven analytes were 99.4-101.1% with relative standard deviation less than 1.2%. The 18 Wikstroemia indica samples from different origins were classified by hierarchical clustering analysis according to the contents of seven components. The results demonstrated that the developed method could successfully be used to quantify simultaneously of seven components in Wikstroemia indica and could be a helpful tool for the detection and confirmation of the quality of traditional Chinese medicines.

  15. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan; Wang, Xiaobo; Mu, Shanxue; Sun, Lixin; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine seven constituents (umbelliferone, apigenin, triumbelletin, daphnoretin, arctigenin, genkwanin and emodin) in Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B). Multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive and negative electrospray ionization interface was carried out to detect the components. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability. Excellent linear behavior was observed over the certain concentration ranges with the correlation coefficient values higher than 0.999. The intraday and innerday precisions were within 2.0%. The recoveries of seven analytes were 99.4-101.1% with relative standard deviation less than 1.2%. The 18 Wikstroemia indica samples from different origins were classified by hierarchical clustering analysis according to the contents of seven components. The results demonstrated that the developed method could successfully be used to quantify simultaneously of seven components in Wikstroemia indica and could be a helpful tool for the detection and confirmation of the quality of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25866087

  16. Characterizing filaments in regions of high-mass star formation: High-resolution submilimeter imaging of the massive star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ArTéMiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Ph.; Revéret, V.; Könyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tigé, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Herschel observations of nearby molecular clouds suggest that interstellar filaments and prestellar cores represent two fundamental steps in the star formation process. The observations support a picture of low-mass star formation according to which filaments of ~0.1 pc width form first in the cold interstellar medium, probably as a result of large-scale compression of interstellar matter by supersonic turbulent flows, and then prestellar cores arise from gravitational fragmentation of the densest filaments. Whether this scenario also applies to regions of high-mass star formation is an open question, in part because the resolution of Herschel is insufficient to resolve the inner width of filaments in the nearest regions of massive star formation. Aims: In an effort to characterize the inner width of filaments in high-mass star-forming regions, we imaged the central part of the NGC 6334 complex at a resolution higher by a factor of >3 than Herschel at 350 μm. Methods: We used the large-format bolometer camera ArTéMiS on the APEX telescope and combined the high-resolution ArTéMiS data at 350 μm with Herschel/HOBYS data at 70-500 μm to ensure good sensitivity to a broad range of spatial scales. This allowed us to study the structure of the main narrow filament of the complex with a resolution of 8″ or <0.07 pc at d ~ 1.7 kpc. Results: Our study confirms that this filament is a very dense, massive linear structure with a line mass ranging from ~500 M⊙/pc to ~2000 M⊙/pc over nearly 10 pc. It also demonstrates for the first time that its inner width remains as narrow as W ~ 0.15 ± 0.05 pc all along the filament length, within a factor of <2 of the characteristic 0.1 pc value found with Herschel for lower-mass filaments in the Gould Belt. Conclusions: While it is not completely clear whether the NGC 6334 filament will form massive stars in the future, it is two to three orders of magnitude denser than the majority of filaments observed in Gould Belt

  17. High sedimentation rates in the Early Triassic after latest Permian mass extinction: Carbonate production is main factor in non-Arctic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    A substantial change in sedimentation rates towards higher values has been documented from the Late Permian to the Lower Triassic. Although it is assumed and also has been shown that the deposition of siliciclastic material increased in the Lower Triassic due to stronger erosion because of loss of land cover and increased chemical and physical weathering with extreme climate warming, the main sediment production occurred by marine carbonate production. Still, carbonate production might have been significantly influenced by weathering and erosion in the hinterland, as the transport of dust by storms into the ocean water probably was a main nutrient source for microbial carbonate producers, because "normal" nutrient supply by ocean circulation, i. e. upwelling was strongly reduced due to the elevated temperatures resulting in water-column stratification . Sediment accumulation was also clearly influenced by the paleo-geographic and latitudinal position, with lower carbonate production and sedimentation rates in moderate latitudes. The existence of a "boundary clay" and microbial carbonate mounds and layers in the immediate aftermath of the latest Permian mass extinction points towards a development from a short-timed acid ocean water - resulting in a carbonate production gap and the deposition of the boundary clay towards the deposition of the microbial mounds and layers due to the microbial production of micro-environments with higher alkalinity allowing the production of carbonate. After the return of the ocean water to normal alkalinity planktic production of carbonate resulted in a very high sedimentation rate, especially taking into account the absence of carbonate producing eukaryotic algae and animals.

  18. Imaging of Crystalline and Amorphous Surface Regions Using Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS): Application to Pharmaceutical Materials.

    PubMed

    Iuraş, Andreea; Scurr, David J; Boissier, Catherine; Nicholas, Mark L; Roberts, Clive J; Alexander, Morgan R

    2016-04-01

    The structure of a material, in particular the extremes of crystalline and amorphous forms, significantly impacts material performance in numerous sectors such as semiconductors, energy storage, and pharmaceutical products, which are investigated in this paper. To characterize the spatial distribution for crystalline-amorphous forms at the uppermost molecular surface layer, we performed time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) measurements for quench-cooled amorphous and recrystallized samples of the drugs indomethacin, felodipine, and acetaminophen. Polarized light microscopy was used to localize crystallinity induced in the samples under controlled conditions. Principal component analysis was used to identify the subtle changes in the ToF-SIMS spectra indicative of the amorphous and crystalline forms for each drug. The indicators of amorphous and crystalline surfaces were common in type across the three drugs, and could be explained in general terms of crystal packing and intermolecular bonding, leading to intramolecular bond scission in the formation of secondary ions. Less intramolecular scission occurred in the amorphous form, resulting in a greater intensity of molecular and dimer secondary ions. To test the generality of amorphous-crystalline differentiation using ToF-SIMS, a different recrystallization method was investigated where acetaminophen single crystals were recrystallized from supersaturated solutions. The findings indicated that the ability to assign the crystalline/amorphous state of the sample using ToF-SIMS was insensitive to the recrystallization method. This demonstrates that ToF-SIMS is capable of detecting and mapping ordered crystalline and disordered amorphous molecular materials forms at micron spatial resolution in the uppermost surface of a material.

  19. {sup 13}C-METHYL FORMATE: OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS INCLUDING ORION-KL AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Neill, Justin L.; Carvajal, Miguel; Field, David; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier; Baudry, Alain; Kleiner, Isabelle; Margulès, Laurent; Huet, Thérèse R.; Demaison, Jean E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es

    2015-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic center for methyl formate, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and its isotopologues H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4-287.4 GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} toward the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr B2(N-LMH), NGC 6334 IRS 1, W51 e2, and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1 mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward the Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4 ± 10.1 and 71.4 ± 7.8, respectively) are, for both the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of CO derived toward Orion-KL. Likewise, regarding the other sources, our results are consistent with the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C in CO. We also report the spectroscopic characterization, which includes a complete partition function, of the complex H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} species. New spectroscopic data for both isotopomers H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}, presented in this study, have made it possible to measure this fundamentally important isotope ratio in a large organic molecule for the first time.

  20. Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67‧N-11°74‧W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the

  1. Mass balance and decontamination times of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in rural nested catchments of an early industrialized region (Seine River basin, France).

    PubMed

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and their subsequent release in rivers constitute a major environmental and public health problem in industrialized countries. In the Seine River basin (France), some PAHs exceed the target concentrations, and the objectives of good chemical status required by the European Water Framework Directive might not be achieved. This investigation was conducted in an upstream subcatchment where atmospheric fallout (n=42), soil (n=33), river water (n=26) and sediment (n=101) samples were collected during one entire hydrological year. PAH concentrations in atmospheric fallout appeared to vary seasonally and to depend on the distance to urban areas. They varied between 60 ng·L(-1) (in a remote site during autumn) and 2,380 ng·L(-1) (in a built-up area during winter). PAH stocks in soils of the catchment were estimated based on land use, as mean PAH concentrations varied between 110 ng·g(-1) under woodland and 2,120 ng·g(-1) in built-up areas. They ranged from 12 to 220 kg·km(-2). PAH contamination in the aqueous phase of rivers remained homogeneous across the catchment (72 ± 38 ng·L(-1)). In contrast, contamination of suspended solid was heterogeneous depending on hydrological conditions and population density in the drainage area. Moreover, PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in sediment (230-9,210 ng·g(-1)) than in the nearby soils. Annual mass balance calculation conducted at the catchment scale showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to dissipation (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%) whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. Based on the calculated fluxes, PAHs appeared to have long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1,850 years) thereby compromising the achievement of legislative targets. Overall, the study highlighted the major role of legacy contamination that supplied the bulk of

  2. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  3. Heterogeneous volcanism across the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China and implications for the Latest Permian Mass Extinction: New evidence from volcanic ash layers in the Lower Yangtze Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenxuan; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Suping; Wu, Haiguang; Wan, Ye

    2016-09-01

    Volcanism has been suggested to have occurred widely in South China across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB); this has important implications for understanding the cause of the Latest Permian Mass Extinction (LMPE). However, few volcanic deposits have been reported in the Lower Yangtze Region and the extent of volcanism is uncertain. Herein we report new discoveries of intensive volcanism in this region for the first time, as evidenced by multiple (n > 20) and thick (3-5 cm) claystones (volcanic ash layers, K-bentonite) found in three deep-water outcrops in Xuancheng city, southern Anhui Province. Detailed petrographic and geochemical analyses of the ash layers were conducted to understand their origin and implications for the cause of the LPME, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and whole-rock geochemistry. The petrological and mineralogical results show that the claystones contain clastic minerals indicative of a volcanic origin, such as zircon, analcites, pentagonal dodecahedral pyrite, and micro-spherules. The whole-rock geochemical data of the claystones suggest that the source rock of the ash layers was intermediate-acidic rhyodacite. The claystones are different from previously known claystones in the Middle-Upper Yangtze regions, indicating the occurrence of chemically heterogeneous volcanism in South China at the PTB.

  4. Identification of DNA-binding proteins that interact with the 5'-flanking region of the human D-amino acid oxidase gene by pull-down assay coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diem Hong; Shishido, Yuji; Chung, Seong Pil; Trinh, Huong Thi Thanh; Yorita, Kazuko; Sakai, Takashi; Fukui, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-10

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that metabolizes D-amino acids and is expected to be a promising therapeutic target of schizophrenia and glioblastoma. The study of DNA-binding proteins has yielded much information in the regulation of transcription and other biological processes. However, proteins interacting with DAO gene have not been elucidated. Our assessment of human DAO promoter activity using luciferase reporter system indicated the 5'-flanking region of this gene (-4289 bp from transcription initiation site) has a regulatory sequence for gene expression, which is regulated by multi-protein complexes interacting with this region. By using pull-down assay coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified six proteins binding to the 5'-flanking region of the human DAO gene (zinc finger C2HC domain-containing protein 1A; histidine-tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic; molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein; 60S ribosomal protein L37; calponin-1; calmodulin binding protein and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1). These preliminary results will contribute to the advance in the understanding of the potential factors associated with the regulatory mechanism of DAO expression.

  5. Investigation of the relationship between the metabolic profile of tobacco leaves in different planting regions and climate factors using a pseudotargeted method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Chunxia; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Huina; Li, Yanli; Zhou, Jia; Chang, Yuwei; Zhang, Junjie; Jin, Lifeng; Lin, Fucheng; Xu, Guowang

    2013-11-01

    An improved pseudotargeted method using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed to investigate the metabolic profile of tobacco leaves from three planting regions (Yunnan, Guizhou, and Henan provinces). The analytical characteristics of the method with regard to reproducibility, precision, linearity, and stability were satisfactory for metabolic profiling study. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that the metabolic profiles of tobacco from the Yunnan and Guizhou regions were different from that from the Henan province. The amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine, leucine, and tyrosine) and carbohydrate (e.g., fructose, trehalose, and sucrose) contents were the highest in Henan tobacco. The highest contents of organic acids (e.g., isocitrate, citrate, and fumarate) of the TCA cycle and antioxidants (e.g., quinate, chlorogenic acid, and ascorbate) were found in Guizhou tobacco. The correlation coefficients between metabolite content and climate factors (rainfall, sunshine, and temperature) demonstrated that drought facilitated the accumulation of sugars and amino acids. The content of TCA cycle intermediates could be influenced by multiple climate factors. This study demonstrates that the pseudotargeted method with GC/MS is suitable for the investigation of the metabolic profiling of tobacco leaves and the assessment of differential metabolite levels related to the growing regions.

  6. Association of polymorphisms at the ADIPOR1 regulatory region with type 2 diabetes and body mass index in a Brazilian population with European or African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E; Kimura, L; Errera, F I V; Angeli, C B; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Silva, M E R; Canani, L H S; Passos-Bueno, M R

    2008-06-01

    Association studies between ADIPOR1 genetic variants and predisposition to type 2 diabetes (DM2) have provided contradictory results. We determined if two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP c.-8503G>A and SNP c.10225C>G) in regulatory regions of ADIPOR1 in 567 Brazilian individuals of European (EA; N = 443) or African (AfA; N = 124) ancestry from rural (quilombo remnants; N = 439) and urban (N = 567) areas. We detected a significant effect of ethnicity on the distribution of the allelic frequencies of both SNPs in these populations (EA: -8503A = 0.27; AfA: -8503A = 0.16; P = 0.001 and EA: 10225G = 0.35; AfA: 10225G = 0.51; P < 0.001). Neither of the polymorphisms were associated with DM2 in the case-control study in EA (SNP c.-8503G>A: DM2 group -8503A = 0.26; control group -8503A = 0.30; P = 0.14/SNP 10225C>G: DM2 group 10225G = 0.37; control group 10225G = 0.32; P = 0.40) and AfA populations (SNP c.-8503G>A: DM2 group -8503A = 0.16; control group -8503A = 0.15; P = 0.34/SNP 10225C>G: DM2 group 10225G = 0.51; control group 10225G = 0.52; P = 0.50). Similarly, none of the polymorphisms were associated with metabolic/anthropometric risk factors for DM2 in any of the three populations, except for HDL cholesterol, which was significantly higher in AfA heterozygotes (GC = 53.75 +/- 17.26 mg/dL) than in homozygotes. We conclude that ADIPOR1 polymorphisms are unlikely to be major risk factors for DM2 or for metabolic/anthropometric measurements that represent risk factors for DM2 in populations of European and African ancestries.

  7. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  8. First Measurement of the Angular Coefficients of Drell-Yan e+e- Pairs in the Z Mass Region from pp¯ Collisions at s=1.96TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rubbo, F.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sissakian, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tu, Y.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in pp¯→γ*/Z→e+e-+X events produced in the Z boson mass region at s=1.96TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that, at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  9. First measurement of the angular coefficients of Drell-Yan e(+)e(-) pairs in the Z mass region from pp¯ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; González, B Alvarez; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Griso, S Pagan; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; Stanitzki, M; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2011-06-17

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in pp¯ → γ*/Z → e(+)e(-) + X events produced in the Z boson mass region at √s1.96 TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that, at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  10. Measurement of $d\\sigma/dy$ of Drell-Yan $e^+e^-$ pairs in the $Z$ Mass Region from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Adelman, Jahred A.; Gonzalez, Barbara Alvarez; Amerio, Silvia; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A.; Apresyan, Artur; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-03-01

    We report on a CDF measurement of the total cross section and rapidity distribution, d{sigma}/dy, for q{bar q} {yields} {gamma}{sup *}/Z {yields} e{sup +} e {sup -} events in the Z boson mass region (66 < M {sub ee} < 116 GeV/c {sub 2}) produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The measured cross section of 257 {+-} 16pb and d{sigma}/dy distribution are compared with Next-to-Leading-Order (NLO) and Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order (NNLO) QCD theory predictions with CTEQ and MRST/MSTW parton distribution functions (PDFs). There is good agreement between the experimental total cross section and d{sigma}/dy measurements with theoretical calcualtion with the most recent NNLO PDFs.

  11. Measurement of d sigma/dy of Drell-Yan e+ e- pairs in the Z Mass Region from p anti-p Collisions at s88(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-08-01

    We report on a CDF measurement of the total cross section and rapidity distribution, d{sigma}/dy, for q{bar q} {yields} {gamma}*/Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} events in the Z boson mass region (66 < M{sub ee} < 116 GeV/c{sup 2}) produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The measured cross section of 256 {+-} 16 pb and d{sigma}/dy distribution are compared with Next-to-Leading-Order and Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order QCD theory predictions with CTEQ and MRST parton distribution functions (PDFs). There is good agreement between data and theory except at large rapidity for which further tuning of PDF models may be needed.

  12. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  13. First Measurement of the Angular Coefficients of Drell-Yan e⁺e⁻ Pairs in the Z Mass Region from pp̄ Collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; De Cecco, S.; De Lorenzo, G.; Dell’Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rubbo, F.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sissakian, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tu, Y.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C.; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-06-15

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in pp̄→γ*/Z→e⁺e⁻+X events produced in the Z boson mass region at √s=1.96 TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that, at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  14. First Measurement of the Angular Coefficients of Drell-Yan $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs in the Z Mass Region from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report on the first measurement of the angular distributions of final state electrons in p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}*/Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} + X events produced in the Z boson mass region at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data sample collected by the CDF II detector for this result corresponds to 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the electron-positron pair and show good agreement with the Lam-Tung relation, consistent with a spin-1 description of the gluon, and demonstrate that at high values of the transverse momentum, Z bosons are produced via quark anti-quark annihilation and quark-gluon Compton processes.

  15. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Mass in the abdomen ... care provider make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen can be divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  16. High temperature mass spectrometric studies on Usbnd Ga system: Thermodynamic properties over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) phase regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, P.; Trinadh, V. V.; Bera, Suranjan; Narasimhan, T. S. Lakshmi; Joseph, M.

    2016-07-01

    Vaporisation studies over gallium rich biphasic regions (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) in the Usbnd Ga system were carried out by Knusen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature ranges of 1208-1366 K and 1133-1338 K, respectively. Ga(g) was the species observed in the mass spectra of the equilibrium vapour over both phase regions. From temperature dependence measurements, pressure-temperature relations were deduced as: log (pGa/Pa) = (-18216 ± 239)/(T/K) + (12.88 ± 0.18) over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and log (pGa/Pa) = (-16225 ± 124)/(T/K) + (11.78 ± 0.10) over (UGa2 + UGa3). From these data, Gibbs free energy changes for the reactions 3UGa2(s) = U3Ga5(s) + Ga(g) and UGa3(s) = UGa2(s) + Ga(g) were computed and subsequently Gibbs free energies of formation of U3Ga5(s) and UGa3(s) were deduced as ΔfGTo U3Ga5(s) (±5.5) = -352.4 + 0.133 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1208-1366 K) and ΔfGTo UGa3(s) (±3.8) = -191.9 + 0.082 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1133-1338 K). The Gibbs free energy of formation of U3Ga5(s) is being reported for the first time.

  17. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Mass model for unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1994-02-01

    We present some essential features of a macroscopic-microscopic nuclear-structure model, with special emphasis on the results of a recent global calculation of nuclear masses. We discuss what should be some minimal requirements of a nuclear mass model and study how the macroscopic-microscopic method and other nuclear mass models fulfil such basic requirements. We study in particular the reliability of nuclear mass models in regions of nuclei that were not considered in the determination of the model parameters.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Amino Acids, Nucleosides, and Nucleobases in Thais clavigera from Different Distribution Regions by Using Hydrophilic Interaction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yahui; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-01-01

    Thais clavigera, as function food, is distributed widely along the coasts of China. To compare and tap its potentially nutritional and functional values, hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triplequadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) was used for simultaneous identification and quantification of amino acids, nucleosides, and nucleobases in the extracts of T. clavigera from 19 sea areas in China, and a PCA was further performed for comparing their content variation in different distribution regions. The total contents of amino acids varied from 116.74 mg/g to 298.58 mg/g being higher than contents of nucleosides and nucleobases that varied from 2.65 mg/g and 20.49 mg/g. Among the habitats, Hainan province had content advantages on others. By PCA, samples collected from different regions were classified into three groups. For specific constituents, lysine accounted for large part of essential amino acids; glycine and taurine also play important roles in the delicate taste and health care function of it. Inosine takes up most of total contents of nucleosides and nucleobases. These results provided good data for establishing quality standard of T. clavigera related products and their further development and utilization. PMID:26290666

  20. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  1. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  2. Impact of initial models and variable accretion rates on the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive and intermediate-mass stars and the early evolution of H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Peters, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Massive star formation requires the accretion of gas at high rate while the star is already bright. Its actual luminosity depends sensitively on the stellar structure. We compute pre-main-sequence tracks for massive and intermediate-mass stars with variable accretion rates and study the evolution of stellar radius, effective temperature and ionizing luminosity, starting at 2 M⊙ with convective or radiative structures. The radiative case shows a much stronger swelling of the protostar for high accretion rates than the convective case. For radiative structures, the star is very sensitive to the accretion rate and reacts quickly to accretion bursts, leading to considerable changes in photospheric properties on time-scales as short as 100-1000 yr. The evolution for convective structures is much less influenced by the instantaneous accretion rate, and produces a monotonically increasing ionizing flux that can be many orders of magnitude smaller than in the radiative case. For massive stars, it results in a delay of the H II region expansion by up to 10 000 yr. In the radiative case, the H II region can potentially be engulfed by the star during the swelling, which never happens in the convective case. We conclude that the early stellar structure has a large impact on the radiative feedback during the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive protostars and introduces an important uncertainty that should be taken into account. Because of their lower effective temperatures, our convective models may hint at a solution to an observed discrepancy between the luminosity distribution functions of massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions.

  3. Superdeformation in the mass 190 region

    SciTech Connect

    Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Liang, Y.

    1992-12-31

    The steps in the formation of superdeformed bands are described. The hot compound nucleus cools and is trapped within the superdeformed secondary minimum becoming a cold system executing periodic motion (rotation), before suddenly heating up in the process of decaying to the normal yrast states.

  4. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

  5. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  6. High-resolution mapping of a novel rat blood pressure locus on chromosome 9 to a region containing the Spp2 gene and colocalization of a QTL for bone mass.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ying; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Waghulde, Harshal; Cheng, Xi; Mell, Blair; Czernik, Piotr J; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Joe, Bina

    2016-06-01

    Through linkage analysis of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait locus (QTL) was previously located on rat chromosome 9. Subsequent substitution mapping studies of this QTL revealed multiple BP QTLs within the originally identified logarithm of odds plot by linkage analysis. The focus of this study was on a 14.39 Mb region, the distal portion of which remained unmapped in our previous studies. High-resolution substitution mapping for a BP QTL in the setting of a high-salt diet indicated that an SHR-derived congenic segment of 787.9 kb containing the gene secreted phosphoprotein-2 (Spp2) lowered BP and urinary protein excretion. A nonsynonymous G/T polymorphism in the Spp2 gene was detected between the S and S.SHR congenic rats. A survey of 45 strains showed that the T allele was rare, being detected only in some substrains of SHR and WKY. Protein modeling prediction through SWISSPROT indicated that the predicted protein product of this variant was significantly altered. Importantly, in addition to improved cardiovascular and renal function, high salt-fed congenic animals carrying the SHR T variant of Spp2 had significantly lower bone mass and altered bone microarchitecture. Total bone volume and volume of trabecular bone, cortical thickness, and degree of mineralization of cortical bone were all significantly reduced in congenic rats. Our study points to opposing effects of a congenic segment containing the prioritized candidate gene Spp2 on BP and bone mass. PMID:27113531

  7. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  8. Monitoring the impact of a mebendazole mass drug administration initiative for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) control in the Western Visayas Region of the Philippines from 2007 through 2011.

    PubMed

    Sanza, Megan; Totanes, Francis Isidore; Chua, Paul Lester; Belizario, Vicente Y

    2013-08-01

    School-aged children in tropical developing countries carry the highest burden of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the world. The Western Visayas region of the Philippines continues to struggle with this as a major public health issue in both private and public schools. The War on Worms-Western Visayas approach was launched in 2007 with school-based mass drug administration (MDA) as one of the strategies to control morbidity from STH in support of the Department of Health - Integrated Helminth Control Program. This study aimed to determine trends in prevalence and intensity of STH infections as well as to assess related morbidity and program sustainability through 2011. A cross-sectional parasitologic survey was conducted on three independent samples of Grade 3 students in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Supporting aggregate data were obtained for MDA coverage, National Achievement Test mean percentage scores, and nutritional status. Tests for trend were utilized to detect changes in prevalence over time, with a particular emphasis on trends seen between 2009 and 2011. The initial impact of the program was robust as cumulative prevalence, infection intensities, and parasite densities were all reduced four years following the launch. However, subsequent and significant increases in each were found from 2009 until 2011. These results implicate issues with program sustainability, despite consistent MDA, and existing frameworks for environmental sanitation, hygiene, and education.

  9. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  10. Scrotal masses

    MedlinePlus

    ... The scrotum is the sac that contains the testicles. ... Symptoms include: Enlarged scrotum Painless or painful testicle lump ... If the scrotal mass is part of the testicle, it has a higher risk of being cancerous. ...

  11. Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

  12. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1991-03-29

    A mass spectrometer is described having a low weight and low power requirement, for use in space. It can be used to analyze the ionized particles in the region of the spacecraft on which it is mounted. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically sysmetric linear electric field.

  13. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  14. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  15. Review of direct neutrino mass experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoun, O.

    2015-10-28

    Advantages and drawbacks of the kinematic methods of the neutrino mass determination are discussed. The meaning of the effective neutrino mass, resulting from measurements of the endpoint region of β-spectra is clarified. Current experimental constraints on the mass of active as well as sterile neutrinos are presented. Several new experiments are briefly outlined.

  16. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  17. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  18. Different region climate regimes and topography affect the changes in area and mass balance of glaciers on the north and south slopes of the same glacierized massif (the West Nyainqentanglha Range, Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wusheng; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Shichang; Pu, Jianchen; Yang, Wei; Gao, Tanguang; Zhao, Huabiao; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shenghai; Wang, Weicai; Ma, Linglong

    2013-07-01

    This project launched a comparative study to investigate the areas of the Zhadang glacier (on the leeward slope/north slope of the West Nyainqentanglha Range, Tibetan Plateau) and the Gurenhekou glacier (on the windward slope/south slope) for nearly 40 years (1970-2007) and measure the mass balance of the two glaciers for three (2005-2008) and four (2004-2008) mass balance years, respectively. Results show that, in 1970-2007, overall annual precipitation decreased slightly caused by the weakening Indian monsoon and strengthened westerlies and annual mean air temperatures increased gradually in the areas to the north and south of the West Nyainqentanglha Range, respectively, resulting in the areas of the two glaciers reduced over the last nearly four decades. The rate of air temperature increase in the north is higher than that in the south. Moreover, mean annual precipitation in the south exceeds that in the north, due to the weakening of the Indian Monsoon activities across the West Nyainqentanglha Range. As a result, the area decrease of Zhadang glacier in the north slope of the West Nyainqentanglha Range is more intensive than that of Gurenhekou glacier in the south slope. Results also show that these two small glaciers experienced gradual reduction of the mass loss during the observation period of 2005-2008 and 2004-2008, and exhibited positive mass balances in 2008, possibly resulting from increases of annual precipitation and decreases in mean annual air temperatures, especially the lowering of air temperatures and the notably increasing of precipitation during the ablation period in 2006-2008. However, the mass balances of the two glaciers differed considerably. The differences in mass balance between the glaciers appear closely related to local climatic factors (different local moisture recycling and different seasonal distributions of precipitation) and glacier topography (the leeward/windward slopes and different elevations of the accumulation and

  19. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    DOEpatents

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  20. Mass eruptions from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Lucie

    2015-08-01

    This review talk will address the recent developments and current understanding of the physical mechanisms that underlie the ejection of matter and magnetic field from the atmosphere of the Sun, known as coronal mass ejections. These eruptions are intitiated within and between active regions throughout an active region's entire lifetime; from the emergence phase, when strong and concentrated magnetic fields are present, through the long decay phase during which time the active region magnetic field fragments and disperses over a larger and larger area, eventually fading into the background quiet sun magnetic field. All coronal mass ejection models invoke the presence of a twisted magnetic field configuration known as a magnetic flux rope either before or after eruption. The observational identification of these structures using remote sensing data of the lower solar atmosphere will be discussed. Do such magnetic field configurations exist in the solar atmosphere prior to the eruption? And if so what can they tell us about the physical mechanisms that trigger and drive coronal mass ejections and the timescales over which an eruptive magnetic field configuration forms? However, not all coronal mass ejections are easily identifiable at the Sun. For example, in situ observations of coronal mass ejections in interplanetary space reveal small magnetic flux rope coronal mass ejections which are not detected leaving the Sun using the remote sensing data. And so-called stealth coronal mass ejections which also have no lower atmosphere signatures. Are there different populations of flux ropes that have different origins? And what might this say about the physical mechanisms behind coronal mass ejections and the consequences for the Sun's evolving global magnetic field?

  1. Low-lying E1,M1, and E2 strength distributions in Xe124,126,128,129,130,131,132,134,136: Systematic photon scattering experiments in the mass region of a nuclear shape or phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Garrel, H.; Brentano, P. Von; Fransen, C.; Friessner, G.; Hollmann, N.; Jolie, J.; Käppeler, F.; Käubler, L.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Kostov, L.; Linnemann, A.; Mücher, D.; Pietralla, N.; Pitz, H. H.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schilling, K. D.; Scholl, C.; Schwengner, R.; Stedile, F.; Walter, S.; Werner, V.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-05-01

    Systematic nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments on all nine stable (seven even-even and two odd-mass) Xe isotopes have been performed at the bremsstrahlung facility of the 4.3-MV Stuttgart Dynamitron accelerator. For the first time thin-walled, high-pressure gas targets (about 70 bar) with highly enriched target material were used in NRF experiments. Precise excitation energies, transition strengths, spins, and decay branching ratios were obtained for numerous states, most of them previously unknown. The systematics of the observed E1 two-phonon excitations (2+⊗3-) and M1 excitations to 1+ mixed-symmetry states in the even-even isotopes are discussed with respect to the new critical point symmetry E(5). The fragmentation of these fundamental dipole excitation modes in the odd-mass isotopes Xe129,131 is shown and discussed. In the even-even nuclei several low-lying E2 excitations were observed.

  2. Anomaly of the composition of the F-2 equatorial region of the ionosphere during the hours after sunset according to data from the mass-spectrometer experiment on the Cosmos-274

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydukov, V. Y.; Istomin, V. G.; Romanovskiy, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A mass spectrometer on board Cosmos-274 measured concentrations of light atoms and ions. While traversing the geomagnetic equator during the evening hours it recorded on anomalous drop in ionized molecular oxygen and ionized atomic oxygen and nitrogen. A similar, less dramatic, decline was observed in the concentration of neutral atomic oxygen. A possible explanation for this and previously observed behavior is an ascent in altitude of the F layer in the hours after sunset, a possibility which is supported by calculations.

  3. Mass measurements of exotic nuclides at SHIPTRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Mukherjee, M.; Quint, W.; Rahaman, S.; Rauth, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Weber, C.

    2007-05-22

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP is installed behind the velocity-filter SHIP at GSI for high-precision mass measurements of fusion-evaporation residues. To facilitate an efficient stopping of the reaction products a buffer gas stopping cell is utilized. In an investigation of neutron-deficient nuclides in the terbium-to-thulium region around A {approx_equal} 146, 18 new or improved mass values have been obtained, resulting in a more accurate determination of the proton drip line for holmium and thulium. With the present performance of SHIPTRAP, a first direct mass measurement of transuranium elements in the nobelium region is within reach.

  4. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  5. A mass-spectrometric method for the estimation of the ratio of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid to glutamic acid at specific sites in proteins. Application to the N-terminal region of bovine prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Rose, K; Priddle, J D; Offord, R E; Esnouf, M P

    1980-04-01

    When a polypeptide containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid is decarboxylated in 2H2O, residue of (gamma gamma-2H2)glutamic acid are formed. Subsequent proteolytic digestion produces peptides which contain at each site 2H2-substituted and unsubstituted glutamic acid in the same ratio as existed for gramma-carboxy-substitution. The peptides may be identified and this ratio determined by combined gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. We also discuss decarboxylation in 3H2O followed by amino-acid analysis and Edman degradation.

  6. Radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    We propose a radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model in the first and second generation with extra U (1) gauge symmetry and vector-like fermions. Then we analyze the allowed regions which simultaneously satisfy the FCNCs for the quark sector, LFVs including μ- e conversion, the quark mass and mixing, and the lepton mass and mixing. Also we estimate the typical value for the (g - 2) μ in our model.

  7. Primary mass standard based on atomic masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Gläser, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The paper summarises the activities of several national and international Metrology Institutes in replacing the kilogram artefact, the unit of mass, by the mass of a certain number of atoms, in particular the atomic masses of silicon or bismuth. This task is based on two different experiments: a very accurate determination of the Avogadro constant, NA, measuring the density and lattice parameter of an enriched silicon-28 crystal, and the accumulation of decelerated bismuth-209 ions by using a mass separator. The relative measurement uncertainties reached so far are in the first case 2 parts in 107, and in the latter several part in 104. The bismuth experiment is still in an early state of the work. The ratios between the masses of 28Si or 209Bi, respectively, and the present atomic mass standard, the mass of 12C, can be determined with an accuracy now approaching 10-10 using high precision Penning traps mass spectrometers.

  8. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  9. Regional odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  10. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides. PMID:27171066

  11. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  12. The local mass density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  13. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  14. Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Vorobyev, G. K.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Eliseev, S.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Kluge, H.-J.

    2010-06-15

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a {sup 48}Ca beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

  15. Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Eliseev, S.; Fleckenstein, T.; Haettner, E.; Herfurth, F.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Mazzocco, M.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Plaß, W. R.; Popeko, A.; Rahaman, S.; Rodríguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schweikhard, L.; Thirolf, P. G.; Vorobyev, G. K.; Wang, M.; Weber, C.

    2010-06-01

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes No252-254 were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a Ca48 beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

  16. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Weihs, Brandon J.; Schettler, Megan Jensen

    Mass movements of nearly all types occur in Afghanistan but in the high relief, rugged Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, mass-movement threats to lives and property necessitated study to elucidate problems to development. Twenty-two different mass movements in bedrock in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan were studied for this paper, including large rock falls and rock slides, along with massive slope-failure complexes with many types and rates of movement. Where higher altitudes prevail in the region, ice-cemented and ice-cored rock glaciers are also common and overlie some of the other mass movements. Inasmuch as seismic energy sources in the Eastern Hindu Kush are maximal in southern Badakhshan, and relief, slope angles and precipitation all increase from west to east as well, the causes of the pervasive mass movement are plentiful enough, although direct cause and slope-failure effect are not known. Some weak sedimentary lithologies downfaulted into, or draped across crystalline rocks, also failed. Some intermixed tills also occur but are not easily differentiated, even with analysis on the ground. Using high resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation models, we assessed geomorphologic parameters to characterize spatial-organization structures related to zones of erosion, deposition and further hazard potential. Analyses indicate that many of the massive slope failures can be characterized and differentiated into various process domains and chronologic-development zones with their different impacts upon the landscape. Mass movements in Afghanistan can exhibit unique topographic signatures that can be used to better assess hazards in other mountain areas, especially where landslide-dam breakout floods threaten. Development of roads, bridges, buildings, and irrigation networks should be done with care in these regions of Afghanistan.

  17. ‘Lean’ Mass Predicts Asthma Better than Fat Mass among Women

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay; Qualls, Clifford; Li, Rong; Schuyler, Mark; Beckett, William S.; Smith, Lewis J.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Lewis, Cora E.; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity phenotype associated with asthma is not known. Our objective was to define the relative contribution of various distributions of fat and lean mass to asthma prevalence. Data were obtained from 2,525 participants (including 1,422 women) who underwent Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) at the year 20 examination in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. Total, truncal, arm, and leg distributions of fat and lean mass were adjusted to the person’s height. Self-reported asthma was the outcome. Asthma among women was associated with greater total fat mass, arm fat mass, and total lean mass, truncal lean mass, and arm lean mass. Among men, none of the above mass measures were significantly associated with asthma. Among women, the association with asthma was stronger for total lean mass than for total fat mass. Further, among various regional distributions of lean and fat mass in women, truncal lean mass was the strongest predictor. Total lean mass is more strongly associated than total fat mass with asthma among women. These findings are contrary to the popular perception that excess physiological fat drives the obesity-asthma association. Rather, we hypothesize that ectopic fat within the ‘lean’ tissues drives this association among women. PMID:20525713

  18. Vaporization thermodynamic studies by high-temperature mass spectrometry on some three-phase regions over the MnO-TeO2 binary line in the Mn-Te-O ternary system.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, T S Lakshmi; Sai Baba, M; Viswanathan, R

    2006-12-28

    Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric measurements have been performed in the temperature range of 850-950 K over four three-phase mixtures, each phase mixture having at least one phase lying on the MnO-TeO2 binary line of the Mn-Te-O phase diagram, and the rest of the phases lying above this binary line. The three-phase mixtures investigated are Mn3O4 + MnO + Mn6Te5O16; Mn3O4 + Mn6Te5O16 + MnTeO3; Mn3O4 + Mn3TeO6 + MnTeO3; and Mn3TeO6 + MnTeO3 + Mn2Te3O8. The vapor pressures of the gaseous species TeO2, TeO, and Te2 over these three-phase mixtures were measured, and various heterogeneous solid-gas reactions were evaluated along with the homogeneous gas-phase reaction TeO2(g) + 0.5Te2(g) = 2 TeO(g). The enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of the four ternary Mn-Te-O phases were deduced at T = 900 K. These values (in kJ.mol-1), along with the estimated uncertainties in them are Delta(f)H(o)m = 4150 +/- 19, 752 +/- 11, 1710 +/- 11, 1924 +/- 40, and Delta(f)G(o)m= 2835 +/- 28, 511 +/- 11, 1254 +/- 19, 1238 +/- 38, for Mn6Te5O16, MnTeO3, Mn3TeO6, and Mn2Te3O8, respectively. A thermochemical assessment was made to examine the conditions under which the ternary Mn-Te-O phases could be formed on a stainless steel clad of mixed-oxide-fueled (MO2; M = U + Pu) fast breeder nuclear reactors. The phase Mn3TeO6 could be formed when the fuel is even slightly hyperstoichiometric (O/M = 2.0002) and the phase Mn6Te5O16 could also be formed when O/M = 2.0004. The threshold tellurium potential for the formation of Mn3TeO6 is higher than that for MnTe0.80 and CrTe1.10, but is comparable to that for MoTe1.10, and even lower than that for FeTe0.81 or NiTe0.63.

  19. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  20. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  1. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  2. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  3. Precision mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, M.; Borys, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass as a physical quantity and its measurement are described. After some historical remarks, a short summary of the concept of mass in classical and modern physics is given. Principles and methods of mass measurements, for example as energy measurement or as measurement of weight forces and forces caused by acceleration, are discussed. Precision mass measurement by comparing mass standards using balances is described in detail. Measurement of atomic masses related to 12C is briefly reviewed as well as experiments and recent discussions for a future new definition of the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

  4. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  5. Linear mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III (Inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (Inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (Inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

  6. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  7. Improving lensing cluster mass estimate with flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, V. F.; Vicinanza, M.; Er, X.; Maoli, R.; Scaramella, R.

    2016-11-01

    Gravitational lensing has long been considered as a valuable tool to determine the total mass of galaxy clusters. The shear profile, as inferred from the statistics of ellipticity of background galaxies, allows us to probe the cluster intermediate and outer regions, thus determining the virial mass estimate. However, the mass sheet degeneracy and the need for a large number of background galaxies motivate the search for alternative tracers which can break the degeneracy among model parameters and hence improve the accuracy of the mass estimate. Lensing flexion, i.e. the third derivative of the lensing potential, has been suggested as a good answer to the above quest since it probes the details of the mass profile. We investigate here whether this is indeed the case considering jointly using weak lensing, magnification and flexion. We use a Fisher matrix analysis to forecast the relative improvement in the mass accuracy for different assumptions on the shear and flexion signal-to- noise (S/N) ratio also varying the cluster mass, redshift, and ellipticity. It turns out that the error on the cluster mass may be reduced up to a factor of ˜2 for reasonable values of the flexion S/N ratio. As a general result, we get that the improvement in mass accuracy is larger for more flattened haloes, but it extracting general trends is difficult because of the many parameters at play. We nevertheless find that flexion is as efficient as magnification to increase the accuracy in both mass and concentration determination.

  8. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  9. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  10. Mass and energy flow in prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.

    1990-01-01

    Mass and energy flow in quiescent prominences is considered based on the hypothesis that active region prominences have a different structure and thus different mass and energy flow characteristics. Several important physical parameters have been plotted using the computational model, representing the evolutionary process after the prominence formation. The temperature, velocity, conductive flux, and enthalpy flux are plotted against distance from the highest point in the loop to the coolest part of the prominence. It is shown that the maximum velocity is only about 5 km/s. The model calculations indicate that the transition region of prominences is dominated by complex processes. It is necessary to take into account mass flow at temperatures below 200,000 K, and both mass flow and optical depth effects in hydrogen at temperatures below 30,000 K. Both of these effects lead to a less steep temperature gradient through the prominence corona interface than can be obtained from the conduction alone.

  11. Mass Formulae for Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turu, Michi

    2003-07-01

    May we say?, the distribution of all particle masses are "Random" or "Chaos" or "Fractal" or "Bushing" as a whole. We can say perfectly, it is "Bushing". It's looks like a relationship among the masses of galaxy, sun, earth, moon, lunar orbiter. And also like the structure of contents(section, paragraph, item) in books. Generally, mass structures have the power of it's interaction constants. I state a fundamental formulae about particle masses in this purview.

  12. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  13. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  14. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  15. Mass Preserving Registration for Heart MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  16. Mass preserving registration for heart MR images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  17. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Moller, P.

    1995-07-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended- Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near {sup 272}110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near {sup 290}110 beyond our present horizon.

  18. Degenerate gaugino mass region and mono-boson collider signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Carpenter, Linda M.; Raby, Stuart

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we discuss search strategies at the LHC for light electroweak gauginos which are mostly wino-like, Higgsino-like or an admixture. These states are typically degenerate with decay products that are less energetic and hence difficult to detect. In addition, their production cross sections at a hadron collider are suppressed compared to colored states such as the gluinos. In order to detect these states one needs to trigger on initial-or final-state radiation. Many previous analyses have focussed on mono-jet and mono-photon triggers. In this paper we argue and show that these triggers are unlikely to succeed, due to the large background from QCD backgrounds for the mono-jet searches and the fact that the pT distribution of the mono-photons are rapidly decreasing functions of pT. We show this with both an analytic calculation of photons in the initial-state radiation and also a detailed numerical analysis. We then argue that mono-Z triggers, from Z decaying into charged leptons may well provide the best search strategy, in particular for Higgsino-like and mixed cases.

  19. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1999-01-01

    The final technical report of the NASA grant project is presented. The goals of the grant were to: (1) analyze the data from the Far-Infrared (FIR) Camera on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO); (2) acquire additional data at other wavelengths for models and (4) to develop source models for the Young stellar objects (YSOs)under study. The complete Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all sources being studied have been obtained. The FIR imaging data was processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk we have the high resolution millimeter interferometry data. In summary the results to date are: (1) the vast majority of embedded YSOs in Taurus are compact at 100 microns. The models mos consistent with our data and other observations are either dominated by disk emissions, or envelopes that have relatively steep density gradients; (2) the submillimeter/millimeter photometer suggests that models are very successful. Disk emission plays an important role and must be considered when predicting the overall emission. (3) in the two cases, where we seem to have extended emission, we have to investigate other possible source models than a Shu collapse.

  20. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained the complete SED from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all of our sources. We have the FIR imaging data, processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk, we have high resolution millimeter interferometry data.

  1. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84 ± 35) μm with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future.

  2. Discovery of low mass objects in Taurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, W. J.; Ninkov, Z.; Garnett, J. D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Shure, M.

    1989-01-01

    In infrared (2.2 micron, K-band) search of small regions (25 in square) near 26 members of the Taurus star-forming association has revealed 20 dim (K = 13-16 mag) stellar objects near 13 of them. Of these 20 objects, 9 are exceptionally red. It is argued that these 9 are probably also Taurus members. From the luminosities (0.4 to 4 times 10 the -3 power luminosity) and ages (estimated at 10(exp 6) years), masses can be determined by reference to theoretical low-mass cooling curves. The masses are in the range 0.005 to 0.015 solar mass, i.e., low-mass brown dwarfs. Proper motion studies of 7 of the objects visible on the POSS plates conducted by Burton Jones establish that 4 are highly probable Taurus members while 1 is a possible member.

  3. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  4. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

  5. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  6. Probing the Relationship Between Black Hole Mass and Galaxy Mass for Reverberation-Mapped AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Benjamin; Bentz, Misty; Johnson, Megan C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the black hole mass and galaxy mass for active galactic nuclei (AGN) with direct black hole mass measurements. Black hole masses were determined from reverberation mapping, which relies on the velocity of the broad line region (BLR) clouds and the light travel time as a measure of the size of the BLR. We constrain the rotation velocity, and therefore the mass, of each AGN host galaxy with HI spectroscopy obtained at the NRAO Green Bank Telescope. We also explore the relationship between black hole mass and dark matter mass by constraining the stellar mass component with ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical images combined with the integrated HI flux as a constraint the mass of the gas component. Black hole scaling relations such as these can provide convenient alternatives for large numbers of black hole mass estimates when time and resource constraints preclude black hole mass measurements. Additionally, they can provide constraints for simulations of galaxy evolution and co-evolution with the central black hole.

  7. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  8. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  9. Environmental Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Albert T.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental mass spectrometry is an important branch of science because it provides many of the data that underlie policy decisions that can directly influence the health of people and ecosystems. Environmental mass spectrometry is currently undergoing rapid development. Among the most relevant directions are a significant broadening of the lists of formally targeted compounds; a parallel interest in nontarget chemicals; an increase in the reliability of analyses involving accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and isotopically labeled standards; and a shift toward faster high-throughput analysis, with minimal sample preparation, involving various approaches, including ambient ionization techniques and miniature instruments. A real revolution in analytical chemistry could be triggered with the appearance of robust, simple, and sensitive portable mass spectrometers that can utilize ambient ionization techniques. If the cost of such instruments is reduced to a reasonable level, mass spectrometers could become valuable household devices.

  10. Peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Bernd; Höhenwarter, Wolfgang; Krah, Alexander; Mattow, Jens; Schmid, Monika; Schmidt, Frank; Jungblut, Peter R

    2005-03-01

    Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-MS and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry have evolved into the major methods for identification of proteins following separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE or liquid chromatography. One main technological goal of proteome analyses beside high sensitivity and automation was the comprehensive analysis of proteins. Therefore, the protein species level with the essential information on co- and post-translational modifications must be achieved. The power of peptide mass fingerprinting for protein identification was described here, as exemplified by the identification of protein species with high molecular masses (spectrin alpha and beta), low molecular masses (elongation factor EF-TU fragments), splice variants (alpha A crystallin), aggregates with disulfide bridges (alkylhydroperoxide reductase), and phosphorylated proteins (heat shock protein 27). Helpful tools for these analyses were the use of the minimal protein identifier concept and the software program MS-Screener to remove mass peaks assignable to contaminants and neighbor spots.

  11. Atomic mass evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Xu, X.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2012-11-12

    The atomic masses are important input parameters for nuclear astrophysics calculations. The Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) is the most reliable source for comprehensive information related to atomic masses. The latest AME was published in 2003. A new version, which will include the impact of a wealth of new, high-precision experimental data, will be published in December 2012. In this paper we will give the current status of AME2012. The mass surface has been changed significantly compared to AME2003, and the impact on astrophysics calculations is discussed.

  12. Interpretation of Conventional Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  13. Modified 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region restriction endonuclease analysis for species identification of Enterococcus strains isolated from pigs, compared with identification using classical methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Banach, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary

    2015-03-01

    Fast and reliable identification of bacteria to at least the species level is currently the basis for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infections. This is particularly important in the case of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, whose resistance profile is often correlated with their species (e.g. resistance to vancomycin). In this study, we evaluated restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region for species identification of Enterococcus. The utility of the method was compared with that of phenotypic methods [biochemical profile evaluation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)]. Identification was based on 21 Enterococcus reference strains, of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, E. avium, E. cecorum and E. columbae, and 47 Enterococcus field strains isolated from pigs. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the ITS-PCR product using HinfI, RsaI and MboI, in the order specified, enabled species differentiation of the Enterococcus reference and field strains, and in the case of the latter, the results of species identification were identical (47/47) to those obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, as a result of digestion with MboI, a unique restriction profile was also obtained for the strains (3/3) identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. thailandicus. In our opinion, restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region of Enterococcus may be a simple and relatively fast (less than 4 h) alternative method for identifying the species occurring most frequently in humans and animals.

  14. The 1992 FRDM mass model and unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    We discuss the reliability of a recent global nuclear-structure calculation in regions far from {beta} stability. We focus on the results for nuclear masses, but also mention other results obtained in the nuclear-structure calculation, for example ground-state spins. We discuss what should be some minimal requirements of a nuclear mass model and study how the macroscopic-microscopic method and other nuclear mass models fullfil such basic requirements. We study in particular the reliability of nuclear mass models in regions of nuclei that were not considered in the determination of the model parameters.

  15. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  16. Super Sensitive Mass Detection in Nonlinear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Saber; Ahmadian, Iman; Cetinkaya, Cetin; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped micro-beam exposed to a two sided electrostatic actuation is investigated to determine super sensitive regions for mass detection. The objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the frequency spectrum of various regions in the phase space to the added mass and force the system to operate in its super sensitive regions by applying an appropriate pulse to its control electrodes. The electrostatic actuation in the top electrode is a combination of a DC, AC and a pulse voltage, the excitation on the lower electrode is only a DC and a pulse voltage. The governing equation of the motion, derived using the Hamiltonian principle, is discretized to an equivalent single-degree of freedom system using the Galerkin method. Depending on the applied electrostatic voltage to the micro-beam, it is demonstrated that the number and types of equilibrium points of the system can be modified. In this study, the level of the DC electrostatic voltage is chosen such a way that the system has three equilibrium points including two centers and a saddle node where the homoclinic orbit originates. According to the reported results, the mass sensing sensitivity depends on the operating orbit; some orbits exhibit considerably higher mass detection sensitivity to the added mass compared to that of a typical quartz crystal micro balance instrument.

  17. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.

    2002-03-01

    In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter δ-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with A⩾16, | N- Z|>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with Z, N⩾8 is 0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range Z, N⩾8 and Z⩽120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below Z⩽110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.

  18. Mechanical heating in the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is focused on the energy balance in the transition region and the role that mechanical heating plays in determining the temperature density structure of this region in a stellar atmosphere. Because of its role as the interface layer through which mass and energy flow between the chromospheres and corona, direct deposition of mechanical energy is a relatively unimportant factor in the overall energy balance in the transition region, except in the uppermost layers where the temperature approaches coronal values.

  19. Energy implications of fixed rail mass transit

    SciTech Connect

    Pikarsky, M.

    1981-01-01

    Major studies on whether mass transit actually saves energy are reviewed. A possible petroleum conservation strategy that focusses on future urban and regional development is then identified. A number of U.S. cities are considered to be prime candidates for rail transit systems for the purpose of energy conservation. 30 refs.

  20. Photon mass from inflation.

    PubMed

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Törnkvist, Ola; Woodard, Richard

    2002-09-01

    We consider vacuum polarization from massless scalar electrodynamics in de Sitter inflation. The theory exhibits a 3+1 dimensional analog of the Schwinger mechanism in which a photon mass is dynamically generated. The mechanism is generic for light scalar fields that couple minimally to gravity. The nonvanishing of the photon mass during inflation may result in magnetic fields on cosmological scales.

  1. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  2. The Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, E.; Harris, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer for experiments in an advanced-teaching laboratory. Discusses the theory of operation of the spectrometer and the factors affecting the resolution. Some examples of mass spectra obtained with this instrument are presented and discussed. (LC)

  3. Geometry of mass.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, D D

    2015-08-01

    We study the effect of mass on geometric descriptions of gauge field theories. In an approach in which the massless theory resembles general relativity, the introduction of the mass entails non-zero torsion and the generalization to Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theories. The relationships to pure torsion formulations (teleparallel gravity) and to higher gauge theories are also discussed.

  4. Mass Storage Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  5. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  6. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  7. Measurement of Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerer, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Various instruments and techniques for measuring mass are discussed, focusing on the physics behind techniques employed. Equal-arm balances, electronic substitution balance (using electromagnetic force), non-gravimetric weighing (intertial-mass measurement) are among the instruments/techniques considered. (JN)

  8. Geometry of mass.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, D D

    2015-08-01

    We study the effect of mass on geometric descriptions of gauge field theories. In an approach in which the massless theory resembles general relativity, the introduction of the mass entails non-zero torsion and the generalization to Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theories. The relationships to pure torsion formulations (teleparallel gravity) and to higher gauge theories are also discussed. PMID:26124248

  9. Mass spectrometry in India.

    PubMed

    Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2012-01-01

    This review emphasizes the mass spectrometry research being performed at academic and established research institutions in India. It consists of three main parts covering the work done in organic, atomic and biological mass spectrometry. The review reveals that the use of mass spectrometry techniques started in the middle of the 20th century and was applied to research in the fields of organic, nuclear, geographical and atomic chemistry. Later, with the advent of soft and atmospheric ionization techniques it has been applied to pharmaceutical and biological research. In due course, several research centers with advanced mass spectrometry facilities have been established for specific areas of research such as gas-phase ion chemistry, ion-molecule reactions, proscribed chemicals, pesticide residues, pharmacokinetics, protein/peptide chemistry, nuclear chemistry, geochronological studies, archeology, petroleum industry, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. Day-by-day the mass spectrometry centers/facilities in India have attracted young students for their doctoral research and other advanced research applications.

  10. Mass loss at the lowest stellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M.; Comerón, F.

    2005-09-01

    We report the discovery of a jet in a [SII] image of Par-Lup3-4, a remarkable M 5-type pre-main sequence object in the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud. The spectrum of this star is dominated by the emission lines commonly interpreted as tracers of accretion and outflows. Par-Lup3-4 is therefore at the very low-mass end of the exciting sources of jets. High resolution spectroscopy shows that the [SII] line profile is double-peaked, implying that the low excitation jet is seen at a small angle (probably ⪆8circ) with respect to the plane of the sky. The width of the Hα line suggests a dominating contribution from the accretion columns and from the shocks on the stellar surface. Unresolved Hα emission coming from an object located at 4farcs2 from Par-Lup3-4 is detected at a position angle 30circ or 210circ, with no counterpart seen either in visible or infrared images. We also confirm previous evidence of strong mass loss from the very low mass star LS-RCrA 1, with spectral type M 6.5 or later. All its forbidden lines are blueshifted with respect to the local standard of rest (LSR) of the molecular cloud at a position very close to the object and the line profile of the [OI] lines is clearly asymmetric. Thus, the receding jet could be hidden by a disk which is not seen edge-on. If an edge-on disk does not surround Par-Lup3-4 or LS-RCrA 1, an alternative explanation, possibly based on the effects of mass accretion, is required to account for their unusually low luminosities.

  11. Negative Mass Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

  12. High mass star formation in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, N. Z.; Good, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Galactic distributions of HI, H2, and HII regions are reviewed in order to elucidate the high mass star formation occurring in galactic spiral arms and in active galactic nuclei. Comparison of the large scale distributions of H2 gas and radio HII regions reveals that the rate of formation of OB stars depends on (n sub H2) sup 1.9 where (n sub H2) is the local mean density of H2 averaged over 300 pc scale lengths. In addition the efficiency of high mass star formation is a decreasing function of cloud mass in the range 200,000 to 3,000,000 solar mass. These results suggest that high mass star formation in the galactic disk is initiated by cloud-cloud collisions which are more frequent in the spiral arms due to orbit crowding. Cloud-cloud collisions may also be responsible for high rates of OB star formation in interacting galaxies and galactic nuclei. Based on analysis of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and CO data for selected GMCs in the Galaxy, the ratio L sub IR/M sub H2 can be as high as 30 solar luminosity/solar mass for GMCs associated with HII regions. The L sub IR/M sub H2 ratios and dust temperature obtained in many of the high luminosity IRAS galaxies are similar to those encountered in galactic GMCs with OB star formation. High mass star formation is therefore a viable explanation for the high infrared luminosity of these galaxies.

  13. A non-resonant mass sensor to eliminate the "missing mass" effect during mass measurement of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrikanth, V.; Bobji, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Resonant sensors and crystal oscillators for mass detection need to be excited at very high natural frequencies (MHz). Use of such systems to measure mass of biological materials affects the accuracy of mass measurement due to their viscous and/or viscoelastic properties. The measurement limitation of such sensor system is the difficulty in accounting for the "missing mass" of the biological specimen in question. A sensor system has been developed in this work, to be operated in the stiffness controlled region at very low frequencies as compared to its fundamental natural frequency. The resulting reduction in the sensitivity due to non-resonant mode of operation of this sensor is compensated by the high resolution of the sensor. The mass of different aged drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is measured. The difference in its mass measurement during resonant mode of operation is also presented. That, viscosity effects do not affect the working of this non-resonant mass sensor is clearly established by direct comparison.

  14. Convective mixing in intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Of the many processes occurring in the stellar interiors, mixing is one of the most important because stars will never forget its effects, for the rest of their lives. In the placid evolutionary phases of intermediate mass stars it is perhaps the most challenging one because, while we know that convection is certainly the main mixing agent, very little is known about its extension outside the unstable zones and its efficiency in regions with chemical profiles. In spite of the great efforts made in the last decades to improve our understanding of the mixing processes, much of our knowledge still relies on empirical calibrations. In this review, I will focus on the impact of mixing during the main nuclear burning phases of intermediate mass stars and discuss potentially helpful tests such as, the transition mass between low-and intermediate mass stars, the blue and red helium burning sequences, and the helium burning lifetimes.

  15. Origins of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles (W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive (i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  16. Origins of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  17. Probabilistic Mass Growth Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, Eric; Elliott, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Mass has been widely used as a variable input parameter for Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) for space systems. As these space systems progress from early concept studies and drawing boards to the launch pad, their masses tend to grow substantially, hence adversely affecting a primary input to most modeling CERs. Modeling and predicting mass uncertainty, based on historical and analogous data, is therefore critical and is an integral part of modeling cost risk. This paper presents the results of a NASA on-going effort to publish mass growth datasheet for adjusting single-point Technical Baseline Estimates (TBE) of masses of space instruments as well as spacecraft, for both earth orbiting and deep space missions at various stages of a project's lifecycle. This paper will also discusses the long term strategy of NASA Headquarters in publishing similar results, using a variety of cost driving metrics, on an annual basis. This paper provides quantitative results that show decreasing mass growth uncertainties as mass estimate maturity increases. This paper's analysis is based on historical data obtained from the NASA Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) database.

  18. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  19. Dynamical Mass Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Raya, A.

    2006-09-25

    Understanding the origin of mass, in particular that of the fermions, is one of the most uncanny problems which lie at the very frontiers of particle physics. Although the celebrated Standard Model accommodates these masses in a gauge invariant fashion, it fails to predict their values. Moreover, the mass thus generated accounts for only a very small percentage of the mass which permeates the visible universe. Most of the observed mass is accounted for by the strong interactions which bind quarks into protons and neutrons. How does that exactly happen in its quantitative details is still an unsolved mystery. Lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) or continuum studies of its Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) are two of the non-perturbative means to try to unravel how quarks, starting from negligible current masses can acquire enormously large constituent masses to account for the observed proton and neutron masses. Analytical studies of SDEs in this context are extremely hard as one has to resort to truncation schemes whose quantitative reliability can be established only after a very careful analysis. Let alone the far more complicated realm of QCD, arriving at reliable truncation schemes in simpler scenarios such as quantum electrodynamics (QED) has also proved to be a hard nut to crack. In the last years, there has been an increasing group of physicists in Mexico which is taking up the challenge of understanding how the dynamical generation of mass can be understood in a reliable way through SDEs of gauge theories in various contexts such as (i) in arbitrary space-time dimensions d as well as d {<=} 4 (ii) finite temperatures and (ii) in the presence of magnetic fields. In this article, we summarise some of this work.

  20. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  1. SINTERED REFRACTORY MASS

    DOEpatents

    Williams, A.E.

    1955-09-01

    A method is given for joining sintered masses of refractory compounds. It consists in maintaining the masses in contact with each other by application of a moderate pressure, while they are at sintering temperature. The sintered masses are subjected to am applied pressure of about 1/2 to 1 ton per square inch of the surface in contact for about 10 minutes, and the temperature employed may be fropn about 1400 deg C to 2000 deg C. Refractory oxides to which the invention may be applied are beryllia, alumina, thoria, and magnesia.

  2. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  3. [Atypical intraperitoneal cystic masses].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, S T; Baeza-Herrera, C; Villalobos-Castillejos, A; González-Mateos, T; Aguilar-Venegas, M

    2010-01-01

    Omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal cystic masses are very rare in pediatric population. They usually present as asymptomatic abdominal tumors and only occasionally a preoperative diagnosis is made. We presented 4 cases presented to our hospital during a 2-year period. All patients were male with an age ranged from 5 months to 7 years. Three patients had previous diagnosis of cystic mass by abdominal ultrasound. Three patients presented with acute abdomen and one patient with bowel obstruction. All patients underwent successful resection of the mass with no perioperative mortality.

  4. AN IMPROVEMENT ON MASS CALCULATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS VIA POLARIMETRIC RECONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xinghua; Wang, Huaning; Huang, Xin; Du, Zhanle; He, Han

    2015-03-01

    The mass of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is calculated from the measured brightness and assumed geometry of Thomson scattering. The simplest geometry for mass calculations is to assume that all of the electrons are in the plane of the sky (POS). With additional information like source region or multiviewpoint observations, the mass can be calculated more precisely under the assumption that the entire CME is in a plane defined by its trajectory. Polarization measurements provide information on the average angle of the CME electrons along the line of sight of each CCD pixel from the POS, and this can further improve the mass calculations as discussed here. A CME event initiating on 2012 July 23 at 2:20 UT observed by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory is employed to validate our method.

  5. Mass balance computation in SAGUARO

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.L.; Eaton, R.R.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the development of the mass balance subroutines used with the finite-element code, SAGUARO, which models fluid flow in partially saturated porous media. Derivation of the basic mass storage and mass flux equations is included. The results of the SAGUARO mass-balance subroutine, MASS, are shown to compare favorably with the linked results of FEMTRAN. Implementation of the MASS option in SAGUARO is described. Instructions for use of the MASS option are demonstrated with the three sample cases.

  6. Paperbacks in Mass Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno

    1978-01-01

    Lists paperback books on mass communication, divided into six categories: history and biography; appraisals of the press, law, and ethics; cultural, psychological, and social aspects; radio, television, film, photography; international communication; and journalism techniques, miscellaneous. (GW)

  7. Phanerozoic Biodiversity Mass Extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambach, Richard K.

    2006-05-01

    Recent analyses of Sepkoski's genus-level compendium show that only three events form a statistically separate class of high extinction intensities when only post-Early Ordovician intervals are considered, but geologists have called numerous events mass extinctions. Is this a conflict? A review of different methods of tabulating data from the Sepkoski database reveals 18 intervals during the Phanerozoic have peaks of both magnitude and rate of extinction that appear in each tabulating scheme. These intervals all fit Sepkoski's definition of mass extinction. However, they vary widely in timing and effect of extinction, demonstrating that mass extinctions are not a homogeneous group of events. No consensus has been reached on the kill mechanism for any marine mass extinction. In fact, adequate data on timing in ecologic, rather than geologic, time and on geographic and environmental distribution of extinction have not yet been systematically compiled for any extinction event.

  8. Top Quark Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; /UC, Riverside

    2006-08-01

    First observed in 1995, the top quark is one of a pair of third-generation quarks in the Standard Model of particle physics. It has charge +2/3e and a mass of 171.4 GeV, about 40 times heavier than its partner, the bottom quark. The CDF and D0 collaborations have identified several hundred events containing the decays of top-antitop pairs in the large dataset collected at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the last four years. They have used these events to measure the top quark's mass to nearly 1% precision and to study other top quark properties. The mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model, and knowledge of its value with small uncertainty allows us to predict properties of the as-yet-unobserved Higgs boson. This paper presents the status of the measurements of the top quark mass.

  9. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices. PMID:26912419

  10. Stable lepton mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domcke, Valerie; Romanino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We study natural lepton mass matrices, obtained assuming the stability of physical flavour observables with respect to the variations of individual matrix elements. We identify all four possible stable neutrino textures from algebraic conditions on their entries. Two of them turn out to be uniquely associated to specific neutrino mass patterns. We then concentrate on the semi-degenerate pattern, corresponding to an overall neutrino mass scale within the reach of future experiments. In this context we show that i) the neutrino and charged lepton mixings and mass matrices are largely constrained by the requirement of stability, ii) naturalness considerations give a mild preference for the Majorana phase most relevant for neutrinoless double- β decay, α ˜ π/2, and iii) SU(5) unification allows to extend the implications of stability to the down quark sector. The above considerations would benefit from an experimental determination of the PMNS ratio | U 32 /U 31|, i.e. of the Dirac phase δ.

  11. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  12. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  13. Mass Separation by Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices. PMID:26912419

  14. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  15. Mass Separation by Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-25

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  16. Solids mass flow determination

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  17. Mass of pluto.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, R L; Klepczynski, W J; Seidelmann, P K

    1968-11-15

    Analysis of the observations of Neptune indicates a reciprocal mass of Pluto of 1,812,000 (0.18 Earth masses). If the density is the same as that of Earth, the diameter would be 7200 kilometers. If 6400 kilometers is accepted (from other sources) as the upper limit of the diameter, then Pluto must be at least 1.4 times as dense as Earth.

  18. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  19. Top Quark Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I will discuss the status of those techniques and their results, and present a brief outlook of further improvements in the experimental determination of the top quark mass to be expected at the LHC and beyond.

  20. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  1. Mass transfer trends occurring in engineered ex vivo tissue scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marc; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; McFetridge, Peter

    2012-08-01

    In vivo the vasculature provides an effective delivery system for cellular nutrients; however, artificial scaffolds have no such mechanism, and the ensuing limitations in mass transfer result in limited regeneration. In these investigations, the regional mass transfer properties that occur through a model scaffold derived from the human umbilical vein (HUV) were assessed. Our aim was to define the heterogeneous behavior associated with these regional variations, and to establish if different decellularization technologies can modulate transport conditions to improve microenvironmental conditions that enhance cell integration. The effect of three decellularization methods [Triton X-100 (TX100), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and acetone/ethanol (ACE/EtOH)] on mass transfer, cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolic activity were assessed. Results show that regional variation in tissue structure and composition significantly affects both mass transfer and cell function. ACE/EtOH decellularization was shown to increase albumin mass flux through the intima and proximate-medial region (0-250 μm) when compared with sections decellularized with TX100 or SDS; although, mass flux remained constant over all regions of the full tissue thickness when using TX100. Scaffolds decellularized with TX100 were shown to promote cell migration up to 146% further relative to SDS decellularized samples. These results show that depending on scaffold derivation and expectations for cellular integration, specificities of the decellularization chemistry affect the scaffold molecular architecture resulting in variable effects on mass transfer and cellular response.

  2. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  3. Quantitative mass distribution models for Mare Orientale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Six theoretical models for the mass distribution of Mare Orientale were tested using five gravity profiles extracted from radio-tracking data of orbiting spacecraft. The models with surface mass and moho relief produced the best results. Although there is a mascon-type anomaly in the central maria region, Mare Orientale is a large negative gravity anomaly. This is produced primarily by the empty ring basin. Had the basin filled with maria material it seems likely that it would have produced a mascon such as those presently existing in flooded frontside circular basins.

  4. Mass ejections. [during solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Hildner, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Dryer, M.; Mcclymont, A. N.; Mckenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Mclean, D. J.; Schmahl, E. J.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1980-01-01

    Observations and model simulations of solar mass ejection phenomena are examined in an investigation of flare processes. Consideration is given to Skylab and other observations of flare-associated sprays, eruptive prominences, surges and coronal transients, and to MHD, gas dynamic and magnetic loop models developed to account for them. Magnetic forces are found to confine spray material, which originates in preexisting active-region filaments, within steadily expanding loops, while surges follow unmoving, preexisting magnetic field lines. Simulations of effects of a sudden pressure pulse at the bottom of the corona are found to exhibit many characteristics of coronal transients associated with flares, and impulsive heating low in the chromosphere is found to be able to account for surges. The importance of the magnetic field as the ultimate source of energy which drives eruptive phenomena as well as flares is pointed out.

  5. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1996-11-25

    Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  6. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  7. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  8. Cold Dust in Hot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Dunlop, James S.; Gibb, Andy; Greaves, Jane S.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Robson, Ian; Scott, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm-2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ~10 to 103 M ⊙. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r -2.36 ± 0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  9. Numerical simulations of shocks encountering clumpy regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alūzas, R.; Pittard, J. M.; Hartquist, T. W.; Falle, S. A. E. G.; Langton, R.

    2012-09-01

    We present numerical simulations of the adiabatic interaction of a shock with a clumpy region containing many individual clouds. Our work incorporates a sub-grid turbulence model which for the first time makes this investigation feasible. We vary the Mach number of the shock, the density contrast of the clouds and the ratio of total cloud mass to intercloud mass within the clumpy region. Cloud material becomes incorporated into the flow. This 'mass loading' reduces the Mach number of the shock and leads to the formation of a dense shell. In cases in which the mass loading is sufficient the flow slows enough that the shock degenerates into a wave. The interaction evolves through up to four stages: initially the shock decelerates; then its speed is nearly constant; next the shock accelerates as it leaves the clumpy region; finally, it moves at a constant speed close to its initial speed. Turbulence is generated in the post-shock flow as the shock sweeps through the clumpy region. Clouds exposed to turbulence can be destroyed more rapidly than a similar cloud in an 'isolated' environment. The lifetime of a downstream cloud decreases with increasing cloud-to-intercloud mass ratio. We briefly discuss the significance of these results for starburst superwinds and galaxy evolution.

  10. Elucidation of the mass fragmentation pathways of potato glycoalkaloids and aglycons using Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Michael G; Caprioli, Giovanni; Vittori, Sauro; James, Kevin J

    2010-09-01

    The mass fragmentation of potato glycoalkaloids, α-solanine and α-chaconine, and the aglycons, demissidine and solasodine were studied using the Orbitrap Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometer. Using the linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry, multistage collisional-induced dissociation (CID) experiments (MS(n)) on the [M + H](+) precursor ions were performed to aid the elucidation of the mass fragmentation pathways. In addition, higher energy collisional-induced dissociation (HCD) mass spectra were generated for these toxins at a high resolution setting [100,000 FWHM (full width at half maximum)] using the Orbitrap. This hybrid mass spectrometry instrumentation was exploited to produce MS(3) spectra by selecting MS(2) product ions, generated using LIT MS, and fragmentation using HCD. The accurate mass data in the MS(3) spectra aided the confirmation of proposed product ion formulae. The precursor and product ions from glycoalkaloids lost up to four sugars from different regions during MS(n) experiments. Mass fragmentation of the six-ring aglycons were similar, generating major product ions that resulted from cleavages at the B-rings and E-rings.

  11. Reductions in contaminant mass discharge following partial mass removal from DNAPL source zones.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Eric J; Pennell, Kurt D

    2006-10-01

    Although in situ remediation technologies have been used to aggressively treat dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, complete contaminant removal or destruction is rarely achieved. To evaluate the effects of partial source zone mass removal on dissolved-phase contaminant flux, four experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional aquifer cell that contained a tetrachloroethene (PCE) source zone and down-gradient plume region. Initial source zone PCE saturation distributions, quantified using a light transmission system, were expressed in terms of a ganglia-to-pool ratio (GTP), which ranged from 0.16 (13.8% ganglia) to 1.6 (61.5% ganglia). The cells were flushed sequentially with a 4% (wt.) Tween 80 surfactant solution to achieve incremental PCE mass removal, followed by water flooding until steady-state mass discharge and plume concentrations were established. In all cases, the GTP ratio decreased with increasing mass removal, consistent with the observed preferential dissolution of PCE ganglia and persistence of high-saturation pools. In the ganglia-dominated system (GTP = 1.6), greater than 70% mass removal was required before measurable reductions in plume concentrations and mass discharge were observed. For pool-dominated source zones (GTP < 0.3), substantial reductions (>50%) in mass discharge were realized after only 50% mass removal.

  12. Moldova. Historic regional conference.

    PubMed

    Moshin, V

    1995-05-01

    The Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and the Family Planning Association of Moldova organized a regional conference, which was held October 18-19, 1994, in Kishinev, Moldova, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The conference,"Problems of Family Planning in Eastern Europe," was attended by approximately 400 Moldovan delegates of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and by 25 delegates from Romania, Russia, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Georgia. The President of Moldova and the Ministry of Public Health of Moldova gave their approval. The main objectives of the conference were to inform the public about the recommendations of the ICPD, to analyze the status of women's reproductive health and family planning in Eastern Europe, and to find ways of implementing the ICPD Plan of Action. Major problems identified during the conference were: 1) the social and economic problems facing most families; 2) the high rate of morbidity and mortality; 3) the decrease in birth rate; 4) the increase in abortions; 5) the rising incidence of venereal disease; and 6) the absence of an effective family planning system. It was agreed that cooperation between governments and NGOs is essential in designing population programs for each country. The following goals were set: 1) to provide populations with sufficient contraceptives; 2) to actively promote family planning concepts through the mass media; 3) to train specialists and to open family planning offices and centers; 4) to introduce sex education in the curricula of Pedagogical Institutes; and 5) to create national and regional statistical and sociological databases on population issues.

  13. Atomic mass compilation 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, B.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Czok, U.; Scheidenberger, C.

    2014-03-15

    Atomic mass reflects the total binding energy of all nucleons in an atomic nucleus. Compilations and evaluations of atomic masses and derived quantities, such as neutron or proton separation energies, are indispensable tools for research and applications. In the last decade, the field has evolved rapidly after the advent of new production and measuring techniques for stable and unstable nuclei resulting in substantial ameliorations concerning the body of data and their precision. Here, we present a compilation of atomic masses comprising the data from the evaluation of 2003 as well as the results of new measurements performed. The relevant literature in refereed journals and reports as far as available, was scanned for the period beginning 2003 up to and including April 2012. Overall, 5750 new data points have been collected. Recommended values for the relative atomic masses have been derived and a comparison with the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation has been performed. This work has been carried out in collaboration with and as a contribution to the European Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network of Evaluations.

  14. AGN Black Hole Masses from Reverberation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. M.

    2004-01-01

    Emission-line variability data on bright AGNs indicates that the central objects in these sources have masses in the million to few-hundred million solar mass range. The time-delayed response of the emission lines to continuum variations can be used to infer the size of the line-emitting region via light travel-time arguments. By combining these sizes with the Doppler widths of the variable part of the emission lines, a virial mass estimate can be obtained. For three especially well-studied sources, NGC 5548, NGC 7469, and 3C 390.3, data on multiple emission lines can be used to test the virial hypothesis. In each of these cases, the response time of the various emission lines is anticorrelated with the line width, with the dependence as expected for gravitationally bound motion of the line-emitting clouds, i.e., that the square of the Doppler line width is inversely proportional to the emission-line time delay. Virial masses based on the Balmer lines have now been measured for about three dozen AGNs. Systematic effects currently limit the accuracy of these masses to a factor of several, but characteristics of the radius-luminosity and mass-luminosity relationships for AGNs are beginning to emerge.

  15. Mass measurements along the r-process path at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy; Clark, Jason; van Schelt, Jon; Lascar, Dan; Levand, Anthony; Zabransky, Bruce; Sharma, Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The CARIBU facility is now operational and a large body of new mass measurements around the N=82 waiting point has been accumulated. The masses of over 70 neutron-rich isotopes from the heavy Californium fission peak have been measured with the CPT Penning trap mass spectrometer yielding a typical accuracy of 10 keV/c2. The most neutron-rich masses show significant deviations from either masses measured by other means when available or from extrapolated values from the last Atomic Mass Evaluation when no measurements where available. The system used for these measurements will be briefly described and an analysis of the modification to the delay for the r-process in this region when taking into accounts the new masses will be presented.

  16. Formaldehyde Masers: Exclusive Tracers of High-mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, E. D.; Olmi, L.; Morales Ortiz, J.; Brown, J. E.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.

    2015-11-01

    The detection of four formaldehyde (H2CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H2CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H2CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H2CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H2CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H2CO emission line in G32.74-0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H2CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H2CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH3OH (5005 MHz), and CH2NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  17. USINT. Heat and Mass Transfer In Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1989-12-01

    USINT was developed to model the thermal response of concrete to very high heating rates such as might occur from sodium spills on concrete surfaces in a breeder reactor. The major phenomena treated are conductive energy transport; chemical decomposition of concrete; and two-phase, three-component heat and mass transfer of the decomposition products: steam, liquid water, and carbon dioxide. The USINT model provides for porosity to increase as water and carbon-dioxide are formed from the concrete. The concrete is treated generally as divided into two basic regions, wet and dry. In the wet region, steam, carbon-dioxide, and liquid water may co-exist, but in the dry region, there is no liquid water. There is also the possibility of a third region in which there is only liquid water and no gases.

  18. USINT. Heat and Mass Transfer in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.V.; Knight, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    USINT was developed to model the thermal response of concrete to very high heating rates such as might occur from sodium spills on concrete surfaces in a breeder reactor. The major phenomena treated are conductive energy transport; chemical decomposition of concrete; and two-phase, three-component heat and mass transfer of the decomposition products: steam, liquid water, and carbon dioxide. The USINT model provides for porosity to increase as water and carbon-dioxide are formed from the concrete. The concrete is treated generally as divided into two basic regions, wet and dry. In the wet region, steam, carbon-dioxide, and liquid water may co-exist, but in the dry region, there is no liquid water. There is also the possibility of a third region in which there is only liquid water and no gases.

  19. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  20. Gaugino mass without singlets

    SciTech Connect

    Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    1998-12-21

    In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations.

  1. On the Origin of Mass Segregation in NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaoying; Grebel, Eva K.; Allison, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.; Altmann, Martin; Harbeck, Daniel; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 photometry of the young HD 97950 star cluster in the giant H II region NGC 3603. The data were obtained in 1997 and 2007 permitting us to derive membership based on proper motions of the stars. Our data are consistent with an age of 1 Myr for the HD 97950 cluster. A possible age spread, if present in the cluster, appears to be small. The global slope of the incompleteness-corrected mass function for member stars within 60'' is Γ = -0.88 ± 0.15, which is flatter than the value of a Salpeter slope of -1.35. The radially varying mass function shows pronounced mass segregation ranging from slopes of -0.26 ± 0.32 in the inner 5'' to -0.94 ± 0.36 in the outermost annulus (40''-60''). Stars more massive than 50 M ⊙ are found only in the cluster center. The Λ minimum spanning tree technique confirms significant mass segregation down to 30 M ⊙. The dependence of Λ on mass, i.e., that high-mass stars are more segregated than low-mass stars, and the (weak) dependence of the velocity dispersion on stellar mass might imply that the mass segregation is dynamical in origin. While primordial segregation cannot be excluded, the properties of the mass segregation indicate that dynamical mass segregation may have been the dominant process for segregation of high-mass stars.

  2. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  3. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  4. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.