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Sample records for aarhus bay denmark

  1. Controls on subsurface methane fluxes and shallow gas formation in Baltic Sea sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Sabine; Røy, Hans; Dale, Andrew W.; Fossing, Henrik; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2016-09-01

    Shallow gas accumulates in coastal marine sediments when the burial rate of reactive organic matter beneath the sulfate zone is sufficiently high and the methanogenic zone is sufficiently deep. We investigated the controls on methane production and free methane gas accumulation along a 400 m seismo-acoustic transect across a sharp transition from gas-free into gas-bearing sediment in Aarhus Bay (Denmark). Twelve gravity cores were taken, in which the pore water was analyzed for inorganic solutes while rates of organic carbon mineralization were measured experimentally by 35SO42- radiotracer method. The thickness of organic-rich Holocene mud increased from 5 to 10 m along the transect concomitant with a shallowing of the depth of the sulfate-methane transition from >4 m to 2.5 m. In spite of drastic differences in the distribution of methane and sulfate in the sediment along the transect, there were only small differences in total mineralization, and methanogenesis was only equivalent to about 1% of sulfate reduction. Shallow gas appeared where the mud thickness exceeded 8-9 m. Rates of methanogenesis increased along the transect as did the upward diffusive flux of methane. Interestingly, the increase in the sedimentation rate and Holocene mud thickness had only a modest direct effect on methanogenesis rates in deep sediments. This increase in methane flux, however, triggered a shallowing of the sulfate-methane transition which resulted in a large increase in methanogenesis at the top of the methanogenic zone. Thus, our results demonstrate a positive feedback mechanism that causes a strong enhancement of methanogenesis and explains the apparently abrupt appearance of gas when a threshold thickness of organic-rich mud is exceeded.

  2. Community Structure of Methane-Cycling Archaea in Different Geochemical Zones in Aarhus Bay, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Lever, M. A.; Saunders, A. M.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane are dominant processes regulating methane cycle in the deep biosphere in marine environments, both of which are executed by microbes. The diversity of methane-cycling archaea has been intensively studied by exploring 16S ribosomal RNA gene and alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA). In marine sediments, methanogens and methane-oxidizing archaea are mainly found in methane zone (MZ) and in sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), respectively. However, methane-cycling archaea are also present in zones other than their usual residing geochemical zones. Next generation sequencing of mcrA genes from 5 gravity cores shows that both methanogens and methane-oxidizing archaeal group - ANME-1 are ubiquitous in all biogeochemical zones in Aarhus Bay. We will further discuss below questions: which methanogens and methanotrophs are present and active in the presence of sulfate, and which are restricted in SMTZ or MZ? How do activity and pathway of methanogenesis / methanotrophy change with depth and substrate availability?

  3. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  4. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly. PMID:21316210

  5. A Campaign Study of Sea Spray Aerosol Properties in the Bay of Aarhus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Rasmussen, Berit; Kristensen, Kasper; Sloth Nielsen, Lærke; Bilde, Merete

    2016-04-01

    The oceans of the world are a dominant source of atmospheric aerosol. Together with mineral dust, sea spray aerosols (SSA) constitute the largest mass flux of particulate matter in the atmosphere (Andreae and Rosenfeld, 2008). Due to their effects on the global radiative budget - both directly as scatterers and absorbers of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SSA are considered an important component of the climate system. The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is an ultra-thin boundary layer between the ocean and the atmosphere. The high concentration of surface-active organic compounds in the SML, compared to that of the underlying water column, creates rigid film-like layer over the surface of the ocean. The SML is believed to play an important role in the formation and composition of SSA. However, current knowledge on the SML and its impacts on SSA remain limited. To characterize the SML of natural seawater and examine its impacts on aerosol properties, a field campaign was conducted in the bay of Aarhus, Denmark, during spring 2015. Bulk seawater was collected 1-2 times every week along with selective sampling of the SML. Characterization of the sea water and SML included a wide range of measurements, including surface tension, water activity, dissolved organic matter, and chemical composition analysis by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS). SSA was generated from sampled sea water by diffusion of air bubbles through a 10L seawater sample situated in a sea spray tank. Particle number concentration and CCN measurements were conducted along with measurements of the organic share in the aerosol phase as indicated by volatility measurements. To investigate the effect of the SML, spiking of the seawater samples with additional SML was performed and measurements repeated for comparison. Preliminary results show that the SML samples

  6. (Rainbows in ion channeling: Resonances and trajectories, Cavtat, Yugoslavia, and visit to Aarhus, Denmark, August 5--16, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1989-08-29

    The traveler attended the XIII International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids in Aarhus, Denmark, and presented an invited lecture on Dielectronic Recombination in Crystal Channels.'' He then participated in the Workshop on Rainbow Scattering and presented an invited paper entitled Rainbows in Ion Channeling: Resonances and Trajectories.'' This was sponsored by the United States-Yugoslavia Joint Committee for Scientific and Technical Cooperation. It brought together nuclear, atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physicists (all of whom have encountered rainbow phenomena), who joined together to find a common theoretical ground and a possible coupling with catastrophy theory.

  7. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students. PMID:26565736

  8. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students.

  9. Endospore abundance and D:L-amino acid modeling of bacterial turnover in holocene marine sediment (Aarhus Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerhuus, Alice T.; Røy, Hans; Lever, Mark A.; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2012-12-01

    In order to study bacterial activity, and turnover times of bacterial necromass and biomass in marine sediment, two stations from the Aarhus Bay, Denmark were analyzed. Sediment cores were up to 11 m deep and covered a timescale from the present to ˜11,000 years ago. Sediment was analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), total hydrolysable amino sugars, the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers (L- and D-form) of aspartic acid. Turnover times of bacterial necromass and vegetative cells, as well as carbon oxidation rates were estimated by use of the D:L-amino acid racemization model. Diagenetic indicators were applied to evaluate the diagenetic state of the sedimentary organic matter. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon, and the ratio between the amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and their respective non protein degradation products, β-alanine and γ-amino butyric acid, all indicated increasing degradation state of the organic matter with sediment depth and age. Quantification of DPA showed that endospores were abundant, and increased with depth relative to vegetative cells. Most of the amino acids (97%) could be ascribed to microbial necromass, i.e. the remains of dead bacterial cells. Model estimates showed that the turnover times of microbial necromass were in the range of 0.5-1 × 105 years, while turnover times of vegetative cells were in the range of tens to hundreds of years. The turnover time of the TOC pool increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that the TOC pool became progressively more refractory and unavailable to microorganisms with depth and age of the organic matter.

  10. Waste collection systems for recyclables: an environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Larsen, A W; Merrild, H; Møller, J; Christensen, T H

    2010-05-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  11. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-05-15

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  12. Population-based Aarhus Sarcoma Registry: validity, completeness of registration, and incidence of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in western Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Keller, Johnny; Safwat, Akmal; Baerentzen, Steen; Pedersen, Alma B

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to validate the data in the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry (ASR), to determine if this registry is population-based for western Denmark, and to examine the incidence of sarcomas using validated, population-based registry data. Methods: This study was based on patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma treated at the Sarcoma Centre of Aarhus University Hospital between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 2008. The validation process included a review of all medical files by two researchers using a standardized form. The Danish Cancer Registry was used as a reference to assess the completeness of registration of patients in the ASR. Crude and World Health Organization age-standardized incidence, as well as age-, gender-, and year-specific incidences were estimated. Results: The validation process added 385 to the 1442 patients who were registered in the ASR. Before validation, on average, 70.5% of the data for the variables was correct. Validation improved the average completeness of the registered variables from 83.7% to 99.3%. The 1827 patients in the ASR after validation include 85.3% of the patients registered in the Danish Cancer Registry. The overall World Health Organization age-standardized incidence of sarcoma in the trunk or extremities in western Denmark in the period 1979–2008 was 2.2 per 100,000, being 0.8 for bone sarcomas and 1.4 for soft tissue sarcomas. Conclusion: The validation process significantly improved the completeness of the variables and the quality of the ASR data. ASR is now a valuable population-based tool for epidemiological research and quality improvement in the treatment of sarcoma. It is our recommendation that documented validation of registries should be a prerequisite for publishing studies derived from them. PMID:23687450

  13. Geological setting as background for methane distribution in Holocene mud deposits, Århus Bay, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. B.; Bennike, O.

    2009-03-01

    Detailed acoustic mapping have been carried out in the Århus Bay in order to establish the general Late Weichselian and Holocene stratigraphy, and to map the gas related acoustic blanking. The mapping results show that the oldest seismic unit is glacial till, probably related to the latest glacial advance in the region. The glacial till is covered by late-glacial ice-lake clay and silt reaching a thickness of up to 10 m. In the deeper part of the bay, early Holocene organic material and peat has been recorded in a few cores. A thin seismic unit is observed, which probably represents an early Holocene lowstand period, when most of the Århus Bay was dry land. The three upper seismic units are related to the Holocene transgression of the region representing different hydrographical conditions. The lowermost unit (Marine unit 1) partly drapes the basin area with clay sediments and partly shows prograding sandy coastal deposits around glacial ridges. Marine shells from this unit date back to 8700 cal. years BP which are the oldest marine shells found south of the threshold in the northern Great Belt. The next unit (Marine unit 2) consists in general of mud to sandy mud, which cover most of the western central part of the Århus Bay and in some places reach the present seabed in areas of erosion or non-deposition. The distribution of the youngest seismic unit (mud, Marine unit 3) is confined to the sub-recent to recent sedimentation basins in the eastern central part of the area. Acoustical blanking shows that the methane production takes place in the Holocene marine sediments. A map of the distribution and depth to free methane in the muddy sediments has been produced. Combined information from the different seismic equipment used allowed a mapping of the distribution and depth to free gas in the intervals 0.5-2, 2-4 and >4 m. The map shows that acoustic blanking is found in the central part of Århus Bay about 4 m below the seabed. In areas with high sedimentation

  14. Investigation of an Iron-Oxidizing Microbial Mat Community Located near Aarhus, Denmark: Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, David; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    1994-01-01

    We constructed a small flow chamber in which suboxic medium containing 60 to 120 μM FeCl2 flowed up through a sample well into an aerated reservoir, thereby creating an suboxic-oxic interface similar to the physicochemical conditions that exist in natural iron seeps. When microbial mat material from the Marselisborg iron seep that contained up to 109 bacterial cells per cm3 (D. Emerson and N. P. Revsbech, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:4022-4031, 1994) was placed in the sample well of the chamber, essentially all of the Fe2+ flowing through the sample well was oxidized at rates of up to 1,200 nmol of Fe2+ oxidized per h per cm3 of mat material. The oxidation rates of samples of the mat that were pasteurized prior to inoculation were only about 20 to 50% of the oxidation rates of unpasteurized samples. Sodium azide also significantly inhibited oxidation. These results suggest that at least 50% and up to 80% of the Fe oxidation in the chamber were actively mediated by the microbes in the mat. It also appeared that Fe stimulated the growth of the community since chambers fed with FeCl2 accumulated masses of either filamentous or particulate growth, both in the sample well and attached to the walls of the chamber. Control chambers that did not receive FeCl2 showed no sign of such growth. Furthermore, after 4 to 5 days the chambers fed with FeCl2 contained 35 to 75% more protein than chambers not supplemented with FeCl2. Leptothrix ochracea and, to a lesser extent, Gallionella spp. were responsible for the filamentous growth, and the sheaths and stalks, respectively, of these two organisms harbored large numbers of Fe-encrusted, nonappendaged unicellular bacteria. In chambers where particulate growth predominated, the unicellular bacteria alone appeared to be the primary agents of iron oxidation. These results provide the first clear evidence that the “iron bacteria” commonly found associated with neutral-pH iron seeps are responsible for most of the iron oxidation and that the presence of ferrous iron appears to stimulate the growth of these organisms. Images PMID:16349434

  15. Investigation of an Iron-Oxidizing Microbial Mat Community Located near Aarhus, Denmark: Field Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, David; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the microbial community that developed at an iron seep where anoxic groundwater containing up to 250 μM Fe2+ flowed out of a rock wall and dense, mat-like aggregations of ferric hydroxides formed at the oxic-anoxic interface. In situ analysis with oxygen microelectrodes revealed that the oxygen concentrations in the mat were rarely more than 50% of air saturation and that the oxygen penetration depth was quite variable, ranging from <0.05 cm to several centimeters. The bulk pH of the mat ranged from 7.1 to 7.6. There appeared to be a correlation between the flow rates at different subsites of the mat and the morphotypes of the microorganisms and Fe oxides that developed. In subsites with low flow rates (<2 ml/s), the iron-encrusted sheaths of Leptothrix ochracea predominated. Miniature cores revealed that the top few millimeters of the mat consisted primarily of L. ochracea sheaths, only about 7% of which contained filaments of cells. Deeper in the mat, large particulate oxides developed, which were often heavily colonized by unicellular bacteria that were made visible by staining with acridine orange. Direct cell counts revealed that the number of bacteria increased from approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3 and the total iron concentration increased from approximately 0.5 to 3 mmol/cm3 with depth in the mat. Primarily because of the growth of L. ochracea, the mat could accrete at rates of up to 3.1 mm/day at these subsites. The iron-encrusted stalks of Gallionella spp. prevailed in localized zones of the same low-flow-rate subsites, usually close to where the source water emanated from the wall. These latter zones had the lowest O2 concentrations (<10% of the ambient concentration), confirming the microaerobic nature of Gallionella spp. In subsites with high flow rates (>6 ml/s) particulate Fe oxides were dominant; direct counts revealed that up to 109 cells of primarily unicellular bacteria per cm3 were associated with these particulate oxides. These zones exhibited little vertical stratification in either the number of cells or iron concentration. Finally, mat samples incubated anaerobically in the presence of acetate or succinate exhibited significant potential for iron reduction, suggesting the possibility that a localized iron cycle could occur within the mat community. Images PMID:16349433

  16. Investigation of an Iron-Oxidizing Microbial Mat Community Located near Aarhus, Denmark: Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Emerson, D; Revsbech, N P

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the microbial community that developed at an iron seep where anoxic groundwater containing up to 250 muM Fe flowed out of a rock wall and dense, mat-like aggregations of ferric hydroxides formed at the oxic-anoxic interface. In situ analysis with oxygen microelectrodes revealed that the oxygen concentrations in the mat were rarely more than 50% of air saturation and that the oxygen penetration depth was quite variable, ranging from <0.05 cm to several centimeters. The bulk pH of the mat ranged from 7.1 to 7.6. There appeared to be a correlation between the flow rates at different subsites of the mat and the morphotypes of the microorganisms and Fe oxides that developed. In subsites with low flow rates (<2 ml/s), the iron-encrusted sheaths of Leptothrix ochracea predominated. Miniature cores revealed that the top few millimeters of the mat consisted primarily of L. ochracea sheaths, only about 7% of which contained filaments of cells. Deeper in the mat, large particulate oxides developed, which were often heavily colonized by unicellular bacteria that were made visible by staining with acridine orange. Direct cell counts revealed that the number of bacteria increased from approximately 10 to 10 cells per cm and the total iron concentration increased from approximately 0.5 to 3 mmol/cm with depth in the mat. Primarily because of the growth of L. ochracea, the mat could accrete at rates of up to 3.1 mm/day at these subsites. The iron-encrusted stalks of Gallionella spp. prevailed in localized zones of the same low-flow-rate subsites, usually close to where the source water emanated from the wall. These latter zones had the lowest O(2) concentrations (<10% of the ambient concentration), confirming the microaerobic nature of Gallionella spp. In subsites with high flow rates (>6 ml/s) particulate Fe oxides were dominant; direct counts revealed that up to 10 cells of primarily unicellular bacteria per cm were associated with these particulate oxides. These zones exhibited little vertical stratification in either the number of cells or iron concentration. Finally, mat samples incubated anaerobically in the presence of acetate or succinate exhibited significant potential for iron reduction, suggesting the possibility that a localized iron cycle could occur within the mat community.

  17. Play Spaces in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Edna; Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the variety of play spaces found in urban areas in Denmark: in banks, stores and individual businesses, neighborhood parks and small pocket playgrounds, specialized adventure and traffic playgrounds with supervised activities, and commercial amusement parks. (CM)

  18. The Aarhus convention in the nuclear sector-right to information versus nonproliferation?

    PubMed

    Stražišar, Borut; Kralj, Metka

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear events and problems in siting procedures of nuclear plants poses problems of timely information and the question of proper and trustful information. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the right to information and the Aarhus convention are analysed. The basic rights of the public in the field of environmental matters are presented and discussed. Such rights are also examined through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The second part deals with the problem of possible conflicts between the right to information (and environmental information) and obligations from NPT. The third part proposes some solutions to provide a balance between the obligation of giving information and the obligation of protecting certain information under the NPT.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth: The Aarhus Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregård; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated an association between intrauterine exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and lower birth weight. However, these perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have to some extent been substituted by other compounds on which little is known. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific PFAAs and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth. Methods: We studied 1,507 mothers and their children from the Aarhus Birth Cohort (2008–2013). Nulliparous women were included during pregnancy, and serum levels of 16 PFAAs were measured between 9 and 20 completed gestational weeks (96% within 13 weeks). For compounds with quantifiable values in > 50% of samples (7 compounds), we report the associations with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth determined by multivariable linear regression. Results: Estimated mean birth weights were lower among women with serum perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluoroheptane sulfonate, and PFOS concentrations above the lowest exposure quartile, but we found no consistent monotonic dose–response patterns. These associations were stronger when the population was restricted to term births (n = 1,426). For PFOS, the birth weight estimates for the highest versus lowest quartile were –50 g (95% CI: –123, 23 g) in all births and –62 g (95% CI: –126, 3 g) in term births. For the other PFAAs, the direction of the associations was inconsistent, and no overall association with birth weight was apparent. No PFAAs were associated with birth length or head circumference at birth. Conclusions: Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between PFAAs and birth weight or other indices of fetal growth, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those with exposures above the lowest quartile for some compounds. Citation: Bach CC, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Olsen J, Matthiesen NB, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Bossi R, Henriksen TB

  20. Gender in physics in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine; Nordström, Birgitta; Bearden, Ian; Grage, Mette M.-L.

    2013-03-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10% of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark.

  1. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Hudson Bay and James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data ...

  2. Spotlight on VET Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data on the vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. VET plays a key role in the Danish strategy for lifelong learning and meeting the challenges of globalisation and technological change. The Danish education and training system comprises a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory…

  3. What's Happening in Denmark?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Corey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in alumni relations in a country, Denmark, where few are willing to bear the institution's logo. The author likens his journey to that of Lewis and Clark, who introduced the rest of America to the western part of North America. And just like them, the author and his colleague experienced unforeseen…

  4. Vocational Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    Denmark has a wide range of basic vocational training courses that can be begun immediately after completion of lower secondary school, i.e., after students complete their compulsory education at the age of 15 or 16). This is not to say that there is no vocational education at the primary and secondary levels, where guest teachers from working…

  5. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  6. [Radium therapy in a county hospital on the island of Mors, Denmark].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ib; Topp, Sven W

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark it was decided early in the 20th century that therapy with radium should be restricted to major centres in the three largest cities, Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. In the northern part of Jutland the chief surgeon of Nykøbing Mors Hospital, Jacob Nordentoft (1881-1954), had studied radium treatment in Hamburg with Albers-Schönberg and in Paris with Marie Curie, and he had used radium in his private clinic since 1910. Naturally he wanted to continue this when he became chief in Nykøbing in 1922. As he was denied this the 22,000 inhabitants of this small island in 1931 collected 28,790 Danish Crowns for him as a birthday present and afterwards he could buy 94 mg pure radium from Belgium. With this amount he established a Radium Centre which lasted for 30 years.

  7. Sickness absence patterns and trends in the health care sector: 5-year monitoring of female municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. Methods Data from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway, and Aarhus, Denmark, for 3,181 and 8,545 female employees, respectively. Age-specific comparative statistics on sickness absence rates (number of calendar days of sickness absence/possible working days) and number of sick leave episodes were calculated for each year of the study period. Results There was an overall increasing trend in sickness absence rates in Denmark (P = 0.002), where rates were highest in the 20–29- (P = 0.01) and 50–59-year-old age groups (P = 0.03). Sickness absence rates in Norway were stable, except for an increase in the 20–29-year-old age group (P = 0.004). In both Norway and Denmark, the mean number of sick leave episodes increased (P <0.0001 and P <0.0001, respectively) in all age groups except for the 30–39- and 60–67-year-old age groups. The proportion of employees without sickness absence was higher in Norway than in Denmark. Both short-term and long-term absence increased in Denmark (P = 0.003 and P <0.0001, respectively), while in Norway, only short-term absence increased (P = 0.09). Conclusions We found an overall increase in sickness absence rates in Denmark, while the largest overall increase in sick leave episodes was found in Norway. In both countries, the largest increases were observed among young employees. The results indicate that the two countries are converging in regard to sickness absence measured as rates and episodes. PMID:25005027

  8. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     View Larger ... for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, ...

  9. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  10. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  11. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Green Summer and Icy Winter in James Bay     View Larger Image ... winter. The left-hand image was acquired on August 9, 2000 (Terra orbit 3427), and the right-hand image is from January 16, 2001 (Terra ...

  12. Educational and Vocational Guidance in Denmark. Education in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This report sketches educational and vocational guidance in Denmark. It begins with a historical account of developments in the areas of career and school counseling. Outlined next are guidance programs at the following levels: folkeskole, gymnasium and studenterkursus (upper secondary education), higher preparatory examination, vocational school,…

  13. Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tverborgvik, Torill; Clausen, Lene Björk; Thorsted, Brian Larsen; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    In light of the Danish government's goal of 95% of every cohort achieving higher education by 2015, we investigate educational mobility in Denmark. Following 800,000 Danes and their parents, we found that children of parents with only basic education had a three-times-higher risk of achieving only basic education, compared with the children…

  14. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  15. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  16. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  17. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  18. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  19. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  20. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  1. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  2. Arsenic in Drinking-Water and Risk for Cancer in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Baastrup, Rikke; Sørensen, Mette; Balstrøm, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Larsen, Carsten Langtofte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen, which is often found in drinking-water. Epidemiologic studies have shown increased cancer risks among individuals exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water, whereas studies of the carcinogenic effect of low doses have had inconsistent results. Objective Our aim was to determine if exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking-water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Methods The study was based on a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. Cancer cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and the Danish civil registration system was used to trace and geocode residential addresses of the cohort members. We used a geographic information system to link addresses with water supply areas, then estimated individual exposure to arsenic using residential addresses back to 1970. Average exposure for the cohort ranged between 0.05 and 25.3 μg/L (mean = 1.2 μg/L). Cox’s regression models were used to analyze possible relationships between arsenic and cancer. Results We found no significant association between exposure to arsenic and risk for cancers of the lung, bladder, liver, kidney, prostate, or colorectum, or melanoma skin cancer; however, the risk for non-melanoma skin cancer decreased with increasing exposure (incidence rate ratio = 0.88/μg/L average exposure; 95% confidence interval, 0.84–0.94). Results adjusted for enrollment area showed no association with non-melanoma skin cancer. Conclusions The results indicate that exposure to low doses of arsenic might be associated with a reduced risk for skin cancer. PMID:18288323

  3. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  4. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  5. Denmark's Boernehavens: A Place to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    During the author's trips to Denmark as an instructor of American college students studying abroad, he led groups to visit several "boernehavens," which are the Danish equivalents of U.S. preschools for children ages 3 to 5. Danish society values confident individuals who can take initiative when faced with challenges and opportunities. Pedagogues…

  6. School Library Media Centers in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school librarianship in Denmark. Highlights include proposals for a joint school library/public library system; student responsibility for their own learning; teaching students to use appropriate information technology to meet information needs; critical analysis of information; cataloging and classification of library materials; and…

  7. The Seeds of Social Change from Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    N.F.S. Grundtvig was a priest, historian, poet, and founder of the Danish Folk High School. He believed that education for adults should be geared to adults and wanted schools to be independent of the church. Grundtvig was among the first to call for Denmark's schools to use the native Danish language. Grundtvig believed that each group or culture…

  8. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  9. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  10. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  11. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  13. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  15. Weapons bay acoustic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, L. L.; Shimovetz, R. M.

    1994-09-01

    An aircraft weapons bay exposed to freestream flow experiences an intense aeroacoustic environment in and around the bay. Experience has taught that the intensity of this environment can be severe enough to result in damage to a store, its internal equipment, or the structure of the weapons bay itself. To ensure that stores and sensitive internal equipment can withstand this hazardous environment and successfully complete the mission, they must be qualified to the most severe sound pressure levels anticipated for the mission. If the qualification test levels are too high, the store and its internal equipment will be over designed, resulting in unnecessary costs and possible performance penalties. If the qualification levels are below those experienced in flight, the store or its internal equipment may catastrophically fail during performance of the mission. Thus, it is desirable that the expected levels in weapons bays be accurately predicted. A large number of research efforts have been directed toward understanding flow-induced cavity oscillations. However, the phenomena are still not adequately understood to allow one to predict the fluctuating pressure levels for various configurations and flow conditions. This is especially true at supersonic flow speeds, where only a small amount of data are available. This paper will give a background of flow induced cavity oscillations and discuss predictions, control and suppression, and the future of weapons bay acoustic environments. A large number of research efforts have been directed toward understanding flow-induced cavity oscillations. However, the phenomena are still not adequately understood to allow one to predict the fluctuating pressure levels for various configurations and flow conditions. This is especially true at supersonic flow speeds, where only a small amount of data are available. This paper will give a background of flow induced cavity oscillations and discuss predictions, control and suppression, and

  16. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  17. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  18. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  19. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  20. GPR Use and Activities in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Academic work on GPR in Denmark is performed both by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the University of Copenhagen (KU). The work at DTU includes development of antennas and systems, e.g. an airborne ice-sounder GPR system (POLARIS) that today is in frequent use for monitoring of ice thickness in Greenland. DTU often collaborates with ESA (European Space Agency) regarding electromagnetic development projects. At KU there is an ongoing work with GPR applied to water resources. The main objective is to study flux of water and matter across different hydrological domains. There are several recent publications from KU describing research for data analysis and modelling as well as hydro geophysical applications. Also the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) performs frequent geological mapping with GPR. There have been mainly two actors on the Danish commercial market for several years: FalkGeo and Ramboll. Falkgeo has been active for many years acquiring data for several different applications such as archeology, utilities and roads. Their equipment pool comprises both a multichannel Terravision system form GSSI and a 2D system from Mala Geoscience with a comprehensive range of antennas. Ramboll has performed GPR surveys for two decades mainly with 2D systems from GSSI. In recent years Ramboll has also obtained a system with RTA antennas from Mala Geoscience and a multichannel system from 3D-Radar. These systems have opened markets both for deeper geological mapping and for shallow mapping. The geological mapping with the Mala system has often been combined with resistivity imaging (CVES) and refraction seismic. The 3D system has been applied in airports and on road for mapping of layer thicknesses, delamination and for control of asphalt works. Other areas comprise bridge deck evaluation and utility mapping. Ramboll also acts as client advisor for BaneDanmark, a state owned company who operates and develops the Danish state railway network

  1. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark (Professions/Trades). Education in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This information booklet on vocational education in Denmark begins with a listing of the eight fields of study into which vocational education is divided. These fields are (1) the construction industry; (2) the graphic industries; (3) commerce, clerical trades, and public administration; (4) the iron and metal industries; (5) agriculture,…

  2. [The prevalence of dementia in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kasper; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-11-24

    The exact prevalence of dementia in Denmark is unknown. Based on epidemiological data we have calculated possible estimates for the present Danish prevalence of dementia and prevalence projections through to 2030. The discrepancy between estimates based on epidemiological studies and the number of dementia diagnoses in registers indicates that dementia may be underdiagnosed. Even though results from recent epidemiological studies point to a possible decline in incidence we expect the future prevalence of dementia to increase due to an expected increase of the elderly population.

  3. The pension fund for nurses in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P D; Lunding, K

    1994-01-01

    As women and because of their job mobility and low wages, female nurses in many countries are among the employee groups most severely disadvantaged under pension schemes. For many national nurses' associations, an adequate and equitable pension income for nurses after retirement is a major concern. Below a report on the system the Danish Nurses' Organization secured for nurses in Denmark--a system that offers nurses the best possible pension conditions and support when ill and disabled--and on page 177 a summary of efforts by the American Nurses' Association to make a portable pension system for nurses a legal requirement for employers.

  4. Crustal models for the Melville Bay and Northern Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbernd, Tabea; Jokat, Wilfried; Heyde, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    The Baffin Bay between Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada) opened during the separation of Greenland and Canada in the Palaeocene and Eocene. The Melville Bay is situated in its northeastern part. The crustal composition of Northern and Southern Baffin Bay has been studied in detail: Southern Baffin Bay is underlain by oceanic crust with volcanic margins, while the margins of northern Baffin Bay are characterized by serpentinized mantle material. In contrast, the nature of crust in the deep, central Baffin Bay and the Melville Bay was still unclear due to a lack of deep seismic sounding lines. In 2010 a joint geophysical experiment in the Greenlandic part of Baffin Bay acquired seismic, magnetic and gravity data. We present three velocity and density models derived from seismic refraction and gravity data. Two of the three profiles are located within the Melville Bay and extend in a SW - NE direction from the deep sea area of central Baffin Bay to the shelf area of the Melville Bay. The third profile crosses the northern profile in the Melville Bay and extends in a N - S direction into the Northern Baffin Bay. The profiles in the Melville Bay can be divided in three crustal sections. The deep-sea area reveals a 3.5 - 7 km thick, 2-layered oceanic crust with increasing thickness towards the shelf and up to 6 km thick sediments. The crust is underlain by serpentinized upper mantle with velocities of 7.6 - 7.8 kms-1. A transition zone, which is affected by volcanism, connects the oceanic crust with stretched continental crust underneath the Melville Bay. Basement highs and deep sediment basins characterize the stretched and rifted continental crust. The Melville Bay Graben, the deepest rift basin in the Melville Bay, contains up to 10 km thick, possibly metamorphosed sediments with unusually high velocities of up to 4.9 kms1. Well-constrained reflections of the crust-mantle boundary can be found in many seismic sections indicating a maximum crustal thickness of ~ 26

  5. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Soren P.; Cort, Pia

    Vocational education in Denmark began with organized apprentice training in the early 1400s. In 1875, the government and municipalities began providing substantial grants to establish technical and commercial schools. Development of apprenticeship training continued through the 1950s. Since 1977, Denmark has had two parallel systems of vocational…

  6. Day Care in Scandinavia: Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Steen B.

    Day care programs in the Scandinavian countries have been viewed as exemplary models to transfer to Canada and the United States. This publication, which provides an overview of day care in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, discusses conditions, facts, and programs contributing to the widespread acclaim. It is pointed out that day care in Denmark is an…

  7. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Denmark: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Denmark's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. The review team met with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analyzed data from a national questionnaire, and reviewed pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: coordinating mechanisms; the role of Denmark's National…

  8. "Fortid", "Nutid", "Fremtid" (Past, Present, Future): Professional Counseling in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Hansen, Nanja Holland

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a comprehensive overview of the counseling profession in Denmark. The history and development of counseling is considered, followed by a review of the current state of Danish professional counseling. Finally, impressions of the future of professional counseling in Denmark are presented based on the past and…

  9. Library Services to the Homebound Elderly in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Gyda Skat

    The number of elderly people in Denmark continues to grow, which means there is an increasing need for special library services to those elderly who are not able to come to the library because of physical or mental limitations. This paper uses the practices of Sollerod Public Libraries (Sollerod, Denmark) to frame the discussion of the following:…

  10. Cancer in printing workers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E; Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Andersen, I; Hink, M; Olsen, E; Møller, U L; Silfverberg, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the cancer incidence in printing workers in Denmark. METHODS--The cohort of 15,534 men and 3593 women working in the printing industry in 1970 were followed up for death, emigrations, and incident cancer cases until the end of 1987. Their cancer incidence was compared with that of all economically active people in Denmark. The smoking and drinking habits reported by members of the printing trade unions at a survey in 1972 were compared with habits reported by members of other trade unions. RESULTS--Lung, bladder, renal pelvis, and primary liver cancers were in excess among the printing workers. The excess risks of lung cancer among the factory workers in newspaper and magazine production, of bladder cancer in typographers in printing establishments, of renal pelvis cancer in typographers and lithographers, and of primary liver cancer among lithographers and bookbinders exceeded those expected based on the reported smoking and drinking habits. CONCLUSION--Our results indicate, in line with a previous study from Manchester, that work with rotary letterpress printing was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The inconsistent results from studies on bladder cancer in printing workers may point to a risk confined to a certain subgroup. The sixfold risk of primary liver cancer in Danish lithographers warrants studies in other countries. PMID:8535493

  11. Survey of Tickborne Infections in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Per M.; Kristiansen, Kåre

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study of the distribution and prevalence of tickborne infections in Denmark by using roe deer as sentinels. Blood samples from 237 roe deer were collected during the 2002–2003 hunting season. Overall, 36.6% of deer were Borrelia seropositive, while 95.6% were Anaplasma phagocytophilum positive; all animals were negative for Bartonella quintana and B. henselae by indirect immunofluorescence assay. When a hemagglutination-inhibition test was used, 8.7% of deer were found positive for tickborne encephalitis (TBE)-complex virus. A total of 42.6% were found positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A. phagocytophilum with significant seasonal variation. All were PCR negative for Rickettsia helvetica. PCR and sequencing also showed a novel bacterium in roe deer previously only found in ticks. The study showed that the emerging pathogen A. phagocytophilum is widely distributed and that a marked shift has occurred in the distribution of TBE-complex virus in Denmark. This finding supports studies that predict alterations in distribution due to climatic changes. PMID:16022780

  12. History of headache research in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Tfelt-Hansen, P

    2001-09-01

    Headache research in Denmark started with the description in 1949 by Dalsgaard-Nielsen of the percutaneous nitroglycerin test. In 1976 Jes Olesen started The Copenhagen Acute Headache Clinic and from that time modern headache research began in Denmark. Specific changes in regional cerebral blood flow during attacks of migraine with aura, spreading oligaemia, were described for the first time in 1980. The first headache classification with operational diagnostic criteria was published in 1988 and used in a Danish population study from 1989. The lifetime prevalence of migraine was 8% in men and 25% in women. An intravenous nitroglycerin test was introduced in 1989 and has been developed as an experimental headache model. In 1993 it was suggested by Jes Olesen et al. that NO supersensitivity could be a possible molecular mechanism of migraine pain. Recent genetic studies have supported the distinction between migraine with aura and migraine without aura. From the middle of the 1980s the pathophysiology of tension-type headache has been investigated and recent results indicate central sensitization in patients with chronic tension-type headache.

  13. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  14. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  15. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  16. Towards 50% wind electricity in Denmark: Dilemmas and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Paul-Frederik

    2016-05-01

    Electricity and heat supply systems are essential contributors to a fossil-free future in Denmark. The combined production of heat and power (CHP) and the production of wind energy are already well developed in Denmark. Combined heat and power covers about 40% of the demand for space heating in Denmark, and the production of wind energy is supposed to exceed 50% of the demand for electricity by 2020. The changing electricity and heat production has some consequences already now: i) Decreasing wholesale prices in Denmark and in other countries. ii) Thermal power plants are closing down. Denmark is no longer self-sufficient with electricity under all conditions. iii) The electricity production pattern does not match the demand pattern. The result is that the neighbouring countries must absorb the variations from wind and solar power. Essential challenges: i) The future of combined heat and power in Denmark is uncertain. ii) Denmark will need new backup capacity for filling the gaps in wind power and solar cell output. iii) Flexible electricity consumers are supposed to contribute to balancing the future power systems. There is still a long way to go before the Smart Grid visions are implemented in large scale. iv) The transformation of the power system will create new risks of power failures.

  17. Towards Universal Design Hotels in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research project 'Accessible Hotel Rooms' that studies the balance between the experience of supply and demand regarding accessibility features in Danish hotel rooms, this paper demonstrates factors having an influence on Universal Design hotels in Denmark. The research project was financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. Different notions in the hotel sector of the current supply and demand for Universal Design hotel rooms are identified, as well as future demand. Despite supplying accessible rooms, some hotels do not advertise their accessibility features on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view of demand. Another important factor is Corporate Social Responsibility, which can be regarded as a strategy or platform towards Universal Design hotels.

  18. Reporting of occupational cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skov, T; Mikkelsen, S; Svane, O; Lynge, E

    1990-12-01

    Many patients with occupational diseases fail to obtain compensation because their disease is not recognized as occupational and reported to the authorities. The present study examined the reporting of pleural mesotheliomas and sinonasal adenocarcinomas--cancers with well-known associations with occupational exposures to asbestos and wood dust--in Denmark in 1983-1987. The estimated underreporting was around 50%. Examination of the medical records of patients who had not been reported in 1986-1987 revealed that in most cases the medical records did not contain sufficiently detailed information about occupational exposures. It was recommended that a formal screening interview be carried out whenever a diagnosis is made of a potential occupational cancer. Medical associations may play a major role by issuing guidelines addressing occupational diseases within the fields of their expertise.

  19. Towards Universal Design Hotels in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research project 'Accessible Hotel Rooms' that studies the balance between the experience of supply and demand regarding accessibility features in Danish hotel rooms, this paper demonstrates factors having an influence on Universal Design hotels in Denmark. The research project was financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. Different notions in the hotel sector of the current supply and demand for Universal Design hotel rooms are identified, as well as future demand. Despite supplying accessible rooms, some hotels do not advertise their accessibility features on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view of demand. Another important factor is Corporate Social Responsibility, which can be regarded as a strategy or platform towards Universal Design hotels. PMID:27534313

  20. Prevalence of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P E

    1989-04-01

    The point prevalence at birth of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in a subregion of Denmark was estimated by a study of all children born January 1970 through December 1983. Two cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case of thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of achondrogenesis type III, and three cases of achondrogenesis type IV were found. Two cases were unclassifiable due to lack of radiographs. In total, the point prevalence at birth was 15.4 per 100,000. Thus lethal osteochondrodysplasias seem to be more common than is generally assumed. The clinical and radiographic findings in micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull are discussed in relation to thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis type IV. PMID:2789000

  1. Genomic Databases and Biobanks in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hartlev, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Biobanking in Denmark is regulated via patients' rights laws, data protection laws, and research ethics reviews. Danish law recognizes tissue samples as personal data for purposes of the data protection laws, meaning research with tissue samples may be subject to research ethics review, data protection laws, and patients' rights requirements depending on the circumstances of collection. However, research on information gained through whole genome sequencing is subject only to data protection laws, despite the similarity in the nature of the information. The regulatory framework treats biobank samples collected from patients differently than samples collected from research participants, particularly with respect to autonomy. Importantly, biobanks established for future unspecified research are not subject to research ethics review. Biobank-based research has gained more prominence on the national level recently, and the potential for a less fragmented and more consistent regulatory approach may emerge from this attention. PMID:26711414

  2. Chesapeake bay nonpoint source programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current programs to ameliorate nonpoint sources of pollution to the Chesapeake Bay that have been developed by the four jurisdictions in cooperation with other agencies, the achievements to date in terms of pollutant removal, and recommendations for future directions of the Bay Program over the next several years.

  3. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  4. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  5. Denmark-Norway, 1761-1769: Two Missed Opportunities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-05-01

    Despite a promising start in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Denmark-Norway was not a Great Power of Astronomy any longer when the eighteenth-century transits of Venus occurred. Official activity relating to the transit of 1761 was very limited; in this respect, Denmark-Norway was completely overshadowed by Sweden and Russia. In 1769 steps were taken to invite an astronomer of international reputation, the Jesuit Father Maximilianus Hell. He arrived in 1768 and left the country two years later, having published an elaborate report in the name of the King Christian VII. Although Hell's observations from Vardoehus were successful, Denmark-Norway failed to re-establish itself as a country capable of delivering noteworthy contributions to the European community of astronomers. Sweden and Russia displayed a higher level of activity, both quantitatively and qualitatively, making the impression of Denmark-Norway's lagging behind even stronger.

  6. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California. 165.1197 Section 165.1197 Navigation and... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1197 Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California. 165.1197 Section 165.1197 Navigation and... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1197 Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo...

  8. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  9. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons... Commerce will conduct a fireworks display to celebrate Labor Day. The celebration will take place next to... associated with the Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, the Captain of the Port, Sector Sault Sainte Marie...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  12. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  13. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  14. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  15. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  16. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  17. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  18. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  19. [Fireworks-caused injuries in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Ipsen, T; Jørgsholm, P B

    1997-12-01

    The number and type of fireworks injuries occurring around New Year's Eve as well as type of fireworks used was investigated with the aim of guiding future prophylactic efforts. All patient contacts to emergency rooms throughout Denmark that were due to fireworks were prospectively registered for twenty-four hours before and after New Year's Eve 1995/1996 and 1996/1997. The number of fireworks injuries increased by 13.9% from 381 to 433, and the number of serious injuries increased by 50.8%. In 1996/1997 50% of the injuries were hand injuries, 19% were eye injuries, 8% were injuries to the head and neck, and the remaining 23% were hearing injuries and miscellaneous injuries. Seventy percent of the serious injuries were hand injuries, leading to some form of amputation in a third of cases. Sixty-one percent of the admissions were due to illegal fireworks. It is concluded that the number of serious fireworks injuries is on the increase, and that the main part of these injuries are hand injuries. Over half of the the serious injuries were due to illegal fireworks. Prophylactic efforts should be aimed against hand-held and illegal fireworks.

  20. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  1. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-04-01

    The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased focus on the protection of groundwater and Natura 2000 sites. In particular, the implementation of Natura 2000 in Danish legislation has increased the demands on many farms. In its rulings on appealed cases, the Nature Protection Board of Appeal has strengthened its demands, and this is mirrored in screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved, and that the main cause for this is not EIA regulations as such, but the positive role which the implementation of the Natura 2000 objectives has played in this development. However, it was also found that the formulation of demands varies greatly between the counties, thus often resulting in ambiguity and leaving room for quite different practices in different counties.

  2. The Horsens-Aarhus Femoro Acetabular Impingement (HAFAI) cohort: outcome of arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Lund, Bent; Dalgas, Ulrik; Sørensen, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During the past decade, it has become increasingly more common to offer hip arthroscopic surgery when treating people with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Nevertheless, the latest reviews conclude that it still remains to be properly investigated how surgery affects the patients. Specifically, detailed information on the functional, muscular and mechanical impact of surgery in larger groups is lacking. Furthermore, the long-term outcome of the surgery is still to be investigated. Methods and analysis In this prospective cohort study, a total of 60 patients with FAI scheduled for arthroscopic surgery will be followed and tested preoperatively, and again after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Assessment includes isokinetic dynamometry evaluating hip flexion and extension; evaluation of functional capacity in a three-dimensional motion laboratory; pain assessment; self-reported function, quality of life, expectation and satisfaction with the surgery; recording of previous and present sporting activities and accelerometry. In addition, data on surgical procedure, rehabilitation progress, adverse events and failure will be recorded. Patients will be compared with an age-matched and gender-matched reference group of 30 persons with no hip, knee, ankle or back problems. Long-term follow-up of this cohort may evaluate possible reoperations and development of hip osteoarthritis. Furthermore, analysis on how subgroups respond to the treatment could be performed together with identification of possible “non-responders”. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Central Denmark Region Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (Journal No 1-10-72-239-14). The results from this study will be presented at national and international congresses and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02306525. PMID:26346877

  3. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  4. [The first case of Vibrio cholerae 0139 in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, A; Nielsen, G L; Echeverria, P; Larsen, J L; Schønheyder, H C

    1996-09-01

    We report the first case of V. cholerae O139 in Denmark. In 1994, a 61-year-old Vietnamese woman was admitted to Aalborg Hospital, Denmark due to severe diarrhoea. The diagnosis was confirmed by biochemical characterization and agglutination in O139 antiserum of a strain isolated from a stool specimen. The woman had stayed in Denmark after family reunion for nine months and had not travelled outside the country. She had not eaten any foods imported from Southeast Asia. The V. cholerae O139 isolate had similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern and contained genes encoding a virulence gene cassette previously identified in O139 isolates from Southeast Asia. Ribotyping showed a banding pattern similar to patterns exhibited by O139 isolates from Bangladesh, India and Thailand. However, the exact mode of transmission of this first Danish case of V. cholerae O139 infection was not determined.

  5. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Peer Hull; Petersen, James Hopner

    The impact of developments in work organizations on the skilling process in Denmark was studied through a macro analysis of available statistical information about the development of workplace training in Denmark and case studies of three Danish firms. The macro analysis focused on the following: Denmark's vocational training system; the Danish…

  6. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (LHG)” is a liquid containing one or more of the products listed in Table 127.005 of 33 CFR 127.005... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  8. 75 FR 67620 - Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports... Coast Guard is establishing temporary security zones on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, Delta...; Increase of Security Zones under 33 CFR 165.1183 from 100 to 500 yards; San Francisco Bay, Delta...

  9. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  10. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  11. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  12. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  13. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  14. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  15. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  16. Acid rain said to threaten Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-29

    A report on April 25, 1988 by the Environmental Defense Fund blames acid rain for pollution of Chesapeake Bay. The nitrates in the rain are reported to account for 25% of the nitrogen load of the bay. This increases the acidity of the bay, thereby acting as a fertilizer to promote algal growth. It is postulated that acid rain contributes as much nitrogen to the bay as point sources, which include raw sewage and industrial plants.

  17. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  18. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  19. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  20. 33 CFR 117.871 - Coos Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coos Bay. 117.871 Section 117.871 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.871 Coos Bay. The draw of the Port of Coos Bay railroad...

  1. 33 CFR 117.871 - Coos Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coos Bay. 117.871 Section 117.871 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.871 Coos Bay. The draw of the Port of Coos Bay railroad...

  2. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Bay. 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay. The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through December... draw of the Bayview (SR 42/57) Bridge, mile 3.0 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101...

  4. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  5. 33 CFR 117.871 - Coos Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coos Bay. 117.871 Section 117.871 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.871 Coos Bay. The draw of the Port of Coos Bay railroad...

  6. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through December... draw of the Bayview (SR 42/57) Bridge, mile 3.0 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March... passage. (c) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge at Mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall operate as...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  8. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  9. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  10. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  11. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  12. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  13. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Short Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency. Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial…

  14. Private School Diversity in Denmark's National Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2008-01-01

    The voucher system in Denmark combines unrestricted generous subsidies with substantial autonomy of private schools as to schedule and teaching methods. This has produced a private school sector with a wide variety of school types. This paper uses data on eight cohorts of students (over 510,000 individuals) to compare educational attainment in…

  15. University Governance in Denmark: From Democracy to Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a Danish research council-funded project aimed at exploring a comprehensive package of management reforms in higher education instituted in Denmark since 2003. The reforms attempt to change not only the way institutions are governed but the very notion of democracy and engagement in higher education. In short,…

  16. Global English and Local Language Policies: What Denmark Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the mythology and imagery underpinning global English, the many labels used to describe English, and the transition from an imperialist language into one that meshes with ongoing processes of Europeanization and Americanization, largely through the influence of transnational corporations. Implications are drawn for Danish, in Denmark, a…

  17. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  18. Day Care for Children in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leira, Arnlaug

    Based on information gathered in 1986, this report describes day care in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The focus of the report is on structural aspects of day care, including provision, management and finances, and questions concerning supply, demand, and distribution. Part I provides an introduction to the report and discusses the Scandinavian…

  19. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  20. The Development of Educational Accountability in China and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Zou, Yihuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the concept of accountability has attracted more and more attention in public governance and management. The management of education is no exception. This article presents and discusses the evolution and current status of educational accountability in two different national contexts, China and Denmark. Two main sectors of…

  1. Guidance for Older Workers in Denmark and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…

  2. Comparing Pedagogy in Mathematics in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick; Dorf, Hans; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein's pedagogic discourse…

  3. Alternative Approaches to Financing Lifelong Learning. Country Report: Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurzburg, Gregory

    One of the main strategies for achieving lifelong learning objectives in Denmark has been to steadily shore up and improve the efficiency of the institutional arrangements for adult learning and to progressively strengthen the arrangements for financing it. Because there has been no attempt to create totally new structures or programs, the trends…

  4. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  5. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  6. Revised circulation scheme north of the Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Våge, Kjetil; Pickart, Robert S.; Spall, Michael A.; Moore, G. W. K.; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Torres, Daniel J.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.

    2013-09-01

    The circulation and water mass transports north of the Denmark Strait are investigated using recently collected and historical in situ data along with an idealized numerical model and atmospheric reanalysis fields. Emphasis is placed on the pathways of dense water feeding the Denmark Strait Overflow Water plume as well as the upper-layer circulation of freshwater. It is found that the East Greenland Current (EGC) bifurcates at the northern end of the Blosseville Basin, some 450 km upstream of the Denmark Strait, advecting overflow water and surface freshwater away from the boundary. This “separated EGC” flows southward adjacent to the previously identified North Icelandic Jet, indicating that approximately 70% of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water approaches the sill along the Iceland continental slope. Roughly a quarter of the freshwater transport of the EGC is diverted offshore via the bifurcation. Two hypotheses are examined to explain the existence of the separated EGC. The atmospheric fields demonstrate that flow distortion due to the orography of Greenland imparts significant vorticity into the ocean in this region. The negative wind stress curl, together with the closed bathymetric contours of the Blosseville Basin, is conducive for spinning up an anti-cyclonic gyre whose offshore branch could represent the separated EGC. An idealized numerical simulation suggests instead that the current is primarily eddy-forced. In particular, baroclinic instability of the model EGC spawns large anti-cyclones that migrate offshore and coalesce upon reaching the Iceland continental slope, resulting in the separated EGC. Regardless of the formation mechanism, the recently obtained shipboard data and historical hydrography both indicate that the separated EGC is a permanent feature of the circulation north of the Denmark Strait.

  7. Sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Oksuzyan, A; Shkolnikova, M; Vaupel, J W; Christensen, K; Shkolnikov, V M

    2014-04-01

    In high income countries females outlive men, although they generally report worse health, the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. Russia has one of the world's largest sex difference in life expectancy with a male disadvantage of more than 10 years. We compare components of the paradox between Denmark and Moscow by examining sex differences in mortality and several health measures. The Human Mortality Database and the Russian Fertility and Mortality Database were used to examine sex differences in all-cause death rates in Denmark, Russia, and Moscow in 2007-2008. Self-reported health data were obtained from the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (n = 4,314), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (n = 4,731), and the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (n = 1,800). In both Moscow and Denmark there was a consistent female advantage at ages 55-89 years in survival and a male advantage in self-rated health, physical functioning, and depression symptomatology. Only on cognitive tests males performed similarly to or worse than women. Nevertheless, Muscovite males had more than twice higher mortality at ages 55-69 years compared to Muscovite women, almost double the ratio in Denmark. The present study showed that despite similar directions of sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark, the male-female health-survival paradox is very pronounced in Moscow suggesting a stronger sex-specific disconnect between health indicators and mortality among middle-aged and young-old Muscovites. PMID:24668060

  8. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  9. State of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiernan, G.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The US EPA undertook a six year study of the Chesapeake Bay-the US's largest estuary, as an example of the plight of estuarine and coastal waters where population growth and development, alteration of habitats, and discharge of pollutants have resulted in degrading environmental quality and productivity. This article discusses some of the results of the EPA's study.

  10. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  11. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  12. Denmark. A Study of the Educational System of Denmark and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions in the United States. PIER World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolston, Valerie A.; Dickey, Karlene N.

    This volume offers a full country study of the structure and content of the educational system of Denmark, together with a formal set of placement recommendations for Danish students wishing to study in the United States. Chapter 1 introduces the volume with descriptions of Denmark and its people, government, the government's role in education,…

  13. Recent estuarine deposits, Chesapeake Bay and Apalachicola Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Estuarine facies are not easily discernible in the ancient record, because they represent a transition stage between fluvial and marine deposits. Modern estuarine sediments, nevertheless, are widespread because of the ongoing marine transgression. This widespread occurrence indicates that, during a highstand, estuaries are important centers for deposition of sediments shed from the continents. Sedimentologic studies have been made of 2 major estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (the largest US estuary) and Apalachicola Bay (estuary of the largest river in Florida). A detailed sediment budget for the Chesapeake, using radiotracers, clay mineralogy, magnetic stratigraphy, and other methods, demonstrates that the estuary is filling rapidly with sediment. Its remaining sedimentologic lifetime can be measured in centuries. Most of this filling has come at the expense of shoreline erosion. The rate of sedimentation, as measured by C-14, Pb-210, and Cs-137, has accelerated sharply over the past 2 centuries, from a few millimeters per year to present rates of a few centimeters per year. Sediment trapping effectiveness of the Chesapeake is nearly 100%. For Apalachicola Bay, the filling rate has been slower, although it appears to be nearly as efficient in retaining sediment. It has undergone a comparable change in sedimentation rates and sources over the past few centuries, as shown by magnetic stratigraphy and clay mineralogy. Given favorable conditions, such estuaries might be expected to contribute relatively thin but areally extensive bodies of fine-grained sediment to the rock record.

  14. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.

  15. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Smith, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%–99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%–98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1 from geese in North America. PMID:26584356

  16. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address bn@geus.dk The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  17. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by Statistics Denmark using the total birth cohort of all children born in 1984. The response rate was 63% leaving a total effective sample size of 2980. A structured residential or telephone interview enquired about a range of respondents maltreatment experiences. Results: Maltreatment is experienced by a significant proportion of Danish children. The reported prevalence rates were; physical neglect (3.0%), emotional abuse (5.2%), physical abuse (5.4%) and sexual abuse (3.4%). All trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of females compared to males with the exception of physical abuse and all trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of children given child-protection status. Conclusions: Female children and children who are given child protection status are those most at risk for experiencing maltreatment in Denmark. However, variability in prevalence rates of maltreatment across studies is problematic. Methodological variations and variation in abuse definitions may be partly attributable. PMID:24155769

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  19. Data on existing wind energy converters in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerregaard, E. T. D.; Jensen, S. A.; Paulsen, U. S.

    The aim of this project has been to collect available data on existing wind energy converters (WEC) in Denmark. They have been collected on the basis of a general data sheet developed by ERA, UK, for common use by all EEC-participants in similar data collection projects in their respective countries. Per 1st January 1983 there were about 734 wind mills in operation in Denmark. The number of machines included in this project is 47, which represent different types with rated power between 3 kW and 2000 kW. Approximately half of the types reported are commercially available today. Different designs of wind turbines are represented, but the main part of the machines is a stall-regulated type with a three-bladed rotor and fixed blades placed upwind of the tower. The most common way of energy conversion is by means of one or two generators connected to the electric grid. Measured power curve characteristics are available for some of the machines, and the annual energy production has in those cases been calculated as a function of the annual mean wind speed. The present report contains a description of the procedure that has been used for the collection of the available data, a few remarks concerning the quality of the data, and in addition some general characteristics of the status of wind energy application in Denmark.

  20. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Mortensen, Laust H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2016-04-15

    An estimated 11%-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies result in spontaneous abortion. The literature finds elevated risk of spontaneous abortion among women who report adverse financial life events. This work suggests that, at the population level, national economic decline-an ambient and plausibly unexpected stressor-will precede an increase in spontaneous abortion. We tested this hypothesis using high-quality information on pregnancy and spontaneous loss for all women in Denmark. We applied time-series methods to monthly counts of clinically detected spontaneous abortions (n = 157,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded by 1 month a rise in the number of spontaneous abortions (β = 33.19 losses/month, 95% confidence interval: 8.71, 57.67). An attendant analysis that used consumption of durable household goods as an indicator of financial insecurity supported the inference from our main test. Changes over time in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion. PMID:27009344

  1. Outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona caused by datterino tomatoes, Denmark, 2011.

    PubMed

    Müller, L; Kjelsø, C; Frank, C; Jensen, T; Torpdahl, M; Søborg, B; Dorleans, F; Rabsch, W; Prager, R; Gossner, C M; Ethelberg, S

    2016-10-01

    In September 2011, a patient cluster with a rare Salmonella serotype - Strathcona - was identified in Denmark. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. In addition to hypothesis-generating interviews, comparable analyses of patients' household shopping receipts were conducted. A matched case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls was conducted to test the findings of the hypothesis-generating investigation. In total, 43 cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark. Additionally, 28 cases were reported from Germany, Italy, Austria and Belgium. The results of the investigation in Denmark showed that 8/10 cases had bought datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. Illness was associated with a specific supermarket chain [matched odds ratio (mOR) 16·9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes (OR 28·1, 95% CI 2·6-302). Traceback investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer. This outbreak, linked to tomatoes, underpins the growing recognition of the broad source range of Salmonella and the ability of fresh produce to cause multi-country outbreaks. It is important to strengthen the international cooperation between public-health and food-safety authorities in the European Union to investigate future multi-country outbreaks in order to prevent illness from ready-to-eat produce.

  2. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wadmann, Sarah; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues. PMID:19340328

  3. [Prescription of medicines by two medical officers in Jutland in 1797. An analysis of the prescription practice of C.D. Hahn, Physicus of Aarhus Diocese, and K.N. Carstensen, Physicus of Aalborg Diocese].

    PubMed

    Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Wulff, Henrik R; Jungersen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    The concept of authorized medicines was introduced and defined by the Danish Government during the first half of the 17th century, thus establishing the basis for the sale of such medicines by pharmacists and their prescription by medical practitioners. The concept of authorized medicines was linked to the drug tariff in force until 1772 when the Pharmacopoea Danica was first published. The pharmacopoeia fixed the assortment of substances to be stocked by all pharmacies, including about 580 medicamenta simplicia, i.e. substances to be used as medicines or for the preparation of medicines, as well as 640 medicamenta composita, i.e. composite medicines already prepared. The pharmacopoeia helps us to understand the basis of medical therapy at that time, but it does not tell us which medicines were favoured in practice. However, two other sources prove valuable for that purpose. One of these is a large collection of patient records found in the archives of the Medical Museion of Copenhagen. These records were written by Christopher Detlev Hahn, medical officer in Aarhus from 1777 to 1817, and they include all his prescriptions to his patients. The other source is the prescription record from Aalborg Swan Pharmacy, kept in Jens Bang's House in Aalborg. It contains copies of prescriptions by Knud Nicolai Carstensen who was the medical officer in Aalborg from 1783 to 1802. We compared the prescription practice of these two doctors in the year 1797, studying 280 prescriptions by Hahn to 59 patients and 267 prescriptions by Carstensen to 137 patients. Both doctors used a large selection of the substances and preparations described in the pharmacopoeia, showing that they were familiar with that book, but usually they did not prescribe these substances and preparations as such. They individualized their treatment to suit each patient, composing medicines, whose ingredients, however, were mostly found in the pharmacopoeia. Medicines for internal use included drops, mixtures

  4. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  6. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  7. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  8. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  9. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  10. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina.... This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This... fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation is effective from 10 p.m. on July 2, 2011 through 10:20 p.m....

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  14. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking northwest - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  15. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  16. Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, north side of the bascule trusswork - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  17. 328. Caltrans, Photographer March 19, 1936 "WEST BAY". VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    328. Caltrans, Photographer March 19, 1936 "WEST BAY". VIEW OF DECK TRUSS, SUSPENSION BRIDGE, AND SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 6-2075 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking southeast, north side of structure - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  19. Real World: NASA and the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how NASA uses Earth observing satellites to monitor conditions in the Chesapeake Bay over time. Information about pollution, eutrophication, land cover and watershed runoff helps water manage...

  20. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  1. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... restore, enhance, and conserve soil, air, and related resources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed through the implementation of conservation practices. These conservation practices reduce soil erosion...

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  3. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... Coast Guard is establishing a permanent special local regulation on Great South Bay, NY between...

  5. 76 FR 2085 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System; North Inlet-Winyah Bay, SC and San Francisco Bay, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... support of the Bay's growing population: Climate change, species interactions, water quality, and habitat...- Winyah Bay such as impacts from coastal and watershed development, climate events on coastal...

  6. MISR Views Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the Appalachian Mountains acquired on March 24, 2000 during Terra orbit 1417. The large image on the right was taken by the MISR camera viewing straight down (nadir). The series of smaller images, from top to bottom, respectively, were taken by cameras viewing 70.5 degrees forward, 45.6 degrees forward, 45.6 degrees aftward, and 70.5 degrees aftward of nadir. These images cover the environs of Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond. Differences in brightness, color, and contrast as a function of view angle are visible over both land and water. Scientists are using MISR data to monitor changes in clouds, Earth's surface, and pollution particles in the air, and to assess their impact on climate. North is toward the top.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  7. JUVENILE BAY SCALLOP (ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS) HABITAT PREFERENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are known to be important for maintaining populations of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), but data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to understand the role of habitat alteration in th...

  8. Turning the tide: Saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T.; Eichbaum, W.

    1991-07-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most productive and important ecosystems on earth, and as such is a model for other estuaries facing the demands of commerce, tourism, transportation, recreation, and other uses. This book presents a comprehensive look at two decades of efforts to save the bay, outlining which methods have worked and which have not.

  9. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  10. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  11. 33 CFR 117.597 - Dorchester Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dorchester Bay. 117.597 Section 117.597 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.597 Dorchester Bay. The draw...

  12. 33 CFR 117.597 - Dorchester Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dorchester Bay. 117.597 Section 117.597 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.597 Dorchester Bay. The draw...

  13. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  14. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  15. 33 CFR 117.597 - Dorchester Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dorchester Bay. 117.597 Section 117.597 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.597 Dorchester Bay. The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  17. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  18. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  19. Chesapeake Bay Program: Point-Source Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Macknis, J.

    1988-08-01

    The atlas contains pollutant loadings from Chesapeake Bay watershed municipal and industrial point sources drawn from the Chesapeake Bay Program computerized data base. Nutrient and toxic discharges are included. Effluent data are averaged for the calendar year 1985. Detailed information is presented in 23 tables and 14 figures.

  20. Spatial emission modelling for residential wood combustion in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Brandt, Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major contributor to atmospheric pollution especially for particulate matter. Air pollution has significant impact on human health, and it is therefore important to know the human exposure. For this purpose, it is necessary with a detailed high resolution spatial distribution of emissions. In previous studies as well as in the model previously used in Denmark, the spatial resolution is limited, e.g. municipality or county level. Further, in many cases models are mainly relying on population density data as the spatial proxy for distributing the emissions. This paper describes the new Danish model for high resolution spatial distribution of emissions from RWC to air. The new spatial emission model is based on information regarding building type, and primary and supplementary heating installations from the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR), which holds detailed data for all buildings in Denmark. The new model provides a much more accurate distribution of emissions than the previous model used in Denmark, as the resolution has been increased from municipality level to a 1 km × 1 km resolution, and the distribution key has been significantly improved so that it no longer puts an excessive weight on population density. The new model has been verified for the city of Copenhagen, where emissions estimated using both the previous and the new model have been compared to the emissions estimated in a case study. This comparison shows that the new model with the developed weighting factors (76 ton PM2.5) is in good agreement with the case study (95 ton PM2.5), and that the new model has improved the spatial emission distribution significantly compared to the previous model (284 ton PM2.5). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was done to illustrate the impact of the weighting factors on the result, showing that the new model independently of the weighting factors chosen produce a more accurate result than the old model.

  1. Sonar Probing in Narragansett Bay.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, H E; Payson, H; Yules, J; Dillon, W

    1964-12-11

    A 12-kilocycle pulsed transducer, with a 0.1 millisecond duration, is used for tracing a sub-bottom rock profile in Narragansett Bay. The short sonar pulse of high energy is produced by a capacitor discharge. Over-the-side installation of the transducer permits the use of any boat or ship for the survey work. Coherent presentation of the data on a wet paper recorder gives an instantaneous visual record. A cross a north-south rock formation, a recurring rise and fall of the rock is shown throughout the sedimentary deposit.

  2. The development of policy on denizens in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, C

    1992-01-01

    "This article offers an analysis of Danish migration policy from 1960-90. The framework employed is the Swedish sociologist Thomas Hammar's concentric 'gate' model and his concept of 'denizens'. Non-Danish citizens' access to Danish society is regulated by 'gates' and security and rights increase in proportion with the number of 'gates' passed, culminating in naturalisation and full social, legal and political rights. After an initial profile of the various groups of foreigners living in Denmark, I discuss the development of policy measures regulating immigration with particular reference to the 'Law for Foreigners'. Finally I turn to the critical issue of policy on denizens." PMID:12179811

  3. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  4. The Non-Shock of PIAAC--Tracing the Discursive Effects of PIAAC in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Larson, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first PIAAC survey were published in October 2013. In the case of Denmark, the survey showed that Denmark is below the OECD average when it comes to reading skills, above average with regards to numeracy and on average with regards to IT skills. In this paper we analyse how the PIAAC results were covered by the media and how…

  5. The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

  6. L3 English Acquisition in Denmark and Greenland: Gender-Related Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In…

  7. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  8. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R.; Hobbs, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  9. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Tine; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Hoffmann, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9–10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0–25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results. PMID:27632433

  10. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

  11. Modelling and implementing electronic health records in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Knut; Bruun-Rasmussen, Morten; Vingtoft, Søren; Andersen, Stig Kjaer; Nøhr, Christian

    2005-03-01

    The Danish Health IT strategy [Danish Ministry of Interior and Health, National Strategy for IT in the Health Sector 2003-2007, Copenhagen, 2003 (in Danish). http://www.im.dk/publikationer/itstrategi/itstrategi.pdf. notes that integration between electronic health records (EHR) systems has a high priority. A prerequisite for real integration and semantic interoperability is agreement of the data content and the information models. The National Board of Health is working on a common model for EHR, and its adoption is now being promoted through pilot projects. At the same time, several development and implementation projects are taking place at a regional level. These EHRs are built on information models from different vendors and are based on different integration platforms. The Danish EHR observatory, which has been monitoring the development of EHRs in Denmark since 1998, has analysed the challenges of using different information models and integration platforms. This paper also maps the development in Denmark to the new paradigms in modelling techniques and integration technology. PMID:15694627

  12. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Tine; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Hoffmann, Steen

    2016-09-01

    We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0-25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results. PMID:27632433

  13. Comparison of cohort smoking intensities in Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Barendregt, Jan J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the general framework of the smoking epidemic. METHODS: We use lung cancer mortality as an indicator for smoking intensity and employ an age-cohort model to accommodate the long-lasting and cumulative effects. RESULTS: Dutch males have higher risks than Danish males, but the risks for the younger cohorts have been declining faster in the Netherlands than in Denmark. Danish women have about twice the risk of Dutch women, and in both countries the risks for the younger cohorts are increasing. The smoking epidemic began at about the same time in Denmark and the Netherlands. Dutch males, however, seem to have smoked more but to have given up smoking more quickly than Danish males. Danish females were quicker to take up smoking than Dutch females. CONCLUSIONS: Within the general framework of the smoking epidemic, differences in timing and levels can produce large differences between countries. For the purposes of assessing smoking-related risks, including projections, the smoking epidemic framework therefore has to be tailored to each study population. PMID:11884970

  14. 10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH CENTER BAY AND INTO NORTHEAST BAY. NOTE TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANE OVERHEAD AND SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS ON RIGHT AND LEFT. NOTE ALSO THE DIFFERENCE IN TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS FOR SIDE BAYS AND CENTER BAY. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN SIDE BAYS (CENTER FOREGROUND AND FAR BACKGROUND) ARE HOWE TRUSSES WITH WOOD DIAGONALS AND STEEL VERTICALS. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN CENTER BAY (MID BACKGROUND) ARE PRATT TRUSSES WITH WOOD VERTICALS AND DIAGONALS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, G. S.; Gadgil, S.; Hareesh Kumar, P. V.; Kalsi, S. R.; Madhusoodanan, P.; Murty, V. S. N.; Prasada Rao, C. V. K.; Babu, V. Ramesh; Rao, L. V. G.; Rao, R. R.; Ravichandran, M.; Reddy, K. G.; Sanjeeva Rao, P.; Sengupta, D.; Sikka, D. R.; Swain, J.; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2001-10-01

    The first observational experiment under the Indian Climate Research Programme, called the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX), was carried out during July-August 1999. BOBMEX was aimed at measurements of important variables of the atmosphere, ocean, and their interface to gain deeper insight into some of the processes that govern the variability of organized convection over the bay. Simultaneous time series observations were carried out in the northern and southern Bay of Bengal from ships and moored buoys. About 80 scientists from 15 different institutions in India collaborated during BOBMEX to make observations in most-hostile conditions of the raging monsoon. In this paper, the objectives and the design of BOBMEX are described and some initial results presented. During the BOBMEX field phase there were several active spells of convection over the bay, separated by weak spells. Observation with high-resolution radiosondes, launched for the first time over the northern bay, showed that the magnitudes of the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective inhibition energy were comparable to those for the atmosphere over the west Pacific warm pool. CAPE decreased by 2-3 kJ kg-1 following convection, and recovered in a time period of 1-2 days. The surface wind speed was generally higher than 8 m s-1. The thermohaline structure as well as its time evolution during the BOBMEX field phase were found to be different in the northern bay than in the southern bay. Over both the regions, the SST decreased during rain events and increased in cloud-free conditions. Over the season as a whole, the upper-layer salinity decreased for the north bay and increased for the south bay. The variation in SST during 1999 was found to be of smaller amplitude than in 1998. Further analysis of the surface fluxes and currents is expected to give insight into the nature of coupling.

  16. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  17. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  18. 77 FR 38005 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Biloxi Bay Fireworks event in Biloxi Bay,...

  19. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  2. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  3. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  4. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  5. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  6. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  7. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters extending... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California....

  8. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters extending... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California....

  9. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  10. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Magnetic survey on the Æbelhold Cloister (Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T.; Smekalov, S.

    2003-04-01

    In September 2002 archaeophysical group of Saint-Petersburg State University carried out magnetic survey on the territory around the excavated part of the Æbelholt cloister (13th - 16th centuries) in Northern Sealand, Denmark. Because the protected area is only around the main buildings, one could suppose that there are other structures in the surrounding fields. There are many places with concentrations of brick fragments on the surface of ploughed earth. The magnetic map, which was obtained on the area (1.93 ha), surrounding the territory of the Æbelholt Cloister from the north, west and east. There are a lot of anomalies of different character there, which evidence about the presence of various archaeological structures, connected to the monastery. Among them it should be noted: 1. Part of rectangular shape structure with one of the sides about 45 m long, which is possible to reveal by the rows of weak local positive anomalies from postholes and could interpret as a wooden fence of a big farm. 2. Many local positive anomalies concentrated at the southern-eastern corner of this possible rectangular “farm’s yard”, probably from the wooden house situated there. 3. The big anomalous zone with very “mosaic” structure. It consists of a lot of positive and negative rather strong anomalies, which is possible to interpret it as ruins of a brick building. 4. Three strong and very characteristic magnetic anomalies from three pottery kilns. These anomalies have big positive parts and smaller negative parts just to the north of the positive ones. 5. Several long positive anomalies, which one could interpret as channels, filled now with earth. 6. The small rectangular building (about 5 x 5 sq. m) with rather strong positive anomalies (up to 20 nT and more) from the walls. At the middle of this building is a small positive anomaly. It is possible to suppose, that this building is a smithy. The positive anomalies are caused by the concentration of hammer scale

  12. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  13. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP. PMID:23884906

  14. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  15. Pb distribution and translocation in Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Su, Chang; Gao, Zhenhui; Sun, Peiyan; Cao, Lixin

    2008-08-01

    The trends of distribution, translocation and seasonal change of heavy metal Pb were studied based on the surface and bottom water sampling in Jiaozhou Bay in 1979, and compared with those in 1990’s. The results showed that the source of Pb in the bay was from wastewater and sewage in the east of Jiaozhou Bay from ocean vessels. Pb concentration was higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn, and remained stable through sedimentation in the bottom layer. The overall water quality was good in 1970’s. Compared with the environmental monitoring data of 1995 1999, Pb pollution had become serious. Therefore, more efforts should be made to protect the bay from Pb pollution.

  16. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  17. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  18. The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, John . E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik

    2005-07-01

    In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

  19. Health hazards to waste management workers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, T

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the Danish investigations of garbage recycling workers (GRW) in the beginning of the 90ties. The studies are summarized here showing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, from occupational asthma to gastrointestinal and skin symptoms. From the Danish experiences it seems that under normal circumstances with a good hygiene and use of the proper protective equipment by an educated work force, garbage handling induces a small but significant risk of occupational asthma. The majority of the asthma cases we have experienced in Denmark have been due to a poor perception of the risks related to organic dust exposure. However, there is still an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as chest tightness and toxic alveolitis. Furthermore gastrointestinal and skin symptoms are more frequent among GRW compared to other blue-collar workers.

  20. Improving measurement of Chesapeake Bay's dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In the 1930s, researchers first noticed that the Chesapeake Bay had a dead zone, an expanse of water with drastically reduced concentrations of oxygen. In the 1980s, hypoxia—low-oxygen conditions—gave way in some places to anoxia—a near-total depletion of dissolved oxygen. A lack of oxygen makes the water inhospitable for many marine organisms, and the Chesapeake Bay is the focus of major ecosystem rehabilitation efforts.

  1. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  2. Chesapeake Bay atmospheric deposition study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Clark, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    The results of the Chesapeake Bay Atmospheric Deposition Study (CBADS) are presented and discussed relative to the issues raised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Great Waters Program. The primary objective of the CBADS network was to provide the best possible estimates of total, annual atmospheric loadings of a variety of trace elements and organic contaminants directly to the surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay.

  3. Acceptance and expectance: Cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tine; Crespigny, Charlotte De; Delmar, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people's views of “normal” use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16–20; 21–34; 35–44; 45–64; and 65–82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27). Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people's acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people's perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages, and regularly leads to consumption above the recommended levels for low risk to health. This calls for public health attention that promotes low risk drinking in the social context and aims to prevent and reduce serious alcohol-related harm and health problems across the population. PMID:22065980

  4. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  5. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  6. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  7. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI, in the Federal Register (77 FR 21890). We did not receive any... final rule was published on October 24, 2005 in the Federal Register (70 FR 61380) to allow for one... published on June 5, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 26954), effective from June 1, 2009 to November...

  8. Bay BC's: A Multidisciplinary Approach To Teaching about the Chesapeake Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Britt Eckhardt

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in North America, providing food and habitat for an abundance of fish and wildlife. This booklet provides lesson plans for lower elementary students introducing the Chesapeake, its inhabitants, and pollution problems, and suggesting ways that individuals can contribute to the Bay's restoration. Background…

  9. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  10. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The...) on May 20, 2013 (78 FR 29289). The Coast Guard received no comments on that NPRM and as such, no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego,...

  11. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  12. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego,...

  13. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show....

  14. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  15. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  16. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  17. Habitat requirements for Chesapeake Bay living resources. Chesapeake Bay Program Agreement Commitment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report provides guidance, along with EPA Water Quality Criteria and State Water Quality Standards and other information, to help refine and improve Chesapeake Bay Agreement programs designed to provide for the restoration and protection of living resources, their habitats, and ecological relationships. The Living Resources Task Force, an ad hoc workgroup of the Chesapeake Bay Program, was charged by the Chesapeake Bay Implementation Committee to develop an approach to define habitat objectives for the living resources of the Bay. The report was produced by the Task Force to establish a technically defensible approach in setting regional habitat objectives for Chesapeake Bay by initially assembling habitat requirement for individual target species. It summarizes the results of the Task Force efforts to date and provides the basis for future refinement of the habitat objectives approach.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Historical and Prehistorical Record of Tampa Bay Environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    To study how Tampa Bay, Florida, has changed over time, the prehistorical conditions and natural variations in the bay environment are being evaluated. These variations can be tracked by examining the sediments that have accumulated in and around the bay. The prehistorical record, which pre-dates settlers' arrival in the Tampa Bay area around 1850, provides a baseline with which to compare and evaluate the magnitude and effects of sea-level, climate, biological, geochemical, and man-made changes. These data also are valuable for planning and conducting projects aimed at restoring wetlands and other estuarine habitats to their original state. In addition, the data provide a basis for judging efforts to improve the health of the bay.

  19. Army initiatives in the Chesapeake Bay: Case studies of successful partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, S.; Merkel, H.

    1997-08-01

    The Army maintains 19 installations within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In response to the Bay`s declining water quality and living resources and to the 1983 Chesapeake Bay Agreement which set forth Bay restoration goals and initiatives, the Department of Defense (DoD) became formally involved in the Bay`s restoration effort in 1984 with the signing of the EPA/DoD Chesapeake Bay Initiative--A Joint Resolution on Pollution Abatement in the Chesapeake Bay. This agreement eventually led to the Army`s development of the Chesapeake Bay Initiative (CBI) Program in 1990, which formally organized Army installation efforts in the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay.

  20. Study on headland-bay sandy coast stability in South China coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ji-Tao; Chen, Zi-Shen

    2011-03-01

    Headland-bay beach equilibrium planform has been a crucial problem abroad to long-term sandy beach evolution and stabilization, extensively applied to forecast long-term coastal erosion evolvement and the influences of coastal engineering as well as long-term coastal management and protection. However, little concern focuses on this in China. The parabolic relationship is the most widely used empirical relationship for determining the static equilibrium shape of headland-bay beaches. This paper utilizes the relation to predict and classify 31 headland-bay beaches and concludes that these bays cannot achieve the ultimate static equilibrium planform in South China. The empirical bay equation can morphologically estimate beach stabilization state, but it is just a referential predictable means and is difficult to evaluate headland-bay shoreline movements in years and decades. By using Digital Shoreline Analysis System suggested by USGS, the rates of shoreline recession and accretion of these different headland-bay beaches are quantitatively calculated from 1990 to 2000. The conclusions of this paper include that (a) most of these 31 bays maintain relatively stable and the rates of erosion and accretion are relatively large with the impact of man-made constructions on estuarine within these bays from 1990 to 2000; (b) two bays, Haimen Bay and Hailingshan Bay, originally in the quasi-static equilibrium planform determined by the parabolic bay shape equation, have been unstable by the influence of coastal engineering; and (c) these 31 bays have different recession and accretion characters occurring in some bays and some segments. On the one hand, some bays totally exhibit accretion, but some bays show erosion on the whole. Shanwei Bay, Houmen Bay, Pinghai Bay and Yazhou Bay have the similar planforms, characterized by less accretion on the sheltering segment and bigger accretion on the transitional and tangential segments. On the other hand, different segments of some

  1. Bayes Estimators for Phylogenetic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, P. M.; Li, W.; Haws, D.; Friedrich, T.; Liu, J.; Yoshida, R.

    2011-01-01

    Tree reconstruction methods are often judged by their accuracy, measured by how close they get to the true tree. Yet, most reconstruction methods like maximum likelihood (ML) do not explicitly maximize this accuracy. To address this problem, we propose a Bayesian solution. Given tree samples, we propose finding the tree estimate that is closest on average to the samples. This “median” tree is known as the Bayes estimator (BE). The BE literally maximizes posterior expected accuracy, measured in terms of closeness (distance) to the true tree. We discuss a unified framework of BE trees, focusing especially on tree distances that are expressible as squared euclidean distances. Notable examples include Robinson–Foulds (RF) distance, quartet distance, and squared path difference. Using both simulated and real data, we show that BEs can be estimated in practice by hill-climbing. In our simulation, we find that BEs tend to be closer to the true tree, compared with ML and neighbor joining. In particular, the BE under squared path difference tends to perform well in terms of both path difference and RF distances. PMID:21471560

  2. Tsunami Hazards in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L.; Borrero, J.; Patton, J.

    2004-12-01

    A prerequisite to probabilistic hazard assessment is a historic event database and identification of all potential sources. We review published and unpublished material to compile a history of tsunami events, peak tsunami heights and tsunami source regions for San Francisco Bay. Since 1850, 51 credible tsunamis have been recorded or observed within the San Francisco Bay area, all but 6 teletsunamis. Only the tsunamis generated by the 1960 Chile earthquake and the 1964 Alaska earthquake caused damage in San Francisco Bay. Both events are characterized by long duration (12 hours) short period oscillations (about 30 minutes) attributed to near-resonance within the Bay (Wilson and Torum, 1968). Magoon (1966) developed an attenuation relation based on the 1960 and 1964 events and shows an amplitude decay by 50 percent of the Presidio value at Alameda and a 90 percent decrease at the northern and southern ends of the Bay. The 1964 tsunami was the most damaging historic event and caused about 177,000 (US dollars) in damages to boats and floating structures, with 1.13 m amplitude waves recorded at the Presidio. Six credible local tsunami events were observed between 1851 and 1906, four attributed to earthquake sources and two to landslides. The largest (0.6 m near Benicia) was caused by the 1898 Mare Island earthquake and is attributed to slip on the Rogers Creep fault. Garcia and Houston (1975) made return estimates for San Francisco Bay, considering only Alaska sources and estimated 100- and 500-year heights of 2.5 and 4.8 meters respectively at the Presidio. These values need to be reassessed in light of other credible teletsunami sources, particularly the Cascadia subduction zone, and local sources including step-overs on regional strike-slip faults and landslides within the bay. We present the results of numerical modeling runs to test Magoon's attenuation models and to compare local and teletsunami source regions.

  3. Lithospheric Architecture of the Hudson Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D.; Darbyshire, F.

    2009-05-01

    Hudson Bay is a vast inland sea that penetrates deeply into north-central Canada, forming a conspicuous element of the coastline and concealing several fundamental tectonic elements of North America, including most of the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson orogen (THO) and the Paleozoic Hudson Bay basin. The THO formed due to a collision between two Archean domains, the Superior and Churchill Provinces of the Canadian Shield, and is similar in scale and tectonic style to the modern Himalayan-Karakorum orogen. Tectonic reconstructions suggest that the lobate shape of the indentor (Superior Province) formed an orogenic template that exerted a persistent influence on the tectonic evolution of the region, resulting in anomalous preservation of juvenile crustal material. Based on analysis of gravity and magnetic data, we propose a model in which juvenile crust in the southeastern part of Hudson Bay formed within an island-arc setting proximal to the Superior Province, in contrast to the Reindeer Zone of Saskatchewan and Manitoba which accreted first to the Churchill Province. Thick, cold and refractory lithosphere that underlies the Bay is well imaged by surface-wave studies and comprises a large component of the cratonic mantle keel that forms the nucleus of the North American continent. The existence of an unusually thick mantle root beneath Hudson Bay indicates that subduction and collision are root-forming (or at least root-preserving) processes. Although the Hudson Bay basin is the largest by surface area of four major intracratonic basins in North America, it is also the shallowest. Available evidence suggests that basin subsidence may have been triggered by eclogitization of crust that was previously thickened during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. Relatively stiff Early Paleozoic lithosphere may have inhibited subsidence of the Hudson Bay basin relative to other basins of similar age in North America.

  4. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  5. Preliminary analysis of cores from north San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allison, Dan; Hampton, Margaret; Jaffe, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    In March 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment cores in the study area to determine the location of mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris. The study area (Figure 1) comprises 400 km2 and consists of San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay, both of which are part of the San Francisco Bay estuary. Grizzly Bay, a subembayment of Suisun Bay, is also part of the study area. For the purpose of this report the term Suisun Bay will be used collectively for both areas. The present channel system in Suisun Bay is composed of three channels that flow through the bay. The primary channel runs in the southern section of Suisun Bay. A smaller channel flows between Roe Island and Ryer Island. The deepest channel flows through Suisun Cutoff, north of Ryer Island, and past Grizzly Bay. All three channels join at Carquinez Strait where they continue through the southern section of San Pablo Bay, and into San Francisco Bay. The average depths in San Pablo and Suisun Bays at mean sea level are 3.7 m and 5.8 m, respectively (Smith et al., 2002).

  6. Integrated hydrological SVAT model for climate change studies in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerup, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    In a major Danish funded research project (www.hyacints.dk) a coupling is being established between the HIRHAM regional climate model code from Danish Meteorological Institute and the MIKE SHE distributed hydrological model code from DHI. The linkage between those two codes is a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme, which is a module of MIKE SHE. The coupled model will be established for the entire country of Denmark (43,000 km2 land area) where a MIKE SHE based hydrological model already exists (Henriksen et al., 2003, 2008). The present paper presents the MIKE SHE SVAT module and the methodology used for parameterising and calibrating the MIKE SHE SVAT module for use throughout the country. As SVAT models previously typically have been tested for research field sites with comprehensive data on energy fluxes, soil and vegetation data, the major challenge lies in parameterisation of the model when only ordinary data exist. For this purpose annual variations of vegetation characteristics (Leaf Area Index (LAI), Crop height, Root depth and the surface albedo) for different combinations of soil profiles and vegetation types have been simulated by use of the soil plant atmosphere model Daisy (Hansen et al., 1990; Abrahamsen and Hansen, 2000) has been applied. The MIKE SHE SVAT using Daisy generated surface/soil properties model has been calibrated against existing data on groundwater heads and river discharges. Simulation results in form of evapotranspiration and percolation are compared to the existing MIKE SHE model and to observations. To analyse the use of the SVAT model in climate change impact assessments data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com/) have been analysed to assess the impacts on reference evapotranspiration (calculated by the Makkink and the Penmann-Monteith equations) as well as on the individual elements in the Penmann-Monteith equation (radiation, wind speed, humidity and temperature). The differences on the

  7. Comparison of mid-bay and lateral station water quality data in the Chesapeake Bay mainstem: Chesapeake Bay program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Seasonal median water quality values were compared between stations in mid-Bay and lateral regions in seven east-west transects in the mainstem Chesapeake Bay. Comparisons were made over seven years, 1985-1991, for April-October surface layer medians of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, total suspended solids, chlorophyll a, Secchi depth, and salinity. Comparisons were also made using spring (March-May) and summer (June-September) medians of surface and bottom salinity and dissolved oxygen. Comparisons were made using difference plots of raw data, scatter plots of annual seasonal medians, and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test on annual seasonal medians. The graphical and statistical analyses confirmed each other. Correlation coefficients were also calculated between mid-Bay and lateral data series to estimate their degree of similarity over time, but could not be tested for statistical significance.

  8. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wiese Simonsen, K; Steentoft, A; Bernhoft, I M; Hels, T; Rasmussen, B S; Linnet, K

    2013-01-10

    This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18%) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit, which is 0.53g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphetamine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgonine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13%) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1% of seriously injured drivers

  9. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  10. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

  11. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific.

  12. 5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE HOT BAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE HOT BAY AND ATTACHED OPERATING GALLERIES ALONG THE WEST SIDE OF THE BAY. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR BAY & TAYLOR: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR - BAY & TAYLOR: View to northwest of the Bay and Taylor turntable. The gripman and conductor are turning the car around. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 19. GENERAL VIEW OF A BAY; LOOKING SSW. THE TALLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW OF A BAY; LOOKING SSW. THE TALLER B BAY (AND REMAINDER OF THE BUILDING) CAN BE SEEN BEYOND THE POSTS. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study combines the expertise of federal, state, and local partners to address some of the most pressing ecological problems of the Tampa Bay estuary. This project serves as a template for integrated research projects in other coastal ecosystems in the nation. The Tampa Bay Study focuses on the scientific needs of the Bay, as identified by resource managers.

  16. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  17. Luminescence dating of Holocene aeolian sand movement, Thy, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. S.; Clemmensen, L. B.

    2001-12-01

    We report on the application of optically stimulated luminescence dating to an investigation of the frequency of periods of aeolian sand movement and dune formation. On the coast of Thy, Holocene aeolian sediments, interleaved with peaty palaeosols, form some of the most complete successions known in western Denmark. Samples were taken from a coastal exposure, and an inland archaeological site. Dosimetry was based on laboratory gamma spectrometry, and quartz luminescence measurements used the single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol, and 470±30 nm stimulation. The sand samples cover an age ranging from about 100 years to 4500 years; the youngest dates give us confidence that the material was well bleached at deposition. Good agreement was obtained with the radiocarbon palaeosol ages. We identify three main periods of aeolian sand movement, starting at about 4200, 2700 and 900 years ago; at least during the latter two periods significant aeolian sand movement occurred. All three phases of aeolian activity were separated by long periods of stability and soil formation. A more recent episode of dune formation, restricted to the coast and beginning less than 200 years ago, may have been triggered by modern coastal erosion.

  18. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  19. A case of standardization? Implementing health promotion guidelines in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2016-09-01

    Guidelines are increasingly used in an effort to standardize and systematize health practices at the local level and to promote evidence-based practice. The implementation of guidelines frequently faces problems, however, and standardization processes may in general have other outcomes than the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion policies and interventions and were structured according to risk factors such as alcohol, smoking and physical activity. This article examines the process of implementation of the new Danish health promotion guidelines. The article is based on qualitative interviews and participant observation, focusing on the professional practices of health promotion officers in four local governments as well as the field of Danish health promotion more generally. The analysis highlights practices and episodes related to the implementation of the guidelines and takes inspiration from Timmermans and Epstein's sociology of standards and standardization. It remains an open question whether or not the guidelines lead to more standardized policies and interventions, but we suggest that the guidelines promote a risk factor-oriented approach as the dominant frame for knowledge, reasoning, decision making and priority setting in health promotion. We describe this process as a case of epistemic standardization. PMID:25912256

  20. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Zhang, Shujuan; Arneborg, Nils; Bredie, Wender L P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers. PMID:25053038

  1. A revised estimate of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Nuno; Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Larsen, Karin; Valdimarsson, Heðinn; Jónsson, Steingrímur

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow is a major contributor to the deep branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. It has now been monitored for two decades, using one or two moored acoustic current profilers deployed at or near the sill. We have recently verified that some of those instruments were affected by a low-velocity bias in the lower part of the water column. A serendipitous double deployment in the Faroe Bank Channel allowed us to develop a robust correction scheme for this bias. The implementation of the correction scheme leads to an increase of about 15% in the average strength of the overflow. The overflow transport was traditionally estimated from one or two profiles using a regression derived from a high resolution regional model. In the summer of 2014, an extended array using five moorings was deployed with the aim of better resolving the horizontal structure of the overflow plume, namely its extension towards the Greenland shelf. The resulting picture after recovery of the array in 2015 is of a very dynamic overflow, with the current structure stabilizing only when averaging over 10-15 days or longer. The improved instrumental coverage also allows a transport estimate based on observations alone. This new method, together with the bias correction, yields an increase of about 10% in the strength of the overflow, but a decrease in its transport variability. The latter is due to compensating changes in the different moorings that could not have been detected with the lower horizontal resolution previously used.

  2. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making.

  3. A survey of occupational hand eczema in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skoet, Rikke; Olsen, Jorn; Mathiesen, Bent; Iversen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Agner, Tove

    2004-10-01

    Occupational hand eczema (OHE) is the most frequently recognized work-related disease in Denmark and the annual cost to society is high. Understanding of the epidemiology of OHE is essential to be able to give appropriate recommendations for its prevention. The study comprised 758 persons, 490 females and 268 males with recognized OHE in the period October 2001 to November 2002. Data were obtained prospectively from the National Board of Industrial Industry Registry and from a self-administered questionnaire (response rate, 82%). The most frequently recognized diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), mainly caused by wet occupations. The proportion of occupational ICD was equal for males and females, 59.7% and 63.1%, respectively. The estimated rates of OHE were high for bakers, hairdressers and dental surgery assistants, and a high proportion of apprentices were found among hairdressers. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was low (16.4%) compared to previous studies among hand eczema patients. The prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in the study population was substantially higher among males than females, and the most frequent causes among males were allergy to chromium (leather exposure), rubber additives (gloves) and nickel due to exposure from work tools and metalworking industry. PMID:15500664

  4. End-Cretaceous Brachiopod Extinctions in the Chalk of Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surlyk, Finn; Bagge Johansen, Marianne

    1984-03-01

    The results of a detailed study of the brachiopods of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Denmark, Nye Klov, show an extinction pattern for this marine invertebrate group compatible with that reported for pelagic foraminifera and coccoliths and with the impact scenario. The extinction is abrupt, coinciding with the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. There is no warning in the form of decreasing density, decreasing diversity, or early extinction of specialized groups. The basal few meters of the Danian are almost devoid of brachiopods, and a Danian brachiopod fauna starts almost as abruptly as the Maastrichtian fauna disappeared. The new fauna is similar to the Maastrichtian as regards density and diversity, and at maximum six species are common to both stages. The northwest European Maastrichtian chalk is composed mainly of the remains of coccoliths and pelagic foraminifera. The mass extinction of these groups led to a total cessation of chalk production. The chalk is overlain by a thin clay bed deposited partly under anoxic conditions. This combination of anoxia and clay deposition coupled with a cessation of productivity led to the extinction of specialized groups such as the chalk brachiopods. The surviving species included forms that could survive in well-aerated shallow marine waters on substrates other than chalk.

  5. End-cretaceous brachiopod extinctions in the chalk of denmark.

    PubMed

    Surlyk, F; Johansen, M B

    1984-03-16

    The results of a detailed study of the brachiopods of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Denmark, Nye Klslashed circlev, show an extinction pattern for this marine invertebrate group compatible with that reported for pelagic foraminifera and coccoliths and with the impact scenario. The extinction is abrupt, coinciding with the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. There is no warning in the form of decreasing density, decreasing diversity, or early extinction of specialized groups. The basal few meters of the Danian are almost devoid of brachiopods, and a Danian brachiopod fauna starts almost as abruptly as the Maastrichtian fauna disappeared. The new fauna is similar to the Maastrichtian as regards density and diversity, and at maximum six species are common to both stages. The northwest European Masstrichtian chalk is composed mainly of the remains of coccoliths and pelagic foraminifera. The mass extinction of these groups led to a total cessation of chalk production. The chalk is overlain by a thin clay bed deposited partly under anoxic conditions. This combination of anoxia and clay deposition coupled with a cessation of productivity led to the extinction of specialized groups such as the chalk brachiopods. The surviving species included forms that could survive in well-aerated shallow marine waters on substrates other than chalk.

  6. [Cholera in Europe and Denmark in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bonderup, G

    1996-01-01

    There are several reasons for dealing with cholera in the 19th century: it acted as a spotlight throwing into sharp relief the darkest corners of society that are seldom mentioned in the sources. We learn about everyday life in large parts of the population, especially the poor. The fight against the disease also reveals how a society worked socially and politically. When cholera arrived in Europe -- the first time was in the 1830's and several times after that--the population reacted very violently, often by lynching doctors, while the authorities more or less let matters take their course. That is why international researchers have come to see cholera as a catalyst for the constantly latent social unrest following in the train of wars and revolutions. During my research on cholera in Denmark it became clear to me that matters were different here. There were no riots, nor any signs of social unrest--neither before nor after the outbreak of cholera. On the contrary, the authorities and the population joined forces against the epidemic. There was an atmosphere of mutual trust, and almost everybody turned out to be worthy of such trust. That points to a balanced society based on consensus, so cholera also functions as a detector of the fundamental structure of a society. PMID:11625139

  7. Chesapeake Bay sediment flux model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, D.M.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    Formulation and application of a predictive diagenetic sediment model are described in this report. The model considers two benthic sediment layers: a thin aerobic layer in contact with the water column and a thicker anaerobic layer. Processes represented include diagenesis, diffusion, particle mixing, and burial. Deposition of organic matter, water column concentrations, and temperature are treated as independent variables that influence sediment-water fluxes. Sediment oxygen demand and sediment-water fluxes of sulfide, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and silica are predicted. The model was calibrated using sediment-water flux observations collected in Chesapeake Bay 1985-1988. When independent variables were specified based on observations, the model correctly represented the time series of sediment-water fluxes observed at eight stations in the Bay and tributaries.... Chesapeake Bay, Models, Sediments, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrogen Eutrophication, Phosphorus.

  8. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  9. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  10. 77 FR 24838 - Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... ``Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 11423). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD AGENCY... waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland. This safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  11. Late Glacial and Postglacial Hudson Bay Sea Episode.

    PubMed

    Lee, H A

    1960-05-27

    Geological investigations, archeological studies, and radiocarbon dates indicate a similarity of events around Hudson Bay, commencing at the time Hudson Bay Basin was freed of glacier ice. The sea that then spread around Hudson Bay 7000 to 8000 years ago is here named "Tyrrell Sea." The subsequent rate of land emergence decreased exponentially.

  12. 76 FR 13611 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2011, Bay Gas Storage, LLC (Bay Gas) filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of...

  13. 19 CFR 7.11 - Guantanamo Bay Naval Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 7.11 Section 7.11... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.11 Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. Articles of foreign origin may enter the area (both land and water) of the Guantanamo...

  14. 19 CFR 7.11 - Guantanamo Bay Naval Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 7.11 Section 7.11... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.11 Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. Articles of foreign origin may enter the area (both land and water) of the Guantanamo...

  15. 78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA AGENCY... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the West Bay Bridge across West Bay, mile 1.2, Osterville, Massachusetts. Under this temporary deviation, the bridge may remain...

  16. 75 FR 61480 - Cobscook Bay OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in the Cobscook Bay, near the City of Eastport, Washington...

  17. 33 CFR 161.40 - Vessel Traffic Service Berwick Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay. 161.40 Section 161.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.40 Vessel Traffic Service Berwick Bay. (a) The... River. (b) VTS Special Area. The Berwick Bay VTS Special Area consists of those waters within a...

  18. 33 CFR 161.40 - Vessel Traffic Service Berwick Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay. 161.40 Section 161.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.40 Vessel Traffic Service Berwick Bay. (a) The... River. (b) VTS Special Area. The Berwick Bay VTS Special Area consists of those waters within a...

  19. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification. PMID:27429967

  20. 33 CFR 80.1150 - Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. 80.1150 Section 80.1150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1150 Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. A line drawn from Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 4...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1106 - Mission Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mission Bay, CA. 80.1106 Section 80.1106 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1106 Mission Bay, CA. A line drawn from Mission Bay South Jetty Light 2 to Mission...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1112 - Newport Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newport Bay, CA. 80.1112 Section 80.1112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1112 Newport Bay, CA. A line drawn from Newport Bay East Jetty Light 4 to Newport...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1107 - San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Bay, California. 165... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1107 San Diego Bay, California... docking/undocking operations at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base on Ballast Point, San Diego Bay,...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1107 - San Diego Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, California. 165... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1107 San Diego Bay, California... docking/undocking operations at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base on Ballast Point, San Diego Bay,...

  5. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  6. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  9. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  10. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  12. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  13. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  14. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  15. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  16. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  19. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  1. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  2. Late Pleistocene drainage systems beneath Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Circe, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of an extensive grid of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously published sedimentary data and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the ancestral drainage systems of the Delaware River beneath lower Delaware Bay. Major paleovalleys within these systems have southeast trends, relief of 10-35 m, widths of 1-8 km, and axial depths of 31-57 m below present sea level. The oldest drainage system was carved into Miocene sands, probably during the late Illinoian lowstand of sea level. It followed a course under the northern half of the bay, continued beneath the Cape May peninsula, and extended onto the present continental shelf. This system was buried by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and shallow-marine sediments during Sangamonian time. At the height of the Sangamonian sea-level transgression, littoral and nearshore processes built the Cape May peninsula southward over the northern drainage system and formed a contiguous submarine sedimentary ridge that extended partway across the present entrance to the bay. When sea level fell during late Wisconsinan time, a second drainage system was eroded beneath the southern half of the bay in response to the southerly shift of the bay mouth. This system, which continued across the shelf, was cut into Coastal Plain deposits of Miocene and younger age and included not only the trunk valley of the Delaware River but a large tributary valley formed by the convergence of secondary streams that drained the Delaware coastal area. During the Holocene rise of sea level, the southern drainage system was covered by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and paralic deposits that accumulated due to the passage of the estuarine circulation cell and to the landward and upward migration of coastal sedimentary environments. Some Holocene deposits have been scoured subsequently by strong tidal currents. The southward migration of the ancestral drainage systems beneath Delaware

  3. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Twichell, David C.

    2011-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted in 2007 to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay and its response to sea-level rise. A detailed geologic history could help better understand how this bay may respond to both short-term (for example, storm surge) and long-term sea-level rise. The results of this study were published (Osterman and others, 2009) as part of a special issue of Geo-Marine Letters that documents early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project.

  4. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  5. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  6. STS-98 Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At Launch Pad 39A, the U.S. Laboratory Destiny waits in Atlantis'''s payload bay for closure of the payload bay doors. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Destiny will be launched Feb. 7 on STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS.

  7. STS-98 Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The U.S. Laboratory Destiny rests once again in Atlantis'''s payload bay, at Launch Pad 39A. Closing of the payload bay doors is imminent. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Destiny will be launched Feb. 7 on STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS.

  8. Chesapeake bay anoxia: origin, development, and significance.

    PubMed

    Officer, C B; Biggs, R B; Taft, J L; Cronin, L E; Tyler, M A; Boynton, W R

    1984-01-01

    Anoxia occurs annually in deeper waters of the central portion of the Chesapeake Bay and presently extends from Baltimore to the mouth of the Potomac estuary. This condition, which encompasses some 5 billion cubic meters of water and lasts from May to September, is the result of increased stratification of the water column in early spring, with consequent curtailment of reoxygenation of the bottom waters across the halocline, and benthic decay of organic detritus accumulated from plankton blooms of the previous summer and fall. The Chesapeake Bay anoxia appears to have had significant ecological effects on many marine species, including several of economic importance. PMID:17752972

  9. Chesapeake Bay anoxia: origin, development, and significance

    SciTech Connect

    Officer, C.B.; Biggs, R.B.; Taft, J.L.; Cronin, L.E.; Tyler, M.A.; Boynton, W.R.

    1984-01-06

    Anoxia occurs annually in deeper waters of the central portion of the Chesapeake Bay and presently extends from Baltimore to the mouth of the Potomac estuary. This condition, which encompasses some 5 billion cubic meters of water and lasts from May to September, is the result of increased stratification of the water column in early spring, with consequent curtailment of reoxygenation of the bottom waters across the halocline, and benthic decay of organic detritus accumulated from plankton blooms of the previous summer and fall. The Chesapeake Bay anoxia appears to have had significant ecological effects on many marine species, including several of economic importance. 43 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., 085°45′34″ W; East point—30°14′56″ N, 085°43′45″ W; South point—30°14′01″ N, 085°44′59″ W; West...

  11. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. (a) A line drawn from Chatham Light to latitude...

  12. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise... Bay in support of the Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise, a multi-agency exercise that tests the... those participating in the exercise, many of whom will be traveling at high speeds while...

  13. Geochemistry of Florida Bay sediments: Nutrient history at five sites in eastern and central Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Holmes, C.W.; Kendall, C.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Silva, S.R.; Boylan, A.; Corum, M.; Marot, M.; Hedgman, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent seagrass dieoff and massive microalgal blooms have focused attention on the health of the Florida Bay ecosystem. Changes in nutrient input and the nutrient dynamics of Florida Bay are hypothesized to be linked to these problems, but crucial baseline information is still lacking. Efforts to restore Florida Bay to its natural condition will require information on the nutrient history of the bay. The purpose of this study was to examine distributions of organic C, total N, and total P in carbonate sediments from sites of continuous and known sedimentation rate (210Pb and 137Cs dated), in eastern and central Florida Bay. These sediments provide a record of historical changes in the C, N, and P load to the eastern and central bay. Analyses were conducted on sediments from cores collected at five sites, and on buried seagrass fragments at two sites. At three of the sites, sediments from seagrass-covered and adjacent barren areas were examined to determine differences in sedimentary geochemistry. Stable isotope analyses (??13C and ??15N) of sedimentary organic C and total N and of buried seagrass fragments were also carried out at two sites to examine possible changes in nutrient sources to the estuary. Results were consistent with recent increases in N and P in eastern Florida Bay, beginning in the early to mid 1980's. The timing of the increase in nutrient load observed in the sediment data directly preceded the first observations of massive microalgal blooms and seagrass dieoff in Florida Bay in 1987. The observed nutrification was greater for P than N, and was most pronounced at the most northeasterly site sampled (Pass Key). Isotope data (??15N) suggested that an increase in algal production accompanied the increase in N load at the Pass Key site. Along record of organic C, total N, and total P distributions from Whipray Basin in central Florida Bay showed historical peaks (mid 1700's and late 1800's) in organic C and total N, but not total P; these

  14. Status and Assessment of Chesapeake Bay Wildlife Contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Albers, P.H.; Henry, P.; Batiuk, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    As an integral component of its priority setting process, the Chesapeake Bay Program`s Toxics Subcommittee has sought the expertise of Chesapeake Bay researchers and managers in developing a series of Chesapeake Bay toxics status and assessment papers. In the report, evidence for historical and current contaminant effects on key bird species, mammals, reptiles and amphibians which inhabit the Chesapeake Bay basin is examined. For each group of wildlife species, a general overview of effects caused by specific toxic substances is followed by detailed accounts of contaminant effects on selected species. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Annapolis, MD. Chesapeake Bay Program.

  15. Diurnal variation of oxygen and carbonate system parameters in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Dufore, C.; Smiley, N.; Jackson, C.; Halley, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen and carbonate system parameters were measured, in situ, over diurnal cycles in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay, Florida. All system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in Tampa Bay with an average range of diurnal variation of 39.1 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 165.1 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.22 for pH, 0.093 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 218.1 μatm for pCO2. Average range of diurnal variation for system parameters in Tampa Bay was 73% to 93% of the seasonal range of variability for dissolved oxygen and pH. All system parameters measured in Florida Bay showed distinct variation over diurnal time-scales. However, clear diurnal trends were less evident. The average range of diurnal variability in Florida Bay was 62.8 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 130.4 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.13 for pH, 0.053 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 139.8 μatm for pCO2. The average range of diurnal variation was 14% to 102% of the seasonal ranges for these parameters. Diurnal variability in system parameters was most influenced by primary productivity and respiration of benthic communities in Tampa Bay, and by precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate in Florida Bay. Our data indicate that use of seasonal data sets without careful consideration of diurnal variability may impart significant error in calculations of annual carbon and oxygen budgets. These observations reinforce the need for higher temporal resolution measurements of oxygen and carbon system parameters in coastal ecosystems.

  16. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  17. Characterization of Shredder Residues generated and deposited in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nassera; Wenzel, Henrik; Hansen, Jette B

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a detailed characterization of Shredder residues (SR) generated and deposited in Denmark from 1990 to 2010. It represents approximately 85% of total Danish SR. A comprehensive sampling, size fractionation and chemical analysis was carried out on entire samples as well as on each individual size fraction. All significant elemental contents except oxygen were analyzed. The unexplained "balance" was subsequently explained by oxygen content in metal oxides, carbonates, sulphates and in organics, mainly cellulose. Using mass and calorific balance approaches, it was possible to balance the composition and, thereby, estimate the degree of oxidation of elements including metals. This revealed that larger fractions (>10mm, 10-4mm, 4-1mm) contain significant amount of valuable free metals for recovery. The fractionation revealed that the >10mm coarse fraction was the largest amount of SR being 35-40% (w/w) with a metal content constituting about 4-9% of the total SR by weight and the <1mm fine fraction constituted 27-37% (w/w) of the total weight. The lower heat value (LHV) of SR samples over different time periods (1990-2010) was between 7 and 17 MJ/kg, declining with decreasing particle size. The SR composition is greatly dependent on the applied shredding and post shredding processes at the shredding plants causing some variations. There are uncertainties related to sampling and preparation of samples for analyses due to its heterogeneous nature and uncertainties in the chemical analyses results (≈15-25%). This exhaustive characterization is believed to constitute hitherto the best data platform for assessing potential value and feasibility of further resource recovery from SR.

  18. Comparison of worm control strategies in grazing sheep in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boa, M E; Thamsborg, S M; Kassuku, A A; Bøgh, H O

    2001-01-01

    Control of nematode parasites with reduced reliance on the use of anthelmintics was studied in 16 ewes with suckling twin lambs on contaminated pasture in Denmark. Ewes and lambs were treated with albendazole at turn-out 3 May. Ewes were removed from the groups on 26 July, and lambs were slaughtered on 11 October. The animals were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and their 4 ewes. Group TS was treated with albendazole at weeks 3, 6 and 8 after turnout and set-stocked; group TM was similarly treated but moved to clean pasture in conjunction with the last drenching; group US was untreated and set-stocked, and group UM was left untreated but moved to clean pasture week 8 after turn-out. Supplementary feed was offered in June and August due to scarcity of pasture. Strategic treatments of ewes and lambs weeks 3, 6 and 8 after turn-out, with or without a move to clean pasture, were highly effective in controlling nematode infections for most of the season. This was reflected in better weight gains and carcass characteristics in the treated compared to untreated lambs, resulting in an average increase in the value of the product by 36%. The effect of moving without treatment (UM) on faecal egg counts was limited but peak pasture infectivity was reduced to less than 10% compared to the set-stocked group and weight gains of lambs were significantly better despite poor feed availability in late season. The study showed that under set-stocked conditions repeated anthelmintic treatments of both ewes and lambs in early season may ensure sufficient nematode control whereas moving animals to clean pasture without dosing was less efficient. The latter may, however, still be a viable option in organic and other production systems where routine use of anthelmintics is banned, particularly if weaning and moving are combined or a second move is performed.

  19. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  20. EMERGY ANALYSIS OF THE COBSCOOK BAY ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A naturally eutrophic, estuarine ecosystem has developed in Cobscook Bay over the past three to four thousand years under the influence of six meter tides and rich flows of nitrogen from the deep waters of the Gulf of Maine. In this paper, measurements of primary production and...

  1. 36 CFR 910.69 - Structural bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Structural bay. 910.69 Section 910.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  2. 36 CFR 910.69 - Structural bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Structural bay. 910.69 Section 910.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  3. 36 CFR 910.69 - Structural bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Structural bay. 910.69 Section 910.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  4. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  6. Lake Michigan Green Bay: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan’s Green Bay at a 15 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 365 km survey was conducted Aug 18-21, 2010. We also conducted four cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixe...

  7. 36 CFR 910.69 - Structural bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Structural bay. 910.69 Section 910.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  8. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  9. The recovery of Bay State Health Care.

    PubMed

    Maltz, D L

    1994-03-01

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts acquired Bay State Health Care after the HMO's tumultuous downturn. The case study described herein provides a useful lesson in the moves that must be made, particularly in an era of health care consolidation and intensive competition, to maintain health plan stability and reinforce its position in the marketplace. PMID:10133054

  10. Jackup rigs in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Janaitis, T.W.

    1981-09-01

    The criteria used for selecting a 91 x 91 m offshore site in Chesapeake Bay for constructing a jackup rig which, when completed, will be towed to the Gulf of Mexico, are described, and the successful construction of the rig at the site selected, is discussed. Plans call for 4 more rigs to be constructed at this site. (LCL)

  11. Chesapeake Bay restoration and protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The report presents goals and strategies for improving the water quality and living resources of the Chesapeake Bay, for the sake of the Chesapeake's productivity, ecology, and to protect public health. It also outlines the activities of seven federal agencies and of four states.

  12. 36 CFR 910.69 - Structural bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Structural bay. 910.69 Section 910.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  13. The Bay in Place of a Glacier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The cultural resource specialist at Glacier Bay National Park (Alaska) explains the collaborative efforts of park staff and the Hoonah Tlingit to overcome language and cultural barriers in documenting park place names and clan oral history and traditions. The new park-community relationship, which follows decades of conflict, includes training…

  14. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  15. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  16. Sedimentary framework of Penobscot Bay, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Scanlon, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously collected sediment samples and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the characteristics, distribution, and history of the strata that accumulated within Penobscot Bay, Maine, during the complex period of glaciation, crustal movement, and sea-level change since late Wisconsinan time. Sediments that overlie the rugged, glacially eroded surface of Paleozoic bedrock range in thickness from near zero to more than 50 m and consist of four distinct units. 1. (1) Massive to partly stratified, coarse-grained drift forms thin (< 15 m) isolated patches along the walls and floors of bedrock troughs and constitutes a thick (up to 30 m), hummocky end moraine in the central part of the bay. The drift was deposited by the last ice sheet between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago during deglaciation and coastal submergence (due to crustal depression). 2. (2) Well-stratified, fine-grained glaciomarine deposits are concentrated in bedrock depressions beneath the main passages of the bay. During the period of ice retreat and marine submergence, these sediments settled to the sea floor, draped the irregular underlying surface of bedrock or drift, and accumulated without disturbance by physical or biologic processes. 3. (3) Heterogeneous fluvial deposits fill ancestral channels of the Penobscot River beneath the head of the bay. The channels were incised during a -40 m postglacial low stand of sea level (due to crustal rebound) and later were filled as base level was increased during Holocene time. 4. (4) Muddy marine sediments, which are homogeneous to weakly stratified and rich in organic matter, blanket older deposits within bathymetric depressions in the middle and lower reaches of the bay and cover a pronounced, gently dipping, erosional unconformity in the upper reach. These sediments were deposited during the Holocene transgression as sea level approached its present position and the bay became deeper

  17. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  18. Denmark Strait water circulation traced by heterogeneity in neodymium isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacan, Francois; Jeandel, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Seawater neodymium isotopic composition ( ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured along four hydrologic sections within the East Greenland Current (EGC), between the Fram and the Denmark Straits, during summer 1999. EGC intermediate waters, between 77°N and 70°N, displaying similar hydrological characteristics as Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), had very constant REE characteristics and ɛNd value of -10.9. This constancy reveals the absence of lithogenic input, from the East Greenland margin, into intermediate waters in this area, corroborating previous dissolved aluminum data. The DSOW was characterized by ɛNd=-8.4±1.4. This value can be explained by the imprint of lithogenic formations, mainly basaltic, bordering the Denmark Strait on the intermediate waters described above. However, granitic Precambrian formations seem to contribute, although more slightly, to defining the DSOW Nd signature. This double influence could explain the heterogeneity of the Denmark Strait waters. These results provide a better understanding of the DSOW Nd signature, allowing a better use of this tracer in the study of present and past North Atlantic Deep Water dynamics. Atlantic Water was present at a station located at the mouth of Nansen Fjord, on the western side of Denmark Strait. We suggest that this water reaches the fjord intermittently as isolated water lenses or eddies detached from the northward flowing branch of the Irminger current.

  19. Changes in private alcohol importation after alcohol tax reductions and import allowance increases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grittner, Ulrike; Bloomfield, Kim

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: This paper examines changes in alcohol import in Denmark between 2003 and 2006, after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on October 1, 2003 and travellers' allowances for alcohol import were increased on January1, 2004. Additionally, the paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers and analyse the relation between the distance to the German border and import behaviour, as Germany is the main alcohol import country for Denmark. DATA: Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark, from 2003 to 2006, were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews, using random digit dialing. RESULTS: While the percentage of people who imported alcohol fell over time, the amount of alcohol purchased rose for those who did import. Distance to the German border was inversely related to the likelihood of importing and the level of imported amounts. Heavy drinkers and those with higher incomes were more likely to import, and heavy drinkers imported higher amounts than moderate drinkers or abstainers. CONCLUSION: Distance of residence from the German border, socio-economic status and drinking behaviour are related to private alcohol import in Denmark. Policy changes resulted in a shift to fewer people importing higher amounts of alcohol so that the overall import level did not change substantially.

  20. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  1. Metagenomic characterization of Chesapeake Bay virioplankton.

    PubMed

    Bench, Shellie R; Hanson, Thomas E; Williamson, Kurt E; Ghosh, Dhritiman; Radosovich, Mark; Wang, Kui; Wommack, K Eric

    2007-12-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and abundant throughout the biosphere. In marine systems, virus-mediated processes can have significant impacts on microbial diversity and on global biogeocehmical cycling. However, viral genetic diversity remains poorly characterized. To address this shortcoming, a metagenomic library was constructed from Chesapeake Bay virioplankton. The resulting sequences constitute the largest collection of long-read double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral metagenome data reported to date. BLAST homology comparisons showed that Chesapeake Bay virioplankton contained a high proportion of unknown (homologous only to environmental sequences) and novel (no significant homolog) sequences. This analysis suggests that dsDNA viruses are likely one of the largest reservoirs of unknown genetic diversity in the biosphere. The taxonomic origin of BLAST homologs to viral library sequences agreed well with reported abundances of cooccurring bacterial subphyla within the estuary and indicated that cyanophages were abundant. However, the low proportion of Siphophage homologs contradicts a previous assertion that this family comprises most bacteriophage diversity. Identification and analyses of cyanobacterial homologs of the psbA gene illustrated the value of metagenomic studies of virioplankton. The phylogeny of inferred PsbA protein sequences suggested that Chesapeake Bay cyanophage strains are endemic in that environment. The ratio of psbA homologous sequences to total cyanophage sequences in the metagenome indicated that the psbA gene may be nearly universal in Chesapeake Bay cyanophage genomes. Furthermore, the low frequency of psbD homologs in the library supports the prediction that Chesapeake Bay cyanophage populations are dominated by Podoviridae.

  2. Elderly care: similarities and solutions in Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1987-01-01

    Denmark, like the United States and other developed countries, is experiencing an increase in the percentage of dependent elderly in its population. They consume a disproportionate share of health and social services at a time when government is attempting to contain costs. Both countries face similar problems in caring for the elderly--problems of escalating hospital costs, dramatically increased nursing home costs, and insufficient public revenues to cover their entire care. Denmark has developed a wide range of services for the elderly--home help, home nursing, adult day care centers, day nursing homes, and sheltered housing. The response in the United States has taken somewhat different directions, although in both countries home and community services have been expanded as a substitute for expensive institutional care. The possible relevance of the U.S. experience in these areas to Denmark and lessons that the United States might learn from the Scandinavian country are discussed.

  3. A comparison of autism prevalence trends in Denmark and Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Parner, Erik T; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J

    2011-12-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based registers and consistent classification systems operating over the past decade. Overall ASD prevalence rates were higher in Denmark (68.5 per 10,000 children) compared with Western Australia (51.0 per 10,000 children), while the diagnosis of childhood autism was more prevalent in Western Australia (39.3 per 10,000 children) compared with Denmark (21.8 per 10,000 children). These differences are probably caused by local phenomena affecting case ascertainment but influence from biological or geographical factors may exist.

  4. Glacial and periglacial landforms in Denmark: Scandinavian analogs for Martian features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The geomorphology of Denmark is dominated by glacial deposits, including both end moraines and ground moraines. Many of these features have morphologies similar to features observed on Mars. A characteristic landscape complex in Denmark is a series of irregular mounds or parallel curvilinear ridges that outline the former ice margin. Many of these resemble curviliner features on Mars, and the Danish landforms occur at a similar scale. Another distinctive landform in Denmark is the hummocky moraine landscape found in parts of Sjaelland. Although their size is smaller, these areas resemble the hummocky terrain associated with some of the curvilinear features in the northern plains of Mars. The hummocky Danish terrain is probably caused by the melting of masses of dead ice left during glacial retreat. Similar landscapes observed developing during retreat of smaller glaciers were ice caps in Scandinavian mountains and in Greenland.

  5. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  6. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  7. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  8. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  9. The Information Society--A Challenge for Education Policies? Five Case Studies: Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This collection of conference papers consists of a series of five case studies conducted in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. In Denmark, an exploration of computer conferencing in distance education included an examination of the pedagogical motives for using computer conferencing, the availability of computers in study centers, and…

  10. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations in Denmark and the United States from using larger reference populations was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Eight of 9 traits analyzed by Denmark (milk, fa...

  11. Cardiac dysfunction among soft tissue sarcoma patients in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Shantakumar, Sumitra; Olsen, Morten; Vo, Thao T; Nørgaard, Mette; Pedersen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients may experience post-treatment cardiotoxicity, yet no population-based data exist. We examined the incidence of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline, heart failure, and cardiac death following STS diagnosis among adults, using Danish patient registries and medical record review. Patients and methods LVEF decline was examined in a regional cohort of STS patients diagnosed during 1997–2011 in Western Denmark for whom cardiac imaging data were available. LVEF decline was defined as an absolute decline from baseline to follow-up of 10% or more, or, where baseline imaging was not available, a decline below the lower limit of normal (or 40%) for a follow-up LVEF. Heart failure and cardiac death were investigated in a national Danish cohort of all STS patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009. We followed patients from STS diagnosis until heart failure, cardiac death, emigration or December 31, 2012 (whichever occurred first). Results The incidence rate of LVEF decline for the regional cohort with follow-up data (N=100, five events) or baseline and follow-up measurements (N=75, 19 events) was 16.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0–40.3) and 108 (95% CI: 69–170), respectively, per 1,000 person-years. In the national cohort (N=1,187), the incidence of heart failure (40 events) and cardiac death (15 events) was 7.3 (95% CI: 5.4–10.0) and 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6–4.5), respectively, per 1,000 person-years. The strongest predictors of heart failure were doxorubicin treatment (hazard ratio [HR] =2.2, 95% CI: 0.5–10.2) and pre-existing cardiovascular disease (HR=6.3, 95% CI: 0.98–40.6). Conclusion LVEF decline occurred more frequently compared to heart failure or cardiac death in a nationally representative cohort of Danish STS patients. PMID:27186077

  12. [What is the pedagogical development function of Region East, Denmark used for?].

    PubMed

    Engel, Peter Johan Heiberg; Sørensen, Henrik Ancher; Thode, Jørgen

    2010-05-31

    Implementing a reform of postgraduate medical education in Denmark (2004), a pedagogical development function (PDF) which employs clinical associate professors (CAP) was established. To evaluate the impact of the PDF and the CAP, 1,355 questionnaires were mailed to physicians in eastern Denmark: 687 (51%) replied, 114 (17%) expressed knowledge of the PDF and 75 (11%) reported a personal contact to the PDF. The rather low knowledge of the PDF may be due to the CAPs' involvement in several educational functions at the same time which may impede identification of the ''true" efforts of the CAP/PDF.

  13. Fatal intoxications in Denmark following intake of morphine from opium poppies.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Kaa, E; Worm, K

    1988-01-01

    In Denmark it is legal to grow opium poppies for the production of poppy seeds and until 1986 for decoration purposes, too. Danish poppy capsules contain 0.3-5 mg morphine per capsule and the content of morphine in opium exuded from the capsules may amount to 24%. This has resulted in misuse as both fresh and dried poppy capsules have been used for the production of "opium tea". During the period 1982-1985, seven casualties occurred among drug addicts in Denmark which were solely or partly caused by these opium poppies. PMID:3227727

  14. Horizontal drilling techniques at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkirson, J.P.; Smith, J.H.; Stagg, T.O.; Walters, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three extended departure horizontal wells have been drilled and completed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska by Standard Alaska Production Company. Horizontal slotted liner completions of 1575 feet (480 m), 1637 feet (499 m), and 1163 feet (354 m) were accomplished at an average vertical depth of 9000 feet (2743 m). Improvements in technology and operating procedures have resulted in a cost per foot reduction of 40% over the three well program. When compared to conventional completions, initial production data indicates rate benefits of 300% and a major increase in ultimate recovery. This paper discusses the development of the techniques used to drill horizontal wells at Prudhoe Bay and reviews the drilling operations for each well.

  15. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  16. Hydraulic model of the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, A. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary planning for the formulation of the first year of hydraulic studies on the Chesapeake Bay model was recently completed. The primary purpose of this initial effort was to develop a study program that is both responsive to problems of immediate importance and at the same time ensure that from the very beginning of operation maximum economical use is made of the model. The formulation of this preliminary study plan involved an extensive analysis of the environmental, economic, and social aspects of a series of current problems in order to establish a priority listing of their importance. The study program that evolved is oriented towards the analysis of the effects of some of the works of man on the Chesapeake Bay estuarine environment.

  17. The Health of the James Bay Cree

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The health of the James Bay Cree of Quebec reflects their history and environment. Their ancestors were living in Northern Quebec for centuries before the Europeans arrived bringing new infectious diseases and developing a health-care structure that has relegated traditional Cree medicine to the background. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 led to the creation of the Cree Board of Health and Social Services under the Quebec Ministry of Health. Various changes have resulted in the eight Cree villages over the past 15 years, both in the socio-economic situation and in the health status of the Cree. Improvements in health will come about through increased participation of Native people in the delivery and control of health services, more accessible health services, and the creation of healthy and health-promoting environments. PMID:21253035

  18. Understanding food webs in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keough, J.R.; Haramis, G.M.; Perry, M.C.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to predictive modeling and to management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are 'bottom up' (i.e., approaches involve the control of nutrient inputs in attempts to manage plankton productivity) and 'top down' (i.e., approaches involve controls on harvest of fisheries and wildlife in attempts to manage vertebrate populations). Both approaches are limited by a lack of understanding of trophic connections between nutrient inputs, primary producers, and higher trophic level consumers. This project is aimed at identifying trophic structure for the submersed aquatic vegetation habitat of the Chesapeake Bay. We are employing analysis of stable isotope ratios of plant and animal tissues to identify trophic levels and traditional food habits analysis to identify the foods of a number of species of waterfowl.

  19. Stratification of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Eaton, D. W.; Bastow, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Hudson Bay region has a complex tectonic history spanning ~4 Ga of Earth's evolution. During the ~1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny, the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons collided following the subduction of a Pacific-scale ocean. It is thought that a significant amount of juvenile material is preserved in the Trans-Hudson Orogen, in part due to the complex double-indentor geometry of the Superior-Churchill collision. In the region of interest, the orogen lies beneath a large but shallow Paleozoic intra-cratonic basin. Studies of the crust and upper mantle beneath this region have been enabled through the HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) project, through the deployment of broadband seismographs around the Bay and across the islands to the north. A surface-wave tomography study has taken advantage of the data coverage, providing new information on phase velocity heterogeneity and anisotropy for wave periods of 25-200 seconds (equivalent to depths from the lower crust to ~300 km). On a large scale, our results show that the entire region is underlain by a seismically fast lithospheric lid corresponding to the continental keel. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ~180km in the northeast, beneath a zone of Paleozoic rifting, to ~280km beneath central Hudson Bay. Within the lithosphere, seismic velocities vary laterally, including high-velocity material wrapping around the Bay in the uppermost mantle. In the mid-lithosphere, two high-velocity cores are imaged, with a zone of lower velocity between them beneath the Bay. We interpret these high-velocity structures to represent the strongest central cores of the Superior and Churchill cratons, with more-juvenile material preserved between them. The near-vertical geometry of the lower-velocity zone suggests that it is only the effects of terminal collision of the cratonic cores, rather than any preceding subduction, that is preserved today. The lowermost lithosphere has a more uniform velocity, and

  20. Columbia Bay, Alaska: an 'upside down' estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Josberger, E.G.; Driedger, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Circulation and water properties within Columbia Bay, Alaska, are dominated by the effects of Columbia Glacier at the head of the Bay. The basin between the glacier terminus and the terminal moraine (sill depth of about 22 m) responds as an 'upside down' estuary with the subglacial discharge of freshwater entering at the bottom of the basin. The intense vertical mixing caused by the bouyant plume of freshwater creates a homogeneous water mass that exchanges with the far-field water through either a two- or a three-layer flow. In general, the glacier acts as a large heat sink and creates a water mass which is cooler than that in fjords without tidewater glaciers. The predicted retreat of Columbia Glacier would create a 40 km long fjord that has characteristics in common with other fjords in Prince William Sound. ?? 1988.

  1. Topobathymetric data for Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, D.; Zawada, D.G.; Nayegandi, A.; Brock, J.C.; Crane, M.P.; Yates, K.K.; Smith, K.E.L.

    2007-01-01

    Topobathymetric data (“topobathy”) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) to provide a single product useful for inundation mapping and a variety of other applications. These data were developed using one topographic and two bathymetric datasets collected at different dates. Topography was obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED). Bathymetry was provided by NOAA's GEOphysical DAta System (GEODAS). For several nearshore areas within the bay GEODAS data were replaced with high resolution bathymetry acquired by NASA's Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL). These data and detailed metadata can be obtained from the USGS Web site: http://gisdata.usgs.gov/website/topobathy/. Data from EAARL and NED were collected under the auspices of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science Tampa Bay Study (http://gulfsci.usgs.gov/).

  2. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  3. St. Petersburg, Sarasota, Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida (27.5N, 82.5W) and its surrounding waterways were captured in partial sunglint. An extremely complex pattern of surface currents is displayed by differential reflecvtions of sunlight caused by diffrerences in surface roughness and slicks. A high concentration of boatwakes can be seen under the bridge connecting St. Petersburg and Sarasota. Marinas along the waterfront, major roads, airports and other details are easily seen.

  4. Resource protection for waterbirds in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Haramis, G.M.; Krementz, D.G.; Funderburk, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many living resources in the Chesapeake Bay estuary have deteriorated over the past 50 years. As a result, many governmental committees, task forces, and management plans have been established. Most of the recommendations for implementing a bay cleanup focus on reducing sediments and nutrient flow into the watershed. We emphasize that habitat requirements other than water quality are necessary for the recovery of much of the bay's avian wildlife, and we use a waterbird example as illustration. Some of these needs are: (1) protection of fast-eroding islands, or creation of new ones by dredge deposition to improve nesting habitat for American black ducks(Anas rubripes), great blue herons(Ardea herodias), and other associated wading birds; (2) conservation of remaining brackish marshes, especially near riparian areas, for feeding black ducks, wading birds, and wood ducks(Aix sponsa); (3) establishment of sanctuaries in open-water, littoral zones to protect feeding and/or roosting areas for diving ducks such as canvasbacks(Aythya valisineria) and redheads(Aythya americana), and for bald eagles(Haliaeetus leucocephalus); and (4) limitation of disturbance by boaters around nesting islands and open-water feeding areas. Land (or water) protection measures for waterbirds need to include units at several different spatial scales, ranging from ?points? (e.g., a colony site) to large-area resources (e.g., a marsh or tributary for feeding). Planning to conserve large areas of both land and water can be achieved following a biosphere reserve model. Existing interagency committees in the Chesapeake Bay Program could be more effective in developing such a model for wildlife and fisheries resources.

  5. Resource protection for waterbirds in Chesapeake bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, R. Michael; Haramis, G. Michael; Krementz, David G.; Funderburk, Steven L.

    1993-09-01

    Many living resources in the Chesapeake Bay estuary have deteriorated over the past 50 years. As a result, many governmental committees, task forces, and management plans have been established. Most of the recommendations for implementing a bay cleanup focus on reducing sediments and nutrient flow into the watershed. We emphasize that habitat requirements other than water quality are necessary for the recovery of much of the bay's avian wildlife, and we use a waterbird example as illustration. Some of these needs are: (1) protection of fast-eroding islands, or creation of new ones by dredge deposition to improve nesting habitat for American black ducks (Anas rubripes), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and other associated wading birds; (2) conservation of remaining brackish marshes, especially near riparian areas, for feeding black ducks, wading birds, and wood ducks (Aix sponsa); (3) establishment of sanctuaries in open-water, littoral zones to protect feeding and/or roosting areas for diving ducks such as canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) and redheads (Aythya americana), and for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus); and (4) limitation of disturbance by boaters around nesting islands and open-water feeding areas. Land (or water) protection measures for waterbirds need to include units at several different spatial scales, ranging from “points” (e.g., a colony site) to large-area resources (e.g., a marsh or tributary for feeding). Planning to conserve large areas of both land and water can be achieved following a biosphere reserve model. Existing interagency committees in the Chesapeake Bay Program could be more effective in developing such a model for wildlife and fisheries resources.

  6. Trinity Bay Study: Dye tracing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, G. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the heat balance and temperature distribution within Trinity Bay near Galveston, Texas is presented. The effects of tidal currents, wind driven circulations, and large volume inflows are examined. Emphasis is placed on the effects of turbulent diffusion and local shears in currents. The technique of dye tracing to determine the parameters characterizing dispersion is described. Aerial photographs and maps are provided to show the flow conditions existing at different times and seasons.

  7. Operation of the Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1998-07-27

    The authors have developed a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to enable one to make inferences about models of a physical object from radiographs taken of it. In the BIE calculational models are represented by a data-flow diagram that can be manipulated by the analyst in a graphical-programming environment. The authors demonstrate the operation of the BIE in terms of examples of two-dimensional tomographic reconstruction including uncertainty estimation.

  8. Attitudes toward issues affecting Sarasota Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.D.; Heald, G.R.

    1995-06-20

    The Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program (SBNEP) contracted with the Communication Research Center (CRC) of the Florida State University to conduct a public opinion survey of residents of Sarasota and Manatee, Florida counties to ascertain residents` attitudes toward issues of interest to the SBNEP. The survey was conducted in the final year (1995) of the SBNEP planning phase to determine changes in the public`s perception of bay issues, awareness of restoration efforts, and as a comparison tool to the initial survey conducted in 1990. The survey also provided information necessary for development and implementation of the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP). Five hundred, seventy-eight respondents, chosen at random, were interviewed by telephone during February 1995. The survey had a maximum estimated sampling error of approximately plus or minus four percent (4%) at the 95% level of confidence. Survey results include: just 41% of the respondents were aware of some type of clean up activities going on in the community. This information points to the need for continued assertive public education and outreach efforts to support Sarasota Bay restoration.

  9. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  10. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  11. Experimental enhancement of pickleweed, Suisun Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Tsao, Danika C.; Yee, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    As mitigation for habitat impacted by the expansion of a pier on Suisun Bay, California, two vehicle parking lots (0.36 ha and 0.13 ha) were restored by being excavated, graded, and contoured using dredged sediments to the topography or elevation of nearby wetlands. We asked if pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica L, [Amaranthaceae]) colonization could be enhanced by experimental manipulation on these new wetlands. Pickleweed dominates ecologically important communities at adjacent San Francisco Bay, but is not typically dominant at Suisun Bay probably because of widely fluctuating water salinity and is outcompeted by other brackish water plants. Experimental treatments (1.0-m2 plots) included mulching with pickleweed cuttings in either the fall or the spring, tilling in the fall, or applying organic enrichments in the fall. Control plots received no treatment. Pickleweed colonization was most enhanced at treatment plots that were mulched with pickleweed in the fall. Since exotic vegetation can colonize bare sites within the early phases of restoration and reduce habitat quality, we concluded that mulching was most effective in the fall by reducing invasive plant cover while facilitating native plant colonization.

  12. Characteristics of the energy metabolism of the White Sea herring Clupea pallasii marisalbi Berg (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) of Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Nemova, N N; Meshcheryakova, O V; Churova, M V; Murzina, S A

    2016-07-01

    The activity of the enzymes of the energy and carbohydrate metabolisms (cytochrome-c oxidase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been studied in White Sea herring (the 1+, 2+, and 3+ age groups) sampled in Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. The bays differ in the hydrological regime, ecological and feeding conditions. The individual variability of the enzyme activity was the largest in the herring of the age 1+. The flexibility of the intensity and vector of the basic metabolic reactions probably supports the energy homeostasis, preconditions the switching to the most effective way of using the resources, and regulates the synthesis of the structural and storage molecules, as well as vectors the adaptation strategy of herring specimens of each age group to the hydrological regime, environment, and feeding conditions of the particular bay, corresponding to their age-related characteristics.

  13. Characteristics of the energy metabolism of the White Sea herring Clupea pallasii marisalbi Berg (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) of Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Nemova, N N; Meshcheryakova, O V; Churova, M V; Murzina, S A

    2016-07-01

    The activity of the enzymes of the energy and carbohydrate metabolisms (cytochrome-c oxidase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been studied in White Sea herring (the 1+, 2+, and 3+ age groups) sampled in Onega Bay, Dvina Bay, and Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. The bays differ in the hydrological regime, ecological and feeding conditions. The individual variability of the enzyme activity was the largest in the herring of the age 1+. The flexibility of the intensity and vector of the basic metabolic reactions probably supports the energy homeostasis, preconditions the switching to the most effective way of using the resources, and regulates the synthesis of the structural and storage molecules, as well as vectors the adaptation strategy of herring specimens of each age group to the hydrological regime, environment, and feeding conditions of the particular bay, corresponding to their age-related characteristics. PMID:27595825

  14. Chesapeake Bay area nutrient management programs: An overview. chesapeake bay program technology transfer report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Agriculture has been identified as a major contributor of nutrients to the Chesapeake Bay in the 1987 Chesapeake Bay Agreement. Under this agreement, the states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia and the District of Columbia committed to reduce nutrient loads to the Chesapeake Bay by 40 percent by the year 2000. These jurisdictions have made the implementation of agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control effective practice to reduce NPS pollution in the 1992 Baywide Nutrient Reduction Reevaluation and the 1995 `Cost Analysis for Nonpoint Source Control Strategies in the Chesapeake Basin`. Nutrient management is a pollution prevention practice that manages the rate, timing, and method of application of nutrients and minimizes their potential losses through runoff or leaching to groundwater. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are three essential plant nutrients used in significant amounts in intensive agricultural operations. These nutrients are important for satisfactory crop production but, if not managed properly, can easily move from farmland to ground and surface waters.

  15. Wetland plant communities, Galveston Bay system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.A.; Paine, J.G.

    1992-03-01

    The report is the culmination of a field investigation of wetland plant communities, and is one phase of the project, Trends and Status of Wetland and Aquatic Habitats of the Galveston Bay System, Texas, sponsored by the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. For purpose of the topical report, wetlands are defined and classified in terms of more classical definitions, for example, salt, brackish, and fresh marshes, in accordance with project requirements. More than 150 sites were examined in the Galveston Bay system.

  16. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence...

  17. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence...

  18. Contaminants in Chesapeake Bay sediments, 1984-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Eskin, R.A.; Rowland, K.H.; Alegre, D.Y.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents data on sediment chemical contaminant concentrations in the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries collected between 1984 and 1991. The majority of this data collection was coordinated by Maryland and Virginia with support from the Chesapeake Bay Program. The primary objectives of this report are to describe the spatial patterns in the distribution of sediment chemical contaminants in Chesapeake Bay to sediment quality guidelines in order to identify areas where sediment chemical contaminants may adversely impact aquatic biota.

  19. Chesapeake Bay: an unprecedented decline in submerged aquatic vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Moore, K.A.

    1983-10-07

    Data on the distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay indicate a significant reduction in all species in all sections of the bay during the last 15 to 20 years. This decline is unprecedented in the bay's recent history. The reduction in one major species, Zostera marina, may be greater than the decline that occurred during the pandemic demise of the 1930's. 19 references, 2 figures.

  20. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence...

  1. Long-term history of Chesapeake Bay anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.R.; Brush, G.S. )

    1991-11-15

    Stratigraphic records from four sediment cores collected along a transect across the Chesapeake Bay near the mouth of the Choptank River were used to reconstruct a 2,000-year history of anoxia and eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay. Variations in pollen, diatoms, concentration of organic carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, acid-soluble iron, and an estimate of the degree of pyritization of iron indicate that sedimentation rates, anoxic conditions and eutrophication have increased in the Chesapeake Bay since the time of European settlement.

  2. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to BAY v 3522.

    PubMed Central

    Nord, C E; Rylander, M; Norrby, S R

    1991-01-01

    The activity of BAY v 3522 against 340 strains of anaerobic bacteria was determined by an agar dilution method. Its activity was compared with those of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and metronidazole. BAY v 3522, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, clindamycin, and metronidazole were the most active agents tested. On the basis of these results, BAY v 3522 appears to have an antibacterial activity that warrants further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:2039213

  3. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  4. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  5. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  6. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  7. Optimization as a Dispositive in the Production of Differences in Denmark Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this paper is inspired by governmentality studies in education. The key concepts are problematization, formatting technologies, and dispositive. The paper begins with an empirical study conducted in Denmark of forty-four files from educational psychologists and articles from journals concerning schools and education.…

  8. A Cultural and Comparative Perspective on Outdoor Education in New Zealand and "Friluftsliv" in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andkjaer, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The paper is based on a comparative and qualitative case study of "friluftsliv" in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Cultural analysis with a comparative cultural perspective informed the research approach. Configurational analysis was used as an important supplement to focus on cultural patterns linked to bodily movement. It is argued…

  9. "Left to Your Own Devices"--The Missed Potential of Adult Career Guidance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the European Council agreed on a Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. The Resolution promoted lifelong guidance as a policy to support people during the multiple transitions provoked by a more volatile labour market. However, when looking into the guidance policy of Denmark, the Resolution…

  10. Guidelines; from foe to friend? Comparative interviews with GPs in Norway and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background GPs follow clinical guidelines to varying degrees across practices, regions and countries, but a review study of GPs' attitudes to guidelines found no systematic variation in attitudes between studies from different countries. However, earlier qualitative studies on this topic are not necessarily comparable. Hence, there is a lack of empirical comparative studies of GP's attitudes to following clinical guidelines. In this study we reproduce a Norwegian focus group study of GPs' general attitudes to national clinical guidelines in Denmark and conduct a comparative analysis of the findings. Methods A strategic sample of GP's in Norway (27 GPs) and Denmark (18 GPs) was interviewed about their attitudes to guidelines, and the interviews coded and compared for common themes and differences. Results Similarities dominated the comparative material, but the analysis also revealed notable differences in attitudes between Norwegian and the Danish GPs. The most important difference was related to GP's attitudes to clinical guidelines that incorporated economic evaluations. While the Norwegian GPs were sceptical to guidelines that incorporated economic evaluation, the Danish GPs regarded these guidelines as important and legitimate. We suggest that the differences could be explained by the history of guideline development in Norway and Denmark respectively. Whereas government guidelines for rationing services were only newly introduced in Norway, they have been used in Denmark for many years. Conclusion Comparative qualitative studies of GPs attitudes to clinical guidelines may reveal cross-national differences relating to the varying histories of guideline development. Further studies are needed to explore this hypothesis. PMID:20078891

  11. A Critical Review of Available Data on Sexual Abuse of Children in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helweg-Larsen, K.; Larsen, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To describe different data sources that may illuminate the incidence and character of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Denmark in the late 1990s. Method:: Data concerning alleged sexual abuse of children below 15 years of age in the 1990s were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Criminal Register. In…

  12. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  13. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  14. Systems and Procedures of Certification of Qualifications in Denmark. National Report. 3rd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holek, Lothar

    This report describes current systems and procedures for certification in Denmark. An introduction makes brief reference to the characteristics of the general and vocational training systems. Section 1 addresses formulation and introduction of certificates, qualifications, and diplomas, including the relevant institutions, procedures, and…

  15. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  16. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  17. The Danish Effect: Beginning to Explain High Well-Being in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas-Diener, Robert; Vitterso, Joar; Diener, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Although income and happiness have been linked at both the individual and national levels of analysis, few studies have specifically examined the different relationships between these two variables in affluent nations. This study investigates various measures of well-being in both the United States and Denmark. Respondents in both countries…

  18. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  19. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  20. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mette S.; Holm, Elisabeth; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Pedersen, Karl; Andresen, Lars O.; Abildstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Trine H.; Larsen, Lars E.

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June–August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined. PMID:25811098

  1. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Ole

    A study of the food sector in Denmark was limited to the slaughterhouse, dairy, beverages sectors. The food sector was the most important single industry in the Danish economy. It was the largest manufacturing sector, generated one-third of total manufacturing, and comprised approximately 8 percent of the total Danish gross domestic product. It…

  2. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  3. Caught between Internationalisation and Immigration: The Case of Nepalese Students in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marketisation and national profiling of Denmark as an attractive country for foreign students has resulted in an increasing number of students from poor countries in the global South, including Nepal, being admitted to Danish colleges and universities. The influx of students from these countries has led to several accusations against…

  4. Good Learning Strategies in Foreign and Second Language Learning--The Case of English in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    Principles and strategies for learning second languages for the purpose of effective intercultural communication are discussed, with particular reference to the teaching of English, the dominant foreign language in Denmark. In the first section, the official, relatively open-ended Danish goals for English language teaching are outlined. The second…

  5. The Teaching of English Phonetics in Denmark: A Problem of Transference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    Since 1971 the approach adopted in the teaching of English phonetics in Denmark has been a contrastive one. In this paper it is argued that although the original contrastive hypothesis (Lado 1957) has to be modified and weakened, a contrastive approach is highly useful in learning and teaching the pronunciation of a foreign language. Selected…

  6. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings. PMID:24084761

  7. Social Welfare and Minding the Achievement Gap: A View from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the welfare system has evened out the gaps between rich and poor. Schools and child care settings all over the country have an equal level of resources provided by the state, and are financed through taxes. Schools and child care settings in areas with families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) get extra money and resources. All…

  8. Who Cares for the Children? Denmark's Unique Public Child-Care Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polakow, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    U.S. working mothers wrestle daily with a child-care crisis characterized by unavailable infant care, high costs, and inadequate access and regulation. In Denmark, high-quality child care is a guaranteed entitlement for every child. Other benefits include paid parental leaves, single-parent allowances, housing subsidies, and universal health care.…

  9. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  10. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's…

  11. 12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  13. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  14. BayesWave Analysis for LIGO Detector Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Joey Shapiro; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors successfully collected data during the first observing run (O1) September 2015 to January 2016. The Bayesian inference wavelet decomposition algorithm BayesWave uses a phenomenological parameterized model to characterize the data. Among the BayesWave products are reconstructed waveforms and spectral analysis of instrument noise transients (``glitches''). The BayesWave analysis contributes to our understanding of the LIGO instrument and our ability to distinguish instrument glitches from burst sources of gravitational waves. Preliminary BayesWave analysis of the LIGO O1 data will be presented.

  15. Matagorda Bay, Texas: its hydrography, ecology, and fishery resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.H. Jr.; Armstrong, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review of the hydrography and biology of Matagorda Bay, Texas is presented. The goal was the identification, compilation, and synthesis of hydrographic and biological information in order to assess the fish and wildlife resources of the Matagorda Bay area and to delineate the dependency of these resources upon the hydrographic characteristics of the bay. The information is intended to be used to assess the probable effects of system perturbations. Twenty-five key species were selected and are described to represent major elements of the bay biological communities. (ACR)

  16. Total plankton respiration in the Chesapeake Bay plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, C. N.; Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Total plankton respiration (TPR) was measured at 17 stations within the Chesapeake Bay plume off the Virginia coast during March, June, and October 1980. Elevated rates of TPR, as well as higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigment a, were found to be associated with the Bay plume during each survey. The TPR rates within the Bay plume were close to those found associated with the Hudson River plume for comparable times of the year. The data examined indicate that the Chesapeake Bay plume stimulates biological activity and is a source of organic loading to the contiguous shelf ecosystem.

  17. Intensive survey of the bay creek watershed, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Short, M.B.; Kelly, T.G.; Hefley, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    During July 1992, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency conducted an intensive survey of the Bay Creek basin, a fifth order tributary in the Mississippi River North Central Basin. Bay Creek drains approximately 176.4 square miles primarily in Pike and a small portion of Calhoun counties. Four stations were sampled on the Bay Creek main stem and one on Honey Creek. The survey focused on macroinvertebrate communities, fish populations, instream habitat, fish tissue, sediment and water chemistry, and land use as well as a review of ambient water quality data from IEPA station KCA-01 near Nebo, Illinois, as tools to document the biological and chemical status of Bay Creek.

  18. Linking public health and the health of the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Burke, T A; Litt, J S; Fox, M A

    2000-02-01

    The Chesapeake Bay has a profound impact on the lives of all who reside in the 64,000 square miles of its watershed. From crab cakes to sail-boats, drinking water to naval ships, the Bay touches virtually every aspect of life in the region. The Bay has inspired literature, driven the regional economy, and shaped political decision making and development patterns for homes, industry, agriculture, and transportation. As population demands increase and urban boundaries expand into pristine landscapes, the sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay and its resources face unprecedented pressures. Consequently, the public's health also is vulnerable to Bay pollution and other stresses stemming from development activities and widespread growth occurring throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This paper will examine the linkages between the environmental quality of the Bay and the population health status, recommend ways to bridge ecological and human health concerns in the context of the Bay, and finally present a framework for developing a public health report card for the Bay.

  19. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  20. Status and assessment of Chesapeake Bay wildlife contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, G.H.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Clark, D.R.; Albers, P.; Henry, P.

    1992-10-01

    As an integral component of its priority setting process, the Chesapeake Bay Program's Toxics Subcommittee has sought the expertise of Chesapeake Bay researchers and managers in developing a series of Chesapeake Bay toxics status and assessment papers. In the report, evidence for historical and current contaminant effects on key bird species, mammals, reptiles and amphibians which inhabit the Chesapeake Bay basin is examined. For each group of wildlife species, a general overview of effects caused by specific toxic substances is followed by detailed accounts of contaminant effects on selected species.

  1. Linking public health and the health of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.A.; Litt, J.S.; Fox, M.A.

    2000-02-01

    The Chesapeake Bay has a profound impact on the lives of all who reside in the 64,000 square miles of its watershed. From crab cakes to sailboats, drinking water to naval ships, the Bay touches virtually every aspect of life in the region. The Bay has inspired literature, driven the regional economy, and shaped political decision making and development patterns for homes, industry, agriculture, and transportation. As population demands increase and urban boundaries expand into pristine landscapes, the sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay and its resources face unprecedented pressures. Consequently, the public's health also is vulnerable to Bay pollution and other stresses stemming from development activities and widespread growth occurring throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This paper will examine the linkages between the environmental quality of the Bay and the population health status, recommend ways to bridge ecological and human health concerns in the context of the Bay, and finally present a framework for developing a public health report card for the Bay.

  2. Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

  3. Hydrogeomorphic Regions of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: HGMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Kelley, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. These HGMRs were used in conjunction with existing data to assess the significance of ground-water discharge as a source of nitrate load to nontidal streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Bachman and others, 1998). This work is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Chesapeake Bay initative to develop an understanding and provide scientific information for the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed (Phillips and Caughron, 1997).

  4. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters...

  7. Diagnostic model construction and example analysis of habitat degradation in enclosed bay: III. Sansha Bay habitat restoration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Yu, Ge; Chen, Zhaozhang; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2014-09-01

    Unbalanced inputs and outputs of material are the root cause of habitat degradation in Sansha Bay, Fujian Province, China. However, the cumulative pollution varies in different geographic locations and natural conditions in the enclosed bay. In this study, hydrodynamic conditions, sediment characteristics, and aquaculture methods were recognized as the underlying causes of spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous pollutants, the two major controlling factors of habitat degradation in the bay area. In order to achieve the goal of balancing nutrient inputs and outputs in Sansha Bay, we developed a feasible and practical zone restoration strategy for reasonable adjustment and arrangement of aquaculture species and production scale in accordance with varying hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics in six sub-bay areas (sub-systems). The proposed zone restoration strategy lays a solid foundation for habitat restoration and management in Sansha Bay.

  8. Diagnostic model construction and example analysis of habitat degradation in enclosed bay: III. Sansha Bay habitat restoration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Yu, Ge; Chen, Zhaozhang; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    Unbalanced inputs and outputs of material are the root cause of habitat degradation in Sansha Bay, Fujian Province, China. However, the cumulative pollution varies in different geographic locations and natural conditions in the enclosed bay. In this study, hydrodynamic conditions, sediment characteristics, and aquaculture methods were recognized as the underlying causes of spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous pollutants, the two major controlling factors of habitat degradation in the bay area. In order to achieve the goal of balancing nutrient inputs and outputs in Sansha Bay, we developed a feasible and practical zone restoration strategy for reasonable adjustment and arrangement of aquaculture species and production scale in accordance with varying hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics in six sub-bay areas (sub-systems). The proposed zone restoration strategy lays a solid foundation for habitat restoration and management in Sansha Bay.

  9. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  10. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  11. Trends in the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis isolates from Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Rasmussen, S R; Artursson, K; Jensen, N E

    1998-08-28

    This study was conducted to determine the MIC values of historical and contemporary Streptoccocus suis (serotypes 2 and 7) from Denmark and S. suis (serotype 2) from Sweden. A total of 52 isolates originating from 1967 through 1981 and 156 isolates from 1992 through 1997 in Denmark and 13 isolates from Sweden were examined for their MICs against 20 different antimicrobial agents. Most antimicrobials were active against most isolates. A frequent occurrence of resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed, with most resistance among historic isolates of serotype 7 and least resistance among isolates from Sweden. A large number of the isolates was resistant to macrolides. However, all historic serotype 2 isolates from Denmark were susceptible, whereas 20.4% of the contemporary isolates were resistant. Among serotype 7 isolates 23.3% of the historic isolates were resistant to macrolides, whereas resistance was found in 44.8% of the contemporary isolates. All isolates from Sweden were susceptible to macrolides. Time-associated frequency of resistance to tetracycline was also found. Only a single historic isolate of serotype 2 was resistant to tetracycline, whereas 43.9% of the contemporary serotype 2 isolates and 15.5% of the contemporary serotype 7 isolates were resistant. Only one (7.7%) of the isolates from Sweden was resistant. The differences in resistance between historic and contemporary isolates from Denmark were statistically significant. This study demonstrated a significant serotype-associated difference in the susceptibility to macrolides and tetracycline and demonstrated that an increase in resistance among S. suis isolates has taken place during the last 15 years to the two most commonly used antimicrobial agents (tylosin and tetracycline) in pig production in Denmark. PMID:9810623

  12. Conserving the forests of the Chesapeake: The status, trends, and importance of forests for the bay`s sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The report reviews the most current data on the status and trends of forests in the states of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The report begins with an historical perspective of land use changes in the basin from the time of European settlement to today. It then proceeds with the status of the forests in the Bay watershed in 1996 and trends of forest change from the mid 1970`s to early 1990`s. The information is examined in light of its importance to the Bay. Finally, we present recommendations for an effective forest conservation program for the Chesapeake Bay region.

  13. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  14. 78 FR 55216 - Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and Ordnance Recovery, Suisun Bay, Concord, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security DoD Department of Defense FR Federal Register MMRP Military..., 2013 in the navigable waters of the Suisun Bay, CA as depicted in National Oceanic and Atmospheric... and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights. 9. Civil Justice Reform This...

  15. Predicting hydrologic response through a hierarchical catchment knowledgebase: A Bayes empirical Bayes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tyler; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-02-01

    Making useful Predictions in Ungauged Basins is an incredibly difficult task given the limitations of hydrologic models to represent physical processes appropriately across the heterogeneity within and among different catchments. Here, we introduce a new method for this challenge, Bayes empirical Bayes, that allows for the statistical pooling of information from multiple donor catchments and provides the ability to transfer parametric distributions rather than single parameter sets to the ungauged catchment. Further, the methodology provides an efficient framework with which to formally assess predictive uncertainty at the ungauged catchment. We investigated the utility of the methodology under both synthetic and real data conditions, and with respect to its sensitivity to the number and quality of the donor catchments used. This study highlighted the ability of the hierarchical Bayes empirical Bayes approach to produce expected outcomes in both the synthetic and real data applications. The method was found to be sensitive to the quality (hydrologic similarity) of the donor catchments used. Results were less sensitive to the number of donor catchments, but indicated that predictive uncertainty was best constrained with larger numbers of donor catchments (but still adequate with fewer donors).

  16. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  17. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular traffic and the safety of navigation on the... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... long and provides a navigable connection between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences...

  18. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    .... Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting... the St. Lawrence River near Alexandria Bay, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined...

  19. 78 FR 30765 - Safety Zone; Bay Village Independence Day Fireworks, Lake Erie, Bay Village, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarine... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule... Cahoon Memorial Park, Bay Village, OH. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that...

  20. Bayes and Empirical Bayes Shrinkage Estimation of Regression Coefficients: A Cross-Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebebe, Fassil; Stroud, T. W. F.

    1988-01-01

    Bayesian and empirical Bayes approaches to shrinkage estimation of regression coefficients and uses of these in prediction (i.e., analyzing intelligence test data of children with learning problems) are investigated. The two methods are consistently better at predicting response variables than are either least squares or least absolute deviations.…

  1. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... prepare Kosciusko Island Timber Sale Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to assess and disclose the environmental effects of timber harvest and road building to provide timber for the Tongass National Forest Timber Sale Program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Frank Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay...

  2. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    .... Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... Presque Isle Bay near the Erie Yacht Club lighthouse dock, Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo...

  3. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  4. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  5. Infertility and assisted reproduction in Denmark. Epidemiology and psychosocial consequences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lone

    2006-11-01

    treatment are interwoven with each others in a complex pattern, a pattern that both differed and was similar when comparing women and men. The infertility-related communication strategy (secrecy, formal, open-minded)identified in the qualitative interviews was later confirmed in the COMPI Infertility Cohort. Using the formal strategy and not talking about the emotional aspects of infertility and its treatment suggested high fertility problem stress. The coping strategies studied showed significant social differences and active-avoidance coping was a significant predictor of high fertility problem stress. A positive effect of infertility on the marriage, marital benefit was common. Men using the secrecy communication strategy had increased risk of low marital benefit. Difficult partner communication was a significant predictor of high fertility problem stress and among men, of low marital benefit. The intervention study showed that it was possible for the participants to change their communication with partner and other people close to them and that participants achieved an increased awareness of what, how much and when to discuss with others. High fertility problem stress and high marital benefit were associated with high importance ratings of patient-centred care and intentions to use professional psychosocial services. Among women, high fertility problem stress was a predictor of lower satisfaction ratings with fertility treatment. High marital benefit was a predictor of high satisfaction ratings of both medical and patient-centred care. In conclusion, infertility is a common experience among couples attempting to become parents. Assisted reproduction in the public health-care system in Denmark has high success rates, i.e. pregnancies,deliveries and high patient satisfaction. A large minority of people in fertility treatment experience high fertility problem stress,and some use communication and coping strategies that predicts high stress. Developing and evaluating

  6. [Ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Shui; Wai, Onyx Wing-Hong; Dai, Ji-Cui; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2010-01-01

    Based on the data of surface phytoplankton investigated by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in Shenzhen Bay in 2006, variation characteristics of phytoplankton communities and the relationship between the phytoplankton diversity indices and environmental factors were analyzed in the present paper. Results showed that a total of 27 genera and 34 species of phytoplankton were identified. Of these, 18 were diatoms (52.94%), 10 were dinoflagellates (29.41%), 6 were from other minor groups (17.65%). The cell abundance was estimated to be from 2.13 x 10(6) to 4.15 x 10(6) cells/L, with an average of 2.92 x 10(6) cells/L. The maximum cell abundance appeared in the autumn (October), followed in spring (May). The cell abundance showed double abundance peaks annually. The cell abundance of phytoplankton decreased from the middle bay to the bay mouth. In the marine area, the diversity index of the phytoplankton ranged from 0.76 to 2.52; the evenness of phytoplankton ranged from 0.29 to 0.74; the diversity and evenness of phytoplankton community were rather low, which indicated that the relative abundances of the species diverged from evenness, phytoplankton community were not steady, and only few dominant species increased rapidly. The species richness index ranged from 0.57 to 2.17, the high eutrophic water body caused the species richness index declined. Better relationship was found between phytoplankton diversity indices and nutrient, salinity, dissolved oxygen. PMID:20329517

  7. 77 FR 14514 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 2, 2012, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  8. 78 FR 16495 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2013, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  9. 33 CFR 110.5 - Casco Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 110.5, see the List of CFR Sections... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Casco Bay, Maine. 110.5 Section... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.5 Casco Bay, Maine. (a) Beals Cove, West side of...

  10. 33 CFR 80.110 - Casco Bay, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casco Bay, ME. 80.110 Section 80.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.110 Casco Bay, ME. (a) A line drawn from...

  11. 33 CFR 80.110 - Casco Bay, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Casco Bay, ME. 80.110 Section 80.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.110 Casco Bay, ME. (a) A line drawn from...

  12. 33 CFR 110.5 - Casco Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 110.5, see the List of CFR Sections... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casco Bay, Maine. 110.5 Section... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.5 Casco Bay, Maine. (a) Beals Cove, West side of...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  3. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  4. Neutron calibration sources in the Daya Bay experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, J.; Carr, R.; Dwyer, D. A.; Gu, W. Q.; Li, G. S.; McKeown, R. D.; Qian, X.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wu, F. F.; Zhang, C.

    2015-07-09

    We describe the design and construction of the low rate neutron calibration sources used in the Daya Bay Reactor Anti-neutrino Experiment. Such sources are free of correlated gamma-neutron emission, which is essential in minimizing induced background in the anti-neutrino detector. Thus, the design characteristics have been validated in the Daya Bay anti-neutrino detector.

  5. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area. 334.80 Section 334.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.80 Narragansett Bay, RI;...

  7. 76 FR 15305 - Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 7, 2011, Trans Bay Cable LLC, filed a request for ] a waiver of the annual submission requirements for FERC...

  8. Understanding Persuasive Online Sales Messages from eBay Auctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial; Noel, Rita; Fortier, Jenny; Grabolosa, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Online auctions are dominated by eBay, which started bringing together buyers and sellers in 1995. eBay product listings can easily be used in business communication courses to better understand online sales messages. One great advantage is that the vast majority of nearly 15 million listings a day are written and assembled by everyday consumers…

  9. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    Bay Area residents feel a sense of responsibility to protect San Francisco Bay and keep it healthy. Some even dream about the recovery of fish stocks so they can sustain commercial fishing once again inside the Bay. How is our Bay doing? Is it highly polluted or pretty clean? How does its health compare with other estuaries in the United States? Are things getting better or worse? Does costly wastewater treatment have benefits? What are the biggest threats to the Bay and how can we reduce or eliminate those threats? How will the Bay change in the future? These questions can only be answered with investments in study and monitoring, and they are the driving force behind the Regional Monitoring Program (RMP). We describe here some selected results from water quality surveillance conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as one component of the RMP. We present results as lessons about how the Bay works as a complex dynamic system, and we show how these lessons are relevant to the broad RMP objectives supporting Bay protection and management.

  10. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  11. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  12. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  13. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  14. 33 CFR 100.904 - Celebrate Americafest, Green Bay, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Celebrate Americafest, Green Bay, WI. 100.904 Section 100.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Green Bay, WI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the...

  15. Default Bayes Factors for Model Selection in Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayes factor solution for inference in multiple regression. Bayes factors are principled measures of the relative evidence from data for various models or positions, including models that embed null hypotheses. In this regard, they may be used to state positive evidence for a lack of an effect, which is not possible…

  16. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  17. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  18. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  19. ESTUARINE HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ersonnel from the Gulf Ecology Division have conducted a multiyear evaluation of the environmental condition of areas in the Pensacola Bay System affected by point and nonpoint contamination. Areas of study included coastal rivers, residential canals, bayous and bays impacted by ...

  20. Green Bay: Spatial patterns in water quality and landscape correlations

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey along the nearshore (369 km) in Green Bay using towed electronic instrumentation at approximately the 15 m depth contour, with additional transects of the bay that were oriented cross-contour (49 km). Electronic sensor data provided an effic...