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Sample records for aarhus bay denmark

  1. Controls on subsurface methane fluxes and shallow gas formation in Baltic Sea sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Sabine; Røy, Hans; Dale, Andrew W.; Fossing, Henrik; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2016-09-01

    Shallow gas accumulates in coastal marine sediments when the burial rate of reactive organic matter beneath the sulfate zone is sufficiently high and the methanogenic zone is sufficiently deep. We investigated the controls on methane production and free methane gas accumulation along a 400 m seismo-acoustic transect across a sharp transition from gas-free into gas-bearing sediment in Aarhus Bay (Denmark). Twelve gravity cores were taken, in which the pore water was analyzed for inorganic solutes while rates of organic carbon mineralization were measured experimentally by 35SO42- radiotracer method. The thickness of organic-rich Holocene mud increased from 5 to 10 m along the transect concomitant with a shallowing of the depth of the sulfate-methane transition from >4 m to 2.5 m. In spite of drastic differences in the distribution of methane and sulfate in the sediment along the transect, there were only small differences in total mineralization, and methanogenesis was only equivalent to about 1% of sulfate reduction. Shallow gas appeared where the mud thickness exceeded 8-9 m. Rates of methanogenesis increased along the transect as did the upward diffusive flux of methane. Interestingly, the increase in the sedimentation rate and Holocene mud thickness had only a modest direct effect on methanogenesis rates in deep sediments. This increase in methane flux, however, triggered a shallowing of the sulfate-methane transition which resulted in a large increase in methanogenesis at the top of the methanogenic zone. Thus, our results demonstrate a positive feedback mechanism that causes a strong enhancement of methanogenesis and explains the apparently abrupt appearance of gas when a threshold thickness of organic-rich mud is exceeded.

  2. Community Structure of Methane-Cycling Archaea in Different Geochemical Zones in Aarhus Bay, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Lever, M. A.; Saunders, A. M.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane are dominant processes regulating methane cycle in the deep biosphere in marine environments, both of which are executed by microbes. The diversity of methane-cycling archaea has been intensively studied by exploring 16S ribosomal RNA gene and alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA). In marine sediments, methanogens and methane-oxidizing archaea are mainly found in methane zone (MZ) and in sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), respectively. However, methane-cycling archaea are also present in zones other than their usual residing geochemical zones. Next generation sequencing of mcrA genes from 5 gravity cores shows that both methanogens and methane-oxidizing archaeal group - ANME-1 are ubiquitous in all biogeochemical zones in Aarhus Bay. We will further discuss below questions: which methanogens and methanotrophs are present and active in the presence of sulfate, and which are restricted in SMTZ or MZ? How do activity and pathway of methanogenesis / methanotrophy change with depth and substrate availability?

  3. Seasonal generation and composition of garden waste in Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Garden waste generation and composition were studied in Aarhus, Denmark. The amount of garden waste generated varied seasonally, from 2.5kgperson(-1)month(-1) in winter to 19.4kgperson(-1)month(-1) in summer. Seasonal fractional composition and chemical characterization of garden waste were determined by sorting and sampling garden waste eight times during 1year. On a yearly basis, the major fraction of garden waste was "small stuff" (flowers, grass clippings, hedge cuttings and soil) making up more than 90% (wet waste distribution) during the summer. The woody fractions (branches, wood) are more significant during the winter. Seasonal trends in waste chemical composition were recorded and an average annual composition of garden waste was calculated, considering the varying monthly generation and material fraction composition: the wet garden waste contained 40% water, 30% organic matter (VS) and 30% ash. The ash content suggests that the garden waste contains a significant amount of soil. This is in particular the case during summer. Of nutrients, the garden waste contained in average on a dry matter basis 0.6% N, 0.1% P, and 1.0% K. However, the contents varied significantly among the fractions and during the year. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was low.

  4. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  5. A Campaign Study of Sea Spray Aerosol Properties in the Bay of Aarhus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Rasmussen, Berit; Kristensen, Kasper; Sloth Nielsen, Lærke; Bilde, Merete

    2016-04-01

    The oceans of the world are a dominant source of atmospheric aerosol. Together with mineral dust, sea spray aerosols (SSA) constitute the largest mass flux of particulate matter in the atmosphere (Andreae and Rosenfeld, 2008). Due to their effects on the global radiative budget - both directly as scatterers and absorbers of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SSA are considered an important component of the climate system. The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is an ultra-thin boundary layer between the ocean and the atmosphere. The high concentration of surface-active organic compounds in the SML, compared to that of the underlying water column, creates rigid film-like layer over the surface of the ocean. The SML is believed to play an important role in the formation and composition of SSA. However, current knowledge on the SML and its impacts on SSA remain limited. To characterize the SML of natural seawater and examine its impacts on aerosol properties, a field campaign was conducted in the bay of Aarhus, Denmark, during spring 2015. Bulk seawater was collected 1-2 times every week along with selective sampling of the SML. Characterization of the sea water and SML included a wide range of measurements, including surface tension, water activity, dissolved organic matter, and chemical composition analysis by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS). SSA was generated from sampled sea water by diffusion of air bubbles through a 10L seawater sample situated in a sea spray tank. Particle number concentration and CCN measurements were conducted along with measurements of the organic share in the aerosol phase as indicated by volatility measurements. To investigate the effect of the SML, spiking of the seawater samples with additional SML was performed and measurements repeated for comparison. Preliminary results show that the SML samples

  6. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students.

  7. Endospore abundance and D:L-amino acid modeling of bacterial turnover in holocene marine sediment (Aarhus Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerhuus, Alice T.; Røy, Hans; Lever, Mark A.; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2012-12-01

    In order to study bacterial activity, and turnover times of bacterial necromass and biomass in marine sediment, two stations from the Aarhus Bay, Denmark were analyzed. Sediment cores were up to 11 m deep and covered a timescale from the present to ˜11,000 years ago. Sediment was analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), total hydrolysable amino sugars, the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers (L- and D-form) of aspartic acid. Turnover times of bacterial necromass and vegetative cells, as well as carbon oxidation rates were estimated by use of the D:L-amino acid racemization model. Diagenetic indicators were applied to evaluate the diagenetic state of the sedimentary organic matter. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon, and the ratio between the amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and their respective non protein degradation products, β-alanine and γ-amino butyric acid, all indicated increasing degradation state of the organic matter with sediment depth and age. Quantification of DPA showed that endospores were abundant, and increased with depth relative to vegetative cells. Most of the amino acids (97%) could be ascribed to microbial necromass, i.e. the remains of dead bacterial cells. Model estimates showed that the turnover times of microbial necromass were in the range of 0.5-1 × 105 years, while turnover times of vegetative cells were in the range of tens to hundreds of years. The turnover time of the TOC pool increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that the TOC pool became progressively more refractory and unavailable to microorganisms with depth and age of the organic matter.

  8. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-05-15

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  9. Waste collection systems for recyclables: an environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Larsen, A W; Merrild, H; Møller, J; Christensen, T H

    2010-05-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  10. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark): abundance and diversity related to geochemical zonation.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Julie; Fossing, Henrik; Kohls, Katharina; Holmkvist, Lars; Borowski, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2009-05-01

    In order to better understand the main factors that influence the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), their population size and their metabolic activity in high- and low-sulfate zones, we studied the SRB diversity in 3- to 5-m-deep sediment cores, which comprised the entire sulfate reduction zone and the upper methanogenic zone. By combining EMA (ethidium monoazide that can only enter damaged/dead cells and may also bind to free DNA) treatment with real-time PCR, we determined the distributions of total intact bacteria (16S rDNA genes) and intact SRB (dsrAB gene), their relative population sizes, and the proportion of dead cells or free DNA with depth. The abundance of SRB corresponded in average to 13% of the total bacterial community in the sulfate zone, 22% in the sulfate-methane transition zone and 8% in the methane zone. Compared with the total bacterial community, there were relatively less dead/damaged cells and free DNA present than among the SRB and this fraction did not change systematically with depth. By DGGE analysis, based on the amplification of the dsrA gene (400 bp), we found that the richness of SRB did not change with depth through the geochemical zones; but the clustering was related to the chemical zonation. A full-length clone library of the dsrAB gene (1900 bp) was constructed from four different depths (20, 110, 280 and 500 cm), and showed that the dsrAB genes in the near-surface sediment (20 cm) was mainly composed of sequences close to the Desulfobacteraceae, including marine complete and incomplete oxidizers such as Desulfosarcina, Desulfobacterium and Desulfococcus. The three other libraries were predominantly composed of Gram-positive SRB.

  11. Denmark.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    Denmark is predominantly a low, flat land with such resources as oil, gas and arable land. The Danish are comprised of Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese and German peoples, and the languages spoken include Danish, Farese, Greenlandic and some German. The Danish enjoy a literacy rate of nearly 100%, and school attendance is 100%. The Danes are a homogeneous Gothic-Germanic people who have lived in Denmark since the prehistoric period. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is supported by 97% of the population; however, other religions are present. The government of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy with an executive, legislative and judicial branch. The political life is democratic, and compromise is a very important component of the political life of Denmark as many parties and factions must work together. Support for cultural growth comes from the Ministry of Cultural Affairs which subsidizes projects, training other cultural activities. The infant mortality rate is 8.2/1000. Life expectancy for men is 71.5 and for women 77.5.

  12. The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Læssøe, Jeppe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lange, Lene

    2009-03-01

    More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular interest for understanding the effects of the projected future climate change and how the foreseen negative impacts can be counteracted by mitigation and adaptation measures. The themes were: Climate policy: the role of law and economics; Biodiversity and ecosystems; Agriculture and climate change; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference. The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used to minimize the expected negative impacts of future climate change.

  13. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures: Prospective Study over Two Decades in Aarhus City, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. Purpose We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. Methods The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988–89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Results Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th–95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0–152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11–2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12–2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054). Conclusion Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures. PMID:25474409

  14. [The first 50 years of the Blood Transfusion Centre, Aarhus University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The first step to establish a blood transfusion centre in Aarhus was taken in 1951, when an ordinary refrigerator, to be used in a kitchen, was installed in the operation theater area (surgical department) and used for short time storage of blood from bleeding of the donor to transfusion of the patient. In order to celebrate the 60 years anniversary this paper tells the history of the Blood Transfusion Centre at Aarhus University Hospital, especially location in hospitals and scenery of laboratories. The paper is initiated with a description of some of the major milestones in transfusion medicine, which are essential for the function of a blood bank. The last part consists of photos, which shows the setting of the department during the 60 years. In order to facilitate the impression of the great technical improvement, which took place during this period, the photos are, together with a description, grouped according to the motive.

  15. The Aarhus convention in the nuclear sector-right to information versus nonproliferation?

    PubMed

    Stražišar, Borut; Kralj, Metka

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear events and problems in siting procedures of nuclear plants poses problems of timely information and the question of proper and trustful information. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the right to information and the Aarhus convention are analysed. The basic rights of the public in the field of environmental matters are presented and discussed. Such rights are also examined through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The second part deals with the problem of possible conflicts between the right to information (and environmental information) and obligations from NPT. The third part proposes some solutions to provide a balance between the obligation of giving information and the obligation of protecting certain information under the NPT.

  16. What's Happening in Denmark?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Corey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in alumni relations in a country, Denmark, where few are willing to bear the institution's logo. The author likens his journey to that of Lewis and Clark, who introduced the rest of America to the western part of North America. And just like them, the author and his colleague experienced unforeseen…

  17. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  18. Spotlight on VET Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data on the vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. VET plays a key role in the Danish strategy for lifelong learning and meeting the challenges of globalisation and technological change. The Danish education and training system comprises a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory…

  19. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  20. Vocational Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    Denmark has a wide range of basic vocational training courses that can be begun immediately after completion of lower secondary school, i.e., after students complete their compulsory education at the age of 15 or 16). This is not to say that there is no vocational education at the primary and secondary levels, where guest teachers from working…

  1. Virtual Reality in Denmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    technologies are available in CAVI: VIRTUAL REALITY IN DENMARK 2 - 2 RTO-TR-HFM-121-Part-I • 3D Panorama Cinema Curved screen Active stereo...glasses Tracking Figure 3: 3D Panorama Cinema at CAVI. • The Panorama cinema is a cylinder shaped screen placed in a room that seats approximately...15-20 persons. The size and shape of the screen mean that the visual angle of the spectators is almost covered by the screen . Models are displayed

  2. [Radium therapy in a county hospital on the island of Mors, Denmark].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ib; Topp, Sven W

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark it was decided early in the 20th century that therapy with radium should be restricted to major centres in the three largest cities, Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. In the northern part of Jutland the chief surgeon of Nykøbing Mors Hospital, Jacob Nordentoft (1881-1954), had studied radium treatment in Hamburg with Albers-Schönberg and in Paris with Marie Curie, and he had used radium in his private clinic since 1910. Naturally he wanted to continue this when he became chief in Nykøbing in 1922. As he was denied this the 22,000 inhabitants of this small island in 1931 collected 28,790 Danish Crowns for him as a birthday present and afterwards he could buy 94 mg pure radium from Belgium. With this amount he established a Radium Centre which lasted for 30 years.

  3. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  4. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  5. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  6. Educational and Vocational Guidance in Denmark. Education in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This report sketches educational and vocational guidance in Denmark. It begins with a historical account of developments in the areas of career and school counseling. Outlined next are guidance programs at the following levels: folkeskole, gymnasium and studenterkursus (upper secondary education), higher preparatory examination, vocational school,…

  7. Family Day Care in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    The present report describes a system for the care of children during the day in Denmark: care in private family homes. Begun in 1966, this program organized a formal system of family day care homes initiated and supervised by the government; this is an extension of the former system of licensing privately initiated family day care homes. From the…

  8. Galveston Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  9. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  10. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  11. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  12. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  13. The Spanish flu in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for Denmark and for Danish towns from 1917 to 1921, and population data from the 1916 and 1921 censuses, we analysed incident cases, cumulative, age-specific and age-standardized rates. Overall, more than 900,000 persons contracted flu during the y 1918-1920, and 1 out of 50 patients died from the disease. An early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20-34 y producing a W curve for mortality by age. The background for the better outcome in children aged 1-15 y as well as for the disease immunity in the elderly population should be further investigated.

  14. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  15. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  16. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  17. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  18. Building Models with Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus; Nelson, Lance J.; Reese, Shane

    2011-10-01

    The whole of modern Bayesian statistical methods is founded on the simple idea of Bayes rule, stated by the Reverend Thomas Bayes, and presented in 1763. Bayes rule is merely a simple statement of conditional probablility but can be used to make strong inferences. However, the application of Bayes rule to all but the simplest problems requires significant computation. As a result, Baysian-based approaches have been largely impractical until high-speed computing became inexpensive in the recent in the last 20 years or so. We discuss the general idea behind Bayes rule, how to use it to build physical models, and illustrate the approach for a simple case of lattice gas models.

  19. Denmark's Boernehavens: A Place to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    During the author's trips to Denmark as an instructor of American college students studying abroad, he led groups to visit several "boernehavens," which are the Danish equivalents of U.S. preschools for children ages 3 to 5. Danish society values confident individuals who can take initiative when faced with challenges and opportunities.…

  20. The Financing of Continuing Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedegaard, Birthe

    In Denmark, suppliers of continuing training constitute the point at which the sources of finance meet the people who receive continuing training. On the basis of this close connection between training suppliers and the financial sources behind them, continuing training activities can be subdivided into these five categories: (1) continuing…

  1. The Seeds of Social Change from Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    N.F.S. Grundtvig was a priest, historian, poet, and founder of the Danish Folk High School. He believed that education for adults should be geared to adults and wanted schools to be independent of the church. Grundtvig was among the first to call for Denmark's schools to use the native Danish language. Grundtvig believed that each group or culture…

  2. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  3. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  4. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  5. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim. This special local regulation is necessary to protect... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments...

  6. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  7. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden.

  8. On the hydrography of Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropole, Dana; Pickart, Robert S.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn; Vâge, Kjetil; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-01-01

    Using 111 shipboard hydrographic sections across Denmark Strait occupied between 1990 and 2012, we characterize the mean conditions at the sill, quantify the water mass constituents, and describe the dominant features of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). The mean vertical sections of temperature, salinity, and density reveal the presence of circulation components found upstream of the sill, in particular the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC. These correspond to hydrographic fronts consistent with surface-intensified southward flow. Deeper in the water column the isopycnals slope oppositely, indicative of bottom-intensified flow of DSOW. An end-member analysis indicates that the deepest part of Denmark Strait is dominated by Arctic-Origin Water with only small amounts of Atlantic-Origin Water. On the western side of the strait, the overflow water is a mixture of both constituents, with a contribution from Polar Surface Water. Weakly stratified "boluses" of dense water are present in 41% of the occupations, revealing that this is a common configuration of DSOW. The bolus water is primarily Arctic-Origin Water and constitutes the densest portion of the overflow. The boluses have become warmer and saltier over the 22 year record, which can be explained by changes in end-member properties and their relative contributions to bolus composition.

  9. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grant Guidance and appendices for the Chesapeake Bay Program that describes how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 3’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) administers grant and cooperative agreement funds.

  10. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  11. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality.

    PubMed

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Christensen, Palle Mark; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Damkier, Per; Hallas, Jesper; Heisterberg, Jens; Jessen, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Kampmann, Jens Peter Konnerup; Laursen, Britt Elmedal; Laursen, Torben; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Andersen, Ljubica Vukelic; Senderovitz, Thomas; Sonne, Jesper

    2016-12-01

    The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local medicines information service. Some centres have established an adverse drug effect manager function. Only one centre offers a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Clinical pharmacologists are responsible for the toxicological advice at the Danish Poison Information Centre at Bispebjerg University Hospital in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric and psychiatric teach-inns for specialist and junior doctors are among the newest initiatives organized by clinical pharmacologists. Clinical pharmacologists work also in the Danish Medicines Agency and in the Danish pharmaceutical industry, and the latter has in particular a great growth potential for creating new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors) or approximately 12 specialists per one million inhabitants.

  12. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  13. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  14. On optimal Bayes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P. |

    1991-08-12

    The following is intended to be a short introduction to the design and analysis of a Bayes-optimal detector, and Middleton`s Locally Optimum Bayes Detector (LOBD). The relationship between these two detectors is clarified. There are three examples of varying complexity included to illustrate the design of these detectors. The final example illustrates the difficulty involved in choosing the bias function for the LOBD. For the examples, the corrupting noise is Gaussian. This allows for a relatively easy solution to the optimal and the LOBD structures. As will be shown, for Bayes detection, the threshold is determined by the costs associated with making a decision and the a priori probabilities of each hypothesis. The threshold of the test cannot be set by simulation. One will notice that the optimal Bayes detector and the LOBD look very much like the Neyman-Pearson optimal and locally optimal detectors respectively. In the latter cases though, the threshold is set by a constraint on the false alarm probability. Note that this allows the threshold to be set by simulation.

  15. On optimal Bayes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P. Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-08-12

    The following is intended to be a short introduction to the design and analysis of a Bayes-optimal detector, and Middleton's Locally Optimum Bayes Detector (LOBD). The relationship between these two detectors is clarified. There are three examples of varying complexity included to illustrate the design of these detectors. The final example illustrates the difficulty involved in choosing the bias function for the LOBD. For the examples, the corrupting noise is Gaussian. This allows for a relatively easy solution to the optimal and the LOBD structures. As will be shown, for Bayes detection, the threshold is determined by the costs associated with making a decision and the a priori probabilities of each hypothesis. The threshold of the test cannot be set by simulation. One will notice that the optimal Bayes detector and the LOBD look very much like the Neyman-Pearson optimal and locally optimal detectors respectively. In the latter cases though, the threshold is set by a constraint on the false alarm probability. Note that this allows the threshold to be set by simulation.

  16. GPR Use and Activities in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Academic work on GPR in Denmark is performed both by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the University of Copenhagen (KU). The work at DTU includes development of antennas and systems, e.g. an airborne ice-sounder GPR system (POLARIS) that today is in frequent use for monitoring of ice thickness in Greenland. DTU often collaborates with ESA (European Space Agency) regarding electromagnetic development projects. At KU there is an ongoing work with GPR applied to water resources. The main objective is to study flux of water and matter across different hydrological domains. There are several recent publications from KU describing research for data analysis and modelling as well as hydro geophysical applications. Also the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) performs frequent geological mapping with GPR. There have been mainly two actors on the Danish commercial market for several years: FalkGeo and Ramboll. Falkgeo has been active for many years acquiring data for several different applications such as archeology, utilities and roads. Their equipment pool comprises both a multichannel Terravision system form GSSI and a 2D system from Mala Geoscience with a comprehensive range of antennas. Ramboll has performed GPR surveys for two decades mainly with 2D systems from GSSI. In recent years Ramboll has also obtained a system with RTA antennas from Mala Geoscience and a multichannel system from 3D-Radar. These systems have opened markets both for deeper geological mapping and for shallow mapping. The geological mapping with the Mala system has often been combined with resistivity imaging (CVES) and refraction seismic. The 3D system has been applied in airports and on road for mapping of layer thicknesses, delamination and for control of asphalt works. Other areas comprise bridge deck evaluation and utility mapping. Ramboll also acts as client advisor for BaneDanmark, a state owned company who operates and develops the Danish state railway network

  17. Fireball over Denmark on 17 January 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, P.; Wiśniewski, Mariusz; Polakowski, K.

    2009-12-01

    A spectacular fireball crossed the sky over Denmark on 17 January 2009. It was observed by many eyewitnesses across northern Europe, but only recorded by a single camera from Sweden. Two Polish Fireball Network cameras managed to indirectly record the fireball due to changes in sky brightness. As a result of careful analysis of video footage and reports from the eyewitnesses we were able to determine the trajectory of the object. The velocity of the fireball was estimated at 50 km/s. A meteor event with such a rapid velocity should not produce any meteorites.

  18. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Denmark: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Denmark's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. The review team met with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analyzed data from a national questionnaire, and reviewed pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: coordinating mechanisms; the role of Denmark's National…

  19. Cancer in printing workers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E; Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Andersen, I; Hink, M; Olsen, E; Møller, U L; Silfverberg, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the cancer incidence in printing workers in Denmark. METHODS--The cohort of 15,534 men and 3593 women working in the printing industry in 1970 were followed up for death, emigrations, and incident cancer cases until the end of 1987. Their cancer incidence was compared with that of all economically active people in Denmark. The smoking and drinking habits reported by members of the printing trade unions at a survey in 1972 were compared with habits reported by members of other trade unions. RESULTS--Lung, bladder, renal pelvis, and primary liver cancers were in excess among the printing workers. The excess risks of lung cancer among the factory workers in newspaper and magazine production, of bladder cancer in typographers in printing establishments, of renal pelvis cancer in typographers and lithographers, and of primary liver cancer among lithographers and bookbinders exceeded those expected based on the reported smoking and drinking habits. CONCLUSION--Our results indicate, in line with a previous study from Manchester, that work with rotary letterpress printing was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The inconsistent results from studies on bladder cancer in printing workers may point to a risk confined to a certain subgroup. The sixfold risk of primary liver cancer in Danish lithographers warrants studies in other countries. PMID:8535493

  20. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier in life that may affect the risk of MS. This register has no systematic follow-up data except for survival. The DMSR has over the years published nationwide incidence- and prevalence data from Denmark and has been involved in a number of 'historical prospective' studies to elucidate the association between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have received disease-modifying treatments since 1996. It has, in particular, contributed to the knowledge of the role of antibodies against the biological drugs used for the treatment of MS.

  1. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  2. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  3. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  4. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  5. Towards 50% wind electricity in Denmark: Dilemmas and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Paul-Frederik

    2016-05-01

    Electricity and heat supply systems are essential contributors to a fossil-free future in Denmark. The combined production of heat and power (CHP) and the production of wind energy are already well developed in Denmark. Combined heat and power covers about 40% of the demand for space heating in Denmark, and the production of wind energy is supposed to exceed 50% of the demand for electricity by 2020. The changing electricity and heat production has some consequences already now: i) Decreasing wholesale prices in Denmark and in other countries. ii) Thermal power plants are closing down. Denmark is no longer self-sufficient with electricity under all conditions. iii) The electricity production pattern does not match the demand pattern. The result is that the neighbouring countries must absorb the variations from wind and solar power. Essential challenges: i) The future of combined heat and power in Denmark is uncertain. ii) Denmark will need new backup capacity for filling the gaps in wind power and solar cell output. iii) Flexible electricity consumers are supposed to contribute to balancing the future power systems. There is still a long way to go before the Smart Grid visions are implemented in large scale. iv) The transformation of the power system will create new risks of power failures.

  6. Towards Universal Design Hotels in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research project 'Accessible Hotel Rooms' that studies the balance between the experience of supply and demand regarding accessibility features in Danish hotel rooms, this paper demonstrates factors having an influence on Universal Design hotels in Denmark. The research project was financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. Different notions in the hotel sector of the current supply and demand for Universal Design hotel rooms are identified, as well as future demand. Despite supplying accessible rooms, some hotels do not advertise their accessibility features on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view of demand. Another important factor is Corporate Social Responsibility, which can be regarded as a strategy or platform towards Universal Design hotels.

  7. Delay in diagnosis: the experience in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, F; Hansen, R P; Vedsted, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Denmark has poorer 5-year survival rates than many other Western European countries, and cancer patients tend to have more advanced stages at diagnosis than those in other Scandinavian countries. Part of this may be due to delay in diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the initiatives currently underway to reduce delays. Methods: Description of Danish actions to reduce delay. Results: Results of surveys of patient-, doctor- and system-related delays are presented and so are the political initiatives to ensure that cancer is seen as an acute disease. Conclusion: In future, fast-track diagnosis and treatment will be provided for suspected cancers and access to general diagnostic investigations will be improved. A large national experiment with cancer seen as an acute disease is currently being implemented, and as yet the results are unknown. PMID:19956163

  8. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  9. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  10. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  11. The Horsens-Aarhus Femoro Acetabular Impingement (HAFAI) cohort: outcome of arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Lund, Bent; Dalgas, Ulrik; Sørensen, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During the past decade, it has become increasingly more common to offer hip arthroscopic surgery when treating people with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Nevertheless, the latest reviews conclude that it still remains to be properly investigated how surgery affects the patients. Specifically, detailed information on the functional, muscular and mechanical impact of surgery in larger groups is lacking. Furthermore, the long-term outcome of the surgery is still to be investigated. Methods and analysis In this prospective cohort study, a total of 60 patients with FAI scheduled for arthroscopic surgery will be followed and tested preoperatively, and again after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Assessment includes isokinetic dynamometry evaluating hip flexion and extension; evaluation of functional capacity in a three-dimensional motion laboratory; pain assessment; self-reported function, quality of life, expectation and satisfaction with the surgery; recording of previous and present sporting activities and accelerometry. In addition, data on surgical procedure, rehabilitation progress, adverse events and failure will be recorded. Patients will be compared with an age-matched and gender-matched reference group of 30 persons with no hip, knee, ankle or back problems. Long-term follow-up of this cohort may evaluate possible reoperations and development of hip osteoarthritis. Furthermore, analysis on how subgroups respond to the treatment could be performed together with identification of possible “non-responders”. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Central Denmark Region Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (Journal No 1-10-72-239-14). The results from this study will be presented at national and international congresses and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02306525. PMID:26346877

  12. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  13. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  14. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  15. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  16. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  17. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  18. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  19. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  20. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  1. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  2. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  3. Coastal Erosion along Monterey Bay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    RD-Al155 61@ COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY(U) NAVAL1/ A8POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A I SKLAVIDIS El AL. UNCLASSIFIED F/G 8/3 NmIIhllllllll...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 0 to Lfl IC)I I ~JUN 2 71985 THESIS~ COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY by Anastasios I...PERIOD COVERED Master’s thesis; COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY March 1985 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBIER 7. AUTMOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a

  4. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  5. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  6. Keep Colon Cancer At Bay

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164231.html Keep Colon Cancer at Bay Colonoscopy best way to detect disease ... 22, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer can be treated and cured if it's diagnosed ...

  7. Recent results from Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Ming-chung

    2016-11-01

    Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  8. Hospital admissions among male drivers in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hannerz, H; Tuchsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To facilitate decisions about interventions and to establish baseline values for future evaluation of preventive efforts, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the disease pattern among male professional drivers in Denmark. The study differentiated between drivers of goods vehicles and drivers of passenger transport.
METHODS—Cohorts of all 20-59 year old Danish male professional drivers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age standardised hospital admission ratios (SHRs) and time trends (1981-97) for many diagnostic aggregations.
RESULTS—SHRs for diseases in practically all systems and organs of the body were higher among professional drivers than they were in the male working population at large. Also drivers of passenger transport, compared with drivers of goods vehicles, had significantly high SHRs due to infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system, and significantly lower rates of injury. For both driver groups, the SHRs for acute myocardial infarction increased with time whereas the SHR for acute gastritis decreased, and for drivers of passenger transport an increasing SHR for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was found over time.
CONCLUSION—Drivers of passenger transport and drivers of goods vehicles differ in their disease patterns. The results support the hypothesis that preventive efforts are needed in both groups, but underline that different strategies are required for different categories of drivers.


Keywords: professional drivers; hospital admissions; surveillance system PMID:11245742

  9. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  10. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  11. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  12. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc Project Nos. 2348-035,...

  13. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  14. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  15. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  16. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  17. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... across the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, at miles 4.17 and 4.3, in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The establishment... drawbridge schedules for all three drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two bridges...

  18. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Clean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQPClean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project: Implementing the PCB TMDL, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  1. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  2. East Bay Municipal Utility District Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The East Bay Municipal Utility District and its seven member communities own and operate a separate sanitary sewer system, which serves approximately 650,000 customers on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay in California.

  3. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  4. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  5. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  6. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  7. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  8. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  9. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  10. Helping Mothers in Denmark: Over Two Centries of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Wagner, Marsden G.

    In Denmark a large and complex group of social, legal, educational, health, and financial services are available to all women who are pregnant and/or have children under 2 years of age. These services are the subject of two joint reports. The first report describes the history, organization, and administration of the program and the services for…

  11. The Development of Educational Accountability in China and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Zou, Yihuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the concept of accountability has attracted more and more attention in public governance and management. The management of education is no exception. This article presents and discusses the evolution and current status of educational accountability in two different national contexts, China and Denmark. Two main sectors of…

  12. Comparing Pedagogy in Mathematics in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick; Dorf, Hans; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein's pedagogic discourse to…

  13. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Short Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency. Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial…

  14. University Governance in Denmark: From Democracy to Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a Danish research council-funded project aimed at exploring a comprehensive package of management reforms in higher education instituted in Denmark since 2003. The reforms attempt to change not only the way institutions are governed but the very notion of democracy and engagement in higher education. In short,…

  15. Health Visiting in the Infant's Home in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    A program of infant home visiting was established in Denmark as a result of concern about the rate of infant mortality. The objectives, problems, and promise of the infant Home Visiting Program are summarized and evaluated in terms of their implications for the United States. Although the results of the program have been overwhelmingly favorable…

  16. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  17. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  18. [Prevalence, symptoms, and diagnosis of tuberculosis in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Ole; Hyldgaard, Charlotte; Løkke, Anders

    2011-03-21

    In Denmark the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is low, but updated knowledge on the diagnostic techniques available is still important. We summarise the current procedure for diagnosing TB with emphasis on sputum culture, use of interferon gamma release assays and the clinical and radiological manifestations of tuberculosis.

  19. Pesticide Reduction Programs in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden are leaders in introducing comprehensive and targeted risk reduction programs for pesticides. Describes these programs and their implementation, incorporating material obtained through interviews with representatives of the main constituencies involved in reduction Tables list pesticides that do not meet the…

  20. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  1. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  2. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  3. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  4. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  5. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  6. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  7. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  8. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  9. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  10. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  11. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  12. Bayes' estimators of generalized entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holste, D.; Große, I.; Herzel, H.

    1998-03-01

    The order-q Tsallis 0305-4470/31/11/007/img5 and Rényi entropy 0305-4470/31/11/007/img6 receive broad applications in the statistical analysis of complex phenomena. A generic problem arises, however, when these entropies need to be estimated from observed data. The finite size of data sets can lead to serious systematic and statistical errors in numerical estimates. In this paper, we focus upon the problem of estimating generalized entropies from finite samples and derive the Bayes estimator of the order-q Tsallis entropy, including the order-1 (i.e. the Shannon) entropy, under the assumption of a uniform prior probability density. The Bayes estimator yields, in general, the smallest mean-quadratic deviation from the true parameter as compared with any other estimator. Exploiting the functional relationship between 0305-4470/31/11/007/img7 and 0305-4470/31/11/007/img8, we use the Bayes estimator of 0305-4470/31/11/007/img7 to estimate the Rényi entropy 0305-4470/31/11/007/img8. We compare these novel estimators with the frequency-count estimators for 0305-4470/31/11/007/img7 and 0305-4470/31/11/007/img8. We find by numerical simulations that the Bayes estimator reduces statistical errors of order-q entropy estimates for Bernoulli as well as for higher-order Markov processes derived from the complete genome of the prokaryote Haemophilus influenzae.

  13. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... waters of Suttons Bay, in the vicinity of the Municipal Marina, within the arc of a circle with a 500ft... litigation, eliminate ambiguity, and reduce burden. Protection of Children We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule...

  14. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  15. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  16. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.

  17. The geomagnetic elements in Denmark 1928-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. A.

    Geomagnetic surveys in Denmark from 1928 till 1980 are reported. The Danish Meteorological Institute initiated a new, geomagnetic survey of Denmark in 1928 by the establishment of 10 repeat statins for observation of the geomagnetic, secular variation. The stations were visited again in 1930 and since then every fifth year. The general survey was started in 1939 and continued during the years 1946 to 1957 with the mapping of Northern Jutland. In 1967 the survey taken with a coarser spacing of the measured points during the following years succeeded in completing the mapping of the country with primary consideration to the declination. The observations on the repeat stations during the time 1928-1980 allowed development of mathematical formulas for the secular change of the magnetic elements D, H and Z at any arbitrary point in the country.

  18. Gendered Time-Crunch and Work Factors in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Being crunched for time is an important aspect of life quality. Although Denmark is a country known for gender-equality, on average mothers are more time-crunched than fathers. We show this using a representative sample of Danish dual-earner couples with at least one child aged 0-10 years. We analyze the determinants of time-crunch in relation to…

  19. A Cost Analysis of Day Care in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden G.

    A cost analysis of day care in Denmark was initiated to determine what day care services cost, who pays for them, and how these costs relate to the quality of day care services. Some of the findings are: (1) group day care is considerably more expensive for children 0-3 years of age than for children 3-7 years of age; (2) group day care centers…

  20. ESRO/ESA and Denmark. Participation by research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    2003-09-01

    These notes are prepared to give an impression of considerations and activities in Denmark related to ESRO and ESA, roughly in the period 1964 to 1990. In a number of chapters we consider early space-related research in Denmark, the initial phase of the ESRO era and the following period, including the phase of transition from ESRO to ESA when Denmark seriously considered leaving the space co-operation. A chapter gives examples of activities in the ESA era within space science and astronomy, Earth Observation and microgravity, followed by a final one dealing with the national management of optional programmes and the involvement by industry. In drafting the notes we have taken advantage of the work carried out in the Introductory Studies carried out to secure and place in order the archives of the Danish Space Research Advisory Committee. In this connection excerpts of individual documents (mostly minutes of meetings, letters and reports) were taken. To a great extent they form the basis for many of the points made in the notes.

  1. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  2. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667

  3. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  4. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., Tillamook, and Lincoln Counties, OR; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay... with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our...

  5. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  6. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Bayes' theorem in paleopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Byers, Steven N; Roberts, Charlotte A

    2003-05-01

    The utility of Bayes' theorem in paleopathological diagnoses is explored. Since this theorem has been used heavily by modern clinical medicine, its usefulness in that field is described first. Next, the mechanics of the theorem are discussed, along with methods for deriving the prior probabilities needed for its application. Following this, the sources of these prior probabilities and their accompanying problems in paleopathology are considered. Finally, an application using prehistoric rib lesions is presented to demonstrate the utility of this method to paleopathology.

  8. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  9. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  10. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  11. Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.

  12. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  13. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... City, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... regulatory act for the celebration specific to Bay City, MI, the Coast Guard recently published a separate... various events throughout the Great Lakes this summer, to include the Tall Ships Celebration Bay...

  14. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  15. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... drawbridge operating schedule for the Maple-Oregon and Michigan Street Bridges across the Sturgeon Bay Ship... drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two previously mentioned bridges as well as...

  16. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule...

  17. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina.... This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This... fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation is effective from 10 p.m. on July 2, 2011 through 10:20 p.m....

  18. Real World: NASA and the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how NASA uses Earth observing satellites to monitor conditions in the Chesapeake Bay over time. Information about pollution, eutrophication, land cover and watershed runoff helps water manage...

  19. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  1. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  2. 33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by a person who fluently speaks the English language. b. Each vessel using this anchorage may not... the west shore of San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning on the shore southwest of Point...) Anchorage No. 5, Southampton Shoal. In San Francisco Bay at Southampton Shoal bounded by a line...

  3. 33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintained by a person who fluently speaks the English language. b. Each vessel using this anchorage may not... the west shore of San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning on the shore southwest of Point...) Anchorage No. 5, Southampton Shoal. In San Francisco Bay at Southampton Shoal bounded by a line...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  9. 76 FR 2085 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System; North Inlet-Winyah Bay, SC and San Francisco Bay, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... support of the Bay's growing population: Climate change, species interactions, water quality, and habitat...- Winyah Bay such as impacts from coastal and watershed development, climate events on coastal...

  10. Turning the tide: Saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T.; Eichbaum, W.

    1991-07-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most productive and important ecosystems on earth, and as such is a model for other estuaries facing the demands of commerce, tourism, transportation, recreation, and other uses. This book presents a comprehensive look at two decades of efforts to save the bay, outlining which methods have worked and which have not.

  11. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  12. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  13. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  14. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  15. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  17. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  18. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  19. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  20. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  1. JUVENILE BAY SCALLOP (ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS) HABITAT PREFERENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are known to be important for maintaining populations of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), but data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to understand the role of habitat alteration in th...

  2. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  3. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  4. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  5. Bristol Bay Assessment - Final Report (2014)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the final Bristol Bay assessment developed and peer reviewed by the Office of Research and Development in EPA. The purpose of this assessment is to provide a characterization of the biological and mineral resources of the Bristol Bay watershed.

  6. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Portraits and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    In the past decade, the nature of fathers' involvement with their children and families has become an important topic, with government agencies and nonprofit groups developing programs to help men manage the challenges of fatherhood. This report presents the first set of findings from the Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAyFIDS)…

  7. SF Bay Delta TMDL Progress Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA assessed the progress 14 TMDLs in the SF Bay Delta Estuary (SF Bay Delta) to determine if the actions called for in the TMDL were being accomplished and water quality was improving. Status and water quality reports can be found here.

  8. Spatial emission modelling for residential wood combustion in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Brandt, Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major contributor to atmospheric pollution especially for particulate matter. Air pollution has significant impact on human health, and it is therefore important to know the human exposure. For this purpose, it is necessary with a detailed high resolution spatial distribution of emissions. In previous studies as well as in the model previously used in Denmark, the spatial resolution is limited, e.g. municipality or county level. Further, in many cases models are mainly relying on population density data as the spatial proxy for distributing the emissions. This paper describes the new Danish model for high resolution spatial distribution of emissions from RWC to air. The new spatial emission model is based on information regarding building type, and primary and supplementary heating installations from the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR), which holds detailed data for all buildings in Denmark. The new model provides a much more accurate distribution of emissions than the previous model used in Denmark, as the resolution has been increased from municipality level to a 1 km × 1 km resolution, and the distribution key has been significantly improved so that it no longer puts an excessive weight on population density. The new model has been verified for the city of Copenhagen, where emissions estimated using both the previous and the new model have been compared to the emissions estimated in a case study. This comparison shows that the new model with the developed weighting factors (76 ton PM2.5) is in good agreement with the case study (95 ton PM2.5), and that the new model has improved the spatial emission distribution significantly compared to the previous model (284 ton PM2.5). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was done to illustrate the impact of the weighting factors on the result, showing that the new model independently of the weighting factors chosen produce a more accurate result than the old model.

  9. Background nitrogen concentrations in fresh waters in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windolf, Jørgen; Bøgestrand, Jens; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative information on the background loading of nitrogen is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish springs, streams, lakes and estuaries The background nitrogen loading thus determines present day lowest nitrogen loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture but includes present day atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. We have mapped the background concentration of nitrogen in Danish soil water, springs and streams based on monitoring in one soil water station (1990-2010), 11 springs, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments (2004-11). The concentration of ammonium-N (NH4+) and organic N was found to be nearly constant within six major landscape types in Denmark, respectively, 0.05 mg ± 0.06 mg N L-1 and 0.53 mg ± 0.29 mg N L-1. On contrary, the concentration of nitrate-nitrite-N (NO3- + NO2-) was found to vary between 0.06-0.83 mg N L-1 within the six landscape types. We have also time series of background total nitrogen concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed for total nitrogen concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The measured average nitrate-N concentrations in streams has been modelled against dominant landscape geology and a 5x5 km grid map of Denmark showing background concentrations of nitrate-N and total N has been produced. This map has been used during the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive as a baseline for estimating background nitrogen losses to surface waters in Denmark. Thus, the average annual background loss of total nitrogen amounts to 13,000 tonnes N or 20% of the total loading of nitrogen from the Danish land to sea during the period 2005-2009.

  10. Some epidemiologic features of canine neosporosis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Jensen, A L

    1996-04-01

    From a serological survey of 98 dogs, the overall prevalence of subclinical neosporosis among dogs in Denmark was estimated as 15.3%. From a questionnaire completed at the time of blood sampling in 87 dogs, it was found that exposure to cats could be a risk factor for the infection in dogs (odds ratio 3.46; 95% confidence limit 1.1-11.4). Further, it was shown that the antibody response in a pregnant dog increased markedly during gestation, suggesting that the parasite may be reactivated during pregnancy in a manner resembling that of Toxocara canis.

  11. [Fertility treatment in Denmark--development and challenges].

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Humaidan, Peter; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-10-08

    In Denmark, a total of 31,000 assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination treatments yearly results in the delivery of around 6,300 children, which represents 9% of the Danish birth cohort. The delivery rate following ART (in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmatic sperm injection, frozen embryo replacement and oocyte donation) has been stable around 20% per cycle initiated during the last decade, despite the transfer of fewer embryos. The future challenges are the increasing age of women seeking fertility treatment, the development of biomarkers of embryonic implantation potential as well as the improvement of embryo culture, and embryo freezing techniques.

  12. eHealth in Denmark: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today.

  13. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  14. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  15. L3 English Acquisition in Denmark and Greenland: Gender-Related Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In…

  16. The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

  17. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  18. The Non-Shock of PIAAC--Tracing the Discursive Effects of PIAAC in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Larson, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first PIAAC survey were published in October 2013. In the case of Denmark, the survey showed that Denmark is below the OECD average when it comes to reading skills, above average with regards to numeracy and on average with regards to IT skills. In this paper we analyse how the PIAAC results were covered by the media and how…

  19. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R.; Hobbs, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  20. Comparison of cohort smoking intensities in Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Barendregt, Jan J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the general framework of the smoking epidemic. METHODS: We use lung cancer mortality as an indicator for smoking intensity and employ an age-cohort model to accommodate the long-lasting and cumulative effects. RESULTS: Dutch males have higher risks than Danish males, but the risks for the younger cohorts have been declining faster in the Netherlands than in Denmark. Danish women have about twice the risk of Dutch women, and in both countries the risks for the younger cohorts are increasing. The smoking epidemic began at about the same time in Denmark and the Netherlands. Dutch males, however, seem to have smoked more but to have given up smoking more quickly than Danish males. Danish females were quicker to take up smoking than Dutch females. CONCLUSIONS: Within the general framework of the smoking epidemic, differences in timing and levels can produce large differences between countries. For the purposes of assessing smoking-related risks, including projections, the smoking epidemic framework therefore has to be tailored to each study population. PMID:11884970

  1. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment.

  2. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  3. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Tine; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Hoffmann, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9–10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0–25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results. PMID:27632433

  4. 10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH CENTER BAY AND INTO NORTHEAST BAY. NOTE TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANE OVERHEAD AND SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS ON RIGHT AND LEFT. NOTE ALSO THE DIFFERENCE IN TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS FOR SIDE BAYS AND CENTER BAY. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN SIDE BAYS (CENTER FOREGROUND AND FAR BACKGROUND) ARE HOWE TRUSSES WITH WOOD DIAGONALS AND STEEL VERTICALS. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN CENTER BAY (MID BACKGROUND) ARE PRATT TRUSSES WITH WOOD VERTICALS AND DIAGONALS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. Environmental setting of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomos, T.J.; Smith, R.E.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, the largest bay on the California coast, is a broad, shallow, turbid estuary comprising two geographically and hydrologically distinct subestuaries: the northern reach lying between the connection to the Pacific Ocean at the Golden Gate and the confluence of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, and the southern reach (herein called South Bay) between the Golden Gate and the southern terminus of the bay. The northern reach is a partially mixed estuary dominated by seasonally varying river inflow, and the South Bay is a tidally oscillating lagoon-type estuary. Freshwater inflows, highest during winter, generate strong estuarine circulation and largely determine water residence times. They also bring large volumes of dissolved and particulate materials to the estuary. Tidal currents, generated by mixed semidiurnal and diurnal tides, mix the water column and, together with river inflow and basin geometry, determine circulation patterns. Winds, which are strongest during summer and during winter storms, exert stress on the bay's water surface, thereby creating large waves that resuspend sediment from the shallow bay bottom and, together with the tidal currents, contribute markedly to the transport of water masses throughout the shallow estuary. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  6. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  7. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  8. 33 CFR 165.T11-534 - Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA. 165.T11-534 Section 165.T11-534 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.T11-534 Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  11. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  12. 77 FR 38005 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Biloxi Bay Fireworks event in Biloxi Bay,...

  13. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  14. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  15. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  16. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  17. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  18. Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study. PMID:453838

  19. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  20. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  1. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    CHAlES IN SAY AREA AND PACIFIC COAST SHARES FOREIGN CONTAINER CAKRO Pacftic Coast Bay Area bil Total .1 Share of Total as Share of Ypar lted States...patterns and recent trends, and on evaluation of the key factors and events likely to affect future trade. Thus, it was both "past and forward looking...Bay Area Forecast The baseline, high, and low forecasts of Bay Area Trade Route 29 containerized cargo shown in Table 28 are based on evaluation of

  2. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters extending... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California....

  3. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Location. All waters extending... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California....

  4. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Big Bay Boom Fireworks display from 8:45 p.m. to 10 p.m. on July 4, 2013. These proposed safety zones... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request...

  5. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... zone 1 mile wide is established and is centered upon the following geographical positions: Latitude... the southern limit of the Narragansett Bay approach traffic separation zone to latitude 41°24.70'...

  6. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  7. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  9. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of Watershed Implementation Plans (WIP) and how they play an important role in restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The page also provides links to each jurisdiction's Phase I, II, and III WIP.

  10. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  11. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  12. Help From Above For Bay Waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Actions being taken by a Hopewell, VA. plant as a result of a major EPA Clean Air Act settlement will significantly reduce nitrogen pollution that falls from the atmosphere and impacts the Chesapeake Bay and local waters

  13. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  14. Underwater Grass Comeback Helps Chesapeake Bay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fortified Susquehanna Flats, the largest bed of underwater grasses in the Chesapeake Bay, seems able to withstand a major weather punch. Its resilience is contributing to an overall increase in the Bay’s submerged aquatic vegetation.

  15. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  16. Contents of capsaicinoids in chillies grown in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Duelund, Lars; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2017-04-15

    We have studied 15 different cultivars of chillies (Capsicum var.) grown in temperate climate Denmark and determined the contents of the four major capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicin. From these contents we have, as commonly done for chillies, calculated the so-called pungency in Scoville heat units in order to compare with previous studies from other climatical zones. For three of the investigated cultivars, Serrano, Habanero and BIH Jolokia, for which reliable pungencies has previously been reported, we have found pungencies of 34,000±1400, 247,000±24,000 and 665,000±4000, respectively, which are all in the same ranges as found earlier for chillies grown in more traditional chilli growing areas. Furthermore we have found that the relative distribution of the four capsaicinoids in the 15 different cultivars is highly variable, with the content of capsaicin ranging from 31% to 71% of the total capsaicinoid content.

  17. Sparteine oxidation polymorphism in Greenlanders living in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Brøsen, K

    1986-01-01

    Sparteine oxidation appeared to be polymorphic in 185 healthy Greenlanders living in Denmark. Six subjects (3.2%) were phenotyped as poor metabolizers (PM) and 179 subjects as extensive metabolizers (EM). The metabolic ratio (MR) between sparteine and 2- + 5-dehydrosparteine in a 12 h urine sample ranged from 0.06-3.12 in EM and from 30-480 in PM. The excretion of dehydrosparteines accounted for less than 2.2% of the dose in PM and ranged from 5.6%-63% in EM. The urinary recovery (% of dose) of sparteine, 2-dehydrosparteine and total sparteine + dehydrosparteines was lower in Greenlander EM than in Danish EM (Brøsen et al., 1985). Incomplete urine collection in a substantial proportion of the Greenlanders could explain these discrepancies. PMID:3768256

  18. Incidence and Determinants of Ventilation Tubes in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Tine Marie; Mora-Jensen, Anna-Rosa Cecilie; Waage, Johannes; Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Many children are treated for recurrent acute otitis media and middle ear effusion with ventilation tubes (VT). The objectives are to describe the incidence of VT in Denmark during 1997–2011 from national register data, furthermore, to analyze the determinants for VT in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) birth cohort. Methods The incidence of VT in all children under 16 years from 1997–2011 were calculated in the Danish national registries. Determinants of VT were studied in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort of 700 children. Results Nationwide the prevalence of VT was 24% in children aged 0 to 3 three years, with a significant increase over the study period. For all children 0–15 years, the incidence of VT was 35/1,000. In the VT population, 57% was male and 43% females. In the COPSAC2010 birth cohort, the prevalence of VT during the first 3 years of life was 29%. Determinants of VT were: maternal history of middle ear disease; aHR 2.07, 95% CI [1.45–2.96] and siblings history of middle ear disease; aHR 3.02, [2.11–4.32]. Paternal history of middle ear disease, presence of older siblings in the home and diagnosis of persistent wheeze were significant in the univariate analysis but the association did not persist after adjustment. Conclusion The incidence of VT is still increasing in the youngest age group in Denmark, demonstrating the highest incidence recorded in the world. Family history of middle ear disease and older siblings are the main determinants for VT. PMID:27875554

  19. Ecology of Buzzards Bay: An Estuarine Profile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Surface, and GroundwaterFlows 29 3.2. Salinity , Temperature, and Density 31 3.3. Circulation/Currents and the Tidal and Wind Regime 33 Chapter 4...from 2 years of data from the Westport and Weweantic Rivers 30 3.3. Temperature and salinity profiles from the northern end ofBuzzards Bay through...subsequent minor dilution of salinity results in bay water salinity concentra- tions approximating that of nearby oceanic waters. The salinity

  20. Improving measurement of Chesapeake Bay's dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In the 1930s, researchers first noticed that the Chesapeake Bay had a dead zone, an expanse of water with drastically reduced concentrations of oxygen. In the 1980s, hypoxia—low-oxygen conditions—gave way in some places to anoxia—a near-total depletion of dissolved oxygen. A lack of oxygen makes the water inhospitable for many marine organisms, and the Chesapeake Bay is the focus of major ecosystem rehabilitation efforts.

  1. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  2. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  3. Holocene sedimentation in Richardson Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, Cathy L.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of foraminifers, diatoms, ostracodes, clay mineralogy, and sediment-size variation from 9 borehole sites along the salt-marsh margins of Richardson Bay reveals a record of gradual infilling of fine-grained estuarine sediments. Over the past 10,000 years this area was transformed from a V-shaped Pleistocene stream valley to a flat-floored arm of the San Francisco Bay estuary. A radiocarbon date obtained from a basal peat overlying nonmarine alluvial sand near the town of Mill Valley indicates that stable salt-marsh vegetation was present in the northwestern arm of Richardson Bay 4600?165 years ago and agrees within error limits with a Holocene sea-level curve developed by Atwater, Hedel, and Helley in 1977 for southern San Francisco Bay. The average sedimentation rate over the last 4600 years is estimated to be 0.2 cm/yr for the inner part of the bay. Comparison of early maps with updated versions as well as studies of marsh plant zonations in disturbed and nondisturbed areas shows that almost half of the marsh in Richardson Bay has been leveed or filled since 1899.

  4. 78 FR 55216 - Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and Ordnance Recovery, Suisun Bay, Concord, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Suisun Bay Electromagnetic Scan and... support of the Military Ocean Terminal Concord (MOTCO) electromagnetic scan and ordnance recovery... intrusive electromagnetic scan and ordnance recovery operation in selected areas of Suisun Bay with a...

  5. Bay BC's: A Multidisciplinary Approach To Teaching about the Chesapeake Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Britt Eckhardt

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in North America, providing food and habitat for an abundance of fish and wildlife. This booklet provides lesson plans for lower elementary students introducing the Chesapeake, its inhabitants, and pollution problems, and suggesting ways that individuals can contribute to the Bay's restoration. Background…

  6. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  7. 5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5TON P&H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5-TON P&H ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE. VIEW EAST SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Circulation in a bay influenced by flooding of a river discharging outside the bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehi, Shigeho; Takagi, Takamasa; Okabe, Katsuaki; Takayanagi, Kazufumi

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of a river discharging outside a bay on circulation in the bay, we carried out current and salinity measurements from mooring systems and hydrographic observations in Matsushima Bay, Japan, and off the Naruse River, which discharges outside the bay. Previously, enhancement of horizontal circulation in the bay induced by increased freshwater input from the Naruse River was reported to have degraded the seedling yield of wild Pacific oysters in the bay, but the freshwater inflow from the river was not directly measured. Our hydrographic observations in Katsugigaura Strait, approximately 3 km southwest of the Naruse River mouth, detected freshwater derived from the river. The mooring data revealed that freshwater discharged by the river flowed into Matsushima Bay via the strait and that the freshwater transport increased when the river was in flood. The inflow through straits other than Katsugigaura was estimated by a box model analysis to be 26-145 m3 s-1 under normal river discharge conditions, and it decreased to 6 m3 s-1 during flood conditions. During flood events, the salt and water budgets in the bay were maintained by the horizontal circulation: inflow occurred mainly via Katsugigaura Strait, and outflow was mainly via other straits.

  9. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge... for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the... Sullivan Bridges in order to facilitate construction of the Little Bay Bridge between Newington, NH...

  10. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  11. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  12. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  13. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.919...

  14. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.919...

  15. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Historical and Prehistorical Record of Tampa Bay Environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    To study how Tampa Bay, Florida, has changed over time, the prehistorical conditions and natural variations in the bay environment are being evaluated. These variations can be tracked by examining the sediments that have accumulated in and around the bay. The prehistorical record, which pre-dates settlers' arrival in the Tampa Bay area around 1850, provides a baseline with which to compare and evaluate the magnitude and effects of sea-level, climate, biological, geochemical, and man-made changes. These data also are valuable for planning and conducting projects aimed at restoring wetlands and other estuarine habitats to their original state. In addition, the data provide a basis for judging efforts to improve the health of the bay.

  16. Bayes Error Rate Estimation Using Classifier Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2003-01-01

    The Bayes error rate gives a statistical lower bound on the error achievable for a given classification problem and the associated choice of features. By reliably estimating th is rate, one can assess the usefulness of the feature set that is being used for classification. Moreover, by comparing the accuracy achieved by a given classifier with the Bayes rate, one can quantify how effective that classifier is. Classical approaches for estimating or finding bounds for the Bayes error, in general, yield rather weak results for small sample sizes; unless the problem has some simple characteristics, such as Gaussian class-conditional likelihoods. This article shows how the outputs of a classifier ensemble can be used to provide reliable and easily obtainable estimates of the Bayes error with negligible extra computation. Three methods of varying sophistication are described. First, we present a framework that estimates the Bayes error when multiple classifiers, each providing an estimate of the a posteriori class probabilities, a recombined through averaging. Second, we bolster this approach by adding an information theoretic measure of output correlation to the estimate. Finally, we discuss a more general method that just looks at the class labels indicated by ensem ble members and provides error estimates based on the disagreements among classifiers. The methods are illustrated for artificial data, a difficult four-class problem involving underwater acoustic data, and two problems from the Problem benchmarks. For data sets with known Bayes error, the combiner-based methods introduced in this article outperform existing methods. The estimates obtained by the proposed methods also seem quite reliable for the real-life data sets for which the true Bayes rates are unknown.

  17. Who's afraid Of Thomas Bayes?

    PubMed Central

    Lilford, R; Braunholtz, D.

    2000-01-01

    Sometimes direct evidence is so strong that a prescription for practice is decreed. Usually, things are not that simple—leaving aside the possibility that important trade offs may be involved, direct comparative data may be imprecise (especially in crucial sub-groups) or subject to possible bias, or there may be no direct comparative evidence; but still decisions have to be made. In these circumstances, indirect evidence—the plausibility of effects—enters the frame. But how should we describe the extent of plausibility and, having done so, how can this be integrated with any direct evidence that might exist. Also, how can allowance be made in a transparent (that is, explicit) way for perceptions of the size of bias in the direct evidence. Enter the Reverend Thomas Bayes; plausibility (however derived—laboratory experiment, qualitative study or just "experience") is captured numerically as degrees of belief ("prior" to the direct data) and updated (by the direct evidence) to yield "posterior" probabilities for use in decision making. The mathematical model used for this purpose must explicitly take account of assumptions about bias in the direct data. This paradigm bridges theory and practice, and provides the intellectual scaffold for those who recognise that (numerically definable) probabilities, and values (also numerically definable) underlie decisions, but who also realise that subjectivity is ineluctable in science.


Keywords: Bayesian statistics; research methods; decisions; Cochrane lecture PMID:10990474

  18. Preliminary analysis of cores from north San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allison, Dan; Hampton, Margaret; Jaffe, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    In March 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment cores in the study area to determine the location of mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris. The study area (Figure 1) comprises 400 km2 and consists of San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay, both of which are part of the San Francisco Bay estuary. Grizzly Bay, a subembayment of Suisun Bay, is also part of the study area. For the purpose of this report the term Suisun Bay will be used collectively for both areas. The present channel system in Suisun Bay is composed of three channels that flow through the bay. The primary channel runs in the southern section of Suisun Bay. A smaller channel flows between Roe Island and Ryer Island. The deepest channel flows through Suisun Cutoff, north of Ryer Island, and past Grizzly Bay. All three channels join at Carquinez Strait where they continue through the southern section of San Pablo Bay, and into San Francisco Bay. The average depths in San Pablo and Suisun Bays at mean sea level are 3.7 m and 5.8 m, respectively (Smith et al., 2002).

  19. Integrated hydrological SVAT model for climate change studies in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerup, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    In a major Danish funded research project (www.hyacints.dk) a coupling is being established between the HIRHAM regional climate model code from Danish Meteorological Institute and the MIKE SHE distributed hydrological model code from DHI. The linkage between those two codes is a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme, which is a module of MIKE SHE. The coupled model will be established for the entire country of Denmark (43,000 km2 land area) where a MIKE SHE based hydrological model already exists (Henriksen et al., 2003, 2008). The present paper presents the MIKE SHE SVAT module and the methodology used for parameterising and calibrating the MIKE SHE SVAT module for use throughout the country. As SVAT models previously typically have been tested for research field sites with comprehensive data on energy fluxes, soil and vegetation data, the major challenge lies in parameterisation of the model when only ordinary data exist. For this purpose annual variations of vegetation characteristics (Leaf Area Index (LAI), Crop height, Root depth and the surface albedo) for different combinations of soil profiles and vegetation types have been simulated by use of the soil plant atmosphere model Daisy (Hansen et al., 1990; Abrahamsen and Hansen, 2000) has been applied. The MIKE SHE SVAT using Daisy generated surface/soil properties model has been calibrated against existing data on groundwater heads and river discharges. Simulation results in form of evapotranspiration and percolation are compared to the existing MIKE SHE model and to observations. To analyse the use of the SVAT model in climate change impact assessments data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com/) have been analysed to assess the impacts on reference evapotranspiration (calculated by the Makkink and the Penmann-Monteith equations) as well as on the individual elements in the Penmann-Monteith equation (radiation, wind speed, humidity and temperature). The differences on the

  20. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  1. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE HIGH BAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND WINDOW ILLUMINATION AT THE SHRINK PIT AREA, S END OF B BAY; LOOKING SSE. (Ceronie) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 20. INTERIOR WEST BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHEAST. TRACKS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR WEST BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHEAST. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS, BAY DOOR, PERSONNEL DOOR. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 19. INTERIOR WEST BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. TRACKS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR WEST BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS, TRUSS DETAIL, PERSONNEL DOOR, BAY DOOR AND FENCED STORAGE AREA. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Technical Support Documents Used to Develop the Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chesapeake Bay TMDL development was supported by several technical documents for water quality standards and allocation methodologies specific to the Chesapeake Bay. This page provides the technical support documents.

  6. 5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE HOT BAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE HOT BAY AND ATTACHED OPERATING GALLERIES ALONG THE WEST SIDE OF THE BAY. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  8. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  9. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  10. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  11. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  12. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. 20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR BAY & TAYLOR: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR - BAY & TAYLOR: View to northwest of the Bay and Taylor turntable. The gripman and conductor are turning the car around. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Restoration Lessons Learned from Bay Scallop Habitat Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are important factors to consider when restoring bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) populations; however, data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to guide restoration efforts to reverse sc...

  17. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  18. Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program PROJECT NUMBER 05-158 Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase II...Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Grand Bay-Banks Lake Desired Future Ecological Condition Workshop 2 Acknowledgements The Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership

  19. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study combines the expertise of federal, state, and local partners to address some of the most pressing ecological problems of the Tampa Bay estuary. This project serves as a template for integrated research projects in other coastal ecosystems in the nation. The Tampa Bay Study focuses on the scientific needs of the Bay, as identified by resource managers.

  20. [Cholera in Europe and Denmark in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bonderup, G

    1996-01-01

    There are several reasons for dealing with cholera in the 19th century: it acted as a spotlight throwing into sharp relief the darkest corners of society that are seldom mentioned in the sources. We learn about everyday life in large parts of the population, especially the poor. The fight against the disease also reveals how a society worked socially and politically. When cholera arrived in Europe -- the first time was in the 1830's and several times after that--the population reacted very violently, often by lynching doctors, while the authorities more or less let matters take their course. That is why international researchers have come to see cholera as a catalyst for the constantly latent social unrest following in the train of wars and revolutions. During my research on cholera in Denmark it became clear to me that matters were different here. There were no riots, nor any signs of social unrest--neither before nor after the outbreak of cholera. On the contrary, the authorities and the population joined forces against the epidemic. There was an atmosphere of mutual trust, and almost everybody turned out to be worthy of such trust. That points to a balanced society based on consensus, so cholera also functions as a detector of the fundamental structure of a society.

  1. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  2. End-cretaceous brachiopod extinctions in the chalk of denmark.

    PubMed

    Surlyk, F; Johansen, M B

    1984-03-16

    The results of a detailed study of the brachiopods of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Denmark, Nye Klslashed circlev, show an extinction pattern for this marine invertebrate group compatible with that reported for pelagic foraminifera and coccoliths and with the impact scenario. The extinction is abrupt, coinciding with the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. There is no warning in the form of decreasing density, decreasing diversity, or early extinction of specialized groups. The basal few meters of the Danian are almost devoid of brachiopods, and a Danian brachiopod fauna starts almost as abruptly as the Maastrichtian fauna disappeared. The new fauna is similar to the Maastrichtian as regards density and diversity, and at maximum six species are common to both stages. The northwest European Masstrichtian chalk is composed mainly of the remains of coccoliths and pelagic foraminifera. The mass extinction of these groups led to a total cessation of chalk production. The chalk is overlain by a thin clay bed deposited partly under anoxic conditions. This combination of anoxia and clay deposition coupled with a cessation of productivity led to the extinction of specialized groups such as the chalk brachiopods. The surviving species included forms that could survive in well-aerated shallow marine waters on substrates other than chalk.

  3. End-Cretaceous Brachiopod Extinctions in the Chalk of Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surlyk, Finn; Bagge Johansen, Marianne

    1984-03-01

    The results of a detailed study of the brachiopods of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Denmark, Nye Klov, show an extinction pattern for this marine invertebrate group compatible with that reported for pelagic foraminifera and coccoliths and with the impact scenario. The extinction is abrupt, coinciding with the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. There is no warning in the form of decreasing density, decreasing diversity, or early extinction of specialized groups. The basal few meters of the Danian are almost devoid of brachiopods, and a Danian brachiopod fauna starts almost as abruptly as the Maastrichtian fauna disappeared. The new fauna is similar to the Maastrichtian as regards density and diversity, and at maximum six species are common to both stages. The northwest European Maastrichtian chalk is composed mainly of the remains of coccoliths and pelagic foraminifera. The mass extinction of these groups led to a total cessation of chalk production. The chalk is overlain by a thin clay bed deposited partly under anoxic conditions. This combination of anoxia and clay deposition coupled with a cessation of productivity led to the extinction of specialized groups such as the chalk brachiopods. The surviving species included forms that could survive in well-aerated shallow marine waters on substrates other than chalk.

  4. Occupational exposures to styrene in Denmark 1955-88.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A A; Breum, N O; Bacher, J; Lynge, E

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the occupational exposure to styrene and associated chemicals in Denmark was carried out by retrieving all measurements from the archives of the Danish National Institute of Occupational Health. A total of 2,528 air samples containing styrene had been collected from 256 workplaces during the years 1955-88 and analyzed by the chemical laboratory at the Institute. The mean for all samples was 265 mg/m3. The concentration decreased from 714 mg/m3 in the early period (1955-70) to 172 mg/m3 in the late period (1981-88). Spraying and unspecified lay-up and production of boats, carriages, and stationary containers were associated with the highest concentration. A total of 34 chemicals were measured. The most frequent co-contaminant to styrene was acetone, which was measured in 2,263 samples with a mean concentration of 131 mg/m3. Dichloromethane was measured in 208 samples with a mean concentration of 51 mg/m3, xylene in 148 samples with a mean concentration of 49 mg/m3, and toluene in 116 samples with a mean concentration of 113 mg/m3. The study was undertaken to analyze historical styrene concentrations in air to aid in the selection of industrial cohorts to be included in epidemiologic studies.

  5. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  6. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2013-03-15

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk of campylobacteriosis from Danish frozen meat increased but remained lower compared to chilled meat. In total, the relative risk from broiler meat available for sale in Denmark increased from 2001 to 2005 after which the risk decreased to a level similar to the period 2001-2002. The use of QMRA in the evaluation of intervention strategies based on monitoring data provided an added value, compared to the traditional approach of only using changes in prevalence. The estimated human health risk is a function of prevalence and the distribution of concentrations, and therefore takes best usage of the available data, while providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.

  7. Chesapeake Bay sediment flux model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, D.M.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    Formulation and application of a predictive diagenetic sediment model are described in this report. The model considers two benthic sediment layers: a thin aerobic layer in contact with the water column and a thicker anaerobic layer. Processes represented include diagenesis, diffusion, particle mixing, and burial. Deposition of organic matter, water column concentrations, and temperature are treated as independent variables that influence sediment-water fluxes. Sediment oxygen demand and sediment-water fluxes of sulfide, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and silica are predicted. The model was calibrated using sediment-water flux observations collected in Chesapeake Bay 1985-1988. When independent variables were specified based on observations, the model correctly represented the time series of sediment-water fluxes observed at eight stations in the Bay and tributaries.... Chesapeake Bay, Models, Sediments, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrogen Eutrophication, Phosphorus.

  8. 76 FR 13611 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2011, Bay Gas Storage, LLC (Bay Gas) filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of...

  9. 77 FR 24838 - Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD AGENCY... waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the... ``Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 11423). We received...

  10. 77 FR 11423 - Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD AGENCY... a safety zone in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland. This safety zone is... water craft held in the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland. The proposed rule is needed to...

  11. 75 FR 61480 - Cobscook Bay OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in the Cobscook Bay, near the City of Eastport, Washington...

  12. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  13. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  14. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  15. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  16. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  17. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification. PMID:27429967

  18. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  19. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  20. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  2. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  3. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  5. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  6. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  8. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  11. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  13. Sediment Resuspension by Ship Traffic in Newark Bay, New Jersey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    container ship Dubai Express. ....................................... 63 Figure 130. The container ship MSC Noa departing Newark Bay...63 Figure 131. An ADCP transect through the area in Newark Bay in which the container ship MSC Noa had...An ADCP transect immediately north of the area in Newark Bay in which the container ship MSC Noa had rotated

  14. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  15. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  16. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  17. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  18. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  19. Late Pleistocene drainage systems beneath Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Circe, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of an extensive grid of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously published sedimentary data and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the ancestral drainage systems of the Delaware River beneath lower Delaware Bay. Major paleovalleys within these systems have southeast trends, relief of 10-35 m, widths of 1-8 km, and axial depths of 31-57 m below present sea level. The oldest drainage system was carved into Miocene sands, probably during the late Illinoian lowstand of sea level. It followed a course under the northern half of the bay, continued beneath the Cape May peninsula, and extended onto the present continental shelf. This system was buried by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and shallow-marine sediments during Sangamonian time. At the height of the Sangamonian sea-level transgression, littoral and nearshore processes built the Cape May peninsula southward over the northern drainage system and formed a contiguous submarine sedimentary ridge that extended partway across the present entrance to the bay. When sea level fell during late Wisconsinan time, a second drainage system was eroded beneath the southern half of the bay in response to the southerly shift of the bay mouth. This system, which continued across the shelf, was cut into Coastal Plain deposits of Miocene and younger age and included not only the trunk valley of the Delaware River but a large tributary valley formed by the convergence of secondary streams that drained the Delaware coastal area. During the Holocene rise of sea level, the southern drainage system was covered by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and paralic deposits that accumulated due to the passage of the estuarine circulation cell and to the landward and upward migration of coastal sedimentary environments. Some Holocene deposits have been scoured subsequently by strong tidal currents. The southward migration of the ancestral drainage systems beneath Delaware

  20. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular traffic and the safety of navigation on the... long and provides a navigable connection between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences...

  1. Scrubbing the Bay: Nutrient Removal Using Small Algal Turf Scrubbers on Chesapeake Bay Tributaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay poses significant challenges because of increasing population pressure, conversion of farmland to urban/suburban development, and the expense of infrastructure needed to achieve significant and sustained nutrient reductions from agricultural and urban sources. One ...

  2. An empirical Bayes approach for the Poisson life distribution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavos, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A smooth empirical Bayes estimator is derived for the intensity parameter (hazard rate) in the Poisson distribution as used in life testing. The reliability function is also estimated either by using the empirical Bayes estimate of the parameter, or by obtaining the expectation of the reliability function. The behavior of the empirical Bayes procedure is studied through Monte Carlo simulation in which estimates of mean-squared errors of the empirical Bayes estimators are compared with those of conventional estimators such as minimum variance unbiased or maximum likelihood. Results indicate a significant reduction in mean-squared error of the empirical Bayes estimators over the conventional variety.

  3. Status and Assessment of Chesapeake Bay Wildlife Contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R.; Albers, P.H.; Henry, P.; Batiuk, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    As an integral component of its priority setting process, the Chesapeake Bay Program`s Toxics Subcommittee has sought the expertise of Chesapeake Bay researchers and managers in developing a series of Chesapeake Bay toxics status and assessment papers. In the report, evidence for historical and current contaminant effects on key bird species, mammals, reptiles and amphibians which inhabit the Chesapeake Bay basin is examined. For each group of wildlife species, a general overview of effects caused by specific toxic substances is followed by detailed accounts of contaminant effects on selected species. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Annapolis, MD. Chesapeake Bay Program.

  4. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  5. Geochemistry of Florida Bay sediments: Nutrient history at five sites in eastern and central Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Holmes, C.W.; Kendall, C.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Silva, S.R.; Boylan, A.; Corum, M.; Marot, M.; Hedgman, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent seagrass dieoff and massive microalgal blooms have focused attention on the health of the Florida Bay ecosystem. Changes in nutrient input and the nutrient dynamics of Florida Bay are hypothesized to be linked to these problems, but crucial baseline information is still lacking. Efforts to restore Florida Bay to its natural condition will require information on the nutrient history of the bay. The purpose of this study was to examine distributions of organic C, total N, and total P in carbonate sediments from sites of continuous and known sedimentation rate (210Pb and 137Cs dated), in eastern and central Florida Bay. These sediments provide a record of historical changes in the C, N, and P load to the eastern and central bay. Analyses were conducted on sediments from cores collected at five sites, and on buried seagrass fragments at two sites. At three of the sites, sediments from seagrass-covered and adjacent barren areas were examined to determine differences in sedimentary geochemistry. Stable isotope analyses (??13C and ??15N) of sedimentary organic C and total N and of buried seagrass fragments were also carried out at two sites to examine possible changes in nutrient sources to the estuary. Results were consistent with recent increases in N and P in eastern Florida Bay, beginning in the early to mid 1980's. The timing of the increase in nutrient load observed in the sediment data directly preceded the first observations of massive microalgal blooms and seagrass dieoff in Florida Bay in 1987. The observed nutrification was greater for P than N, and was most pronounced at the most northeasterly site sampled (Pass Key). Isotope data (??15N) suggested that an increase in algal production accompanied the increase in N load at the Pass Key site. Along record of organic C, total N, and total P distributions from Whipray Basin in central Florida Bay showed historical peaks (mid 1700's and late 1800's) in organic C and total N, but not total P; these

  6. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  7. Diurnal variation of oxygen and carbonate system parameters in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Dufore, C.; Smiley, N.; Jackson, C.; Halley, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen and carbonate system parameters were measured, in situ, over diurnal cycles in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay, Florida. All system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in Tampa Bay with an average range of diurnal variation of 39.1 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 165.1 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.22 for pH, 0.093 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 218.1 μatm for pCO2. Average range of diurnal variation for system parameters in Tampa Bay was 73% to 93% of the seasonal range of variability for dissolved oxygen and pH. All system parameters measured in Florida Bay showed distinct variation over diurnal time-scales. However, clear diurnal trends were less evident. The average range of diurnal variability in Florida Bay was 62.8 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 130.4 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.13 for pH, 0.053 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 139.8 μatm for pCO2. The average range of diurnal variation was 14% to 102% of the seasonal ranges for these parameters. Diurnal variability in system parameters was most influenced by primary productivity and respiration of benthic communities in Tampa Bay, and by precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate in Florida Bay. Our data indicate that use of seasonal data sets without careful consideration of diurnal variability may impart significant error in calculations of annual carbon and oxygen budgets. These observations reinforce the need for higher temporal resolution measurements of oxygen and carbon system parameters in coastal ecosystems.

  8. Occupational and recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate

    2017-03-20

    Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.

  9. Atmospheric ammonia exchange on a heathland in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Nørnberg, Per; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer

    Passive flux samplers were used to determine the ammonia exchange on an inland heath in Denmark over the last 2 years. The samplers measured the horizontal ammonia flux directly. Data were sampled continuously for periods of 1-4 weeks. The micro-meteorological gradient method was used with passive flux samplers and cup anemometers at different heights above the vegetation in order to calculate the vertical fluxes of ammonia. First a fixed sampler system was used with tubes mounted in four orthogonal horizontal directions. This system has been successfully applied to measure the emission from fertilized crops. Adapting this type of sampler to measure the deposition to heathlands did not prove to be straightforward. The precision of the calculated ammonia concentrations was too poor to give an acceptable accuracy for the concentration gradient. The problems were (a) driving rain which entered the tubes, (b) too few measuring points in each concentration profile, and (c) too long sampling periods to allow for the low-concentration levels above the heath area and the detection limits. Therefore, a passive flux sampler mounted on a wind vane and fitted with a rain shelter was developed. Results from the first 5 weekly periods are very promising, yielding accurate concentration gradients. The advantages of the passive flux samplers on the wind vane are (a) the minimum measuring period can be approximately halved compared to the fixed samplers, (b) some of the directional correction terms used with the fixed passive flux samplers are dispensed with, and (c) the field and laboratory work is minimized.

  10. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users.

  11. Impacts of 21st century climate changes on flora and vegetation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Flemming; Nygaard, Bettina; Wind, Peter; Borchsenius, Finn; Normand, Signe; Balslev, Henrik; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we examined the potential impacts of predicted climatic changes on the flora and vegetation in Denmark using data from a digital database on the natural vegetation of Europe. Climate scenarios A2 and B2 were used to find regions with present climatic conditions similar to Denmark's climate in the year 2100. The potential natural vegetation of Denmark today is predominantly deciduous forest that would cover more than 90% of the landscape. Swamps, bogs, and wet forest would be found under moist or wet conditions. Dwarf shrub heaths would be naturally occurring on poor soils along the coast together with dune systems and salt-marsh vegetation. When comparing the natural vegetation of Denmark to the vegetation of five future-climate analogue areas, the most obvious trend is a shift from deciduous to thermophilous broadleaved forest currently found in Southern and Eastern Europe. A total of 983 taxa were recorded for this study of which 539 were found in Denmark. The Sørensen index was used to measure the floristic similarity between Denmark and the five subregions. Deciduous forest, dwarf shrub heath, and coastal vegetation were treated in more detail, focusing on potential new immigrant species to Denmark. Finally, implications for management were discussed. The floristic similarity between Denmark and regions in Europe with a climate similar to what is expected for Denmark in year 2100 was found to vary between 48-78%, decreasing from North to South. Hence, it seems inevitable that climate changes of the magnitudes foreseen will alter the distribution of individual species and the composition of natural vegetation units. Changes, however, will not be immediate. Historic evidence shows a considerable lag in response to climatic change under natural conditions, but little is known about the effects of human land-use and pollution on this process. Facing such uncertainties we suggested that a dynamic strategy based on modeling, monitoring and adaptive

  12. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  13. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  14. The Bay in Place of a Glacier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The cultural resource specialist at Glacier Bay National Park (Alaska) explains the collaborative efforts of park staff and the Hoonah Tlingit to overcome language and cultural barriers in documenting park place names and clan oral history and traditions. The new park-community relationship, which follows decades of conflict, includes training…

  15. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Lake Michigan Green Bay: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan’s Green Bay at a 15 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 365 km survey was conducted Aug 18-21, 2010. We also conducted four cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixe...

  17. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., but not exclusive, consideration to producers' applications in the following river basins: Susquehanna River, Shenandoah River, Potomac River (including North and South), and the Patuxent River. The... restore, enhance, and conserve soil, air, and related resources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  18. Dissociative Reactions to the Bay Area Earthquake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardena, Etzel; Spiegel, David

    This study systematically evaluated the psychological reactions of a non-clinical population to the October 1989 Bay Area earthquake. Within a week of the earthquake, a checklist of anxiety and dissociative symptoms was administered to a representative sample of approximately 100 graduate students and faculty members from two different…

  19. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following requirements... visible to operators of vessels approaching the bridge either up or downstream. (c) Trains and...

  20. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  1. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  2. EMERGY ANALYSIS OF THE COBSCOOK BAY ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A naturally eutrophic, estuarine ecosystem has developed in Cobscook Bay over the past three to four thousand years under the influence of six meter tides and rich flows of nitrogen from the deep waters of the Gulf of Maine. In this paper, measurements of primary production and...

  3. The James Bay Project: Reaction or Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the plan to restructure northern Quebec's landscape through the James Bay hydroelectric project. Suggests that the project offers opportunities to study development versus preservation, federal versus provincial powers, and the conflict between business and Native communities. Explores the need to teach students to care about social…

  4. 75 FR 35080 - Tampa Bay Refuges, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... brown pelicans and other waterbirds, as well as to conserve and protect barrier island habitat and to... Bay Refuges, it is the only refuge island open to the public and has been traditionally visited for... batteries, and brick roads). Presently, the island's approximately 244 acres of beach and coastal...

  5. Broad-scale patterns of abundance of non-indigenous soft-bottom invertebrates in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Silliman, Brian R.; Josefson, Alf B.

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying the broad-scale distribution and abundance of non-indigenous species (NIS) is necessary to provide accurate estimations on impacts of invasions, to prioritize research, and to guide national management. Sediment grab-sampling is a standardized method for monitoring marine benthos. In Denmark, ~45,000 grab-samples were collected from 1970 to 2005. Using these samples, we compared densities of NIS and native species among 27 broad spatio-temporal groupings. Eight known NIS and one ‘cryptogenic species’ (the polychaete Neanthes succinea) were found in the samples. Most were present in low abundance, but the bivalve Mya arenaria, likely introduced by the vikings from North America, was particularly abundant. M. arenaria was found in ca. 20% of all samples and was among the 10 most common species in all of Denmark. M. arenaria’s high abundance, high filtration capacity and importance in food-web interactions, suggest that this species has dramatically impacted shallow coastal ecosystems in Denmark. The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis, the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum and N. succinea were also widespread and abundant, and they too are likely to have had broad-scale impacts. In conclusion, 28% of grab-samples collected in Denmark over 35 years were affected by some degree of NIS or cryptogenic species, suggesting that centuries of human-mediated transfer of organisms has had a profound impact on the ecology of soft-bottom systems in Denmark.

  6. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  7. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  8. Hierarchical Naive Bayes for genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome Wide Association Studies represent powerful approaches that aim at disentangling the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex traits. The usual "one-SNP-at-the-time" testing strategy cannot capture the multi-factorial nature of this kind of disorders. We propose a Hierarchical Naïve Bayes classification model for taking into account associations in SNPs data characterized by Linkage Disequilibrium. Validation shows that our model reaches classification performances superior to those obtained by the standard Naïve Bayes classifier for simulated and real datasets. Methods In the Hierarchical Naïve Bayes implemented, the SNPs mapping to the same region of Linkage Disequilibrium are considered as "details" or "replicates" of the locus, each contributing to the overall effect of the region on the phenotype. A latent variable for each block, which models the "population" of correlated SNPs, can be then used to summarize the available information. The classification is thus performed relying on the latent variables conditional probability distributions and on the SNPs data available. Results The developed methodology has been tested on simulated datasets, each composed by 300 cases, 300 controls and a variable number of SNPs. Our approach has been also applied to two real datasets on the genetic bases of Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Conclusions The approach proposed in this paper, called Hierarchical Naïve Bayes, allows dealing with classification of examples for which genetic information of structurally correlated SNPs are available. It improves the Naïve Bayes performances by properly handling the within-loci variability. PMID:23095471

  9. Recent climate trends, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopczynski, S. E.; Bigl, S. R.; Lawson, D. E.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    Glaciers and ice caps respond to changes in regional climate at decadal scales and can thus serve as indicators of regional climate change. Many of the tidewater and terrestrial glaciers in Glacier Bay, Alaska have been in a state of rapid retreat since the late 1700s, with highly disparate rates of recession occurring in the western versus eastern arms, yet the combination of environmental and glaciological factors that must exist to catalyze these rapid changes is not clearly understood. The Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) initiated the first systematic analyses of weather and precipitation patterns across Glacier Bay National Park in 2000 by establishing 26 meteorological stations with the long-term objective of better understanding regional and global factors, that control terrestrial and marine physical systems. Initial temperature and precipitation trends show rapid seasonal and annual shifts. This is consistent with apparent paleo-trends in climate and glacier advance and recession over the last 9K years, as well as the historical record that indicate the area is climatically sensitive. Comparisons of summer and winter precipitation totals show a precipitation gradient increasing northward from the lower bay to the head of Muir Inlet (east arm), and decreasing northwestward in the West Arm. Monthly averages of air temperatures span about 3.5 C between the warmest and coldest sites near sea level. Winter temperatures averaged more than 1 C colder in the West Arm than the East. We also found large gradients of increasing rainfall from north to south in the east arm, from north to south in the Western arm. Average temperatures in October decreased westward in the northern half of the Park and were milder at sites within the larger southern Bay. Continuing a long-term climate-monitoring program in Glacier Bay will assist with quantifying climate trends in the context of glacial movement, helping to determine the overall sensitivity of

  10. Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Choopun, Nipa; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Gangle, Brian; Jiang, Sunny C.; Rubin, Andrea; Patz, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to natural waters and can pose a health risk when it is consumed via untreated water or contaminated shellfish. The correlation between the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay and environmental factors was investigated over a 3-year period. Water and plankton samples were collected monthly from five shore sampling sites in northern Chesapeake Bay (January 1998 to February 2000) and from research cruise stations on a north-south transect (summers of 1999 and 2000). Enrichment was used to detect culturable V. cholerae, and 21.1% (n = 427) of the samples were positive. As determined by serology tests, the isolates, did not belong to serogroup O1 or O139 associated with cholera epidemics. A direct fluorescent-antibody assay was used to detect V. cholerae O1, and 23.8% (n = 412) of the samples were positive. V. cholerae was more frequently detected during the warmer months and in northern Chesapeake Bay, where the salinity is lower. Statistical models successfully predicted the presence of V. cholerae as a function of water temperature and salinity. Temperatures above 19°C and salinities between 2 and 14 ppt yielded at least a fourfold increase in the number of detectable V. cholerae. The results suggest that salinity variation in Chesapeake Bay or other parameters associated with Susquehanna River inflow contribute to the variability in the occurrence of V. cholerae and that salinity is a useful indicator. Under scenarios of global climate change, increased climate variability, accompanied by higher stream flow rates and warmer temperatures, could favor conditions that increase the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:12732548

  11. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  12. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  13. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations in Denmark and the United States from using larger reference populations was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Eight of 9 traits analyzed by Denmark (milk, fa...

  14. Isomers of fluoroamphetamines detected in forensic cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Hansen, Tina Maria

    2012-07-01

    A study was performed on the detection, separation and quantification of isomers from the new designer drugs named fluoroamphetamines (FAs) in forensic cases in eastern Denmark. The drugs were detected in whole blood extracts by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS) and thereafter verified and quantified by UPLC tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS). The quantitative method involved liquid–liquid extraction of FAs from whole blood, evaporation of organic solvent, and reconstitution with a mobile phase mixture. Identification of the FAs was achieved by the retention time, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) traces [154 > 109 (quantifier); 154 > 137], and ion ratio of the two transitions. For all FAs, LOQ was 0.002 mg/kg with linear ranges from 0.002 to 1.0 mg/kg whole blood. Since 2008, a total of 15 forensic investigations, mainly driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases, involving 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) have been observed with whole blood concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 0.58 mg/kg. One autopsy case involved 4-FA; however, it was determined to be a combined intoxication. In 2010, ortho-fluoroamphetamine (2-FA) was discovered in forensic samples by the same UPLC/MS/MS method and MRM functions because of variation in retention time and ion ratio. Up to now, three eastern Danish DUID cases have involved 2-FA. The whole blood concentrations of 2-FA were 0.028, 0.041 and 0.37 mg/kg, respectively. Thirteen cases with 4-FA and the three cases with 2-FA also contained amphetamine, but no correlation was observed between the amount of FA and amphetamine. So far, 3-FA has not been observed in any cases, and although it co-elutes with 4-FA, 3-FA will be identified by its variation in ion ratio. To our knowledge, this study has confirmed 2-FA in blood from DUID cases for the first time, and provides typical whole blood concentrations of FAs in forensic cases.

  15. Spatial variations of mercury in sediment of Minamata Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Yoko; Oki, Kimihiko; Horvat, Milena; Rajar, Rudi; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2006-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated effluent was discharged into Minamata Bay from a chemical plant over a period of approximately 40 years until 1968. In October 1977, the Minamata Bay Pollution Prevention Project was initiated to dispose of sedimentary sludge containing mercury concentrations higher than 25 mg kg(-1). In March 1990, the project was completed. In an effort to estimate current contamination in the bay, the vertical and horizontal distributions of mercury in sediment were investigated. Sediment core samples were collected on June 26, 2002 at 16 locations in Minamata Bay and Fukuro Bay located in the southern part of Minamata Bay. The sediment in Fukuro Bay had not been dredged. The total mercury concentration in surface sediment was 1.4-4.3 mg kg(-1) (2.9+/-0.9 mg kg(-1), n=9) for the dredged area of Minamata Bay and 0.3-4.8 mg kg(-1) (3.6+/-1.6 mg kg(-1), n=4) for Fukuro Bay. In the lower layers of long cores taken from both areas, the total mercury concentration decreased with depth and finally showed relatively uniform low values. These values can be considered to represent the background concentration absent of anthropogenic influence, which was estimated for the study area to be 0.068+/-0.012 mg kg(-1) (n=10). From the surface, the total mercury concentration in Fukuro Bay increased with depth and reached a maximum at 8-14 cm. In Minamata Bay, several centimeters from the surface the total mercury concentration did not change significantly having considerably higher values than the background level. At six stations, the methylmercury concentration was determined. Although the vertical variations were similar to those for total mercury, Fukuro Bay sediment showed a higher concentration of methylmercury than Minamata Bay sediment.

  16. [The use of foeticide in late termination of pregnancies in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Vinggaard Christensen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit H

    2013-01-28

    As a result of prenatal screening the number of late terminations of pregnancy is increasing in Denmark. The fact that the foetus sometimes shows signs of life after the termination is a large concern for health-care staff and parents. In other countries foeticide is performed intrauterinely to ensure that the foetus is dead before the delivery. In Denmark this method is legally used in foetal reduction, but not in late termination of pregnancy. In the light of international literature on the subject, perspectives on foeticide in late termination of pregnancy are explored.

  17. Estimates of entrainment in the Denmark Strait overflow plume from CTD/LADCP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbas, V. M.; Paka, V. T.; Rudels, B.; Quadfasel, D.

    2016-03-01

    The data of the CTD survey conducted in the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea in May-June 2009 are used to calculate the vertical profiles of the turbulent overturning scale, which are then used to estimate the dissipation and entrainment rates in the overflow plume. The resulting estimates of the entrainment rate varied widely from 2 × 10-7 to 7 × 10-3 m/s. It is shown that such a wide range of entrainment rates is caused by the intermittency of turbulence. Large turbulent overturning at the interface of the Denmark Strait overflow plume is detected on the vertical temperature, salinity, and potential density profiles.

  18. Bay-Ocean Coupling and the Proximal Fate of Water-Borne Material Exported from San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The coupling between San Francisco Bay and the ocean is poorly known: how ocean waters intrude into bay and how bay waters flow out into the ocean. Here we address the outflow from the Bay with a view to describing the proximal fate of water-borne material in the coastal ocean, specifically finer particles and dissolved material. Flow trajectories longer than that in the tidal jet are thus the focus of this study - time scales of hours to days. We present data collected in both winter/runoff and spring/upwelling seasons that reflect the importance of tides and also the importance of wind, which introduces either northward or southward along-coast flow. Southward flow is offshore and typically this Bay effluent is removed from nearshore waters. In contrast, northward flow tends to remain attached to shore, and there is persistent presence of Bay waters in the surface layer up to Point Reyes, only occasionally separated from the coast by local upwelling within Drakes Bay. Perhaps most dramatic is outflow during winter storms, when wind is southerly and pushes water on shore in Drakes Bay as well as inducing an intense flow around Point Reyes, which turns cyclonically to reconnect with the shore in the vicinity of Bodega Bay before forming a wind-accelerated coast-attached current that looks very much like a coastal buoyancy current. This is the time when large volumes of low-salinity and high-load waters are exported from the Bay.

  19. Columbia Bay, Alaska: an 'upside down' estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Josberger, E.G.; Driedger, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Circulation and water properties within Columbia Bay, Alaska, are dominated by the effects of Columbia Glacier at the head of the Bay. The basin between the glacier terminus and the terminal moraine (sill depth of about 22 m) responds as an 'upside down' estuary with the subglacial discharge of freshwater entering at the bottom of the basin. The intense vertical mixing caused by the bouyant plume of freshwater creates a homogeneous water mass that exchanges with the far-field water through either a two- or a three-layer flow. In general, the glacier acts as a large heat sink and creates a water mass which is cooler than that in fjords without tidewater glaciers. The predicted retreat of Columbia Glacier would create a 40 km long fjord that has characteristics in common with other fjords in Prince William Sound. ?? 1988.

  20. The Health of the James Bay Cree

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The health of the James Bay Cree of Quebec reflects their history and environment. Their ancestors were living in Northern Quebec for centuries before the Europeans arrived bringing new infectious diseases and developing a health-care structure that has relegated traditional Cree medicine to the background. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 led to the creation of the Cree Board of Health and Social Services under the Quebec Ministry of Health. Various changes have resulted in the eight Cree villages over the past 15 years, both in the socio-economic situation and in the health status of the Cree. Improvements in health will come about through increased participation of Native people in the delivery and control of health services, more accessible health services, and the creation of healthy and health-promoting environments. PMID:21253035

  1. Hydraulic model of the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, A. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary planning for the formulation of the first year of hydraulic studies on the Chesapeake Bay model was recently completed. The primary purpose of this initial effort was to develop a study program that is both responsive to problems of immediate importance and at the same time ensure that from the very beginning of operation maximum economical use is made of the model. The formulation of this preliminary study plan involved an extensive analysis of the environmental, economic, and social aspects of a series of current problems in order to establish a priority listing of their importance. The study program that evolved is oriented towards the analysis of the effects of some of the works of man on the Chesapeake Bay estuarine environment.

  2. Stratification of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Eaton, D. W.; Bastow, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Hudson Bay region has a complex tectonic history spanning ~4 Ga of Earth's evolution. During the ~1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny, the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons collided following the subduction of a Pacific-scale ocean. It is thought that a significant amount of juvenile material is preserved in the Trans-Hudson Orogen, in part due to the complex double-indentor geometry of the Superior-Churchill collision. In the region of interest, the orogen lies beneath a large but shallow Paleozoic intra-cratonic basin. Studies of the crust and upper mantle beneath this region have been enabled through the HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) project, through the deployment of broadband seismographs around the Bay and across the islands to the north. A surface-wave tomography study has taken advantage of the data coverage, providing new information on phase velocity heterogeneity and anisotropy for wave periods of 25-200 seconds (equivalent to depths from the lower crust to ~300 km). On a large scale, our results show that the entire region is underlain by a seismically fast lithospheric lid corresponding to the continental keel. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ~180km in the northeast, beneath a zone of Paleozoic rifting, to ~280km beneath central Hudson Bay. Within the lithosphere, seismic velocities vary laterally, including high-velocity material wrapping around the Bay in the uppermost mantle. In the mid-lithosphere, two high-velocity cores are imaged, with a zone of lower velocity between them beneath the Bay. We interpret these high-velocity structures to represent the strongest central cores of the Superior and Churchill cratons, with more-juvenile material preserved between them. The near-vertical geometry of the lower-velocity zone suggests that it is only the effects of terminal collision of the cratonic cores, rather than any preceding subduction, that is preserved today. The lowermost lithosphere has a more uniform velocity, and

  3. Assembling Structures in the Payload Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton (foreground) releases a strut from the Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) strut dispenser during Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity Methods (ASEM) procedures in Endeavour's payload bay. MS Thomas D. Akers, positioned on the opposite side of the MPESS, waits for Thornton to hand him the final strut. The two astronauts are building the ASEM structure during the mission's fourth EVA. The ASEM structure, locked in at four corners to payload retention latch assemblies (PRLAs), rises above the payload bay. In the background are the Intelsat cradle, the vertical tail, and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. The pale blue and white Earth is visible below.

  4. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  5. Pockmarks in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Laura; Legere, Christine; Hughes Clark, J.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Barnhardt, Walter; Andrews, Brian; Belknap, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are seafloor depressions associated with fluid escape (Judd & Hovland 2007). They proliferate in the muddy seafloors of coastal Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy, where they are associated with shallow natural gas likely of biogenic origin (Ussler et al. 2003; Rogers et al. 2006; Wildish et al. 2008). In North America, shallow-water pockmark fields are not reported south of Long Island Sound, despite the abundance of gassy, muddy estuaries. The absence of pockmarks south of the limit of North American glaciation suggests that local and regional heterogeneities, possibly related to glacial or sea-level history or bedrock geology, influence pockmark field distribution. In shallow-water embayments, such as Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, pockmarks can be large (>200 m diameter) and number in the thousands.

  6. Topobathymetric data for Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, D.; Zawada, D.G.; Nayegandi, A.; Brock, J.C.; Crane, M.P.; Yates, K.K.; Smith, K.E.L.

    2007-01-01

    Topobathymetric data (“topobathy”) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) to provide a single product useful for inundation mapping and a variety of other applications. These data were developed using one topographic and two bathymetric datasets collected at different dates. Topography was obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED). Bathymetry was provided by NOAA's GEOphysical DAta System (GEODAS). For several nearshore areas within the bay GEODAS data were replaced with high resolution bathymetry acquired by NASA's Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL). These data and detailed metadata can be obtained from the USGS Web site: http://gisdata.usgs.gov/website/topobathy/. Data from EAARL and NED were collected under the auspices of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science Tampa Bay Study (http://gulfsci.usgs.gov/).

  7. A Quantum Bayes Net Approach to Causal Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Jennifer S.; Mistry, Percy K.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    When individuals have little knowledge about a causal system and must make causal inferences based on vague and imperfect information, their judgments often deviate from the normative prescription of classical probability. Previously, many researchers have dealt with violations of normative rules by elaborating causal Bayesian networks through the inclusion of hidden variables. While these models often provide good accounts of data, the addition of hidden variables is often post hoc, included when a Bayes net fails to capture data. Further, Bayes nets with multiple hidden variables are often difficult to test. Rather than elaborating a Bayes net with hidden variables, we generalize the probabilistic rules of these models. The basic idea is that any classic Bayes net can be generalized to a quantum Bayes net by replacing the probabilities in the classic model with probability amplitudes in the quantum model. We discuss several predictions of quantum Bayes nets for human causal reasoning.

  8. Trinity Bay Study: Dye tracing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, G. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the heat balance and temperature distribution within Trinity Bay near Galveston, Texas is presented. The effects of tidal currents, wind driven circulations, and large volume inflows are examined. Emphasis is placed on the effects of turbulent diffusion and local shears in currents. The technique of dye tracing to determine the parameters characterizing dispersion is described. Aerial photographs and maps are provided to show the flow conditions existing at different times and seasons.

  9. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  10. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    algae are common along the shore and in the intertidal and subtidal areas of the bay. Brown algae are dominant in the rocky intertidal and subtidal plant...loss of mixing within the wate, column would affect the existing organisms. Nine species of marine mammals are common to the Gulf of Maine and the...to the present shore line. After the glacier had melted back somc distance from the coast, silt and clay were laid down over the previous sediments in

  11. [Objectivity of BSE symptoms using Bayes theorem].

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Urech Hässig, B; Knubben-Schweizer, G

    2011-12-01

    In clinical epidemiology the Bayes theorem finds ever more use to render clinical acting more objective. It is shown that unusual examinations of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) as noise producing with ladle covers may quite objectively be evaluated. With the help of the likelihood ratio computed thereby, also a ranking of importance (clinical utility) of symptoms can be provided. The single most important symptom for BSE is photosensibility.

  12. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    most abundant at the low intertidal to subtidal levels of transects having sandy bottoms; such as Transects 3 and 5. Transects with sandy substrates ...the low intertidal and subtidal stations, an area of cobble and sand/mud substrates . At both Commencement Bay and Bainbridge Islar.d polychaetes were... substrates that had growths of barnacles and mussels. Station Group C includes several pairs of stations from 1.8-m to -2.5-m with limited affinity to

  13. Resource protection for waterbirds in Chesapeake bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, R. Michael; Haramis, G. Michael; Krementz, David G.; Funderburk, Steven L.

    1993-09-01

    Many living resources in the Chesapeake Bay estuary have deteriorated over the past 50 years. As a result, many governmental committees, task forces, and management plans have been established. Most of the recommendations for implementing a bay cleanup focus on reducing sediments and nutrient flow into the watershed. We emphasize that habitat requirements other than water quality are necessary for the recovery of much of the bay's avian wildlife, and we use a waterbird example as illustration. Some of these needs are: (1) protection of fast-eroding islands, or creation of new ones by dredge deposition to improve nesting habitat for American black ducks (Anas rubripes), great blue herons (Ardea herodias), and other associated wading birds; (2) conservation of remaining brackish marshes, especially near riparian areas, for feeding black ducks, wading birds, and wood ducks (Aix sponsa); (3) establishment of sanctuaries in open-water, littoral zones to protect feeding and/or roosting areas for diving ducks such as canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) and redheads (Aythya americana), and for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus); and (4) limitation of disturbance by boaters around nesting islands and open-water feeding areas. Land (or water) protection measures for waterbirds need to include units at several different spatial scales, ranging from “points” (e.g., a colony site) to large-area resources (e.g., a marsh or tributary for feeding). Planning to conserve large areas of both land and water can be achieved following a biosphere reserve model. Existing interagency committees in the Chesapeake Bay Program could be more effective in developing such a model for wildlife and fisheries resources.

  14. Jetty Rehabilitation Stability Study Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    YAMHILL CO -PO- C OI SILETZ RIVE BAY~~ POKC YAOUIA r f BENTON CO YAQUINA 4 IE LINCOLN COL BENTON CO , E SCALE CL 5 -- _0 5 10 MI Figure 1. Project...SEA AND SWELL vs. SWELL ONLY TEST WIND SPEED 32kt WIND DIRECTION 77- JWISI 60.0 SWELL ONLY Hmo 4.lm 50.0 -TH -15’ WIND-SEA AND SWELL Nina = 5.1m 40.0

  15. Resource protection for waterbirds in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Haramis, G.M.; Krementz, D.G.; Funderburk, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many living resources in the Chesapeake Bay estuary have deteriorated over the past 50 years. As a result, many governmental committees, task forces, and management plans have been established. Most of the recommendations for implementing a bay cleanup focus on reducing sediments and nutrient flow into the watershed. We emphasize that habitat requirements other than water quality are necessary for the recovery of much of the bay's avian wildlife, and we use a waterbird example as illustration. Some of these needs are: (1) protection of fast-eroding islands, or creation of new ones by dredge deposition to improve nesting habitat for American black ducks(Anas rubripes), great blue herons(Ardea herodias), and other associated wading birds; (2) conservation of remaining brackish marshes, especially near riparian areas, for feeding black ducks, wading birds, and wood ducks(Aix sponsa); (3) establishment of sanctuaries in open-water, littoral zones to protect feeding and/or roosting areas for diving ducks such as canvasbacks(Aythya valisineria) and redheads(Aythya americana), and for bald eagles(Haliaeetus leucocephalus); and (4) limitation of disturbance by boaters around nesting islands and open-water feeding areas. Land (or water) protection measures for waterbirds need to include units at several different spatial scales, ranging from ?points? (e.g., a colony site) to large-area resources (e.g., a marsh or tributary for feeding). Planning to conserve large areas of both land and water can be achieved following a biosphere reserve model. Existing interagency committees in the Chesapeake Bay Program could be more effective in developing such a model for wildlife and fisheries resources.

  16. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    HEALTH & SAFETY *Sea nettle Effect on swimmers - - S X *Public water Effect of salt - - - X systems on public health RECREATION EXPERIENCE eSport fishing... Michael A. Kolessar, Chief, David S. Ladd, Robert W. Lindner, Chesapeake Bay Herbert H. Linthicum, Carl D. Mat- StudyGroup 1967-1968 thias, Andrew...Engineers Smithsonian Institution Michael A. Kolessar Department of the Interior Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, 1968-71 (Chairman 1968-70) Eugene T. Jensen

  17. Operation of the Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1998-07-27

    The authors have developed a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to enable one to make inferences about models of a physical object from radiographs taken of it. In the BIE calculational models are represented by a data-flow diagram that can be manipulated by the analyst in a graphical-programming environment. The authors demonstrate the operation of the BIE in terms of examples of two-dimensional tomographic reconstruction including uncertainty estimation.

  18. Tides of Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Massachusetts Bays records. (1) The classic method of harmonic analysis was dcevised by Lord Kelvin in 1867, expanded by the work of Sir George Darwin , A...method which has been further ievised itý the program used here (Irish and Brown, 1986). (2) The response method ’Aas devised hk Munk and Cartwright ... Cartwright et al., 1969). Therefore. the analysis selects the amount of S2 which is consistent with a smooth admittance of all constituents in the band

  19. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  20. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  1. Attitudes toward issues affecting Sarasota Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.D.; Heald, G.R.

    1995-06-20

    The Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program (SBNEP) contracted with the Communication Research Center (CRC) of the Florida State University to conduct a public opinion survey of residents of Sarasota and Manatee, Florida counties to ascertain residents` attitudes toward issues of interest to the SBNEP. The survey was conducted in the final year (1995) of the SBNEP planning phase to determine changes in the public`s perception of bay issues, awareness of restoration efforts, and as a comparison tool to the initial survey conducted in 1990. The survey also provided information necessary for development and implementation of the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP). Five hundred, seventy-eight respondents, chosen at random, were interviewed by telephone during February 1995. The survey had a maximum estimated sampling error of approximately plus or minus four percent (4%) at the 95% level of confidence. Survey results include: just 41% of the respondents were aware of some type of clean up activities going on in the community. This information points to the need for continued assertive public education and outreach efforts to support Sarasota Bay restoration.

  2. Modeling the seasonal circulation in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.; Jenter, Harry L.; Blumberg, Alan F.; ,

    1994-01-01

    An 18 month simulation of circulation was conducted in Massachusetts Bay, a roughly 35 m deep, 100??50 km embayment on the northeastern shelf of the United States. Using a variant of the Blumberg-Mellor (1987) model, it was found that a continuous 18 month run was only possible if the velocity field was Shapiro filtered to remove two grid length energy that developed along the open boundary due to mismatch in locally generated and climatologically forced water properties. The seasonal development of temperature and salinity stratification was well-represented by the model once ??-coordinate errors were reduced by subtracting domain averaged vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density before horizontal differencing was performed. Comparison of modeled and observed subtidal currents at fixed locations revealed that the model performance varies strongly with season and distance from the open boundaries. The model performs best during unstratified conditions, and in the interior of the bay. The model performs poorest during stratified conditions and in the regions where the bay is driven predominantly by remote fluctuations from the Gulf of Maine.

  3. Experimental enhancement of pickleweed, Suisun Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Tsao, Danika C.; Yee, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    As mitigation for habitat impacted by the expansion of a pier on Suisun Bay, California, two vehicle parking lots (0.36 ha and 0.13 ha) were restored by being excavated, graded, and contoured using dredged sediments to the topography or elevation of nearby wetlands. We asked if pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica L, [Amaranthaceae]) colonization could be enhanced by experimental manipulation on these new wetlands. Pickleweed dominates ecologically important communities at adjacent San Francisco Bay, but is not typically dominant at Suisun Bay probably because of widely fluctuating water salinity and is outcompeted by other brackish water plants. Experimental treatments (1.0-m2 plots) included mulching with pickleweed cuttings in either the fall or the spring, tilling in the fall, or applying organic enrichments in the fall. Control plots received no treatment. Pickleweed colonization was most enhanced at treatment plots that were mulched with pickleweed in the fall. Since exotic vegetation can colonize bare sites within the early phases of restoration and reduce habitat quality, we concluded that mulching was most effective in the fall by reducing invasive plant cover while facilitating native plant colonization.

  4. Long-term history of Chesapeake Bay anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.R.; Brush, G.S. )

    1991-11-15

    Stratigraphic records from four sediment cores collected along a transect across the Chesapeake Bay near the mouth of the Choptank River were used to reconstruct a 2,000-year history of anoxia and eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay. Variations in pollen, diatoms, concentration of organic carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, acid-soluble iron, and an estimate of the degree of pyritization of iron indicate that sedimentation rates, anoxic conditions and eutrophication have increased in the Chesapeake Bay since the time of European settlement.

  5. Wetland plant communities, Galveston Bay system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.A.; Paine, J.G.

    1992-03-01

    The report is the culmination of a field investigation of wetland plant communities, and is one phase of the project, Trends and Status of Wetland and Aquatic Habitats of the Galveston Bay System, Texas, sponsored by the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. For purpose of the topical report, wetlands are defined and classified in terms of more classical definitions, for example, salt, brackish, and fresh marshes, in accordance with project requirements. More than 150 sites were examined in the Galveston Bay system.

  6. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  7. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1065 - U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. Coast Guard Station, San Francisco Bay, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. 334.1065 Section 334.1065... Island, San Francisco Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. San Francisco Bay on the east...

  13. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  14. Distribution and transport of bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli) eggs and larvae in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, E. W.; Houde, E. D.

    2004-07-01

    Mechanisms and processes that influence small-scale depth distribution and dispersal of bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli) early-life stages are linked to physical and biological conditions and to larval developmental stage. A combination of fixed-station sampling, an axial abundance survey, and environmental monitoring data was used to determine how wind, currents, time of day, physics, developmental stage, and prey and predator abundances interacted to affect the distribution and potential transport of eggs and larvae. Wind-forced circulation patterns altered the depth-specific physical conditions at a fixed station and significantly influenced organism distributions and potential transport. The pycnocline was an important physical feature that structured the depth distribution of the planktonic community: most bay anchovy early-life stages (77%), ctenophores (72%), copepod nauplii (>76%), and Acartia tonsa copepodites (69%) occurred above it. In contrast, 90% of sciaenid eggs, tentatively weakfish ( Cynoscion regalis), were found below the pycnocline in waters where dissolved oxygen concentrations were <2.0 mg l -1. The day-night cycle also influenced organism abundances and distributions. Observed diel periodicity in concentrations of bay anchovy and sciaenid eggs, and of bay anchovy larvae >6 mm, probably were consequences of nighttime spawning (eggs) and net evasion during the day (larvae). Diel periodicity in bay anchovy swimbladder inflation also was observed, indicating that larvae apparently migrate to surface waters at dusk to fill their swimbladders. Overall results suggest that wind-forced circulation patterns, below-pycnocline dissolved oxygen conditions, and diel changes in vertical distribution of larvae and their copepod prey have important implications for potential transport of bay anchovy early-life stages.

  15. Intensive survey of the bay creek watershed, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Short, M.B.; Kelly, T.G.; Hefley, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    During July 1992, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency conducted an intensive survey of the Bay Creek basin, a fifth order tributary in the Mississippi River North Central Basin. Bay Creek drains approximately 176.4 square miles primarily in Pike and a small portion of Calhoun counties. Four stations were sampled on the Bay Creek main stem and one on Honey Creek. The survey focused on macroinvertebrate communities, fish populations, instream habitat, fish tissue, sediment and water chemistry, and land use as well as a review of ambient water quality data from IEPA station KCA-01 near Nebo, Illinois, as tools to document the biological and chemical status of Bay Creek.

  16. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  17. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  18. Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

  19. Status and assessment of Chesapeake Bay wildlife contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, G.H.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Clark, D.R.; Albers, P.; Henry, P.

    1992-10-01

    As an integral component of its priority setting process, the Chesapeake Bay Program's Toxics Subcommittee has sought the expertise of Chesapeake Bay researchers and managers in developing a series of Chesapeake Bay toxics status and assessment papers. In the report, evidence for historical and current contaminant effects on key bird species, mammals, reptiles and amphibians which inhabit the Chesapeake Bay basin is examined. For each group of wildlife species, a general overview of effects caused by specific toxic substances is followed by detailed accounts of contaminant effects on selected species.

  20. Causes of COD increases in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2010-08-05

    Water quality, the carbon isotope ratio of particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment, and the nutrients limiting phytoplankton growth were investigated to determine the cause of organic matter increase and to determine an effective countermeasure for chemical oxygen demand (COD) increase in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea. The sources of most NO(3)-N and SiO(2)-Si entering Gwangyang Bay seem to be land-based, and the primary source of P appears to be industrial complex and/or domestic wastewater. The major cause of the COD increase in Gwangyang Bay was phytoplankton growth. Phytoplankton growth was limited by N at high salinity and by P at relatively low salinity. Phytoplankton growth was more limited by N in Gwangyang Bay than in similar bays because of a strong point source of P in Gwangyang Bay. In the rainy season, phytoplankton were able to massively grow in Gwangyang Bay after heavy rainfall events because of the high input of N from runoff, input of P and Si, and increasing sunlight after the rainy season. The peak chlorophyll a concentration observed in winter may have resulted from mixing N from the lower layer and because Eucampia grew well at low water temperatures. To improve COD levels in Gwangyang Bay, it is important to control the phytoplankton growth in the rainy season, particularly by limiting the input of NO(3)-N from outside the bay.

  1. Total plankton respiration in the Chesapeake Bay plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, C. N.; Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Total plankton respiration (TPR) was measured at 17 stations within the Chesapeake Bay plume off the Virginia coast during March, June, and October 1980. Elevated rates of TPR, as well as higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigment a, were found to be associated with the Bay plume during each survey. The TPR rates within the Bay plume were close to those found associated with the Hudson River plume for comparable times of the year. The data examined indicate that the Chesapeake Bay plume stimulates biological activity and is a source of organic loading to the contiguous shelf ecosystem.

  2. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  3. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  4. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mette S.; Holm, Elisabeth; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Pedersen, Karl; Andresen, Lars O.; Abildstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Trine H.; Larsen, Lars E.

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June–August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined. PMID:25811098

  5. A Cultural and Comparative Perspective on Outdoor Education in New Zealand and "Friluftsliv" in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andkjaer, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The paper is based on a comparative and qualitative case study of "friluftsliv" in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Cultural analysis with a comparative cultural perspective informed the research approach. Configurational analysis was used as an important supplement to focus on cultural patterns linked to bodily movement. It…

  6. The Teaching of English Phonetics in Denmark: A Problem of Transference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    Since 1971 the approach adopted in the teaching of English phonetics in Denmark has been a contrastive one. In this paper it is argued that although the original contrastive hypothesis (Lado 1957) has to be modified and weakened, a contrastive approach is highly useful in learning and teaching the pronunciation of a foreign language. Selected…

  7. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  8. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  9. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  10. Optimization as a Dispositive in the Production of Differences in Denmark Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this paper is inspired by governmentality studies in education. The key concepts are problematization, formatting technologies, and dispositive. The paper begins with an empirical study conducted in Denmark of forty-four files from educational psychologists and articles from journals concerning schools and education.…

  11. The development of family nursing in Denmark: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Birte; Wagner, Lis

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 12 years, a strong foundation for family nursing has been built in Denmark, with rapid growth in the past 3 years. A review of nursing research conducted in Denmark and published between 2002 and 2013 found 15 studies that examined family phenomena. The majority of the studies used descriptive methods with data collected from surveys and interviews involving family members either together or individually. Only five of the studies examined interventions that included families' perspectives about the intervention being evaluated. Several current research projects lead by Danish nurses examine the implementation of family nursing knowledge to clinical settings. Integration of family nursing theory has begun in Denmark in undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula and in May 2013, the Danish Family Nursing Association was officially established. Infrastructure and financial conference support has made it possible to invite Nordic and international colleagues to meet in Denmark, which, reciprocally, expands understanding and support for family nursing within the country. Further collaboration between Danish nurse researchers, educators, and administrators will help sustain the growth of family nursing science and its application in family-focused nursing practice.

  12. Using English as a Medium of Instruction at University Level in Denmark: The Lecturer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, Charlotte; Denver, Louise; Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2014-01-01

    More than 25% of the master's degrees in Denmark are taught using English as a medium of instruction (EMI), but not all university lecturers feel they have the appropriate academic English proficiency to meet the standard required. Based on interviews conducted at the Copenhagen Business School (CBS), this article sheds light on the challenges…

  13. Genome Sequence of Kocuria varians G6 Isolated from a Slaughterhouse in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Prem K.; Herschend, Jakob; Røder, Henriette L.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first draft genome sequence of Kocuria varians G6, which was isolated from a meat chopper at a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The 2.90-Mb genome sequence consists of 95 contigs and contains 2,518 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27034480

  14. Caught between Internationalisation and Immigration: The Case of Nepalese Students in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marketisation and national profiling of Denmark as an attractive country for foreign students has resulted in an increasing number of students from poor countries in the global South, including Nepal, being admitted to Danish colleges and universities. The influx of students from these countries has led to several accusations against…

  15. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  16. Manpower Policy in Denmark. OECD Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Two elements were identified as being of paramount importance in the examination of manpower policy in Denmark: (1) the division of responsibilities for matters of direct concern to the labor market between different branches of government and the social partners--an important facet of the social framework of a country, and (2) the impact of…

  17. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  18. Training Child Care Workers in Denmark. I. Training Group Day Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Wagner, Marsden G.

    As part of the training of group day care workers in Denmark, training programs have been developed for each of the seven different types of day care centers. The theoretical education for each program is provided in four seminariums; practicum experiences occur in an actual day care facility. Each seminarium trains students in the care of only…

  19. Child Advocacy in Denmark: 70 Years of Experience with This "New" Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    Denmark's child advocacy system is made up of local kommune (county) Child and Youth Welfare Committees which watch over the well-being of children. Each child and youth committee serves as an effective advocate for the children of its community in three areas: promotion, protection, and prevention. The committee's responsibility to promote…

  20. Training Child Care Workers in Denmark: II. Training Family Helpers and Family Day Care Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    This report describes the training of two kinds of paraprofessionals in child care in Denmark: the family helper who has considerable educational background, and the family day care mother for whom there are no educational prerequisites. The funding, the training, and the curriculum design of the paraprofessional programs are discussed. There is…

  1. Group Day Care in Denmark: A Century and a Half of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary G.; Wagner, Marsden G.

    The national and local organization and administration of group day care programs in Denmark are outlined in this report. Financing, basic programs, standards, and staff training in each of the four main child care groups are discussed under the following categories: cretches, kindergartens, afterschool groups, and youth clubs. Although all four…

  2. Assessing National Stereotypes in Language Attitude Studies: The Case of Class-Consciousness in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladegaard, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a Danish language-attitude study, arguing that views presented in the literature often differ from people's private uncensored stereotypes. Surveys of people from four regions in Denmark investigated their attitudes after listening to voices with seven different regional dialects. Results indicated that people assigned social-class…

  3. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  4. Denmark's National Family Guidance Program: A Preventive Mental Health Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden

    This document describes Denmark's 10-year (1965-75) program of cost-effective provision of social services to crisis families with children under the Danish 1964 Child and Youth Welfare Act. The program, voluntary and open to all families, provided preventive psychosocial services for children based on a family support system. The background to…

  5. The Children's Rights Convention in Denmark: A Status Report on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Per Schultz; Leth, Ingrid; Montgomery, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified by Denmark in 1991 but never incorporated into Danish legislation; instead the State party has chosen a stepwise implementation in legal and social praxis. However, this process mirrors a remarkable reluctance to approve the Convention as a legitimate part of…

  6. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark: Short Description. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    Denmark has a uniform, nationwide vocational education and training (VET) system that provides qualifications that are valid throughout the country and recognized by employers and trade unions. Initial VET (IVET) includes the following components: VET, including commercial and technical training; basic social and health care training; agricultural…

  7. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  8. The Role of the Social Partners in Youth and Adult Vocational Education and Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John Houman; Jensen, Grethe

    This document about Denmark has the following four aims: (1) to provide an overview on the vocational education and training system; (2) to describe and evaluate the social partners' (employers, employers' organizations, and unions) role in implementation, management, and control in relation to the vocational training system; (3) to outline the…

  9. The Danish Effect: Beginning to Explain High Well-Being in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas-Diener, Robert; Vitterso, Joar; Diener, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Although income and happiness have been linked at both the individual and national levels of analysis, few studies have specifically examined the different relationships between these two variables in affluent nations. This study investigates various measures of well-being in both the United States and Denmark. Respondents in both countries…

  10. "Left to Your Own Devices"--The Missed Potential of Adult Career Guidance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the European Council agreed on a Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. The Resolution promoted lifelong guidance as a policy to support people during the multiple transitions provoked by a more volatile labour market. However, when looking into the guidance policy of Denmark, the Resolution…

  11. The Concept of Permanent Education and Its Application in Denmark. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    A report is made to the Secretariat of the Council of Europe of a case study on the introduction of the concept of permanent education in Denmark. The supplies of education, which have been limited to clients in childhhod, adolescence, and yound adulthood, should now be distributed over a lifetime. Economic growth was formerly explained by input…

  12. Diagnostic model construction and example analysis of habitat degradation in enclosed bay: III. Sansha Bay habitat restoration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Yu, Ge; Chen, Zhaozhang; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    Unbalanced inputs and outputs of material are the root cause of habitat degradation in Sansha Bay, Fujian Province, China. However, the cumulative pollution varies in different geographic locations and natural conditions in the enclosed bay. In this study, hydrodynamic conditions, sediment characteristics, and aquaculture methods were recognized as the underlying causes of spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous pollutants, the two major controlling factors of habitat degradation in the bay area. In order to achieve the goal of balancing nutrient inputs and outputs in Sansha Bay, we developed a feasible and practical zone restoration strategy for reasonable adjustment and arrangement of aquaculture species and production scale in accordance with varying hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics in six sub-bay areas (sub-systems). The proposed zone restoration strategy lays a solid foundation for habitat restoration and management in Sansha Bay.

  13. Diagnostic model construction and example analysis of habitat degradation in enclosed bay: III. Sansha Bay habitat restoration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Yu, Ge; Chen, Zhaozhang; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2014-09-01

    Unbalanced inputs and outputs of material are the root cause of habitat degradation in Sansha Bay, Fujian Province, China. However, the cumulative pollution varies in different geographic locations and natural conditions in the enclosed bay. In this study, hydrodynamic conditions, sediment characteristics, and aquaculture methods were recognized as the underlying causes of spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous pollutants, the two major controlling factors of habitat degradation in the bay area. In order to achieve the goal of balancing nutrient inputs and outputs in Sansha Bay, we developed a feasible and practical zone restoration strategy for reasonable adjustment and arrangement of aquaculture species and production scale in accordance with varying hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics in six sub-bay areas (sub-systems). The proposed zone restoration strategy lays a solid foundation for habitat restoration and management in Sansha Bay.

  14. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  15. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  16. Narcotics at street level in Denmark. A prospective investigation from 1995 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E; Nielsen, E; Rollmann, D

    2003-01-28

    This article describes an investigation of illicit drugs at street level in six selected police districts in different regions of Denmark. The investigation was carried out during a 6-year period from 1995 to 2000. During the period, a total of 1244 samples were examined, as about 200 samples were seized each year. A total of 94% of the seized samples were familiar drugs: heroin base, heroin hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate. Only 2% of the samples contained designer drugs. From having constituted 53% of the samples in 1995, the frequency of heroin base fell during the period to 27% of the samples in 2000. The frequency of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. In the same period, the frequency of cocaine hydrochloride increased from 10% of the samples in 1995 to about 25% of the samples in 2000. Apart from a few exceptions, cocaine had the same extension in all regions of Denmark after 1996. Amphetamine was more frequent in the west of Denmark, while heroin hydrochloride was more frequent in central Denmark. The purity of heroin base was lower in the period 1997-1999 than in the other years. During the entire period, the purity of cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate fell, while the purity of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. No significant differences between the various regions of Denmark were detected during the period in the purity of heroin hydrochloride, heroin base, cocaine hydrochloride or amphetamine sulphate. MDMA was the most frequent designer drug, but other types of designer drugs such as MDA and MDE and the less common PMA, PMMA and MBDB were also found.

  17. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  18. 78 FR 40651 - Regulated Navigation Area; Special Buzzards Bay Vessel Regulation, Buzzards Bay, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email Mr. John J. Mauro, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard First District, (617) 223-8355, email John.J.Mauro@uscg.mil... are single or double hull. Reporting and participation requirements of the VMRS Buzzards Bay....

  19. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... participants, spectators, and vessels from the hazards associated with a large scale swimming event. DATES... scale swimming event will take place on Presque Isle Bay near Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that this large scale swimming event across a navigable waterway will pose...

  20. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... large scale swimming event. DATES: This regulation will be effective June 30, 2012 from 8:30 a.m. until.... on June 30, 2012, a large scale swimming event will take place on Presque Isle Bay near Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that this large scale swimming event across a...

  1. 75 FR 54771 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Buckroe Beach Park, Hampton, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... is establishing a 210-foot radius safety zone on the navigable waters of Chesapeake Bay in Hampton... area bounded by a 210-foot radius circle centered on position 37 02'23'' N, 076 17'22'' W (NAD 1983... radius circle centered on position 37 02'23'' N/076 17'22'' W (NAD 1983). (b) Definition. Captain of...

  2. 78 FR 30765 - Safety Zone; Bay Village Independence Day Fireworks, Lake Erie, Bay Village, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarine... Cahoon Memorial Park, Bay Village, OH. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that fireworks... Buffalo has determined that this temporary safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators...

  3. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    .... Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you... the St. Lawrence River near Alexandria Bay, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that... authorized by the Captain of the Port Buffalo or his on-scene representative. The Captain of the Port or...

  4. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  5. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  6. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  7. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The...

  9. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The...

  11. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The...

  12. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Pilot Phase 2 web site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The value of nature's benefits is difficult to consider in environmental decision-making since ecosystem goods and services are usually not well measured or quantified in economic terms. The Tampa Bay Estuary Program, Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council, the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  13. Green Bay: Spatial patterns in water quality and landscape correlations

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey along the nearshore (369 km) in Green Bay using towed electronic instrumentation at approximately the 15 m depth contour, with additional transects of the bay that were oriented cross-contour (49 km). Electronic sensor data provided an effic...

  14. When 95% Accurate Isn't: Exploring Bayes's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CadwalladerOlsker, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Bayes's theorem is notorious for being a difficult topic to learn and to teach. Problems involving Bayes's theorem (either implicitly or explicitly) generally involve calculations based on two or more given probabilities and their complements. Further, a correct solution depends on students' ability to interpret the problem correctly. Most people…

  15. Neutron calibration sources in the Daya Bay experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, J.; Carr, R.; Dwyer, D. A.; ...

    2015-07-09

    We describe the design and construction of the low rate neutron calibration sources used in the Daya Bay Reactor Anti-neutrino Experiment. Such sources are free of correlated gamma-neutron emission, which is essential in minimizing induced background in the anti-neutrino detector. Thus, the design characteristics have been validated in the Daya Bay anti-neutrino detector.

  16. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 110.45 - Onset Bay, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Onset Bay, Mass. 110.45 Section 110.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass. Northerly of a line extending...

  19. 33 CFR 110.45 - Onset Bay, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Onset Bay, Mass. 110.45 Section 110.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass. Northerly of a line extending...

  20. 33 CFR 110.45 - Onset Bay, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Onset Bay, Mass. 110.45 Section 110.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass. Northerly of a line extending...

  1. 33 CFR 110.45 - Onset Bay, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Onset Bay, Mass. 110.45 Section 110.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass. Northerly of a line extending...

  2. 33 CFR 110.45 - Onset Bay, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Onset Bay, Mass. 110.45 Section 110.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass. Northerly of a line extending...

  3. 46 CFR 7.40 - Delaware Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delaware Bay and tributaries. 7.40 Section 7.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.40 Delaware Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape May Inlet East Jetty Light to...

  4. 33 CFR 80.110 - Casco Bay, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Casco Bay, ME. 80.110 Section 80.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.110 Casco Bay, ME. (a) A line drawn from...

  5. 33 CFR 110.193 - Tampa Bay, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosives anchorage off Port Tampa. A circular area with a radius of 200 yards with the point at latitude 27... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193 Tampa Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives anchorage east of Mullet Key. A rectangular area in Tampa Bay, approximately 4,459 yards long and...

  6. 15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January 1941 photograph taken during reconstruction of the Bay and Taylor turntable. View to the south. The 'spider' that carries the actual turntable is in place in the pit. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Breeding avifauna of the south San Francisco Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    San Francisco Bay represents one of the largest estuarine areas on the Pacific Coast of North America. Its open waters, tidal flats, tidal marshes and solar evaporation ponds provide critical foraging, resting and breeding habitat for migratory and resident birds. The avifauna of San Francisco Bay has received considerable attention; however, little of it has been directed toward assessing the overall importance of the Bay as a nesting area. Works by Grinnell and Wythe (1927), Grinnell and Miller (1944) and Sibley (1952) are the only comprehensive studies of San Francisco Bay avifauna. These studies, while major contributions, are broad in scope as they relate to the breeding avifauna of the Bay's estuarine areas. Several studies by Johnston (1955, 1956a, b), Marshall (1948a, b), DeGroot (1927, 1931) and Zucca (1954) have concentrated on the breeding biology of individual species; however, much of the marsh reclamation and Bay fill has occurred since. The present breeding status of many resident and migratory birds is poorly known for San Francisco Bay. Included among these are three rare or endangered forms: California Black Rail, California Clapper Rail and California Least Tern. In addition, some species now found in the area represent recent breeding range extensions. This study, undertaken from March to September 1971 and including a few more recent data, presents a quantitative assessment of the present breeding bird populations in the South San Francisco Bay area.

  8. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude...

  9. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude...

  10. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  19. Lead in Lake Michigan and Green Bay Surficial Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were collected in 1987-1989 in Green Bay using a box corer and in 1994-1996 in Lake Michigan using a box corer and a PONAR. Core samples were segmented and dated. Historic background lead concentrations were determined for Green Bay (range=1.8-39.3 mg/kg, mean=14...

  20. 33 CFR 162.150 - Maumee Bay and River, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. 162.150 Section 162.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Ohio. (a) In Maumee Bay (lakeward of Maumee River Lighted Buoy 49(L/L No. 770)), no vessel greater...

  1. 33 CFR 162.150 - Maumee Bay and River, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. 162.150 Section 162.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Ohio. (a) In Maumee Bay (lakeward of Maumee River Lighted Buoy 49(L/L No. 770)), no vessel greater...

  2. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  3. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  5. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  7. 16. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BAY & TAYLOR: Photocopy of January 1941 photograph taken during reconstruction of the Bay and Taylor turntable. View to northwest taken two days after CA-12-22. Reconstruction work is nearly complete in this view. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  9. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  10. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  11. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  12. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast...

  13. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    Bay Area residents feel a sense of responsibility to protect San Francisco Bay and keep it healthy. Some even dream about the recovery of fish stocks so they can sustain commercial fishing once again inside the Bay. How is our Bay doing? Is it highly polluted or pretty clean? How does its health compare with other estuaries in the United States? Are things getting better or worse? Does costly wastewater treatment have benefits? What are the biggest threats to the Bay and how can we reduce or eliminate those threats? How will the Bay change in the future? These questions can only be answered with investments in study and monitoring, and they are the driving force behind the Regional Monitoring Program (RMP). We describe here some selected results from water quality surveillance conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as one component of the RMP. We present results as lessons about how the Bay works as a complex dynamic system, and we show how these lessons are relevant to the broad RMP objectives supporting Bay protection and management.

  14. An Adaptive Model of Student Performance Using Inverse Bayes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a coherent framework for the use of Inverse Bayesian estimation to summarize and make predictions about student behaviour in adaptive educational settings. The Inverse Bayes Filter utilizes Bayes theorem to estimate the relative impact of contextual factors and internal student factors on student performance using time series…

  15. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall....

  16. 78 FR 16495 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2013, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  17. 77 FR 14514 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 2, 2012, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  18. Understanding Persuasive Online Sales Messages from eBay Auctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial; Noel, Rita; Fortier, Jenny; Grabolosa, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Online auctions are dominated by eBay, which started bringing together buyers and sellers in 1995. eBay product listings can easily be used in business communication courses to better understand online sales messages. One great advantage is that the vast majority of nearly 15 million listings a day are written and assembled by everyday consumers…

  19. 49. VIEW OF ANALOG RECORD BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF ANALOG RECORD BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY LOCATED CENTRALLY IN TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 106) MIDWAY BETWEEN EAST AND WEST WALLS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. DIAGNOSING THE CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN MOBILE BAY, ALABAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobile Bay is the fourth largest estuary in the conterminous U.S. with a watershed of more than 43,000 square miles. Biological condition in Mobile Bay has been assessed annually since 2000 through the National Coastal Assessment, a monitoring collaboration between US EPA and Al...