Science.gov

Sample records for aarhus university prescription

  1. [The first 50 years of the Blood Transfusion Centre, Aarhus University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The first step to establish a blood transfusion centre in Aarhus was taken in 1951, when an ordinary refrigerator, to be used in a kitchen, was installed in the operation theater area (surgical department) and used for short time storage of blood from bleeding of the donor to transfusion of the patient. In order to celebrate the 60 years anniversary this paper tells the history of the Blood Transfusion Centre at Aarhus University Hospital, especially location in hospitals and scenery of laboratories. The paper is initiated with a description of some of the major milestones in transfusion medicine, which are essential for the function of a blood bank. The last part consists of photos, which shows the setting of the department during the 60 years. In order to facilitate the impression of the great technical improvement, which took place during this period, the photos are, together with a description, grouped according to the motive.

  2. Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Canada’s universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms. Though universal “pharmacare” is once again on the policy agenda in Canada, arguably at higher levels of policy discourse than ever before, the frequently recommended option of universal, public coverage of prescription drugs remains unlikely to be implemented without political leadership necessary to overcome these policy barriers. PMID:27744279

  3. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students.

  4. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  5. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  6. [Evaluation of electronic drug prescriptions at a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Cassiani, Sílvia Helena; Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael; Freire, Cláudia Câmara

    2002-01-01

    The medical orders have an important role in the prevention of medication errors. The objective of this study is to identify and to analyse the causal factors of error in the medication related to electronic prescription in two different clinics of a university hospital of the interior of the state of São Paulo. A questionnaire related to the advantages and disadvantages of electronic prescription was applied to the professionals of these clinics. The data collected was grouped in accordance with the similarity of the answers. These professionals identified causal factors of errors in the medical orders, but they also mentioned the advantages of it when compared to the manual order, such as bigger readability, rapidity and organization of the first one. As we can see, the computerized system of medical order represents a great advance considering strategies to minimize errors from orders badly formulated. However, it does not eliminate the possibility of occurrence of causal factors of errors in the medication, which asks for some modifications in the system.

  7. Prescription Drug Misuse among University Staff and Students: A Survey of Motives, Nature and Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Katy; Bennett, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To determine the prevalence and nature of prescription drug misuse among university staff and students in the UK. Methods: In 2009, an online questionnaire regarding non-medical use of prescription drugs was completed by 1614 students and 489 staff registered at a large university in Wales. The sample data were weighted to match the…

  8. Did Universal Access to ARVT in Mexico Impact Suboptimal Antiretroviral Prescriptions?

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Vega, Yanink; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Colchero, M. Arantxa; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) started in Mexico in 2001; no evaluation of the features of ARVT prescriptions over time has been conducted. The aim of the study is to document trends in the quality of ARVT-prescription before and after universal access. Methods. We describe ARVT prescriptions before and after 2001 in three health facilities from the following subsystems: the Mexican Social Security (IMSS), the Ministry of Health (SSA), and National Institutes of Health (INS). Combinations of drugs and reasons for change were classified according to current Mexican guidelines and state-of-the-art therapy. Comparisons were made using χ2 tests. Results. Before 2001, 29% of patients starting ARVT received HAART; after 2001 it increased to 90%. The proportion of adequate prescriptions decreased within the two periods of study in all facilities (P value < 0.01). The INS and SSA were more likely to be prescribed adequately (P value < 0.01) compared to IMSS. The distribution of reasons for change was not significantly different during this time for all facilities (P value > 0.05). Conclusions. Universal ARVT access in Mexico was associated with changes in ARVT-prescription patterns over time. Health providers' performance improved, but not homogeneously. Training of personnel and guidelines updating is essential to improve prescription. PMID:24396592

  9. Utilizing Business, University, and Community Resources to Target Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Mdivanian, R.; Anderson-Butcher, D.; Hale, K.; Kwiek, N.; Smock, J.; Radigan, D.; Lineberger, J.

    2012-01-01

    "Generation Rx" is a prescription drug abuse prevention strategy which includes a "toolkit" designed to be used with youth. Developed by Cardinal Health Foundation and the Ohio State University, it provides health care providers (especially pharmacists), parents, teachers, youth workers, and other community leaders with…

  10. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Ryalat, Soukaina; Shayyab, Mohammad; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients. Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period. Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection. Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure. PMID:19209291

  11. A Mixed-Methods Approach Examining Illicit Prescription Stimulant Use: Findings From a Northern California University.

    PubMed

    Bavarian, Niloofar; McMullen, Jaimie; Flay, Brian R; Kodama, Cathy; Martin, Melissa; Saltz, Robert F

    2017-02-27

    Preventing the illicit use of prescription stimulants, a particularly high-risk form of substance use, requires approaches that utilize theory-guided research. We examined this behavior within the context of a random sample of 554 undergraduate students attending a university in northern California. Approximately 17% of students self-reported engaging in this behavior during college; frequency of misuse per academic term ranged from less than once to 40 or more times. Although most misusers reported oral ingestion, a small proportion reported snorting and smoking the drug. The majority of misusers reported receiving the drug at no cost, and the primary source of the drug was friends. Misusers were motivated by both academic (e.g., to improve focus) and non-academic (e.g., to experiment) reasons. Our thematic analyses of an open-end question revealed that students abstaining from illicit use of prescription stimulants did so primarily for reasons related to health risks, ethics, and adherence regulations. Results from adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that correlates of the behavior were intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental in nature. We conclude that characteristics of misuse are a cause for concern, and correlates of the behavior are multifaceted. These findings, in addition to insights provided by students who choose not to engage in this behavior, suggest that a number of prevention approaches are plausible, such as a social norms campaign that simultaneously corrects exaggerated beliefs about prevalence while also illustrating why abstainers, in their own words, choose to abstain.

  12. The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Læssøe, Jeppe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lange, Lene

    2009-03-01

    More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular interest for understanding the effects of the projected future climate change and how the foreseen negative impacts can be counteracted by mitigation and adaptation measures. The themes were: Climate policy: the role of law and economics; Biodiversity and ecosystems; Agriculture and climate change; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference. The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used to minimize the expected negative impacts of future climate change.

  13. To Dope or Not to Dope: Neuroenhancement with Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse among Swiss University Students

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Larissa J.; Liechti, Matthias E.; Herzig, Fiona; Schaub, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. Study aim To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university students. Method In this cross-sectional study, students at the University of Zurich, University of Basel, and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich were invited via e-mail to participate in an online survey. Results A total of 28,118 students were contacted, and 6,275 students completed the survey. Across all of the institutions, 13.8% of the respondents indicated that they had used prescription drugs (7.6%) or drugs of abuse including alcohol (7.8%) at least once specifically for neuroenhancement. The most frequently used prescription drugs for neuroenhancement were methylphenidate (4.1%), sedatives (2.7%), and beta-blockers (1.2%). Alcohol was used for this purpose by 5.6% of the participants, followed by cannabis (2.5%), amphetamines (0.4%), and cocaine (0.2%). Arguments for neuroenhancement included increased learning (66.2%), relaxation or sleep improvement (51.2%), reduced nervousness (39.1%), coping with performance pressure (34.9%), increased performance (32.2%), and experimentation (20%). Neuroenhancement was significantly more prevalent among more senior students, students who reported higher levels of stress, and students who had previously used illicit drugs. Although “soft enhancers”, including coffee, energy drinks, vitamins, and tonics, were used daily in the month prior to an exam, prescription drugs or drugs of abuse were used much less frequently. Conclusions A significant proportion of Swiss university students across most academic disciplines reported

  14. Patterns of prescription drugs use among pregnant women at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Family and Community Medicine Clinic, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamimi, J. Z.; Al Balushi, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the patterns of prescription drugs use among women attending antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and SQUH Family and Community Medicine clinic (FAMCO), Oman. Methods: The study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study on pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at SQUH and FAMCO from February to April 2014 and received a prescription containing at least one drug. Patients’ information was extracted from SQUH electronic records. Results: A total of 105 pregnant women were included in the study. Among the recruited pregnant women, 35 (33.3%) had at least one chronic disease. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient per prescription during the period of pregnancy was 2.33 ± 1.43. Vitamins and minerals were the most frequently prescribed class of drugs (30.60%) followed by analgesics (11.19%) and antidiabetic drugs (10.13%). According to the Food and Drug Administration risk classification, most of the prescribed drugs were from category B (30.0%) and C (27.14%). No drug was prescribed from category X. There was a significant decrease in prescribing category A drugs over the three trimesters (20.7%, 12.7%, and 9.3%, respectively) (P < 0.047). Conclusion: The study gives an overview of the extent of drug prescription during pregnancy and increases the awareness of health-care providers and women about the potential risks of drug use during pregnancy. PMID:28216955

  15. Nonmedical prescription drug use among US college students at a Midwest university: a partial test of social learning theory.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Robert L; Steele, Jennifer L

    2010-05-01

    We estimate the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug (NMPD) use and test social learning theory as an explanation for NMPD use based upon data from a large pilot study. Data were collected from 465 college students at a Midwestern university in the USA using a self-administered questionnaire. The sample was predominantly white (88%), 43% were female and the mean age was 22. Most participants (80%) were not members of social fraternities or sororities. A majority of students did not report NMPD use: 39.4% of respondents reported lifetime NMPD use, 31% reported past-year use, and 14.4% reported past-month use. Multivariate regression results partially supported social learning theory as an explanation for lifetime NMPD use. Limitations and suggestions for future research are suggested.

  16. Educational Intervention: A Prescription for Violence at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wanda M.

    Data from campus crime reports and security logs help identify the perpetrators and likely victims of crime on college campuses. The historically black college or university campus is not exempt from physical and verbal acts of violence, and every area of the campus is vulnerable. Although the academy has no duty to protect the community from…

  17. Over-the-counter and Prescription Medications for Acne: A Cross-Sectional Survey in a Sample of University Students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Mohja D.; Almutairi, Abdulsalam T.; Alomran, Asma M.; Alrashed, Batool A.; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Acne is a very common dermatological condition found among the adolescent population in Saudi Arabia. Many patients with acne try various forms of self-medication, over the counter medicines (OTC), and prescription medicines for the same. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among university students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A validated questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of university students to evaluate their knowledge and attitudes towards OTC (mainly) as well as prescription medicine for acne. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression tests were used for comparisons between groups. Results: Four hundred and twenty valid, completed questionnaires were obtained. A total of 220 (52.4%) used some type of OTC medications at least once, where as 108 (25.7%) used prescription medicines and 92 (21.9%) used both. The most common OTC medications used were cleansers by 250 participants (41.9%). Among prescription medicines, the most common were topical and oral antibiotics (11.4%). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that females are statistically more likely to use OTC medicines compared to males (Odds ratio: 1.7). Conclusion: The use of self-medications and OTC medications is common among university students in KSA. The most common OTC medicine used for acne was cleanser.

  18. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  19. Everyday drug diversions: A qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus

    PubMed Central

    Vrecko, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of ‘drug diversion’—that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity. PMID:25455480

  20. Everyday drug diversions: a qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of 'drug diversion'--that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity.

  1. Seasonal generation and composition of garden waste in Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Garden waste generation and composition were studied in Aarhus, Denmark. The amount of garden waste generated varied seasonally, from 2.5kgperson(-1)month(-1) in winter to 19.4kgperson(-1)month(-1) in summer. Seasonal fractional composition and chemical characterization of garden waste were determined by sorting and sampling garden waste eight times during 1year. On a yearly basis, the major fraction of garden waste was "small stuff" (flowers, grass clippings, hedge cuttings and soil) making up more than 90% (wet waste distribution) during the summer. The woody fractions (branches, wood) are more significant during the winter. Seasonal trends in waste chemical composition were recorded and an average annual composition of garden waste was calculated, considering the varying monthly generation and material fraction composition: the wet garden waste contained 40% water, 30% organic matter (VS) and 30% ash. The ash content suggests that the garden waste contains a significant amount of soil. This is in particular the case during summer. Of nutrients, the garden waste contained in average on a dry matter basis 0.6% N, 0.1% P, and 1.0% K. However, the contents varied significantly among the fractions and during the year. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was low.

  2. Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts / Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids) Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids) Print What is prescription opioid misuse? Also ... Hillbilly Heroin, OC, or Vikes Prescription opioids are medications that are chemically similar to endorphins – opioids that ...

  3. Prescriptions for growth: A status report on U. S. Department of Energy communications with colleges land universities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; Rodman, J.A.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents the results of a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of DOE communications with the nation's colleges and universities. A 1983 report of the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) entitled An Assessment of the Relationship Between the Department of Energy and Universities and Colleges (the ERAB report) concluded that relationships between US Department of Energy and the academic community would be significantly enhanced by the development of effective reciprocal communication process. The ERAB report identified many communication-related issues that impact the important working relationship between DOE and acedeme. 9 figs.

  4. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription filled; Drugs - how to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... paper prescription that you take to a local pharmacy Calling or e-mailing a pharmacy to order ...

  5. Prescription-Writing by Pediatric House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walson, Philip D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    An examination to evaluate prescription writing was administered to a group of pediatric house officers and faculty at the University of Arizona. The data indicate that prescription writing should be taught to house officers, and that the therapeutic knowledge of beginning pediatric interns cannot be assumed to be adequate. (Author/MLW)

  6. Public/Private Partnerships for Prescription Drug Coverage: Policy Formulation and Outcomes in Quebec's Universal Drug Insurance Program, with Comparisons to the Medicare Prescription Drug Program in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Palley, Howard A; Martin, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    In January 1997, the government of Quebec, Canada, implemented a public/private prescription drug program that covered the entire population of the province. Under this program, the public sector collaborates with private insurers to protect all Quebecers from the high cost of drugs. This article outlines the principal features and history of the Quebec plan and draws parallels between the factors that led to its emergence and those that led to the passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act (MMA) in the United States. It also discusses the challenges and similarities of both programs and analyzes Quebec's ten years of experience to identify adjustments that may help U.S. policymakers optimize the MMA. PMID:17718665

  7. Diagnostic Prescriptive Reading System (DPRS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinskas, Gloria

    The purpose of this diagnostic-prescriptive reading system (DPRS), proposed by Palm Beach County and the Florida Atlantic University and sponsored by the Florida Department of Education, was to provide classroom teachers with resources which would enable them to more effectively meet the individual reading needs of their students. This report…

  8. [Comparative study of theoretical literature on cold pathogenic disease in Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huirui; Liang, Yongxuan

    2014-09-01

    In the Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) compiled in 752, its portion on cold pathogenic disorders embodies the achievements before the mid Tang Dynasty, whereas that in the Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief), compiled in 992 embodies those before the early Song Dynasty. Comparison on the theory of cold disorders in both books reveal that, during the 2 centuries period from mid Tang to early Song Dynasties, the texts as a carrier for the transmission of such theory in both show no distinct changes, but only with minor revisions and improvements.

  9. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  10. Care management: agreement between nursing prescriptions and patients' care needs

    PubMed Central

    Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: analyze agreement between nursing prescriptions recorded in medical files and patients' care needs; investigate the correlation between the nurses' professional background and agreement of prescriptions. Method: descriptive study with quantitative and documentary approach conducted in the medical clinic, surgical, and specialized units of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The new validated version of a Patient Classification Instrument was used and 380 nursing prescriptions written at the times of hospital admission and discharge were assessed. Results: 75% of the nursing prescriptions items were compatible with the patients' care needs. Only low correlation between nursing prescription agreement and professional background was found. Conclusion: the nursing prescriptions did not fully meet the care needs of patients. The care context and work process should be analyzed to enable more effective prescriptions, while strategies to assess the care needs of patients are recommended. PMID:27508902

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  12. The Aarhus convention in the nuclear sector-right to information versus nonproliferation?

    PubMed

    Stražišar, Borut; Kralj, Metka

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear events and problems in siting procedures of nuclear plants poses problems of timely information and the question of proper and trustful information. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the right to information and the Aarhus convention are analysed. The basic rights of the public in the field of environmental matters are presented and discussed. Such rights are also examined through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The second part deals with the problem of possible conflicts between the right to information (and environmental information) and obligations from NPT. The third part proposes some solutions to provide a balance between the obligation of giving information and the obligation of protecting certain information under the NPT.

  13. [Inappropriate prescription in elderly inpatients].

    PubMed

    Fajreldines, Ana V; Insua, Jorge T; Schnitzler, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    One of the causes of preventable adverse drug events (EAM) in the older adult population is the inappropriate prescription (PIM), i.e. that prescription where risks outweigh clinical benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of PIM with Beers criteria and Screening Tool of older person's prescriptions (STOPP), Potentially Prescribing Omissions (PPO) with Screening Tool to alert doctors to Right Treatments (START), and the average costs of hospitalization. This is an incidence study on a sample of patients over 64 years hospitalized, from January to July 2014 at a university hospital. According to Beers criteria, PIM incidence was 61.4%, 65.4% with STOPP and 27.6% PPO with START. The EAM rate calculated was 15.2/100 admissions and 18.6 EAM / 1000 patient days. The OR of EAM with PIM according to Beers and STOPP was 1.49 (IC95% 1.68-4.66) and 1.17 (IC95% 0.62-2.24) respectively. The average cost of hospitalization in patients with EAM were higher than without EAM (p = 0.020). PIM results are in line with most of the studies cited, but slightly higher for Beers and STOPP and lower for START, and the rate of EAM is lower than the data found by Kanaan (18.7% vs. 15.2%). PIM contributes to the appearance of EAM. The costs of hospitalizations with EAM are higher than those without EAM, achieving level of significance.

  14. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Background The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. Methods The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26–30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Results Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD ± 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. Conclusion The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else Taking a ... at higher doses or when taken with other medicines. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  16. Prescription Drug Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment & Support Finding and Paying for Treatment Understanding Health Insurance If You Have Trouble Paying a Bill Prescription ... income and no drug coverage If you have health insurance If your income is low: Look into Medicaid ...

  17. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... the high cost of prescription medicines, most insurance companies and employers are trying to control drug costs. ... is a list of medications that your insurance company will help you pay for. This list is ...

  18. Prescriptions Guiding Prospective Teachers in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembat, Ismail Özgür; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the nature of different mathematics teaching modes (prescriptions) that guide prospective teachers during their instruction. The participants were 24 junior prospective middle school mathematics teachers (19 females and 5 males) who were attending a mathematics methods course at a private university in central…

  19. Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border.

    PubMed Central

    Casner, P. R.; Guerra, L. G.

    1992-01-01

    Prescription medication can often be purchased in Mexico without a physician's prescription. United States residents living along the border may have access to dangerous medications by crossing the border and purchasing them in Mexican pharmacies. We sought to determine the extent and frequency of this behavior in a sample of our ambulatory clinic population. Patients from the Texas Tech University Internal Medicine Clinic were surveyed to collect information about their use of medications, use of alternative sources of health care in Mexico, and purchasing of prescription medication in Juarez, Mexico. More than 80% of patients stated they had purchased prescription-type medication at a pharmacy without a physician's prescription. The most common reasons for buying prescription medication in Mexico were because it was less expensive or because a prescription was not necessary. These data indicate a potential for US residents along the border to take medications in an unregulated manner, a practice that could pose problems for health care providers on both sides of the border. Images PMID:1595276

  20. Community Structure of Methane-Cycling Archaea in Different Geochemical Zones in Aarhus Bay, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Lever, M. A.; Saunders, A. M.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane are dominant processes regulating methane cycle in the deep biosphere in marine environments, both of which are executed by microbes. The diversity of methane-cycling archaea has been intensively studied by exploring 16S ribosomal RNA gene and alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA). In marine sediments, methanogens and methane-oxidizing archaea are mainly found in methane zone (MZ) and in sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), respectively. However, methane-cycling archaea are also present in zones other than their usual residing geochemical zones. Next generation sequencing of mcrA genes from 5 gravity cores shows that both methanogens and methane-oxidizing archaeal group - ANME-1 are ubiquitous in all biogeochemical zones in Aarhus Bay. We will further discuss below questions: which methanogens and methanotrophs are present and active in the presence of sulfate, and which are restricted in SMTZ or MZ? How do activity and pathway of methanogenesis / methanotrophy change with depth and substrate availability?

  1. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  2. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  3. Opioid Basics: Prescription Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data Fentanyl Encounters Data CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain For Patients For Providers Guideline Resources Clinical Tools ... Green CJ, Merrill JO, Sullivan MD, et al. Opioid prescriptions for chronic pain and overdose: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. ...

  4. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.

  5. Controls on subsurface methane fluxes and shallow gas formation in Baltic Sea sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Sabine; Røy, Hans; Dale, Andrew W.; Fossing, Henrik; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2016-09-01

    Shallow gas accumulates in coastal marine sediments when the burial rate of reactive organic matter beneath the sulfate zone is sufficiently high and the methanogenic zone is sufficiently deep. We investigated the controls on methane production and free methane gas accumulation along a 400 m seismo-acoustic transect across a sharp transition from gas-free into gas-bearing sediment in Aarhus Bay (Denmark). Twelve gravity cores were taken, in which the pore water was analyzed for inorganic solutes while rates of organic carbon mineralization were measured experimentally by 35SO42- radiotracer method. The thickness of organic-rich Holocene mud increased from 5 to 10 m along the transect concomitant with a shallowing of the depth of the sulfate-methane transition from >4 m to 2.5 m. In spite of drastic differences in the distribution of methane and sulfate in the sediment along the transect, there were only small differences in total mineralization, and methanogenesis was only equivalent to about 1% of sulfate reduction. Shallow gas appeared where the mud thickness exceeded 8-9 m. Rates of methanogenesis increased along the transect as did the upward diffusive flux of methane. Interestingly, the increase in the sedimentation rate and Holocene mud thickness had only a modest direct effect on methanogenesis rates in deep sediments. This increase in methane flux, however, triggered a shallowing of the sulfate-methane transition which resulted in a large increase in methanogenesis at the top of the methanogenic zone. Thus, our results demonstrate a positive feedback mechanism that causes a strong enhancement of methanogenesis and explains the apparently abrupt appearance of gas when a threshold thickness of organic-rich mud is exceeded.

  6. Controlled prescription drug abuse at epidemic level.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    In July 2005, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University announced the results of a study indicating that the number of Americans who abuse controlled prescription drugs has nearly doubled from 7.8 million to 15.1 million from 1992 to 2003 and abuse among teens has more than tripled during that time. A summary of that study and information about the full report are presented.

  7. Talent Development as a University Mission: The Quadruple Helix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz B.; Thorn, Kristian; Olesen, Jeppe Dorup; Huey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the rationale behind making talent development at the PhD, post-doctoral and early career levels an equal fourth pillar of the university's mission, alongside the more traditional pillars of the triple helix. Using Denmark and Aarhus University as a case study, the paper describes how increased institutional…

  8. A Campaign Study of Sea Spray Aerosol Properties in the Bay of Aarhus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Rasmussen, Berit; Kristensen, Kasper; Sloth Nielsen, Lærke; Bilde, Merete

    2016-04-01

    The oceans of the world are a dominant source of atmospheric aerosol. Together with mineral dust, sea spray aerosols (SSA) constitute the largest mass flux of particulate matter in the atmosphere (Andreae and Rosenfeld, 2008). Due to their effects on the global radiative budget - both directly as scatterers and absorbers of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SSA are considered an important component of the climate system. The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is an ultra-thin boundary layer between the ocean and the atmosphere. The high concentration of surface-active organic compounds in the SML, compared to that of the underlying water column, creates rigid film-like layer over the surface of the ocean. The SML is believed to play an important role in the formation and composition of SSA. However, current knowledge on the SML and its impacts on SSA remain limited. To characterize the SML of natural seawater and examine its impacts on aerosol properties, a field campaign was conducted in the bay of Aarhus, Denmark, during spring 2015. Bulk seawater was collected 1-2 times every week along with selective sampling of the SML. Characterization of the sea water and SML included a wide range of measurements, including surface tension, water activity, dissolved organic matter, and chemical composition analysis by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS). SSA was generated from sampled sea water by diffusion of air bubbles through a 10L seawater sample situated in a sea spray tank. Particle number concentration and CCN measurements were conducted along with measurements of the organic share in the aerosol phase as indicated by volatility measurements. To investigate the effect of the SML, spiking of the seawater samples with additional SML was performed and measurements repeated for comparison. Preliminary results show that the SML samples

  9. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Sciences - Basic Discoveries for Better Health Site Map Staff Search My Order ... > Science Education > Inside Life Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All ...

  10. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is “prescription metabolism.” The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  11. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  12. A prescription fraud detection model.

    PubMed

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs.

  13. Commentary on Causal Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    Causal prescriptive statements are valued in the social sciences when there is the goal of helping people through interventions. The articles in this special issue cover different methods for testing causal prescriptive statements. This commentary identifies both virtues and liabilities of these different approaches. We argue that it is extremely…

  14. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  15. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  16. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  17. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  18. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are, after marijuana (and alcohol), the most commonly abused substances by ...

  19. The prescription drug abuse epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well.

  20. Methadone and prescription drug overdose.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Hollie; Hansen, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    (1) Methadone accounted for 2 percent of painkiller prescriptions and more than 30 percent of prescription painkiller deaths in 2009. (2) Data suggest that the rise in deaths from methadone overdose is not related to its use in treating drug abuse but, rather, to its use for pain management. (3) Preferred drug lists in most Medicaid programs identify methadone as a preferred drug for managing chronic pain, but most experts do no recommend it as a first choice.

  1. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  2. Prescription for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When President Barack Obama tapped Dr. Regina Benjamin, a rural Alabama family physician, to serve as U.S. Surgeon General, she joked that her client base went overnight from several hundred to nearly 300 million. Dr. Benjamin, an alumna of historically Black Xavier University of Louisiana and Morehouse School of Medicine, was busy tending to the…

  3. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Nicola; Rossi, Federica; Del Signore, Federica; Bertazzoni, Paolo; Bellazzi, Roberto; Sandrini, Giorgio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Liccione, Davide; Pascale, Alessia; Govoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Correct drug prescription in the elderly is a difficult task that requires careful survey of the current pharmacological therapies. In this article, we reviewed the drug prescriptions provided to 860 persons aged 65 years or over, residing in a small city of Lombardy, Italy. Methods Subjects were recruited from a local nursing home, the Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, general practitioners’ offices, and the local University of the Third Age. For each patient, the amount of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs), sedative and anticholinergic load (SL and AL, respectively), and drug–drug interactions were evaluated. Results Widespread polypharmacy, giving rise to 10.06% of PIPs in the whole collection of prescriptions, was observed. In particular, PIPs mainly concern drugs acting at the central nervous system level, mostly benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Moreover, approximately one-fourth of the subjects had an elevated SL and approximately one-tenth a high AL. Drug–drug interactions were frequent (266 requiring medical attention), up to five for each single patient. Of concern was the underuse of antidementia drugs: only 20 patients received a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine, although 183 patients were potentially suitable for this treatment. Conclusion These results demonstrate the need to develop novel strategies aimed at improving the quality of drug prescription. PMID:28228653

  4. Prescription Opioid Abuse: Challenges and Opportunities for Payers

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Nathaniel P.; Birnbaum, Howard; Brennan, Michael J.; Freedman, John D.; Gilmore, Gary P.; Jay, Dennis; Kenna, George A.; Madras, Bertha K.; McElhaney, Lisa; Weiss, Roger D.; White, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prescription opioid abuse and addiction are serious problems with growing societal and medical costs, resulting in billions of dollars of excess costs to private and governmental health insurers annually. Though difficult to accurately assess, prescription opioid abuse also leads to increased insurance costs in the form of property and liability claims, and costs to state and local governments for judicial, emergency, and social services. This manuscript’s objective is to provide payers with strategies to control these costs, while supporting safe use of prescription opioid medications for patients with chronic pain. Method A Tufts Health Care Institute Program on Opioid Risk Management meeting was convened in June 2010 with private and public payer representatives, public health and law enforcement officials, pain specialists, and other stakeholders to present research, and develop recommendations on solutions that payers might implement to combat this problem. Results While protecting access to prescription opioids for patients with pain, private and public payers can implement strategies to mitigate financial risks associated with opioid abuse, using internal strategies, such as formulary controls, claims data surveillance, and claims matching; and external policies and procedures that support and educate physicians on reducing opioid risks among patients with chronic pain. Conclusion Reimbursement policies, incentives, and health technology systems that encourage physicians to use universal precautions, to consult prescription monitoring program (PMP) data, and to implement Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to6Treatment protocols, have a high potential to reduce insurer risks while addressing a serious public health problem. PMID:23725361

  5. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  6. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  7. Prescription Tracking and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Monitoring and modifying physicians’ prescribing behavior through prescription tracking is integral to pharmaceutical marketing. Health information organizations (HIOs) combine prescription information purchased from pharmacies with anonymized patient medical records purchased from health insurance companies to determine which drugs individual physicians prefer for specific diagnoses and patient populations. This information is used to tailor marketing strategies to individual physicians and to assess the effect of promotions on prescribing behavior. DISCUSSION The American Medical Association (AMA) created the Prescription Data Restriction Plan in an attempt to address both the privacy concerns of physicians and industry concerns that legislation could compromise the availability of prescribing data. However, the PDRP only prohibits sales representatives and their immediate supervisors from accessing the most detailed reports. Less than 2% of US physicians have registered for the PDRP, and those who have signed up are not the physicians who are targeted for marketing. CONCLUSION Although it has been argued that prescription tracking benefits public health, data gathered by HIOs is designed for marketing drugs. These data are sequestered by industry and are not generally available for genuine public health purposes. PMID:18473146

  8. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  9. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ... in your brain or body. Common opioids include heroin and prescription drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  11. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care... certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  12. 76 FR 51245 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 51 and 602 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient... certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  13. Endospore abundance and D:L-amino acid modeling of bacterial turnover in holocene marine sediment (Aarhus Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerhuus, Alice T.; Røy, Hans; Lever, Mark A.; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2012-12-01

    In order to study bacterial activity, and turnover times of bacterial necromass and biomass in marine sediment, two stations from the Aarhus Bay, Denmark were analyzed. Sediment cores were up to 11 m deep and covered a timescale from the present to ˜11,000 years ago. Sediment was analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), total hydrolysable amino sugars, the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers (L- and D-form) of aspartic acid. Turnover times of bacterial necromass and vegetative cells, as well as carbon oxidation rates were estimated by use of the D:L-amino acid racemization model. Diagenetic indicators were applied to evaluate the diagenetic state of the sedimentary organic matter. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon, and the ratio between the amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and their respective non protein degradation products, β-alanine and γ-amino butyric acid, all indicated increasing degradation state of the organic matter with sediment depth and age. Quantification of DPA showed that endospores were abundant, and increased with depth relative to vegetative cells. Most of the amino acids (97%) could be ascribed to microbial necromass, i.e. the remains of dead bacterial cells. Model estimates showed that the turnover times of microbial necromass were in the range of 0.5-1 × 105 years, while turnover times of vegetative cells were in the range of tens to hundreds of years. The turnover time of the TOC pool increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that the TOC pool became progressively more refractory and unavailable to microorganisms with depth and age of the organic matter.

  14. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing.

  15. Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Bhanu; Nadig, Prathiba; Nayak, Amitha

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal in dermatological therapy is to use the safest and least number of drugs in order to obtain the best possible effect in the shortest period and at reasonable cost. Rational drug use (RDU) is conventionally defined as the use of an appropriate, efficacious, safe and cost-effective drug given for the right indications in the right dose and formulation, at right time intervals. WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly as prescribed by the doctor. The process of Rational prescription for a Dermatologist (RPD) involves a series of steps such as defining the patient's illness, specifying the treatment objectives, using the principle of P-treatment, starting the treatment, providing appropriate information and monitoring the treatment. Reasons for irrational prescription could be physician related, patient related, industry related, regulations related. Practicing medicine irrationally can lead to disastrous events like increased morbidity and mortality, drain of resources, drug resistance etc. Principles to enhance the RDU in our practice and minimize errors of prescription are discussed in detail in this article. PMID:26955092

  16. Laboratory testing for prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Milone, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Opioid analgesic misuse has risen significantly over the past two decades, and these drugs now represent the most commonly abused class of prescription medications. They are a major cause of poisoning deaths in the USA exceeding heroin and cocaine. Laboratory testing plays a role in the detection of opioid misuse and the evaluation of patients with opioid intoxication. Laboratories use both immunoassay and chromatographic methods (e.g., liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection), often in combination, to yield high detection sensitivity and drug specificity. Testing methods for opioids originated in the workplace-testing arena and focused on detection of illicit heroin use. Analysis for a wide range of opioids is now required in the context of the prescription opioid epidemic. Testing methods have also been primarily based upon urine screening; however, methods for analyzing alternative samples such as saliva, sweat, and hair are available. Application of testing to monitor prescription opioid drug therapy is an increasingly important use of drug testing, and this area of testing introduces new interpretative challenges. In particular, drug metabolism may transform one clinically available opioid into another. The sensitivity of testing methods also varies considerably across the spectrum of opioid drugs. An understanding of opioid metabolism and method sensitivity towards different opioid drugs is therefore essential to effective use of these tests. Improved testing algorithms and more research into the effective use of drug testing in the clinical setting, particularly in pain medicine and substance abuse, are needed.

  17. An Examination of the Situational Factors Associated with the Misuse of Prescription Analgesics among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…

  18. Frequency of outpatient antibiotic prescription on discharge to hospice care.

    PubMed

    Furuno, Jon P; Noble, Brie N; Horne, Kristi N; McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Walsh, Eric W; Fromme, Erik K

    2014-09-01

    The use of antibiotics is common in hospice care despite limited evidence that it improves symptoms or quality of life. Patients receiving antibiotics upon discharge from a hospital may be more likely to continue use following transition to hospice care despite a shift in the goals of care. We quantified the frequency and characteristics for receiving a prescription for antibiotics on discharge from acute care to hospice care. This was a cross-sectional study among adult inpatients (≥18 years old) discharged to hospice care from Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Data were collected from an electronic data repository and from the Department of Care Management. Among 62,792 discharges, 845 (1.3%) patients were discharged directly to hospice care (60.0% home and 40.0% inpatient). Most patients discharged to hospice were >65 years old (50.9%) and male (54.6%) and had stayed in the hospital for ≤7 days (56.6%). The prevalence of antibiotic prescription upon discharge to hospice was 21.1%. Among patients discharged with an antibiotic prescription, 70.8% had a documented infection during their index admission. Among documented infections, 40.3% were bloodstream infections, septicemia, or endocarditis, and 38.9% were pneumonia. Independent risk factors for receiving an antibiotic prescription were documented infection during the index admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=7.00; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=4.68 to 10.46), discharge to home hospice care (AOR=2.86; 95% CI=1.92 to 4.28), and having a cancer diagnosis (AOR=2.19; 95% CI=1.48 to 3.23). These data suggest that a high proportion of patients discharged from acute care to hospice care receive an antibiotic prescription upon discharge.

  19. Prescription pricing across Canada (Part II).

    PubMed

    Archer, F

    1984-09-01

    The first of a two part article entitled "Prescription Pricing Across Canada" appeared in the June issue of CPJ. The article was prompted by recent press reports of a prescription drug study commissioned by the Saskatchewan government, and the consequent attention-getting headlines. The first article dealt with the Western provinces. The second part discusses prescription pricing in Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and the Northwest Territories.

  20. Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

  1. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  2. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  3. Exercise Prescription and the Kinesiological Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends in physical education programs show a diverse spectrum of clients and an increasing amount of health-related litigation. These developments call for increased emphasis on exercise prescription. The sit-up is used in an example of a step-by-step guide to prescriptive technique. (JN)

  4. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in the manufacture, transportation, storage, or wholesale or retail distribution of such device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription devices. 801.109 Section 801.109 Food... DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A...

  5. Prescriptive Authority and Psychology: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald E.; DeLeon, Patrick H.; Newman, Russ; Sammons, Morgan T.; Dunivin, Debra L.; Baker, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of psychology toward the acquisition of prescriptive authority is critically reviewed. Advances made by other nonphysician health care professions toward expanding their scopes of practice to include prescriptive authority are compared with gains made by professional psychology. Societal trends affecting attitudes toward the use of…

  6. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  7. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  8. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    PubMed Central

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship. PMID:27226912

  9. A Prescription for Science Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffry V.

    1978-01-01

    A clinic is described wherein science anxious university students are treated, or counseled, once a week for a seven-week period. The clinic was found to be very effective in treating the fear of science, or science anxiety. (KC)

  10. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called a drug-drug interaction. Vitamins and herbal supplements can affect the way your body processes drugs, ... over-the-counter and prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements that you are taking. Also, talk to your ...

  11. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% ...

  12. Prescription drug abuse in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2008-12-01

    The increased use of prescription drugs has brought pain relief too many and often improved the quality of life of elderly patients. But the increase in use and availability of prescription medications-especially controlled substances-brings with it an increased potential for abuse. Studies have shown that intentional abuse of prescription drugs is increasing among all age groups. As the number of persons 65 years of age and older skyrockets with the aging of the baby boomers, experts predict that prescription drug abuse among the elderly also will rise significantly. Efforts to increase awareness of drug abuse among elderly patients, caregivers, and health care practitioners, as well as research into how best to prevent and treat the elderly drug abuser, will be necessary to thwart what could become a significant public health problem.

  13. Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... best known for its ratings of cars, appliances, computers, and TVs, recently launched Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs . The project compares prescription drugs based on their effectiveness, safety, side effects, and cost. The results are offered free at ...

  14. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... coverage gap discount work for brand-name drugs? Companies that make brand-name prescription drugs must sign ... Coverage Gap Discount Program. This program requires the companies to offer discounts on brand-name drugs to ...

  15. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  16. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Julia MK

    1998-01-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use. PMID:20401276

  17. Prescription Stimulant Misuse in a Military Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    This corresponded to an increased abuse rate of 76% for such drugs , an increase greater than any other form of substance abuse (56%).1 Studies on...stimulant drug use in the general population have shown an increasing trend toward abuse . A 2012 survey of a large urban community by Stein showed that as...survey was not designed to examine prescription drug abuse , a secondary analysis of the data did focus on four dif- ferent prescription drug categories

  18. [Good prescription practice for out-patients-quality requirements of prescriptions in Germany].

    PubMed

    Faller, Christine K; Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-06-01

    Because the written prescription is a central communication medium between the prescribing physician and the dispensing pharmacist measures to improve the prescription quality are top priorities. While most primary care physicians in Germany use electronic systems, in outpatient clinics and nursing homes and on special occasions such as emergency services and home visits, many prescriptions are still handwritten. Incorrectly and illegibly issued prescriptions impair the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship and thus represent a risk factor in the context of medication safety. Well issued prescriptions expedite the dispensing and thus the continuity of treatment of the patients and spare human resources by avoiding queries and unnecessary steps in the care process. At the same time, legible and unequivocal prescriptions facilitate measures for quality assurance by the dispensing pharmacists and are essential preconditions needed for insurance reimbursement. Probably the most important step to high quality prescriptions is the consistent use of suitable electronic prescription software. This is only possible if physicians are willing to cooperate and understand the significance and benefits of an electronic prescription system.

  19. [Drug prescriptions: Adherence and understanding in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Raharinjatovo, L; Ralandison, S

    2015-01-01

    Frequently ignored or neglected, poor adherence is an important cause of treatment failure and a major public health problem. We assessed the factors involved in adherence in a hospital in Madagascar. This long-term study evaluated two groups of variables: patients' level of understanding of their disease and drug prescriptions, and the information on the prescription written by the doctor. We interviewed 93 in-patients (mean age: 50 years) and found that 16% were illiterate. Overall, 27% did not know the name of their illness, 34% were unaware of the treatment objectives, and 14% did not understand the drug prescription. On 20% of the prescriptions, the patients' name was not included, and the daily dose information and schedule was omitted from 16%. A day after receiving the prescription, only 64% had purchased the medication and only 53% of all patients had taken any. A correlation was observed between illiteracy, knowledge of the disease/treatment goals, and non-purchase of drugs. The poor quality of information contained in the prescriptions and patients' poor understanding of what they were supposed to do are obvious. Using pre-completed health forms and text messages might improve adherence.

  20. National drug control policy and prescription drug abuse: facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2007-05-01

    In a recent press release Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University called for a major shift in American attitudes about substance abuse and addiction and a top to bottom overhaul in the nation's healthcare, criminal justice, social service, and eduction systems to curtail the rise in illegal drug use and other substance abuse. Califano, in 2005, also noted that while America has been congratulating itself on curbing increases in alcohol and illicit drug use and in the decline in teen smoking, abuse and addition of controlled prescription drugs-opioids, central nervous system depressants and stimulants-have been stealthily, but sharply rising. All the statistics continue to show that prescription drug abuse is escalating with increasing emergency department visits and unintentional deaths due to prescription controlled substances. While the problem of drug prescriptions for controlled substances continues to soar, so are the arguments of undertreatment of pain. The present state of affairs show that there were 6.4 million or 2.6% Americans using prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs nonmedically in the past month. Of these, 4.7 million used pain relievers. Current nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs among young adults aged 18-25 increased from 5.4% in 2002 to 6.3% in 2005. The past year, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs has increased to 6.2% in the population of 12 years or older with 15.172 million persons, second only to marijuana use and three times the use of cocaine. Parallel to opioid supply and nonmedical prescription drug use, the epidemic of medical drug use is also escalating with Americans using 80% of world's supply of all opioids and 99% of hydrocodone. Opioids are used extensively despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness in improving pain or functional status with potential side effects of hyperalgesia, negative hormonal and immune effects

  1. 76 FR 26232 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... revised language to the prescription for the work assignment clause, incorporating prescriptive language... number. Explain why you agree or disagree, suggest alternatives, and substitute language for your... prescription for 1511.011-74. Accordingly, the revised language incorporated into EPAAR prescription...

  2. 21 CFR 1306.03 - Persons entitled to issue prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons entitled to issue prescriptions. 1306.03 Section 1306.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.03 Persons entitled to issue prescriptions. (a) A prescription for a...

  3. 21 CFR 1306.06 - Persons entitled to fill prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons entitled to fill prescriptions. 1306.06 Section 1306.06 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.06 Persons entitled to fill prescriptions. A prescription for a...

  4. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of issue of prescription. 1306.04 Section 1306.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.04 Purpose of issue of prescription. (a) A prescription for a controlled substance to...

  5. Sexual Orientation and First-Year College Students' Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadick, Richard; Dagirmanjian, Faedra Backus; Trub, Leora; Dawson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). Participants: First-year university students between October 2009 and October 2013 who self-identified as heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning. Methods: Students completed…

  6. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  7. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  9. Prescription Stimulants Are "A Okay": Applying Neutralization Theory to College Students' Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year. Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical…

  10. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  11. Sale of prescription drugs over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, K; Bloom, B S

    1999-01-01

    Online drugstores represent one of the hottest categories in electronic commerce. The Internet offers great promise in expanding access to prescription drugs for the disabled, the elderly, and people living in rural areas. But with this promise comes the danger of eliminating the safeguards that protect consumers from inappropriate use of medications and adverse drug events. This Issue Brief highlights two studies that investigate the availability of prescription drugs over the Internet, and focuses on the alarming ease with which consumers can obtain drugs without seeing a physician or a pharmacist.

  12. Factors Associated with Prescription of Opioids and Co-prescription of Sedating Medications in Individuals with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Jessica; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Starrels, Joanna L.; Kertesz, Stefan; Saag, Michael; Cropsey, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Opioids are often prescribed for chronic pain, and opioid risks such as overdose and death are heightened when opioids are co-prescribed with other sedating medications. We investigated factors associated with chronic opioid prescription, alone and in combination with benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants, in a clinical cohort of individuals with HIV. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine participant clinical and demographic characteristics that are associated with chronic prescription of opioids or chronic co-prescription of opioids with sedating medications. Among 1,474 participants, chronic prescription of opioids occurred in 253 individuals (17.2%), and chronic co-prescription occurred in 90 individuals (6.1%). Age >50, public insurance as compared to private insurance, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with chronic opioid prescription and chronic co-prescription. Our findings raise concern that opioid prescription and co-prescription of sedating medications occurs disproportionately in patients for whom use is riskier. PMID:26487298

  13. The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED)

    Cancer.gov

    The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database is one of two large prescription registries in Denmark and covers a stable population that is representative of the Danish population as a whole.

  14. Role of diagnostic labeling in antibiotic prescription.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J. M.; Jelinski, S.; Hefferton, D.; Desaulniers, G.; Parfrey, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between diagnostic labeling of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and antibiotic prescription rates in family practice. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of outpatient chart review supplemented by interviews with physicians. Charts of patients attending 73 general practitioners were reviewed between October 1997 and February 1998. Two days of practice were evaluated per physician. SETTING: Urban family practices in greater St John's, Nfld. PARTICIPANTS: Of 96 family physicians contacted, 73 (76%) agreed to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of diagnoses and antibiotic prescriptions for acute infections. Physicians were divided into "low prescribers" and "high prescribers" based on overall rates of prescription to patients with infections. Low prescribers were compared with high prescribers with respect to physician characteristics, patient characteristics, and diagnoses assigned. RESULTS: Of all patients seen, 22% were seen for acute infections; RTIs accounted for 76% of diagnoses. Low prescribers and high prescribers were of similar ages and saw similar numbers of patients of similar ages with very similar presenting complaints. Both groups diagnosed urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections at similar rates, but differed markedly in their rates of diagnoses of RTIs. High prescribers diagnosed bacterial RTIs in 65.4% (147/225) of their patients; low prescribers diagnosed bacterial RTIs in 31.0% (66/213 (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Family doctors frequently prescribe antibiotics. The difference in rates of prescription between high prescribers and low prescribers is largely explained by assignment of diagnoses of RTIs. PMID:11421050

  15. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a controlled substance provided the pharmacy complies with all other requirements for filling controlled... to be invalid and the pharmacy may not dispense the controlled substance....

  16. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a controlled substance provided the pharmacy complies with all other requirements for filling controlled... to be invalid and the pharmacy may not dispense the controlled substance....

  17. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a controlled substance provided the pharmacy complies with all other requirements for filling controlled... to be invalid and the pharmacy may not dispense the controlled substance....

  18. Effects of prescription adaptation by pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Granting dispensing pharmacists the authority to prescribe has significant implications for pharmaceutical and health human resources policy, and quality of care. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that have given pharmacists such privileges, there are few rigorous evaluations of these policy changes. This study will examine a January 2009 policy change in British Columbia (BC), Canada that allowed pharmacists to independently adapt and renew prescriptions. We hypothesize this policy increased drug utilization and drug costs, increased patient adherence to medication, and reduced total healthcare resource use. Methods/Design We will study a population-based cohort of approximately 4 million BC residents from 2004 through 2010. We will use data from BC PharmaNet on all of the prescriptions obtained by this cohort during the study period, and link it to administrative billings from physicians and hospital discharges. Using interrupted time series analysis, we will study longitudinal changes in drug utilization and costs, medication adherence, and short-term health care use. Further, using hierarchical modelling, we will examine the factors at the regional, pharmacy, patient, and prescription levels that are associated with prescription adaptations and renewals. Discussion In a recent survey of Canadian policymakers, many respondents ranked the issue of prescribing privileges as one of their most pressing policy questions. No matter the results of our study, they will be important for policymakers, as our data will make policy decisions surrounding pharmacist prescribing more evidence-based. PMID:21083922

  19. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a controlled substance provided the pharmacy complies with all other requirements for filling controlled... to be invalid and the pharmacy may not dispense the controlled substance....

  20. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a controlled substance provided the pharmacy complies with all other requirements for filling controlled... to be invalid and the pharmacy may not dispense the controlled substance. Effective Date Note: At...

  1. Psychological Evaluation and Prescription Development Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County School Corp., Terre Haute, IN.

    Developed to aid children with learning difficulties, from mental retardation or brain injury to maladjustment or physical or environmental handicaps, the joint school services program provides psychological evaluation and prescription development. The handbook reviews theories of child development and surveys behavior modification and…

  2. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R B

    1988-10-01

    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations.

  3. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  4. COLOR PRESCRIPTION FORM FOR COSMETIC GLOVES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A technique is described for achieving more custom-like coloring of cosmetic gloves. The method involves the use of a color prescription form which...can be used to describe in greater detail the characteristics of those portions of the human hand of greater cosmetic significance.

  5. Physician perceptions of prescription drug information.

    PubMed

    Evans, K R; Beltramini, R F

    1986-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation designed to explore the importance of prescription drug information source characteristics among physicians. Differences were found to exist among the importance ratings both in aggregate, and between, categories of physician specialty and years in practice. Conclusions for pharmaceutical marketers and the implications for future research efforts are discussed.

  6. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  7. Differential Diagnosis and Prescription-Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas D.; Young, Bonnie Jean

    Intended for staff of diagnostic-prescriptive centers, the manual is designed to provide information about the Oregon Model Center for Learning Disabilities. Chapters cover the following topics: factors involved with learning; procedures and organization of the Center; assessment of psychological, educational, and language needs; procedures for…

  8. 76 FR 17137 - Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium AGENCY... announcing the following meeting: Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium. The topic to...

  9. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  10. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Butner, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic. PMID:26339205

  11. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tetrault, Jeanette M; Butner, Jenna L

    2015-09-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic.

  12. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  13. 77 FR 8174 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... for the work assignment clause. This final rule provides revised language to the prescription for the work assignment clause, incorporating prescriptive language that provides further instructions on the...-74. Accordingly, the revised language incorporated into EPAAR prescription 1511.011-74 provides...

  14. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  16. The Philosophical Foundations of Prescriptive Statements and Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    From the perspectives of the philosophy of science and statistical inference, we discuss the challenges of making prescriptive statements in quantitative research articles. We first consider the prescriptive nature of educational research and argue that prescriptive statements are a necessity in educational research. The logic of deduction,…

  17. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  18. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  19. Patterns of Prescription Medication Diversion among Drug Dealers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South…

  20. 75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). The... FDA to continue collecting user fees for the prescription drug program. The Federal Food, Drug,...

  1. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  2. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by..., 2011 and applies to any fee on branded prescription drug sales that is due on or after September...

  3. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  5. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  6. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  7. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a) Definitions. For purposes of...

  8. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  9. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  10. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  11. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  13. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

  14. Do Motives Matter?: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' motives for engaging in nonmedical prescription drug use is somewhat different than their reasons for using other drugs, such as marijuana. For some youth, nonmedical prescription drug use is an attempt to self-treat a medical condition, for others it is an effort to get high, and some youth misuse prescription drugs for both reasons.…

  15. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  16. 76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... provides guidance relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care Act. FOR... PART 51--BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS, the last line of the first paragraph, the language ``this issue...

  17. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was... September 28, 2011 and applies to any fee on branded prescription drug sales that is due on or...

  18. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6... some particular when the difference has not been demonstrated by substantial evidence. An...

  19. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  20. Prescription Writing in Small Groups as a Clinical Pharmacology Educational Intervention: Perceptions of Preclerkship Medical Students.

    PubMed

    James, Henry; Tayem, Yasin I Y; Al Khaja, K A J; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-08-01

    Medical students do not perform well in writing prescriptions, and the 3 variables-learner, teacher, and instructional method-are held responsible to various degrees. The objective of this clinical pharmacology educational intervention was to improve medical students' perceptions, motivation, and participation in prescription-writing sessions. The study participants were second-year medical students of the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences of the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Two prescription-writing sessions were conducted using clinical case scenarios based on problems the students had studied as part of the problem-based learning curriculum. At the end of the respiratory system subunit, the training was conducted in small groups, each facilitated by a tutor. At the end of the cardiovascular system subunit, the training was conducted in a traditional large-group classroom setting. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire at the end of each session and a focus group discussion. A majority of the students (95.3% ± 2.4%) perceived the small-group method better for teaching and learning of all aspects of prescription writing: analyzing the clinical case scenario, applying clinical pharmacology knowledge for therapeutic reasoning, using a formulary for searching relevant prescribing information, and in writing a complete prescription. Students also endorsed the small-group method for better interaction among themselves and with the tutor and for the ease of asking questions and clarifying doubts. In view of the principles of adult learning, where motivation and interaction are important, teaching and learning prescription writing in small groups deserve a serious consideration in medical curricula.

  1. Insight Into Quality of Prescription Writing - An Instituitional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prescription writing is an important task performed by a doctor during patient management. Prescription refers to written instructions given to a patient regarding medications. Lack of attention during prescription writing can lead to prescription errors which in turn can adversely affect patients’ well-being. Thus, prescriptions are an important target area for improvement. Aim The purpose of the present study was to analyze the quality of prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore and to compare the prescription writing patterns amongst undergraduates, interns and postgraduates of this institution. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 randomly selected prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. All the prescriptions were analyzed for the presence of (a) Patient’s information: Out-Patient file number, name, age, gender, address and contact number (b) Doctors information: Full name, department name, qualification, contact details, date of prescription, superscription, and signature (c) Drug information: Name, strength, dosage form, dosage instructions, duration and total quantity. Each prescription was further categorized into groups A, B, C or D, depending on the scores obtained. Prescription quality was then compared between the undergraduates, interns and postgraduates. Results Analysis of prescriptions performed using Chi-square test showed that groups A, B, C and D had 12 (2%), 155 (31%), 333 (67%) and 0 (0%) students respectively. Association between the groups and qualifications showed statistically significant results (p<0.05). Undergraduate prescriptions were better written in comparison to interns and postgraduates. Conclusion Findings of the current study demonstrate the need for further improvement in the quality of prescription writing by students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore

  2. Prevention of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs by community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies. In this study, we used health insurance claims (i.e., receipts) for dispensing as the main source of information in an investigation of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. A total of 119 patients were found to have received overlapping prescriptions, as identified by community pharmacists who were members of the Saitama Pharmaceutical Association, using patient medication records, followed by medication counseling and prescription notes for the patient. According to our findings, the most frequently overlapping medication was etizolam. Etizolam can be prescribed for more than 30 days since it is not regulated under Japanese law as a "psychotropic drug." Generally, when a drug can be prescribed for a greater number of days, it increases the likelihood of an overlapping prescription during the same period. As a result, the long-term prescription of etizolam increases the risk of overlapping prescriptions. We also found that the patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam were mostly elderly and the most common pattern was prescription from both internal medicine and orthopedics physicians. Etizolam has wide range of indications that are covered by health insurance. Our results suggest that patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam may receive prescriptions from different prescribers for different purposes. Therefore, it may be appropriate to regulate etizolam as a "psychotropic drug" under Japanese law

  3. [Drug design ideas and methods of Chinese herb prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun-guo; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-09-01

    The new drug of Chinese herbal prescription, which is the best carrier for the syndrome differentiation and treatment of Chinese medicine and is the main form of the new drug research and development, plays a very important role in the new drug research and development. Although there are many sources of the prescriptions, whether it can become a new drug, the necessity, rationality and science of the prescriptions are the key to develop the new drug. In this article, aiming at the key issues in prescriptions design, the source, classification, composition design of new drug of Chinese herbal prescriptions are discussed, and provide a useful reference for research and development of new drugs.

  4. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  5. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  6. Information prescriptions: A tool for veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Kogan, L R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R; Gould, L; Hellyer, P W; Dowers, K

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners' online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.

  7. Prescription Opioid Epidemic and Infant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Judith; Martin, Peter R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Warren, Michael D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Ely, E. Wesley; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Cooper, William O.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although opioid pain relievers are commonly prescribed in pregnancy, their association with neonatal outcomes is poorly described. Our objectives were to identify neonatal complications associated with antenatal opioid pain reliever exposure and to establish predictors of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHODS: We used prescription and administrative data linked to vital statistics for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011. A random sample of NAS cases was validated by medical record review. The association of antenatal exposures with NAS was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for maternal and infant characteristics. RESULTS: Of 112 029 pregnant women, 31 354 (28%) filled ≥1 opioid prescription. Women prescribed opioid pain relievers were more likely than those not prescribed opioids (P < .001) to have depression (5.3% vs 2.7%), anxiety disorder (4.3% vs 1.6%) and to smoke tobacco (41.8% vs 25.8%). Infants with NAS and opioid-exposed infants were more likely than unexposed infants to be born at a low birth weight (21.2% vs 11.8% vs 9.9%; P < .001). In a multivariable model, higher cumulative opioid exposure for short-acting preparations (P < .001), opioid type (P < .001), number of daily cigarettes smoked (P < .001), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (odds ratio: 2.08 [95% confidence interval: 1.67–2.60]) were associated with greater risk of developing NAS. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription opioid use in pregnancy is common and strongly associated with neonatal complications. Antenatal cumulative prescription opioid exposure, opioid type, tobacco use, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increase the risk of NAS. PMID:25869370

  8. Prescription use disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Sullivan, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This paper will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested.

  9. In Pursuit of Leadership: The Prescriptive Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-16

    men." Henri Peyre V1 viii I PREFACE One enters the study of leadership with a great sense of challenge -- and some trepidation. It is a topic of...Prescriptive Approach K AUTHOR: Dale 0. Condit, Colonel, USAF L- ’ Most of the current literature on leadership is "descriptive," detailing what leaders are...into the young through the schools, but also through the family, the intellectual atmosphere, the literature , the history, the ethical teaching of

  10. Adolescents' Motivations to Abuse Prescription Medications

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Young, Amy

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our goals were to (1) determine adolescents' motivations (reasons) for engaging in the nonmedical (illicit) use of 4 classes of prescription medications and (2) examine whether motivations were associated with a higher risk for substance abuse problems. RESPONDENTS The 2005 sample (N = 1086) was derived from one ethnically diverse school district in southeastern Michigan and included 7th- through 12th-grade students. METHODS Data were collected by using a self-administered, Web-based survey that included questions about drug use and the motivations to engage in nonmedical use of prescription medication. RESULTS Twelve percent of the respondents had engaged in nonmedical use of opioid pain medications in the past year: 3% for sleeping, 2% as a sedative and/or for anxiety, and 2% as stimulants. The reasons for engaging in the nonmedical use of prescription medications varied by drug classification. For opioid analgesics, when the number of motives increased, so too did the likelihood of a positive Drug Abuse Screening Test score. For every additional motive endorsed, the Drug Abuse Screening Test increased by a factor of 1.8. Two groups of students were compared (at-risk versus self-treatment); those who endorsed multiple motivations for nonmedical use of opioids (at-risk group) were significantly more likely to have elevated Drug Abuse Screening Test scores when compared with those who were in the self-treatment group. Those in the at-risk group also were significantly more likely to engage in marijuana and alcohol use. CONCLUSION The findings from this exploratory study warrant additional research because several motivations for the nonmedical use of prescription medications seem associated with a greater likelihood of substance abuse problems. PMID:17142533

  11. The Diversion of Prescription Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Lugo, Yamilka; Cicero, Theodore J.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drug diversion involves the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace, and can occur along all points in the drug delivery process -- from the original manufacturing site, to the wholesale distributor, the physician's office, the retail pharmacy, or the patient. Although a number of recent scientific papers have discussed the problems associated with diversion, empirical data on the scope and magnitude of diversion are limited in the literature. This paper presents findings from a national diversion survey being conducted as part of risk management initiatives supported by Denver Health and Hospital Authority, designed to monitor the abuse and diversion of a variety of prescription opioid analgesics. On a quarterly basis, diversion investigators in 300 jurisdictions distributed throughout the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico are sent short questionnaires designed to elicit data on the extent of drug diversion in their areas. During the 20-quarter survey period reported in this paper, a total of 64,655 cases of prescription drug diversion were reported from all of the participating sites. The most widely diverted opioid was hydrocodone, in that it was mentioned in 38.2% of the cases, followed by oxycodone, mentioned in 24.3% of the cases. By contrast, the proportions of cases in which other opioids were mentioned were significantly smaller. The diversion of opioids appears in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, with especially high concentrations in rural areas. How all of these prescription opioids are being diverted to the street, however, is not altogether clear, and in many ways, diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:25267926

  12. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  13. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-jin; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, by using the method of literature research, 35 prescriptions related to asthma therapy has been screened out from Hui medicine through collecting the ancient and modern literature. A comparison of fragrant medicine between the name in Arab and Chinese herbal medicine is done. The countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 is used to get the prescriptions of the drug on the frequency statistics, summarizing the common drugs of Hui medicine for asthma are Pinellia, almond, white sugar, walnut. According to the commonly used drugs, the pathogeny and treatment principle about Hui medicine for asthma is preliminarily inferred combining literature research and the related Hui medical theory. In this study, those prescriptions have been classified into 21 cases which are effective and can be used in medical therapy according to the relevant literatures with the development of the Hui people in their long process of formation of the unique diet culture, 14 useful and convenient Halal diet therapies are made up according to the indications, therapies, party name and composition. Halal diet and "medicine and food" herbs are preliminarily analyzed and summarized, which can be convenient for the people to reduce pains through the diet and improve health awareness.

  14. Crowdsourcing Black Market Prices For Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S; Menone, Christopher Mark; Surratt, Hilary L; Poppish, Luke; Green, Jody L; Lavonas, Eric J; Dart, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are major public health issues in the United States and internationally. Street prices of diverted prescription opioids can provide an indicator of drug availability, demand, and abuse potential, but these data can be difficult to collect. Crowdsourcing is a rapid and cost-effective way to gather information about sales transactions. We sought to determine whether crowdsourcing can provide accurate measurements of the street price of diverted prescription opioid medications. Objective To assess the possibility of crowdsourcing black market drug price data by cross-validation with law enforcement officer reports. Methods Using a crowdsourcing research website (StreetRx), we solicited data about the price that site visitors paid for diverted prescription opioid analgesics during the first half of 2012. These results were compared with a survey of law enforcement officers in the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System, and actual transaction prices on a “dark Internet” marketplace (Silk Road). Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparing prices per milligram of drug in US dollars. In a secondary analysis, we compared prices per milligram of morphine equivalent using standard equianalgesic dosing conversions. Results A total of 954 price reports were obtained from crowdsourcing, 737 from law enforcement, and 147 from the online marketplace. Correlations between the 3 data sources were highly linear, with Spearman rho of 0.93 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and law enforcement, and 0.98 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and online marketplace. On StreetRx, the mean prices per milligram were US$3.29 hydromorphone, US$2.13 buprenorphine, US$1.57 oxymorphone, US$0.97 oxycodone, US$0.96 methadone, US$0.81 hydrocodone, US$0.52 morphine, and US$0.05 tramadol. The only significant difference between data sources was morphine, with a Drug Diversion price of US

  15. Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college student sample

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Laura M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of prescription medication diversion among college students; to compare classes of medications with respect to the likelihood of diversion; to document the most common methods of diversion; and to examine the characteristics of students who diverted medications. Method A cross-sectional analysis of personal interview data collected between August 2006 and August 2007 as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. The cohort of students, who were between the ages 17 and 19 at study onset, attended a large public university in the mid-Atlantic region. Information was gathered regarding a wide variety of variables, including demographics, diversion of medically prescribed drugs, illicit drug use, and childhood conduct problems. Results Among 483 students prescribed a medication, 35.8% diverted a medication at least once in their lifetime. The most commonly diverted medication classes were prescription ADHD medication, with a 61.7% diversion rate, and prescription analgesics (35.1% diversion rate). Sharing was the most common method of diversion, with 33.6% of students sharing their medication(s) and 9.3% selling in their lifetime. Comparative analyses revealed that prescription medication diverters had used more illicit drugs in the past year and had more childhood conduct problems than non-diverters. Conclusions If confirmed, these findings have important clinical implications for improved physician-patient communication and vigilance regarding prescribing analgesic and stimulant medications for young adults. PMID:20331930

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  17. Prescription drug abuse: from epidemiology to public policy.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse.

  18. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.

  19. Dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.M.S.; Gahbauer, R.A. ); Blue, T.E. ); Wambersie, A. )

    1994-03-30

    The purpose of this paper is to address some aspects of the many considerations that need to go into a dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for brain tumors; and to describe some methods to incorporate knowledge from animal studies and other experiments into the process of dose prescription. Previously, an algorithm to estimate the normal tissue tolerance to mixed high and low linear energy transfer radiations in BNCT was proposed. The authors have developed mathematical formulations and computational methods to represent this algorithm. Generalized models to fit the central axis dose rate components for an epithermal neutron field were also developed. These formulations and beam fitting models were programmed into spreadsheets to simulate two treatment techniques which are expected to be used in BNCT: a two-field bilateral scheme and a single-field treatment scheme. Parameters in these spreadsheets can be varied to represent the fractionation scheme used, the [sup 10]B microdistribution in normal tissue, and the ratio of [sup 10]B in tumor to normal tissue. Most of these factors have to be determined for a given neutron field and [sup 10]B compound combination from large animal studies. The spreadsheets have been programmed to integrate all of the treatment-related information and calculate the location along the central axis where the normal tissue tolerance is exceeded first. This information is then used to compute the maximum treatment time allowable and the maximum tumor dose that may be delivered for a given BNCT treatment. The effect of different treatment variables on the treatment time and tumor dose has been shown to be very significant. It has also been shown that the location of D[sub max] shifts significantly, depending on some of the treatment variables-mainly the fractionation scheme used. These results further emphasize the fact that dose prescription in BNCT is very complicated and nonintuitive. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Geriatric Prescription in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Osemeke, Nwani Paul; Hart, Onwukwe Chikezie; Cosmas, Nwosu Maduaburochukwu; Ohumagho, Isah Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the medications prescribed for elderly inpatients on specific days during hospital admission with a view to detecting areas of irrational prescription. Methods: It was a prospective study of all patients aged 65 years and above admitted to the medical wards of a Nigerian tertiary hospital over a 12-month period. The World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators were used to assess drug prescriptions on various days of admission. Results: A total of 1513 patient encounters involving 345 patients aged between 65 and 92 years were assessed on hospital days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28. The average number of medicines per encounter ranged from 6.1 ± 2.5 on hospital day 1 to 7.8 ± 2.4 on hospital day 28. This difference was statistically significant (F = 14.42; P < 0.05). The percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed ranged from 50.4% on hospital day 1 to 62.9% on hospital day 28 while the percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed decreased from 72.8% on hospital day 1 to 50.0% on day 28. Conclusions: This study suggests some degree of irrational prescribing as evident by the high average number of medicine per encounter and the high percentages of encounters with an antibiotic or injection prescribed. However, there is a need to develop standard values for the WHO/INRUD indicators based on the recently published national treatment guidelines for common elderly diseases which will serve as yardsticks to assess elderly inpatients prescriptions using WHO/INRUD core indicators in future studies. PMID:28104970

  1. Prescription Use Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This article will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:20958847

  2. What users think about the differences between caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Franke, Andreas G; Lieb, Klaus; Hildt, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

  3. [Medicinal products for human use in veterinary prescription].

    PubMed

    Kolář, Jozef; Vargová, Lucia; Ambrus, Tünde

    2015-09-01

    The paper deals with the problem of prescription and use of the medicinal products for human use in veterinary medicine. Using partial model analysis describes volume and structure of the prescription of medicinal products for human use in the veterinary practice in the years 2007-2011. Prescriptions included to the study were dispensed in a community pharmacy located in a county town in the Slovak Republic. Data were obtained from the basic collection of 845 veterinary prescriptions that included 1178 prescribed items in a total of 2954 packages.

  4. Patterns of prescription drug misuse among young injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Teti, Michelle; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Harocopos, Alex; Treese, Meghan

    2012-12-01

    Misuse of prescription drugs and injection drug use has increased among young adults in the USA. Despite these upward trends, few studies have examined prescription drug misuse among young injection drug users (IDUs). A qualitative study was undertaken to describe current patterns of prescription drug misuse among young IDUs. Young IDUs aged 16-25 years who had misused a prescription drug, e.g., opioids, tranquilizers, or stimulants, at least three times in the past 3 months were recruited in 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles (n = 25) and New York (n = 25). Informed by an ethno-epidemiological approach, descriptive data from a semi-structured interview guide were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Most IDUs sampled were both homeless and transient. Heroin, prescription opioids, and prescription tranquilizers were frequently misused in the past 30 days. Qualitative results indicated that young IDUs used prescription opioids and tranquilizers: as substitutes for heroin when it was unavailable; to boost a heroin high; to self-medicate for health conditions, including untreated pain and heroin withdrawal; to curb heroin use; and to reduce risks associated with injecting heroin. Polydrug use involving heroin and prescription drugs resulted in an overdose in multiple cases. Findings point to contrasting availability of heroin in North American cities while indicating broad availability of prescription opioids among street-based drug users. The results highlight a variety of unmet service needs among this sample of young IDUs, such as overdose prevention, drug treatment programs, primary care clinics, and mental health services.

  5. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate Prescriptions): Development of a Tool to Identify Inappropriate Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. Methods A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. Results 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based −50%- or working in community −50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). Discussion Conclusion POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary. PMID:24978045

  6. Exercise prescription--North American experience.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of exercise prescription are reviewed with respect to North American experience. The required regimen must be safe, therapeutically effective, and ensure a high rate of compliance. Precautions to increase the safety of exercise are discussed. Cardiac emergencies are sufficiently rare events (less than 1 in 200,000 hours even in post-coronary classes) that the need for immediate medical supervision of a well-designed programme can be questioned. The prime determinant of the response to training is the intensity of effort relative to the individual's initial fitness. Post-coronary patients often have a great potential for training due to their previous inactivity, but this will not be realised if the prescribed exercise is of insufficient intensity. Exercise programmes are plagued by a high 'drop-out' rate; 50% of normal middle-aged volunteers are lost in 6 months, and even with post-coronary programmes losses can be 60--70% over 4 years. Simple suggestions are made for improving compliance with the required exercise prescription. PMID:444812

  7. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories.

  8. [Clinical practice guideline. Drug prescription in elderly].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.

  9. Summary and recommendations for initial exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Harris, Bernard A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations summarized herein constitute a basis on which an initial exercise prescription can be formulated. It is noteworthy that any exercise program designed currently would be an approximation. Examination of the existing space-flight data reveals a scarcity of in-flight data on which to rigorously design an exercise program. The relevant experience within the U.S. space program (with regard to long-duration space flight) is limited to the Skylab Program. Lessons learned from Skylab are relevant to the design of a Space Station exercise program, especially with regard to the total length of exercise time required, cardiovascular (CV) deconditioning/reconditioning, and bone loss. Certain observations of the U.S.S.R. exercise activities can also contribute to the formulation of an exercise prescription of Space Station. Reportedly, the U.S.S.R. uses both a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill device on long-duration missions with some degree of success. Using the third crew of Salyut 6, which was a 175-day stay, as a representative mission, the typical time dedicated to exercise varies from 2 to 3 hours per day. In addition, the cosmonauts wear an elasticized suit, called a penquin suit, for time periods ranging from 12 to 16 hours per day. This device provides a load across the axial skeleton against which the wearer must exert himself. Despite these extensive countermeasures, the effects of adaptation are not totally prevented.

  10. Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S

    2014-09-16

    In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior.

  11. Quantitative Information on Oncology Prescription Drug Websites.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Squiers, Linda B

    2016-09-02

    Our objective was to determine whether and how quantitative information about drug benefits and risks is presented to consumers and healthcare professionals on cancer-related prescription drug websites. We analyzed the content of 65 active cancer-related prescription drug websites. We assessed the inclusion and presentation of quantitative information for two audiences (consumers and healthcare professionals) and two types of information (drug benefits and risks). Websites were equally likely to present quantitative information for benefits (96.9 %) and risks (95.4 %). However, the amount of the information differed significantly: Both consumer-directed and healthcare-professional-directed webpages were more likely to have quantitative information for every benefit (consumer 38.5 %; healthcare professional 86.1 %) compared with every risk (consumer 3.1 %; healthcare professional 6.2 %). The numeric and graphic presentations also differed by audience and information type. Consumers have access to quantitative information about oncology drugs and, in particular, about the benefits of these drugs. Research has shown that using quantitative information to communicate treatment benefits and risks can increase patients' and physicians' understanding and can aid in treatment decision-making, although some numeric and graphic formats are more useful than others.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  13. A review of opioid prescription in a teaching hospital in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Jairo; Figueras, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Review of opioid prescriptions in a hospital provides valuable information to health care professionals which may contribute to proper pain management; opioid utilization studies may help uncover factors that can be improved for better prescribing. To evaluate the use of opioid analgesics in a university hospital, a review of opioids prescribed in hospitalized patients was developed. Methods: Information was obtained from the pharmacy database and medical records. The study period was 1 month. Results: Medical records of 1156 patients admitted in July 2009 were analyzed. The most widely prescribed opioid was tramadol; the preferred administration route was intravenous; the main indication was severe pain; and major prescribers were from surgical departments. Discussion: Underutilization of potent opioids for acute and chronic pain seems to occur. Conclusion: Most prescribers prefer weak opioids, given intravenously to treat acute and chronic pain, while some patients may benefit from the prescription of more potent opioids. PMID:23049273

  14. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... or private coverage to use strategies to save money on prescription drugs. Figure 3. Percentages of adults aged 18–64 ... doctor for a lower cost medication to save money …You bought prescription drugs from another country to save money …You ...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... practitioner may sign a paper prescription in the same manner as he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall be written with ink or indelible pencil, typewriter, or printed on a computer printer and shall be...

  16. Using Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs to Address Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    (1) Forty-nine states have established prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to address misuse and abuse of controlled substances. (2) Pilot programs have shown that connecting prescribers' PDMPs using health information technology results in improved patient care. (3) Legislators can access up-to-date information about their state PDMP at the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center.

  17. Is it legitimate? Strategies for assessing questionable prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Vickie B; Vivian, Jesse C

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacists are responsible to screen prescriptions for legitimacy. Pharmacists must be alert for forged or altered prescriptions. Pharmacists must strike a careful balance between diversion control and the medical needs of legitimate patients. Although regulatory scrutiny remains a concern for some practitioners, fear of investigation is not a valid reason to deny patients needed medication.

  18. 21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) or (e) of this section. (b) Prescription-exemption procedure for drugs limited by a new drug... supplement to an approved new drug application. (c) New drug status of drugs exempted from the prescription... section is a “new drug” within the meaning of section 201(p) of the act until it has been used to...

  19. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  20. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  1. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  2. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  3. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  4. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    PubMed

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  5. Prescription Privileges, Psychopharmacology and School Psychology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Cindy; Kubiszyn, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on psychopharmacology and prescription privileges for psychologists. Summarizes nine major findings from Task Force on Psychopharmacology in the Schools, created to review literature on prescription privileges for psychologists; identify specific issues attendant to use of psychoactive medications with children; and clarify implications…

  6. 77 FR 20637 - Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence AGENCY: Department of Health... potential solutions associated with the public health problem of prescription medication non-adherence in..., health care providers, and industry and private organizations in efforts to improve medication...

  7. Emergency department discharge prescription errors in an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, April; Devine, Lauren T.; Lane, Aaron; Condren, Michelle E.

    2017-01-01

    This study described discharge prescription medication errors written for emergency department patients. This study used content analysis in a cross-sectional design to systematically categorize prescription errors found in a report of 1000 discharge prescriptions submitted in the electronic medical record in February 2015. Two pharmacy team members reviewed the discharge prescription list for errors. Open-ended data were coded by an additional rater for agreement on coding categories. Coding was based upon majority rule. Descriptive statistics were used to address the study objective. Categories evaluated were patient age, provider type, drug class, and type and time of error. The discharge prescription error rate out of 1000 prescriptions was 13.4%, with “incomplete or inadequate prescription” being the most commonly detected error (58.2%). The adult and pediatric error rates were 11.7% and 22.7%, respectively. The antibiotics reviewed had the highest number of errors. The highest within-class error rates were with antianginal medications, antiparasitic medications, antacids, appetite stimulants, and probiotics. Emergency medicine residents wrote the highest percentage of prescriptions (46.7%) and had an error rate of 9.2%. Residents of other specialties wrote 340 prescriptions and had an error rate of 20.9%. Errors occurred most often between 10:00 am and 6:00 pm.

  8. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  9. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  10. 77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY... proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care...

  11. 77 FR 48111 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care Act. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Concerning...

  12. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  13. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effective must be issued for a legitimate medical purpose by an individual practitioner acting in the usual... provided for violations of the provisions of law relating to controlled substances. (b) A prescription may... the individual practitioner for the purpose of general dispensing to patients. (c) A prescription...

  14. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence: Assessment Strategies for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Donovan, Kimberly A.; Krug, Kevin S.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the article "Prescription Drug Use and Abuse: Risk Factors, Red Flags, and Prevention Strategies" (J. H. Isaacson, J. A. Hopper, D. P. Alford, & T. Parran, 2005), which provides an overview of the recent increase in prescription opioid abuse and dependence from the physician's perspective. In the present article, the authors…

  15. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EXPEDITED RELIEF FOR SERVICE EMERGENCIES § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service....

  16. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  17. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  18. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  19. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  20. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  1. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales.

  2. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... written with ink or indelible pencil, typewriter, or printed on a computer printer and shall be manually signed by the practitioner. A computer-generated prescription that is printed out or faxed by the... responsible in case the prescription does not conform in all essential respects to the law and regulations....

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  4. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks.

  5. Off-site benefits influence prescriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Benzie, J.W.; Alm, A.A.; Curtin, T.W.; Merritt, C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the past thirty years of forestry practices and predicts trend for the next thirty years. According to the author, seven million acres of commercial forest land has been converted to other uses. However, much of the selective cutting in hardwood stands constituted high grade wood, and the volume of growing stock increased 76 percent. Forestry practices were intensified on industrial and public lands, but changed very little on private lands. The author predicts that in the future, computer software programs will assist foresters with multiple use prescriptions. In addition, forest owners will be more affluent, forest lands will be more fragmented, and wood production will be secondary to esthetics. In spite of this, agroforestry will improve forest production and increase biomass for energy.

  6. ENHANCING PRESCRIPTION DRUG INNOVATION AND ADOPTION

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, G. Caleb; O’Connor, Alec B.; Stafford, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its Innovation and cost-effectiveness. The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its innovation and cost-effectiveness. However, information about the relative efficacy and safety of a drug is typically incomplete even well after market entry, and various other forces create a market place in which most new drugs are little better than their older counterparts. Five proposed mechanisms are considered for promoting innovation and reducing the use of therapies ultimately found to offer poor value or have unacceptable risks. These changes range from increasing the evidence required for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to modifying the structure of drug reimbursement. Despite the challenges of policy implementation, the United States has a long history of successfully improving the societal value and safe use of prescription medicines. PMID:21690598

  7. Comparison of fatal poisonings by prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Launiainen, Terhi; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2012-10-10

    There is a rising trend of fatal poisonings due to medicinal opioids in several countries. The present study evaluates the drug and alcohol findings as well as the cause and manner of death in opioid-related post-mortem cases in Finland from 2000 to 2008. During this period, fatal poisonings by prescription opioids (buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, tramadol) increased as a share of all drug poisonings from 9.5% to 32.4%, being 22.3% over the whole period. A detailed study including the most prevalent opioids was carried out for the age group of 14-44 years, which is the most susceptible age for drug abuse in Finland. Poisonings by the weak opioids, codeine and tramadol, were found to be associated with large, often suicidal overdoses resulting in high drug concentrations in blood. Methadone poisonings were associated with accidental overdoses with the drug concentration in blood remaining within a therapeutic range. The manner of death was accidental in 43%, 55% and 94% of cases in codeine, tramadol and methadone poisonings, respectively. The median concentration of codeine and the median codeine/morphine concentration ratio were higher in codeine poisonings (1.4 and 22.5 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.09 and 5.9 mg/l, respectively). The median concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were higher in tramadol poisonings (5.3 and 0.8 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.6 and 0.2 mg/l, respectively). In methadone poisonings, the median concentration of methadone (0.35 mg/l) was not different from that in other causes of death (0.30 mg/l). Sedative drugs and/or alcohol were very frequently found in fatal poisonings involving these prescription opioids.

  8. Health Outcomes in Patients Using No-Prescription Online Pharmacies to Purchase Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model. We also studied whether users of NPOP-purchased drugs had poorer health outcomes than those who obtain the same drug through legitimate health care channels. Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Using search engine marketing (SEM), we placed advertisements on search result pages stemming from the keyword “tramadol” and related terms and phrases. Participants, who either used the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model to obtain tramadol (traditional users, n=349) or purchased it on the Web without a prescription from their local doctor (ie, nontraditional users, n=96), were then asked to complete an online survey. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties (nontraditional users) to upper forties (traditional users). Nearly all nontraditional users indicated that their tramadol use was motivated by a need to treat pain (95%, 91/96) that they perceived was not managed appropriately through legitimate health care channels. A majority of nontraditional users (55%, 41/75) indicated they used NPOPs because they did not have access to sufficient doses of tramadol to relieve pain. In addition, 29% (22/75) of nontraditional users indicated that the NPOPs were a far cheaper alternative than seeing a physician, paying for an office visit, and filling a prescription at a local pharmacy, which is often at noninsured rates for those who lack medical insurance (37%, 35/96, of NPOP users). The remainder of participants (16%, 12/96) cited other motivations

  9. 78 FR 18364 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Notice of Approved Certification Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Enforcement Administration Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Notice of Approved Certification... is announcing two new DEA-approved certification processes for providers of Electronic Prescriptions... scheme established by Congress. Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances (EPCS)...

  10. 75 FR 12756 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug Advertisements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS..., contained in FDA's regulations on prescription drug advertisements. DATES: Submit written or electronic... of information technology. Prescription Drug Advertisements--21 CFR 202.1 (OMB Control Number...

  11. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  12. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  13. Prescription errors and the impact of computerized prescription order entry system in a community-based hospital.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Eisdorfer, Jacob; Indulkar, Shalaka; Pal, Sethi Ajith; Sooriabalan, Danushan; Cucco, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Adverse drug events occur often in hospitals. They can be prevented to a large extent by minimizing the human errors of prescription writing. To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) system with the help of ancillary support in minimizing prescription errors. Retrospective study carried out in a community-based urban teaching hospital in south Brooklyn, NY from January 2004 to January 2005. Errors were categorized into inappropriate dosage adjustment for creatinine clearance, duplication, incorrect orders, allergy verification, and incomplete orders. The pharmacists identified the type of error, the severity of error, the class of drug involved, and the department that made the error. A total of 466,311 prescriptions were entered in the period of 1 year. There were 3513 errors during this period (7.53 errors per 1000 prescriptions). More than half of these errors were made by the internal medicine specialty. In our study, 50% of the errors were severe errors (overdosing medications with narrow therapeutic index or over-riding allergies), 46.28% were moderate errors (overdosing, wrong dosing, duplicate orders, or prescribing multiple antibiotics), and 3.71% were not harmful errors (wrong dosing or incomplete orders). The errors were also categorized according to the class of medication. Errors in antibiotic prescription accounted for 53.9% of all errors. The pharmacist detected all these prescription errors as the prescriptions were reviewed in the CPOE system. Prescription errors are common medical errors seen in hospitals. The CPOE system has prevented and alerted the prescriber and pharmacist to dosage errors and allergies. Involvement of the pharmacist in reviewing the prescription and alerting the physician has minimized prescription errors to a great degree in our hospital setting. The incidence of prescription errors before the CPOE has been reported to range from 3 to 99 per 1000 prescriptions. The disparity could be due to

  14. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  15. Patterns of antipsychotics' prescription in Portuguese acute psychiatric wards: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Campos Mendes, João; Azeredo-Lopes, Sofia; Cardoso, Graça

    2016-12-30

    This study aimed to establish the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics in acute psychiatric wards across Portugal, to determine the prevalence of polypharmacy and "high-doses" treatment, and to identify possible predictors. Twelve acute psychiatric inpatient units and 272 patients were included. The majority (87.5%) was treated with antipsychotics regardless of diagnosis, and 41.6% had at least two antipsychotics prescribed in combination. Age, use of depot antipsychotics, and antipsychotic "high-doses" were significant predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Excluding 'as required' prescriptions, 13.8% of the patients were prescribed "high-doses" of antipsychotics. When antipsychotics 'as required' prescriptions were considered, 49.2% of the patients were on antipsychotic "high-doses". Age, use of depot antipsychotics, previous psychiatric hospitalization and involuntary admission were significant predictors of antipsychotic "high-doses". These results show that in Portugal the antipsychotics prescribing practices in psychiatric inpatient units diverge from those that are universally recommended, entailing important clinical and economic implications. It seems advisable to optimize the prescription of these drugs, in order to prevent adverse effects and improve the quality of the services provided.

  16. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  17. Patterns of prescription medication diversion among drug dealers

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South Florida. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 50) were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of prescription drug dealers from a variety of milieus to assess patterns of diversion. Audiotapes of the interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analysed using the NVivo 8 software program. Dealers relied on a wide array of diversion methods including visiting multiple pain clinics, working with pharmacy employees to steal medications from pharmacies, and purchasing medications from indigent patients. The type of medication most commonly sold by dealers was prescription opioid analgesics, and to a lesser extent benzodiazepines such as alprazolam. These findings inform public health policy makers, criminal justice officials, the pharmaceutical industry and government regulatory agencies in their efforts to reduce the availability of diverted prescription drugs in the illicit market. Specifically, these data support the need for statewide prescription drug monitoring programs and increased training for healthcare workers who have access to controlled medications. PMID:22665955

  18. Influence of pharmaceutical marketing on prescription practices of physicians.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Roshni; Narendranathan, M

    2013-01-01

    In India same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceuticals. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behaviour. This study explores the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription practices of doctors in India. There were 103 study subjects - 50 doctors and 53 sales personnel. Data collection was done by a self administered questionnaire. Data were collected on 36 variables which were supposed to influence prescription. The effectiveness of the promotional strategies on prescription behaviour was marked in a seven point Likert scale ranging from "not at all effective" (score=1) to "extremely effective" (score=7). Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data. Good rapport with the doctor, launch meetings, reputation of the company, quality of the drug and brand names significantly influenced prescription behaviour, while direct mailers, advertisements in journals and giving letter pads and other brand reminders were less effective. Commonly used method of giving samples was not among the twenty most effective methods influencing prescription. Product quality and good company are still factors that influence prescription. Pharmaceutical marketing influences the choice of brands by a physician. The more expensive strategies involved in public relations are more effective. Sending mails and journal advertisements are less effective strategies. How expensive marketing strategies affect cost of the medicines has to be explored further.

  19. [Misuse and dependence on prescription opioids: Prevention, identification and treatment].

    PubMed

    Rolland, B; Bouhassira, D; Authier, N; Auriacombe, M; Martinez, V; Polomeni, P; Brousse, G; Schwan, R; Lack, P; Bachellier, J; Rostaing, S; Bendimerad, P; Vergne-Salle, P; Dematteis, M; Perrot, S

    2017-02-14

    Since the 1990s, the use of prescription opioids has largely spread, which has brought a real progress in the treatment of pain. The long-term use of prescription opioid is sometimes required, and may lead to pharmacological tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, i.e. pharmacological dependence on prescription opioids. Occasionally, this may also lead to misuse of prescription opioids (MPO). MPO preferentially occurs in vulnerable individuals, i.e., those with a young age, history of other addictive or psychiatric disorders, especially anxious and depressive disorders. MPO is associated with numerous complications, including an increased risk of fatal overdose. Prevention of MPO begins before the opioid prescription, with the identification of potential vulnerability factors. A planned and personalized monitoring should be systematically implemented. In vulnerable patients, contractualizing the prescription is warranted. During follow-up, the relevance of the prescription should be regularly reconsidered, according to the benefit observed on pain and the potential underlying signs of MPO. Patients with suspected MPO should be referred early to pain or addiction centers. The treatment of MPO should be based on multidisciplinary strategies, involving both the addiction and pain aspects: progressive opioid withdrawal, non-pharmacological measures against pain, or switching to medication-assisted treatment of addiction (i.e., buprenorphine or methadone).

  20. Development and psychometric properties of a theory-guided prescription stimulant misuse questionnaire for college students.

    PubMed

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R; Ketcham, Patricia L; Smit, Ellen

    2013-04-01

    A theory-guided instrument for examining prescription stimulant misuse in the college population was developed and its psychometric properties were evaluated from 2011 to 2012 at one Pacific Northwest (United States) university. Study methods included instrument development, assessment by five health and measurement professionals, group interviews with six college students, a test-retest pilot study, and a paper-based, in-classroom, campus study using one-stage cluster sampling (N = 520 students, 20 classrooms, eligible student response rate = 96.30%). The instrument demonstrated reliability (i.e., internal consistency and stability) and validity (i.e., face, content, and predictive). Limitations and implications are discussed.

  1. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  2. Prescription medication abuse and illegitimate internet-based pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Foster, Susan E; Califano, Joseph A

    2011-12-20

    Abuse of controlled prescription medications in the United States exceeds that of all illicit drugs combined except marijuana and has grown considerably in the past decade. Although available through traditional channels, controlled prescription medications can also be purchased on the Internet without a prescription. This issue has gained the attention of federal regulators, law enforcement, and the media, but physician awareness of the problem is scarce. This article describes the nature of the problem and its magnitude, discusses the challenges to federal and private efforts to combat illegitimate online pharmacies, and outlines strategies for physicians to recognize and minimize the unwarranted effects of the availability of these medications on the Internet.

  3. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the pharmaceutical industry spent more than $4.9 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the U.S. Controversy over DTCA has grown since the Food and Drug Administration liberalized its regulations in 1997. Proponents claim that such advertising educates consumers, promotes patient participation in clinical decisions, and improves patient adherence to medication instructions. Opponents argue that such advertising is meant to persuade, not educate, and that it promotes inappropriate use of prescription drugs, or diverts consumers from better alternatives. This Issue Brief summarizes the evidence about the effects of DTCA, and proposes guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising.

  4. Kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma; Gammon, Cheryl S; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Kruger, Rozanne

    2013-06-01

    Kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. Research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' (green kiwifruit) and Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', ZESPRI(®) (gold kiwifruit). Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure. Consuming gold kiwifruit with iron-rich meals improves poor iron status, and green kiwifruit aids digestion and laxation. As a rich source of antioxidants, they may protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage. Kiwifruit may support immune function and reduce the incidence and severity of cold or flu-like illness in at-risk groups such as older adults and children. However, kiwifruit are allergenic, and although symptoms in most susceptible individuals are mild, severe reactions have been reported. While many research gaps remain, kiwifruit with their multiple health benefits have the potential to become part of our "daily prescription for health."

  5. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... substance that is a prescription drug may be delivered, distributed, or dispensed by means of the Internet... constitutes dispensing by means of the Internet unless such person is a pharmacist who is acting in the...

  6. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  7. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not be issued for “detoxification treatment” or “maintenance treatment,” unless the prescription is... for use in maintenance or detoxification treatment and the practitioner is in compliance...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not be issued for “detoxification treatment” or “maintenance treatment,” unless the prescription is... for use in maintenance or detoxification treatment and the practitioner is in compliance...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not be issued for “detoxification treatment” or “maintenance treatment,” unless the prescription is... for use in maintenance or detoxification treatment and the practitioner is in compliance...

  10. Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide Share Tweet Linkedin ... A Consumer Safety Guide (PDF - 53KB) Buying your medicine online can be easy. Just make sure you ...

  11. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., hospitals, and practitioners with the ability to use modern technology for controlled substance... to allow the creation, signature, transmission, and processing of controlled substance prescriptions... greatest extent possible, prevent the possibility of insider creation or alteration of controlled...

  12. Exercise Prescription and the Low Back--Kinesiological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Gina L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article presents kinesiological factors pertaining to the lower back which should be considered in exercise prescription for youth. Three specific areas of concern are reviewed--abdominal muscular strength, trunk flexibility, and postural conditioning in jogging. (IAH)

  13. Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164253.html Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Not ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise is potent medicine for older adults with heart ...

  14. 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription Is a Must

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription Is A Must Share Tweet ... care.” back to top Where NOT to Buy Contact Lenses FDA is aware that many places illegally ...

  15. Prescription Medication Sharing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Kebede A.; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36 182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone’s prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

  16. Diagnosis-Prescription in the Context of Instructional Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besel, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    Author argues that individual assessment of the students learning style should precede the decision of which teaching method is appropriate. He applies the medical terminology of diagnosis-prescription to this method of instructional development for management. (HB)

  17. Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements: Lower Your Numbers without Prescription Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholesterol and LDL cholesterol May cause nausea, indigestion, gas, diarrhea or constipation; may be ineffective if you take ezetimibe (Zetia), a prescription cholesterol medication Soy protein as a substitute for other high-fat protein sources May reduce ...

  18. Paediatric Prescription Analysis in a Primary Health Care Institution

    PubMed Central

    Devassykutty, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric prescription analysis was done by vari-ous studies in tertiary care centers but not much published data, at primary care level. The Medical Council of India introduced new prescription format and also antibiotic stewardship program was launched by Government of Kerala in the year 2015. So in these contexts this study was conducted. Aim To analyse the patterns of prescriptions and drug dis-pensing in pediatric patients using WHO core drug use indicators and parameters in the prescription format prescribed by Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods Prospective study was done at a community health center, for a period of four months where parents of children attending the outpatient department were interviewed and the prescriptions and medicines that is with them was examined and analysed for any prescription errors or dispensing errors. For statistical analysis, quantitative variables were expressed in mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables in percentages. Results The mean age of the patients was 6.1 (SD±3.4) years. The average number of drugs prescribed was 2.29 (SD±35.91), 98.4% drugs were prescribed by generic name. Majority of drugs prescribed were in the form of syrups (62.73%), use of antibiotics was frequent (73.18%), but injection use was very minimal (0.006%). Weight of the patient was recorded in 58.33% of the prescriptions. Only 30 prescriptions (5.43%) were written in capital letters. A 100% of the prescriptions contain the details of the child along with provisional diagnosis and signature of the doctor. A 98.44% of the drugs prescribed were from the essential drug list. Copy of the essential drug list is available at the institution. The availability of key drugs was 100%. 98.73% knew the correct dosages and 100% of the drugs were adequately labeled. Conclusion The prescription pattern is in accordance with the standard guidelines of WHO. Interventions are needed to rectify over prescription of

  19. [Actual antimicrobial chemotherapy prescription in infant and child].

    PubMed

    Bourrillon, A; Benoist, G; Cohen, R; Bingen, E

    2007-07-01

    Antimicrobial chemotherapy prescription should take into account the following items: 1) accurate diagnosis (most often clinical) and definition criteria of infectious diseases; 2) treatment justification; 3) confirmation of a bacterial etiology (now facilitated in some clinical situations by broadly available easy-to-use rapid diagnosis tests); 4 evidence-based antimicrobial choices; 5) modalities of prescriptions guided by official authorities (guidelines from French agency of medicinal products).

  20. Rates of Anomalous Bupropion Prescriptions in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Leah S.; Macdonald, Erin M.; Gomes, Tara; Hollands, Simon; Paterson, J. Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Reports of bupropion misuse have increased since it was first reported in 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in bupropion prescribing suggestive of misuse or diversion in Ontario, Canada. METHODS A serial cross-sectional study was conducted of Ontarians aged younger than 65 years who received prescriptions under Ontario’s public drug program from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2013. We determined the number of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in each quarter, defined as early refills dispensed within 50% of the duration of the preceding prescription, as well as potentially duplicitous prescriptions, defined as similarly early refills originating from a different prescriber and different pharmacy. We replicated these analyses for citalopram and sertraline, antidepressants not known to be prone to abuse. RESULTS We identified 1,780,802 prescriptions for bupropion, 3,402,462 for citalopram, and 1,775,285 for sertraline. Rates of early refills for bupropion declined during the study from 4.8% to 3.1%. In the final quarter, rates of early refills for bupropion were more common than for citalopram (3.1% vs 2.2%) (P <.001) but not for sertraline (3.1% vs 2.9%) (P =.16). Potentially duplicitous prescriptions for bupropion increased dramatically, from <0.05% of all prescriptions in early 2000 to 0.47% in early 2013 and by the final quarter were more common than both citalopram (0.11%) and sertraline (0.12%) (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Although no marked differences were seen for early refills of bupropion relative to its comparators, potentially duplicitous prescriptions have increased dramatically in Ontario, suggesting growing misuse of the drug. PMID:26195679

  1. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed.

  2. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  3. Pain Management Perceptions among Prescription Opioid Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Mercer, Mary Ashley; Barth, Kelly S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly two-thirds of prescription opioid dependent individuals report chronic pain conditions as both an initial and current motivation for prescription opioid use. However, to date, limited information exists regarding perceptions of the adequacy of pain management and pain management behaviors among prescription opioid dependent individuals with a history of treatment for chronic pain. Methods The current study examined perceptions of the medical management of chronic pain among community-recruited individuals (N=39) who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for current prescription opioid dependence and reported a history of treatment for chronic pain. Prescription opioid dependence, symptoms of depression, and pain management perceptions were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Pain Management Questionnaire, respectively. Results Reports of insufficient pain management were common (46.2%), as was utilization of emergency room services for pain management (56.4%). Nearly half reported a physician as their initial source (46.2%) and pain management as their primary initial reason for prescription opioid use (53.8%), whereas 35.9% reported pain relief as their primary reason for current prescription opioid use. Symptoms of depression were common (51.3%), as was comorbid abuse of other substances and history of treatment for substance abuse. Conclusions Results highlight the complicated clinical presentation and prevalent perception of the under-treatment of pain among this population. Findings underscore the importance of interdisciplinary approaches to managing the complex presentation of chronic pain patients with comorbid prescription opioid dependence. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25034899

  4. Illicit Use of Prescription Opiates among Graduate Students.

    PubMed

    Varga, Matthew D; Parrish, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Through this study the authors assessed the prevalence rate, reasons for use, and poly-substance use of prescription opiates among graduate students. The authors employed a cross-sectional survey research design using an online, self-administered questionnaire to assess the prevalence rates of prescription opiate use among graduate students (N = 1,033), reasons for use, and their likelihood for poly-substance use. The survey was e-mailed to 5,000 graduate students. Graduate students (19.7%) reported illicit use of prescription opiates in their lifetime and 6.6% reported past-year illicit use. Those who indicated illicitly using prescription opiates did so for self-medication reasons; a few respondents indicated recreational use. Students using prescription opiates were 75% less likely to use marijuana; 79% less likely to use cocaine; and 75% less likely to use ecstasy. Graduate students are illicitly using prescription opiates, but primarily for self-medication, and, while doing so, are less likely to use other substances.

  5. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p < 0.001). African American race, longer length of hospital stay, older age, congestive heart failure, paralysis, other neurological disease, renal failure, and admission from a nursing facility were negatively associated with prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why.

  6. The burden of the nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Aaron M; Kreis, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    An increase in the prescribing of opioids over the past several years often has been perceived as the primary reason for the increase in the nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Determining the prevalence of this illicit use has been difficult, because of varied methodologies and terminologies that are used to estimate the number of people directly contributing to or affected by this burden. Despite these discrepancies, the findings from several nationally recognized surveys have demonstrated that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use is indeed significant and has been increasing in recent years. The considerable burden on society imposed by misuse and abuse of these drugs is largely due to the monetary costs associated with nonmedical use (e.g., strategies implemented to prevent or deter abuse, treatment programs for misusers, etc.), decreased economic productivity, and the indirect effect on access to appropriate health care. However, using various nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to treat patients who use prescription opioids illicitly can decrease its overall prevalence and associated impact, with the development of novel opioid formulations designed to reduce nonmedical use providing valuable clinical tools as part of an overall risk management program. In addition, prescription monitoring programs are a prevalent drug control system designed to identify and address abuse and diversion of prescription medications, including opioids. Such resources, along with an accurate understanding of the problem, extend greater hope that the public health challenge of nonmedical prescription opioid use can be effectively mitigated.

  7. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  8. Varsity Medical Ethics Debate 2015: should nootropic drugs be available under prescription on the NHS?

    PubMed

    Thorley, Emma; Kang, Isaac; D'Costa, Stephanie; Vlazaki, Myrto; Ayeko, Olaoluwa; Arbe-Barnes, Edward H; Swerner, Casey B

    2016-09-13

    The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and society as a whole for them to be available under prescription. The Varsity Medical Debate was first held in 2008 with the aim of allowing students to engage in discussion about ethics and policy within healthcare. The event is held annually and it is hoped that this will allow future leaders to voice a perspective on the arguments behind topics that will feature heavily in future healthcare and science policy. This year the Oxford University Medical Society at the Oxford Union hosted the debate.

  9. An evaluation of a Books on Prescription scheme in a UK public library authority.

    PubMed

    Furness, Rebecca; Casselden, Biddy

    2012-12-01

    This article discusses an evaluation of a Books on Prescription (BOP) scheme in a UK public library authority. The research was carried out by Rebecca Furness and submitted as a dissertation for the MSc Information and Library Management to Northumbria University. The dissertation was supervised by Biddy Casselden at Northumbria University and was awarded a distinction. The dissertation identified areas for development for BOP schemes and made specific recommendations that could make the schemes more accessible, enabling significant numbers of people to lead more fulfilling lives. Because this study focuses on mental health and the role that UK public libraries have in supporting well-being, it is a good illustration of the wide-ranging nature of subjects welcomed for the Dissertations into practice feature.

  10. Development of PET imaging-based dose-painting prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Stephen R.

    Historically, prescriptions in radiation therapy are based on physician experience drawn from the results of extensive clinical trials in order to establish standard-of-care guidelines. The doses of radiation are generally uniform across target volumes to reflect a fixed level of local neoplastic disease control of the population mean. However, inter-patient and intra-tumor variation in response to uniform doses can result in diminished tumor control and poor clinical outcome for certain patients. Recent research endeavors are emphasizing the need to individualize prescriptions by incorporating patient-specific biological markers with prognostic and predictive value. Quantitative imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) of tumor glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and hypoxia has been suggested as a sensitive and specific technique to tailor patient prescriptions in a manner that may significantly improve clinical outcome. The concept of prescribing and delivering non-uniform dose based on molecular imaging, termed dose painting, hinges on the establishment of a dose-response relationship at the image voxel scale that optimizes a particular clinical endpoint. This doctoral thesis presented two methods of defining dose-painting prescriptions based on PET imaging: the first was a heuristic model derivation of hypoxia dose-painting prescriptions in head-and-neck cancer patients; the second was an empirical imaging surrogate endpoint derivation of prescriptions in veterinary sinonasal cancer patients. The clinical implementation of these dose painting prescriptions was investigated, which emphasized treatment planning and delivery solutions. Lastly, a summary and discussion of the future of dose painting to forge links between tumor biology and clinical outcome was presented. The compelling dose painting concept is fast becoming a clinical reality that may positively impact cancer patient lives.

  11. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids: Motive and Ubiquity Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Lichtor, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Two issues relating to prescription opioid nonmedical use that to our knowledge have not been comprehensively addressed in the peer-reviewed literature are discussed: Motives for nonmedical use and the extent of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in other countries. The United States’ national annual survey on illicit drug use in the general population (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) asks respondents whether they have used prescription opioids for nonmedical purposes but does not assess motives for such use. By not assessing motives, nonmedical users who use only for pain relief and nonmedical users who have other motives for use are grouped together, but 2 recent epidemiological studies suggest that these 2 groups may differ in a propensity to have substance use–related problems. We suggest that the survey add a question that assesses motives for nonmedical use. Regarding whether countries besides the United States have problems associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids, after searching for epidemiological surveys and other materials potentially relevant to this issue, we were unable to determine the extent of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in other countries or draw cross-national comparisons. We suggest that more countries include specific questions about nonmedical use of prescription opioids in their national epidemiological surveys. Perspective We believe that critical information surrounding the nonmedical use of prescription opioids is not being gathered. Such information would allow for a better understanding of the problem. We invite discussion and commentaries regarding the issues we raise to more effectively address this public health issue. PMID:18342577

  12. Relationship between E-Prescriptions and Community Pharmacy Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology; and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011 Participants 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Interventions Think-aloud protocol and pharmacy group interviews. Main outcome measures Pharmacy staff description of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Results Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software, and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delays in receiving, and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. Receiving an overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in significant time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, pharmacy personnel reported that lack of formal training and the disconnect between the way pharmacists verify accuracy and conduct drug utilization review and the presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen significantly influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. Conclusion E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases due to legislative mandates; it is essential that the technology that supports e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended consequences, such as increased medication errors, user frustration, and stress. PMID:23229979

  13. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  14. Medicare program; Medicare Advantage and prescription drug benefit programs: negotiated pricing and remaining revisions; prescription drug benefit program: payments to sponsors of retiree prescription drug plans. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-12

    This final rule implements and finalizes provisions regarding the reporting of gross covered retiree plan-related prescription drug costs (gross retiree costs) and retained rebates by Retiree Drug Subsidy (RDS) sponsors; and the scope of our waiver authority under the Social Security Act (the Act).

  15. The benefits of prescription information leaflets (1).

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, S; Waters, W E; George, C F

    1989-01-01

    1. Prescription information leaflets (PILs) giving information about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and inhaled bronchodilators were evaluated in three small Hampshire towns, while a fourth, in which no leaflets were distributed, acted as a control. 2. Seven hundred and nineteen (82%) patients prescribed one of these medicines agreed to be interviewed in their homes, 1 to 2 weeks after the medicine had been prescribed. Four hundred and nineteen of them had received leaflets, while 300 received no written information. Two hundred and sixty patients received their leaflets from a pharmacist while 159 were given them by their general practitioner. 3. Patients who received leaflets were better informed about every item of knowledge tested, except for the name of the medicine. Awareness of the side effects showed the greatest improvement, but there was no evidence that these leaflets produced spurious side effects. 4. Much improved levels of satisfaction were recorded amongst patients who received leaflets, especially those for NSAIDs (P less than 0.001) and for beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (P less than 0.01). 5. Subsequently, three hundred and fifty-eight (77%) of the patients prescribed either a NSAID or a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist 1 year earlier responded to a postal questionnaire. The benefits in terms of knowledge and satisfaction were still apparent, although less marked than previously. Of the patients still taking beta-adrenoceptor antagonists 70% had retained their leaflets over the intervening 12 months. 6. Ninety-seven per cent of patients read their leaflet regardless of whether it was distributed by a general practitioner or pharmacist. However, those who obtained it from a pharmacist tended to be more knowledgeable and satisfied. 7. We conclude that patients welcome the idea of receiving PILs. They improve patients' knowledge of how to take their medicines correctly and their awareness of potential side

  16. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.

  17. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  18. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention. PMID:27445597

  19. Americans' access to prescription drugs stabilizes, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Boukus, Ellyn R; Carrier, Emily R

    2011-12-01

    Despite the weak economy and more people lacking health insurance, the proportion of Americans reporting problems affording prescription drugs remained level between 2007 and 2010, with more than one in eight going without a prescribed drug in 2010, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). While remaining stable overall, access to prescription drugs improved for working-age, uninsured people, likely reflecting a decline in visits to health care providers, as well as changes in the composition of the uninsured population. Likewise, elderly people eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid saw a sharp drop in prescription drug access problems. The most vulnerable people--the uninsured, those with low incomes, people in fair or poor health, and those with multiple chronic conditions--continued to face the most unmet prescription needs. For example, 48 percent of uninsured people in fair or poor health went without a prescription drug because of cost concerns in 2010, almost double the rate of insured people with the same reported health status.

  20. The attitudes of consumers toward direct advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Rivera, C; Millstein, L G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes about prescription drug advertising directed to consumers were assessed in 1,509 persons who had viewed prototypical advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. Although many subjects were generally favorable toward the concept of drug advertising directed to consumers, strong reservations were also expressed, especially about television advertising. Prescription drug advertising did not appear to undermine the physician's authority, since respondents viewed the physician as the primary drug decision-maker. However, the physician was not perceived as the sole source of prescription drug information. Television advertising appeared to promote greater information-seeking about particular drugs; however, magazine ads were more fully accepted by subjects. Furthermore, magazine ads led to enhanced views of the patient's authority in drug decision-making. The greater information conveyed in magazine ads may have given subjects more confidence in their own ability to evaluate the drug and the ad. Ads that integrated risk information into the body of the advertisement were more positively viewed than ads that gave special emphasis to the risk information. The results suggest that consumer attitudes about prescription drug advertising are not firmly held and are capable of being influenced by the types of ads people view. Regulation of such ads may need to be flexed to adapt to the way different media are used and processed by consumers.

  1. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  2. Prescription drug abuse among prisoners in rural Southwestern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Martha J; Nakamoto, Kent; Goswami, Anil; Schnoll, Sidney H

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription medications is on the rise across the U.S., particularly in rural areas. In this study of 233 prisoners and probationers in southwestern Virginia, we add to an emerging profile of individuals abusing prescription medications. In this retrospective review of 2000-2004 augmented Addiction Severity Index data, those abusing prescription medications reported increased illicit drug and alcohol abuse, poly-drug abuse, psychiatric problems, and arrests for property crimes. Forty percent reported abuse of OxyContin, a drug implicated in a number of deaths in this region. Compared to non-users, OxyContin users were younger, more likely to be female, and more likely to abuse benzodiazepines, methadone, cocaine, and heroin. Longevity of abuse of these other drugs belies suggestions that OxyContin was acting as a "gateway" drug leading naïve users into addiction and risk of death.

  3. Oregon's strategy to confront prescription opioid misuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Dennis; Bovett, Rob; Burns, Thomas; Cushing, Judy; Glynn, Mary Ellen; Kruse, Senator Jeff; Millet, Lisa M; Shames, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Governor John Kitzhaber appointed a Prescription Drug Taskforce to address Oregon's opioid epidemic. This case study reviews the Taskforce's participation in the National Governors Association State Policy Academy on Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse. To address the challenge of the misuse and abuse of prescription opioids, the Taskforce developed a strategy for practice change, community education and enhanced access to safe opioid disposal using stakeholder meetings, consensus development, and five action steps: (1) fewer pills in circulation, (2) educate prescribers and the public on the risks of opioid use, (3) foster safe disposal of unused medication, (4) provide treatment for opioid dependence, and (5) continued leadership from the Governor, health plans and health professionals. Although the story is ongoing, there are lessons for leadership in other states and for public health and medical practitioners throughout the country.

  4. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  5. Agreement between self-report and prescription data in medical records for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarangarm, Preeyaporn; Young, Bonnie; Rayburn, William; Jaiswal, Pallavi; Dodd, Melanie; Phelan, Sharon; Bakhireva, Ludmila

    2012-03-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical teratology studies often rely on patient reports of medication use in pregnancy with or without other sources of information. Electronic medical records (EMRs), administrative databases, pharmacy dispensing records, drug registries, and patients' self-reports are all widely used sources of information to assess potential teratogenic effect of medications. The objective of this study was to assess comparability of self-reported and prescription medication data in EMRs for the most common therapeutic classes. METHODS The study population included 404 pregnant women prospectively recruited from five prenatal care clinics affiliated with the University of New Mexico. Self-reported information on prescription medications taken since the last menstrual period (LMP) was obtained by semistructured interviews in either English or Spanish. For validation purposes, EMRs were reviewed to abstract information on medications prescribed between the LMP and the date of the interview. Agreement was estimated by calculating a kappa (κ) coefficient, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS In this sample of socially-disadvantaged (i.e., 67.9% high school education or less, 48.5% no health insurance), predominantly Latina (80.4%) pregnant women, antibiotics and antidiabetic agents were the most prevalent therapeutic classes. The agreement between the two sources substantially varied by therapeutic class, with the highest level of agreement seen among antidiabetic and thyroid medications (κ ≥0.8) and the lowest among opioid analgesics (κ = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS Results indicate a high concordance between self-report and prescription data for therapeutic classes used chronically, while poor agreement was observed for medications used intermittently, on an 'as needed" basis, or in short courses.

  6. Population-based patterns of prescription androgen use, 1976-2008

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Susan A.; Ranganathan, Gayatri; Tinsley, Liane J.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Kupelian, Varant; Wittert, Gary A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Morales, Alvaro; Araujo, Andre B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prescription testosterone (T) has limited approved medical indications and is a controlled substance in Canada. Utilization studies in other Westernized countries have revealed sharp increases in T use in recent years. We examined medical use of androgens, including T, over a ≥30 year period among adult (18+) men in a population-based study set in a Canadian juridisdiction of universal health care. Methods Analyses were based on data from electronic records of dispensed prescriptions during 1976-2008 in Saskatchewan, Canada. All formulations of androgens listed in the provincial formulary (oral and injectable) were included. We examined demographics of users, androgen types used, switching patterns, and trends in the annual rate of use over time. Results There were 11,521 androgen users who were followed for an average of 11.8 years. Overall, 11 types of androgens were used and there were 86,812 dispensing events. The mean age at first use was 56.4 years (median: 58). Men had 7.5 prescription dispensing events on average (median: 2). The most commonly-used formulations were methyl-T (36.2% of users) followed by T-enanthate (32.5%), T-cypionate (22.3%) and T-undecanoate (20.0%). Most users (82%) did not switch among androgen types. The annual rate of use varied substantially over time, with a marked increase observed from 1994-1999 and a decrease from 2000-2008. Conclusions Androgen users were largely middle-aged and had relatively few dispensings. We hypothesize that observed secular trends in androgen use may align with drug treatment pattern changes for erectile dysfunction (ED), including the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. PMID:24510484

  7. Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

    Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, “If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine?” The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication. PMID:24644523

  8. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescription record. (ii) Record on the reverse of the invalidated prescription the name, address, and DEA...). (v) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the...) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the prescription...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescription record. (ii) Record on the reverse of the invalidated prescription the name, address, and DEA...). (v) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the...) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the prescription...

  10. A Prescription for Protecting the Southern Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Defense University,Institute for National Strategic Studies,260 Fifth Ave SW Fort Lesley J. McNair...who is responsible for the army and air force, and the U .S . N av y (C hr is G et hi ng s) Mexican marines and U.S.  Sailors remove Hurricane...Trade Agreement, the Caribbean Community, and Mexico’s Plan Puebla -Panama (to develop economic infrastructure along the isthmus) have forced civilian

  11. [Prescription parsing of miao medicine Polygonum capitatum and kelintong capsule].

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Tang, Shi-Huan; Cheng, Long

    2014-04-01

    By literature survey searching references and parsing prescriptions, the auther has analyze the clinical advantage of Miao medicine in the treatment of symptom heat stranguria. Guizhou Miao medicine Polygonum capitatum has many advantages such as resources and clinical. After companying with Phellodendri Cortex, the compound prescription plays the pharmacological activity of antipyretic and diuretic, especially for the symptom heat stranguria, damp and hot junction based in the bladder. Miao medicine Kelintong capsule showed clinical advantage in the treatment of symptom heat stranguria, having a clinical advantage in improving the overall effectiveness and improve the overall aspects of the patient's symptoms.

  12. Prevalence of the Prescription of Potentially Interacting Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tragni, Elena; Casula, Manuela; Pieri, Vasco; Favato, Giampiero; Marcobelli, Alberico; Trotta, Maria Giovanna; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The use of multiple medications is becoming more common, with a correspondingly increased risk of untoward effects and drug-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of prescription of relevant potentially interacting drugs and at evaluating possible predictors of potentially interacting drug exposure. We retrospectively analyzed data on prescriptions dispensed from January 2004 to August 2005 to individuals of two Italian regions with a population of almost 2.1 million individuals. We identified 27 pairs of potentially interacting drugs by examining clinical relevance, documentation, and volume of use in Italy. Subjects who received at least one prescription of both drugs were selected. Co-prescribing denotes “two prescriptions in the same day”, and concomitant medication “the prescription of two drugs with overlapping coverage”. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of potential Drug-Drug Interaction (pDDIs). 957,553 subjects (45.3% of study population) were exposed to at least one of the drugs/classes of the 27 pairs. Overall, pDDIs occurred 2,465,819 times. The highest rates of concomitant prescription and of co-prescription were for ACE inhibitors+NSAIDs (6,253 and 4,621/100,000 plan participants). Considering concomitance, the male/female ratio was <1 in 17/27 pairs (from 0.31 for NSAIDs-ASA+SSRI to 0.74 for omeprazole+clopidogrel). The mean age was lowest for methotrexate pairs (+omeprazole, 59.9 years; +NSAIDs-ASA, 59.1 years) and highest for digoxin+verapamil (75.4 years). In 13/27 pairs, the mean ages were ≥70 years. On average, subjects involved in pDDIs received ≥10 drugs. The odds of exposure were more frequently higher for age ≥65 years, males, and those taking a large number of drugs. A substantial number of clinically important pDDIs were observed, particularly among warfarin users. Awareness of the most prevalent pDDIs could help practitioners in preventing concomitant use

  13. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs.

  14. Converging prescription brand shares as evidence of physician learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Within a drug category, there is an optimal brand the physician could choose to prescribe based on the patient's particular condition and characteristics. Physicians desire to prescribe the best brand for each patient for professional, moral, and legal reasons. Ideally, detailing provides information that supports this effort. This study finds that, over time, the proportion of prescriptions written for each brand moves toward a stable distribution--a convergence in which each brand's share in the category appears to match the proportion of prescription writing opportunities where the brand is the best choice for the patient. Detailing supports this convergence.

  15. An exercise prescription primer for people with depression.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda M

    2013-08-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the value of exercise in the treatment of people with depression. The guidelines for exercise prescription, however, are limited, and based on those developed for healthy populations. This article explores the evidence for exercise in the treatment of depression and the role mental health nurses may play in the delivery of this information. A model of exercise prescription is put forward based on the available evidence and taking into account the challenges faced by mental health nurses and people with depression.

  16. Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and depressed mood among college students: frequency and routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Teter, Christian J; Falone, Anthony E; Cranford, James A; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-04-01

    Studies demonstrate associations between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and depressed mood; however, relevance of NMUPS route of administration and frequency of use have not been examined. We hypothesized frequent NMUPS and nonoral routes would be significantly associated with depressed mood. A Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3,639 undergraduate students at a large U.S. university. The survey contained substance use (e.g., frequency, route of administration) and depressed mood measurement. Past-year prevalence of NMUPS was 6.0% (n = 212). Approximately 50% of frequent or nonoral NMUPS reported depressed mood. Adjusted odds of depressed mood were over two times greater among frequent monthly NMUPS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-5.15) and nonoral routes of administration (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.36-3.70), after controlling for other variables. Nonmedical users of prescription stimulants should be screened for depressed mood, especially those who report frequent and nonoral routes of administration.

  17. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education

  18. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007–2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18–65 for ‘non-definitive’ conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or ‘definitive’ conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56–0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical

  19. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis.

  20. 10 CFR 431.422 - Prescriptions of a rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulation § 431.422 Prescriptions of a rule. (a) Criteria for exemption from preemption. Upon petition by a... as those generally available in the State at the time of the Secretary's finding. The failure of some classes (or types) to meet this criterion shall not affect the Secretary's determination of whether...

  1. 21 CFR 1306.11 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...'s agent to a pharmacy via facsimile equipment, provided that the original manually signed... practitioner. (5) Central fill pharmacies shall not be authorized under this paragraph to prepare prescriptions... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy by facsimile. The facsimile serves as the...

  2. 21 CFR 1306.11 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s agent to a pharmacy via facsimile equipment, provided that the original manually signed... practitioner. (5) Central fill pharmacies shall not be authorized under this paragraph to prepare prescriptions... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy by facsimile. The facsimile serves as the...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements. 1311.120 Section 1311.120 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... within five minutes of the official National Institute of Standards and Technology time source. (9)...

  4. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is...., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall...

  5. Rural Adolescents' Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…

  6. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  7. A Political History of Medicare and Prescription Drug Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas R; Lee, Philip R; Lipton, Helene L

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of efforts to add prescription drug coverage to the Medicare program. It identifies several important patterns in policymaking over four decades. First, prescription drug coverage has usually been tied to the fate of broader proposals for Medicare reform. Second, action has been hampered by divided government, federal budget deficits, and ideological conflict between those seeking to expand the traditional Medicare program and those preferring a greater role for private health care companies. Third, the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 reflect earlier missed opportunities. Policymakers concluded from past episodes that participation in the new program should be voluntary, with Medicare beneficiaries and taxpayers sharing the costs. They ignored lessons from past episodes, however, about the need to match expanded benefits with adequate mechanisms for cost containment. Based on several new circumstances in 2003, the article demonstrates why there was a historic opportunity to add a Medicare prescription drug benefit and identify challenges to implementing an effective policy. PMID:15225331

  8. 21 CFR 1306.11 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...'s agent to a pharmacy via facsimile equipment, provided that the original manually signed... practitioner. (5) Central fill pharmacies shall not be authorized under this paragraph to prepare prescriptions... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy by facsimile. The facsimile serves as the...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pharmacy for a period of two years from the dispensing date. This printout of the day's controlled substance prescription order refill data must be provided to each pharmacy using such a computerized system... pharmacist who is involved with such dispensing. In lieu of such a printout, the pharmacy shall maintain...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  15. Prescriptions for Children with Learning and Adjustment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Ralph F.

    A total of 1,170 psychoeducational prescriptions for various major learning and behavior problems of school children are presented. Intended to be of assistance to school, clinical, and educational psychologists and graduate students, the volume assumes a familiarity with childhood exceptionality and psychopathology. The prescriptions…

  16. Reinstating Knowledge: Diagnoses and Prescriptions for England's Curriculum Ills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three recent accounts of what has allegedly gone wrong with the school curriculum in England in recent years and their prescriptions for remedying these ills--all three accounts sharing strong proposals to reinstate "knowledge" at the heart of the curriculum. These analyses, despite some significant similarities, come…

  17. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... computer application may be used for the storage and retrieval of refill information for original paper prescription orders for controlled substances in Schedule III and IV, subject to the following conditions: (1) Any such proposed computerized application must provide online retrieval (via computer monitor or...

  18. 76 FR 64813 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... requirements in our regulations, including security, and must address ``processing integrity'' as set forth in... certification process approved by DEA pursuant to the regulations are posted on DEA's Web site once approved... the issuance of a paper prescription. Given advancements in technology and security capabilities...

  19. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... linked to at least one DEA registration number as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (4) The... signing controlled substance prescriptions and for approving data that set or change logical access... for the practitioner's review and approval all of the following data for each controlled...

  20. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  1. Characterizing Adolescent Prescription Misusers: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Ty S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with the abuse of opiods, stimulants, tranquilizers and other sedatives among adolescents aged between 12 to 17 years and the presence of one more symptoms of a substance use disorder from prescription misuse. Results indicated that poor academic performance; enjoyment of…

  2. Prescriptions: Hyperrealism and the Chemical Regulation of Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Alan; Jolly, Margaretta

    2012-01-01

    Using contemporary literary sources, we explore the powerful ideological framework that normalises prescription dependency as part of everyday life, focusing upon the treatment of mood disorders. Through a literary critical methodology, we read novels by American hyperrealists such as Bret Easton Ellis, David Foster Wallace and Rick Moody as…

  3. (Lack of) Support for Prescriptive Statements in Teacher Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester Dacy, Breana J.; Nihalani, Priya K.; Cestone, Christina M.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) mandates determining what educational practices are demonstrated to be effective through rigorous scientific research. What types of evidence are recommended practices based on? The authors analyzed 304 citations accompanying prescriptive statements in 6 recent teacher education textbooks. Prescriptive…

  4. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R.; Ketcham, Patricia L.; Smit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess…

  5. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescription or order for medication transmitted by the practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the....05 except for the signature of the individual practitioner), or pursuant to an order for medication... order for medication transmitted by the practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the...

  6. Prescription data mining and the protection of patients' interests.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have exploited health information technology to "mine" data from drug prescriptions and use the data to better target their sales pitches to physicians. This article considers the policy arguments and first amendment implications regarding state regulation of data mining. It concludes that the legislative provisions are desirable and should withstand constitutional challenge.

  7. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  8. 31 CFR 900.1 - Prescription of standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prescription of standards. 900.1 Section 900.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL... regulations by Treasury. Rules governing the use of certain debt collection tools created under the...

  9. Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…

  10. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... without naming their components. (ii) Color additives may be designated as coloring without...

  11. An Individual Appraisal and Prescription for the Beginning Jogger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Myron W.; VanWoerkom, Carol L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Appraisal and Prescription Program is designed to provide safe initiating procedures for the beginning jogger. By using this procedure, the participant learns how to pace the amount of jogging according to the present level of fitness. A self-administered stress monitor worksheet and a sample exercise workout are included. (JN)

  12. Prescriptions for Educational Reform: Dilemmas of the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Seth

    1988-01-01

    Explores prescriptions offered for reforming education and the dilemmas they raise. Programs for democratizing education are reviewed with respect to expanding facilities, reforming admission policies, joining teaching and learning, offering experimental courses, and making structural changes. Results of programs for education about democracy and…

  13. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  14. [Erroneous prescription of rumalon to rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    PubMed

    Erov, N K

    1984-01-01

    The author describes 2 cases of erroneous prescription of rumalon to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as a result of which in one of the patients oligoarthritis arthritis while in the other one the typical seropositive slow-progressing rheumatoid arthritis transformed to RA with systemic manifestations.

  15. 76 FR 56201 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting to discuss proposed...

  16. 21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protection of the public health by reason of the drug's toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-exemption procedure. 310.200 Section 310.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Aberrant Prescription Opioid Use

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Butler, Stephen F.; Budman, Simon H.; Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a longitudinal predictive study to examine gender differences in the clinical correlates of risk for opioid misuse among chronic pain patients prescribed opioids for pain. Two hundred seventy five male and 335 female patients prescribed opioids for chronic noncancer pain were asked to complete a series of baseline questionnaires, including the revised Screener and Opioid Assessment for Pain Patients (SOAPP-R). After five months the subjects were administered a structured prescription drug use interview (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire; PDUQ), and submitted a urine sample for toxicology assessment. Their treating physicians also completed a substance misuse behavior checklist (Prescription Opioid Therapy Questionnaire; POTQ). At 5-month follow-up, women showed higher scores on the PDUQ (p<0.05), while men had a higher incidence of physician-rated aberrant drug behavior on the POTQ (p<0.05). An item analysis of the SOAPP-R, PDUQ and POTQ showed that women tended to score higher on items relating to psychological distress, while the male patients tended to report having more legal and behavioral problems. These results suggest that risk factors associated with prescription opioid misuse may differ between men and women. Perspective Understanding gender differences in substance abuse risk among chronic pain patients is important for clinical assessment and treatment. This study suggests that women are at greater risk to misuse opioids due to emotional issues and affective distress, while men tend to misuse opioids due to legal and problematic behavioral issues. PMID:19944648

  18. Exercise testing in cardiac rehabilitation. Exercise prescription and beyond.

    PubMed

    Williams, M A

    2001-08-01

    The prescription of exercise, either as a part of a formal exercise training program or as a means to increase physical activity in general, has been and will remain a primary component of cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programming. Wherever possible, this prescription should be based on a recent exercise test that documents the cardiac patient's functional capacity, cardiac and hemodynamic responses to exercise, and signs and symptoms associated with exertion. Clearly the prescription of exercise and suggestions for increasing levels of physical activity must be based on accepted principles of exercise physiology and expected training responses. Nonetheless, the art of exercise prescription should guarantee flexible methodologies to meet the specific needs of each individual patient. Although the patient must accept ultimate responsibility for participation, the clinician bears the burden of continually attempting to reinforce the importance of increasing caloric expenditure and motivating patients to initiate and commit to long-term participation in a safe and appropriately designed program of exercise and increasing physical activity.

  19. Diagnostic/Prescriptive Instruction: A Reconsideration of Some Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Norma; Brecht, Richard

    1977-01-01

    Over the past decade, increasing numbers of educators have used diagnostic/prescriptive instruction as a remedial system when working with problem learners. A basic philosophical controversy exists regarding two fundamentally different models--task analysis and ability training--which popularly serve to undergird diagnostic/prescriptive…

  20. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  1. Prescriptive Early Intervention With Culturally Diverse Populations: Some Initial Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Walter S.; Pedro-Carroll, JoAnne

    The Social Skills Development Program (SSDP) is a prevention program for inner-city primary-age school children. The services provided by SSDP are for children experiencing moderate school maladjustment. Included are descriptions of program rationale and operations, staffing, prescriptive early intervention, preventive health interventions and…

  2. 31 CFR 900.1 - Prescription of standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prescription of standards. 900.1 Section 900.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL... policies regarding the classification of debt for accounting purposes (for example, write off...

  3. Utilizing VA Information Technology to Develop Psychiatric Resident Prescription Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Federman, Daniel G.; Borysiuk, Lydia; Sernyak, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Feedback about resident prescription practices allows psychiatry educators to ensure that residents have broad prescribing experience and can facilitate practice-based learning initiatives. The authors report on a procedure utilizing U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' computerized pharmacy records to efficiently construct…

  4. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  5. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  6. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kingon, Angus

    2012-04-01

    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  7. Automating prescription map building for VRI systems using plant feedback

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prescription maps for commercial variable rate irrigation (VRI) equipment direct the irrigation rates for each sprinkler zone on a sprinkler lateral as the lateral moves across the field. Typically, these maps are manually uploaded at the beginning of the irrigation season; and the maps are based on...

  8. The Diagnostic-Prescriptive-Individualized Primary Reading Program; An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisville Public Schools, KY.

    The two-year goal of the Diagnostic-Prescriptive-Individualized Primary Reading Program (DPI) is to cut in half the deficit between the national norms and actual achievement scores of the pupils as measured by the California Achievement Tests at the first and second grade levels and the California Test of Basic Skills at the third grade level. As…

  9. [Adverse drug reactions reporting is helping "non substituable" prescription!].

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Julien; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In August 2012, general practitioners of Haute- Garonne received a letter from Health insurance system, informing that prescriptions could be endorsed by "not substituable" after reporting an adverse drug reactions (ADR). Compared to an equivalent period before this letter, we observed an increase of ADRs reports for generics, mainly concerning gastrointestinal ADR and lack of efficacy.

  10. Paradoxical Prescriptions in Family Therapy: From Child to Marital Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protinsky, Howard; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Proposes a technique using paradoxical prescription with families to successfully move away from the identified patient to an emphasis on family and marital dynamics. Presents three clinical illustrations to demonstrate the procedure. Poses some research questions regarding the use of this technique and the need for further refinement. (Author)

  11. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors.

  12. Evaluation of the prescriptions written for upper respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Serdar; Ozturk, Tuba Cimilli; Metiner, Yasin; Ak, Rohat; Ocal, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine frequency of antibiotic use and retrospectively evaluate prescriptions written for the patients with diagnosis of acute pharyngitis, acute nasopharyngitis and acute tonsillitis by our hospital emergency department physicians in January 2014. METHODS: Records of the patients who were admitted to the education and research hospital between January 1st, 2014 to January 31st 2014 were analyzed in this study. Records of all the patients with the diagnosis of acute nasopharyngitis (J.00), acute pharyngitis (J.02) and acute tonsillitis (J.03) were analyzed, and patients with a second diagnosis or haven’t any prescription were excluded from the study. Frequency of antibiotic and other symptomatic medications use were analyzed in prescriptions of 5261 patients. RESULTS: Antibiotics were prescribed for 63.5% of the patients included in the study, and the most preferred antibiotics were penicilin and beta-lactamase combination (38.8%) and cephalosporins (26.2%). Combined preparations were the most preferred medications in symptomatic treatment (65.9%). Dexketoprofen was the most preferred among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (63%). In each prescription, average number of 3.26 drugs were prescribed. CONCLUSION: Excessive and improrer use of antibiotics in the treatment of respiratuary tract infection is a global problem. The use of excess agents in symptomatic medication leads to polypharmacy. Training of physicians and patients on principles of rational drug use will contribute to the solution of this problem. PMID:28058350

  13. Using Noncontingent Reinforcement to Increase Compliance with Wearing Prescription Prostheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richling, Sarah M.; Rapp, John T.; Carroll, Regina A.; Smith, Jeanette N.; Nystedt, Aaron; Siewert, Brook

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) on compliance with wearing foot orthotics and a hearing aid with 2 individuals. Results showed that NCR increased the participants' compliance with wearing prescription prostheses to 100% after just a few 5-min sessions, and the behavior change was maintained during lengthier sessions.…

  14. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Prescription information may be provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a...

  15. 77 FR 58767 - Definitions Relating to Electronic Orders and Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Part 1300 Definitions Relating to Electronic Orders and Prescriptions for... Definitions relating to electronic orders for controlled substances and electronic prescriptions...

  16. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription ... elect the drug coverage. 2. Join a Medicare Advantage Plan— like a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), Preferred ...

  17. 77 FR 16973 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in... determining whether the major statement in direct-to- consumer (DTC) television and radio advertisements... and Benefit Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Television...

  18. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is transmitted without the digital signature, the electronic prescription application must check the certificate revocation list of the certification authority that issued the practitioner's digital certificate... the prescription. The certificate revocation list may be cached until the certification...

  19. A University Faculty and Staff Health Fitness Program, University of Montevallo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishler, J. Ward

    The effects of a health fitness program for college faculty and staff were studied at the University of Montevallo. The program covered physical fitness, assessment, prescription, training, and health education concerning nutrition and stress management. Six male and three female faculty members and staff participated in the 28-week health fitness…

  20. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  1. 75 FR 61613 - Role of Authorized Agents in Communicating Controlled Substance Prescriptions to Pharmacies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Prescriptions to Pharmacies AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. ACTION: Statement of... pharmacy. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark W. Caverly, Chief, Liaison and Policy Section, Office of... limited role in communicating such prescriptions to a pharmacy in order to make the prescription...

  2. 21 CFR 1311.135 - Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription. 1311.135 Section 1311.135 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... creating a controlled substance prescription. (a) The electronic prescription application may allow...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.135 - Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription. 1311.135 Section 1311.135 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... creating a controlled substance prescription. (a) The electronic prescription application may allow...

  4. 21 CFR 1311.135 - Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription. 1311.135 Section 1311.135 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... creating a controlled substance prescription. (a) The electronic prescription application may allow...

  5. 21 CFR 1311.135 - Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription. 1311.135 Section 1311.135 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription. (a) The electronic prescription application...

  6. 21 CFR 1311.135 - Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for creating a controlled substance prescription. 1311.135 Section 1311.135 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... creating a controlled substance prescription. (a) The electronic prescription application may allow...

  7. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  8. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  9. A Copmarative Review of Electronic Prescription Systems: Lessons Learned from Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Garavand, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This review study aimed to compare the electronic prescription systems in five selected countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, England, and the United States). Compared developed countries were selected by the identified selection process from the countries that have electronic prescription systems. Required data were collected by searching the valid databases, most widely used search engines, and visiting websites related to the national electronic prescription system of each country and also sending E-mails to the related organizations using specifically designed data collection forms. The findings showed that the electronic prescription system was used at the national, state, local, and area levels in the studied countries and covered the whole prescription process or part of it. There were capabilities of creating electronic prescription, decision support, electronically transmitting prescriptions from prescriber systems to the pharmacies, retrieving the electronic prescription at the pharmacy, electronic refilling prescriptions in all studied countries. The patient, prescriber, and dispenser were main human actors, as well as the prescribing and dispensing providers were main system actors of the Electronic Prescription Service. The selected countries have accurate, regular, and systematic plans to use electronic prescription system, and health ministry of these countries was responsible for coordinating and leading the electronic health. It is suggested to use experiences and programs of the leading countries to design and develop the electronic prescription systems. PMID:28331859

  10. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drug coverage. A Part D plan is always the primary payer relative to a State Pharmaceutical Assistance... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage §...

  11. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464 Coordination...

  12. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drug coverage. A Part D plan is always the primary payer relative to a State Pharmaceutical Assistance... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage §...

  13. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drug coverage. A Part D plan is always the primary payer relative to a State Pharmaceutical Assistance... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage §...

  14. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464 Coordination...

  15. Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

  16. 76 FR 54599 - Medicare Program; Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... 42 CFR Parts 417, 422, and 423 Medicare Program; Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit... Prescription Drug Benefit Programs AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final... (MA) program (Part C), prescription drug benefit program (Part D) and section 1876 cost...

  17. 76 FR 63017 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for Contract Year 2013 and Other Proposed Changes... Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for Contract Year 2013 and Other Proposed Changes; Considering Changes to... (MA) program (Part C) regulations and prescription drug benefit program (Part D) regulations...

  18. 21 CFR 1311.140 - Requirements for signing a controlled substance prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information required by § 1311.120(b)(9). (2) The practitioner must indicate the prescriptions that are ready to be signed. (3) While the prescription information required in § 1311.120(b)(9) is displayed, the... prescription information required in § 1311.120(b)(9) and the statement required by paragraph (a)(3) of...

  19. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for... Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. (a) Amyl nitrite inhalant has been available over-the-counter for emergency use by the patient in...

  20. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for... Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. (a) Amyl nitrite inhalant has been available over-the-counter for emergency use by the patient in...

  1. Monitoring riparian response to prescription grazing with low-altitude aerial surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prescription grazing (controlling grazing animals to achieve a specified conservation objective) is a USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service approved practice. But, there is no approved means for assessing the success or failure of extensive-area grazing prescriptions. In 2003 a prescription gr...

  2. How to Support Prescriptive Statements by Empirical Research: Some Missing Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues a discussion started in a special issue about the acceptability of prescriptive statements in educational research articles. In light of some ambiguities concerning what counts as a prescriptive statement, and the special issue's focus on causal relations as a requirement for the justification of prescriptive statements, a…

  3. Evaluation of Hand Written and Computerized Out-Patient Prescriptions in Urban Part of Central Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Jatin; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prescription order is an important therapeutic transaction between physician and patient. A good quality prescription is an extremely important factor for minimizing errors in dispensing medication and it should be adherent to guidelines for prescription writing for benefit of the patient. Aim To evaluate frequency and type of prescription errors in outpatient prescriptions and find whether prescription writing abides with WHO standards of prescription writing. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Anand city. Allopathic private practitioners practising at Anand city of different specialities were included in study. Collection of prescriptions was started a month after the consent to minimize bias in prescription writing. The prescriptions were collected from local pharmacy stores of Anand city over a period of six months. Prescriptions were analysed for errors in standard information, according to WHO guide to good prescribing. Statistical Analysis Descriptive analysis was performed to estimate frequency of errors, data were expressed as numbers and percentage. Results Total 749 (549 handwritten and 200 computerised) prescriptions were collected. Abundant omission errors were identified in handwritten prescriptions e.g., OPD number was mentioned in 6.19%, patient’s age was mentioned in 25.50%, gender in 17.30%, address in 9.29% and weight of patient mentioned in 11.29%, while in drug items only 2.97% drugs were prescribed by generic name. Route and Dosage form was mentioned in 77.35%-78.15%, dose mentioned in 47.25%, unit in 13.91%, regimens were mentioned in 72.93% while signa (direction for drug use) in 62.35%. Total 4384 errors out of 549 handwritten prescriptions and 501 errors out of 200 computerized prescriptions were found in clinicians and patient details. While in drug item details, total number of errors identified were 5015 and 621 in handwritten and computerized prescriptions respectively

  4. Universal authoring system: Round two: The wedge

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, A.E.; Spangenberg, L.; Trainor, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Recent papers in the literature have proposed a universal authoring system. While these papers are valuable because they stimulated debate and provided a baseline, pursuing a universal authoring system at this time is a search for a solution before the requirements and problems have been clearly identified. This paper explores several issues related to the concept of a universal authoring system and concludes with an alternative prescription both for users (customers) and vendors. The user prescription includes a clear definition of requirements and establishment of internal standards. The vendor prescription includes working with the users more closely to aid in system comparison. This task is very difficult now because of nonstandard criteria used by the scores of vendors involved. A model for a /open quotes/universal/close quotes/ authoring system is presented to illustrate that the options are endless. Technical issues regarding difficulties of achieving universality of authoring without restricting progress in hardware. The authors agree that the plethora of authoring systems on the market today inhibits courseware portability, but we feel that our free enterprise system as well as more informed consumers will help reduce the number of surviving authoring systems. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Linking Annual Prescription Volume of Antidepressants to Corresponding Web Search Query Data: A Possible Proxy for Medical Prescription Behavior?

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Uzelac, Zeljko; Zeiss, René; Connemann, Bernhard J; Lang, Dirk; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Persons using the Internet to retrieve medical information generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences. We analyzed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APVs) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test whether web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice. We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004 to 2013. Web search query data generated in Germany and related to defined search terms (active substance or brand name) were obtained with Google Trends. We calculated correlations (Person's r) between the APVs of each substance and the respective annual "search share" values; coefficients of determination (R) were computed to determine the amount of variability shared by the 2 variables. Significant and strong correlations between substance-specific APVs and corresponding annual query volumes were found for each substance during the observational interval: agomelatine (r = 0.968, R = 0.932, P = 0.01), bupropion (r = 0.962, R = 0.925, P = 0.01), citalopram (r = 0.970, R = 0.941, P = 0.01), escitalopram (r = 0.824, R = 0.682, P = 0.01), fluoxetine (r = 0.885, R = 0.783, P = 0.01), paroxetine (r = 0.801, R = 0.641, P = 0.01), and sertraline (r = 0.880, R = 0.689, P = 0.01). Although the used data did not allow to perform an analysis with a higher temporal resolution (quarters, months), our results suggest that web search query volume may be a proxy for corresponding prescription behavior. However, further studies analyzing other pharmacologic agents and prescription data that facilitate an increased temporal resolution are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Prescription of Opioids for Opioid-Naive Medical Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lail, Sharan; Sequeira, Kelly; Lieu, Jenny; Dhalla, Irfan A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Harms associated with prescription opioids are a major and increasing public health concern. Prescribing of opioids for inpatients may contribute to the problem, especially if primary care practitioners continue opioid therapy that is initiated in hospital. Objectives: To describe the extent and nature of opioid prescribing for opioid-naive patients (i.e., no use of opioids within 2 weeks before admission) on an internal medicine unit. Methods: This single-centre study involved chart review for opioid-naive patients admitted to the internal medicine unit of a large academic health sciences centre in Toronto, Ontario. Over 12 weeks, patients were prospectively identified for the study, and charts were later reviewed to characterize opioid use during the hospital stay and upon discharge. The primary outcomes were the proportions of opioid-naive patients for whom opioids were prescribed in hospital and upon discharge. Data on serious adverse events related to opioid use (e.g., need for naloxone or occurrence of falls) were also collected through chart review. Results: From July 4 to September 22, 2011, a total of 721 patients were admitted to the study unit, of whom 381 (53%) were classified as opioid-naive. Opioids were prescribed for 82 (22%) of these opioid-naive patients while they were in hospital. Among the opioid-naive patients, there were a total of 247 opioid prescriptions, with hydromorphone (110 prescriptions) and morphine (92 prescriptions) being the drugs most commonly prescribed. For 23 (28%) of the patients with a prescription for opioids in hospital (6% of all opioid-naive patients), an opioid was also prescribed upon discharge. The indication for opioids was documented in 16 (70%) of the 23 discharge prescriptions. No adverse events or deaths related to opioid use were identified during the hospital stays. Conclusions: Among opioid-naive patients admitted to the internal medicine unit, opioids were prescribed for about 1 in 5 patients, and

  7. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system and discovery of new prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.

  8. Decision Support for Medical Treatment: A TPN Prescription System on a Central Hospital Computer

    PubMed Central

    Moliver, Nina; Coates, Allan L.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive decision-support system for the prescription of total or partial parenteral nutrition (TPN) is described. The system is applicable to all sizes and ages of patients, from premature infants to adults. Both the physician and the pharmacist are users of the system, with the physician using rule-based safety checks and branching algorithms to make decisions in the prescription process, and the pharmacist receiving the prescription totals electronically in order to complete further calculations needed. Since its introduction, the system appears to have increased the safety of the TPN prescription, saved time, and improved the quality and appropriateness of TPN prescriptions.

  9. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  10. Prescription drug misuse/abuse in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Culberson, John W; Ziska, Martin

    2008-09-01

    One quarter of the prescription drugs sold in the United States are used by the elderly, often for problems such as chronic pain, insomnia, and anxiety. The prevalence of abuse may be as high as 11 percent with female gender, social isolation, depression, and history of substance abuse increasing risk. Screening instruments for prescription drug abuse have not been validated in the geriatric population. Benzodiazepines, opiate analgesics, and some skeletal muscle relaxants may result in physical dependence; however, tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, and dose escalation may be less common in the older patient. Lower doses may decrease the risk of abuse and dependence; however, fear of abuse often results in a failure to adequately treat symptoms such as anxiety, pain, and insomnia.

  11. Pharmacists correcting schedule II prescriptions: DEA flip-flops continue.

    PubMed

    Abood, Richard R

    2010-12-01

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has in recent years engaged in flip-flopping over important policy decisions. The most recent example involved whether a pharmacist can correct a written schedule II prescription upon verification with the prescriber. For several years the DEA's policy permitted this practice. Then the DEA issued a conflicting policy statement in 2007 in the preamble to the multiple schedule II prescription regulation, causing a series of subsequent contradictory statements ending with the policy that pharmacists should follow state law or policy until the Agency issues a regulation. It is doubtful that the DEA's opinion in the preamble would in itself constitute legal authority, or that the Agency would try to enforce the opinion. Nonetheless, these flip-flop opinions have confused pharmacists, caused some pharmacies to have claims rejected by third party payors, and most likely have inconvenienced patients.

  12. Medicare prescription drug coverage: Consumer information and preferences

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Joachim; Balza, Rowilma; Caro, Frank; Heiss, Florian; Jun, Byung-hill; Matzkin, Rosa; McFadden, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We investigate prescription drug use, and information and enrollment intentions for the new Medicare Part D drug insurance program, using a sample of Medicare-eligible subjects surveyed before open enrollment began for this program. We find that, despite the complexity of competing plans offered by private insurers under Part D, a majority of the Medicare population had information on this program and a substantial majority planned to enroll. We find that virtually all elderly, even those with no current prescription drug use, can expect to benefit from enrollment in a Part D Standard plan at the low premiums available in the current market. However, there is a significant risk that many eligible seniors, particularly low-income elderly with poor health or cognitive impairment, will make poor enrollment and plan choices. PMID:16682629

  13. Changes in prescription habits with the introduction of generic fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    McLay, Robert; Klinski, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    When the patent on fluoxetine expired in 2001, prices for it fell sharply and marketing decreased. We investigated how market share for fluoxetine changed with the introduction of the generic. Prescribing information was tracked at a military hospital where providers knew the cost of medication, but were not compelled to use the cheaper form. Market share for fluoxetine among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was observed for the 64 months surrounding the introduction, and changes were examined by linear regression analysis. Results showed that in the 32 months before the introduction of the generic, fluoxetine maintained a relatively steady share of prescriptions. After the introduction of the generic, fluoxetine steadily lost market share over time. No significant relationship could be seen between drug company visits and gains for their individual products. Examination of all Department of Defense prescriptions for the 16 months surrounding the introduction of generic fluoxetine showed a similar drop in its market share.

  14. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  15. The Common Prescription Patterns Based on the Hierarchical Clustering of Herb-Pairs Efficacies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prescription patterns are rules or regularities used to generate, recognize, or judge a prescription. Most of existing studies focused on the specific prescription patterns for diverse diseases or syndromes, while little attention was paid to the common patterns, which reflect the global view of the regularities of prescriptions. In this paper, we designed a method CPPM to find the common prescription patterns. The CPPM is based on the hierarchical clustering of herb-pair efficacies (HPEs). Firstly, HPEs were hierarchically clustered; secondly, the individual herbs are labeled by the HPEC (the clusters of HPEs); and then the prescription patterns were extracted from the combinations of HPEC; finally the common patterns are recognized statistically. The results showed that HPEs have hierarchical clustering structure. When the clustering level is 2 and the HPEs were classified into two clusters, the common prescription patterns are obvious. Among 332 candidate prescriptions, 319 prescriptions follow the common patterns. The description of the patterns is that if a prescription contains the herbs of the cluster (C 1), it is very likely to have other herbs of another cluster (C 2); while a prescription has the herbs of C 2, it may have no herbs of C 1. Finally, we discussed that the common patterns are mathematically coincident with the Blood-Qi theory. PMID:27190534

  16. Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems.

  17. Prescription dose in permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Ning; Heron, Dwight E.; Komanduri, Krishna; Huq, M. Saiful

    2005-08-15

    Recently, {sup 131}Cs seeds have been introduced for prostate permanent seed implants. This type of seed has a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days and has its most prominent emitted photon energy peaks in the 29-34 keV region. Traditionally, 145 and 125 Gy have been prescribed for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed prostate implants, respectively. Since both the half-life and dosimetry characteristics of {sup 131}Cs seed are quite different from those of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the appropriate prescription dose for {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implant may well be different. This study was designed to use a linear quadratic radiobiological model to determine an appropriate dose prescription scheme for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants. In this model, prostate edema was taken into consideration. Calculations were also performed for tumors of different doubling times and for other related radiobiological parameters of different values. As expected, the derived prescription dose values were dependent on type of tumors and types of edema. However, for prostate cancers in which tumor cells are relatively slow growing and are reported to have a mean potential doubling time of around 40 days, the appropriate prescription dose for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants was determined to be: 127{sub -12}{sup +5}Gy if the experiences of {sup 125}I seed implants were followed and 121{sub -3}{sup +0}Gy if the experiences of {sup 103}Pd seed implants were followed.

  18. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Hensel, P J

    1995-01-01

    Starting consumers off on the "path to purchase" by encouraging them to seek more information is a major goal of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription medications. But the authors found that a consumer's attitude toward DTC advertising can determine which of several paths he or she is likely to take. The attitudes of older adults are especially significant for pharmaceutical marketers because these consumers are heavy users of the drugs being advertised.

  19. Using noncontingent reinforcement to increase compliance with wearing prescription prostheses.

    PubMed

    Richling, Sarah M; Rapp, John T; Carroll, Regina A; Smith, Jeanette N; Nystedt, Aaron; Siewert, Brook

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) on compliance with wearing foot orthotics and a hearing aid with 2 individuals. Results showed that NCR increased the participants' compliance with wearing prescription prostheses to 100% after just a few 5-min sessions, and the behavior change was maintained during lengthier sessions. The results are discussed in terms of the potential value-altering effects of NCR.

  20. Preventing Risky Drinking in Veterans Treated with Prescription Opioids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    pain and are engaging in risky drinking are at heightened risk for drug interactions , including overdose and other negative effects, particularly if...criteria to be enrolled in the study. The evaluation will also identify the use of other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) that could interact ...Introduction Veterans who are taking prescription opioids for chronic pain and are engaging in risky drinking are at height- ened risk for drug interactions

  1. Towards a Personalized Prescription Tool for Diabetic Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Towards a Personalized Prescription Tool For Diabetic Treatment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...release; its distribution is UNLIMITED. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Diabetic patients, insulin is unable to effectively assist in...transporting glucose into cells to be used for energy. Type I diabetes arises when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, and type II diabetes

  2. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time.

  3. Writing out prescriptions: hyperrealism and the chemical regulation of mood.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Alan; Jolly, Margaretta

    2012-12-01

    Using contemporary literary sources, we explore the powerful ideological framework that normalises prescription dependency as part of everyday life, focusing upon the treatment of mood disorders. Through a literary critical methodology, we read novels by American hyperrealists such as Bret Easton Ellis, David Foster Wallace and Rick Moody as symptomatic of prescription culture. Though we argue that these writers brilliantly understand the dangers of mood medication, they do not escape its logic, rather, 'writing it out' as they write against it. Indeed, we propose that their novels bear ironic similarities to medical texts such as the British National Formulary, usually seen as a neutral handbook for physicians' guidance in prescribing. We explicate their method as that of deconstruction, which, in contrast to more obvious critiques of chemical treatment, such as therapy, neither analyses nor cures. Though this method underplays the possibility of pragmatic and political resistance exemplified by alternative formularies such as the long-established feminist health manual Our Bodies, Ourselves, we argue that its very ambiguity uniquely exposes the complex determinisms associated with prescribed medication. We thus propose the value of drawing on deconstructive literature to better understand 'health' interventions such as prescription drugs for the regulation of mood.

  4. The legibility of prescription medication labelling in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Kristina; Krishnamoorthy, Abinaya; Gold, Deborah; Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The legibility of medication labelling is a concern for all Canadians, because poor or illegible labelling may lead to miscommunication of medication information and poor patient outcomes. There are currently few guidelines and no regulations regarding print standards on medication labels. This study analyzed sample prescription labels from Ontario, Canada, and compared them with print legibility guidelines (both generic and specific to medication labels). Methods: Cluster sampling was used to randomly select a total of 45 pharmacies in the tri-cities of Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge. Pharmacies were asked to supply a regular label with a hypothetical prescription. The print characteristics of patient-critical information were compared against the recommendations for prescription labels by pharmaceutical and health organizations and for print accessibility by nongovernmental organizations. Results: More than 90% of labels followed the guidelines for font style, contrast, print colour and nonglossy paper. However, only 44% of the medication instructions met the minimum guideline of 12-point print size, and none of the drug or patient names met this standard. Only 5% of the labels were judged to make the best use of space, and 51% used left alignment. None of the instructions were in sentence case, as is recommended. Discussion: We found discrepancies between guidelines and current labels in print size, justification, spacing and methods of emphasis. Conclusion: Improvements in pharmacy labelling are possible without moving to new technologies or changing the size of labels and would be expected to enhance patient outcomes. PMID:24847371

  5. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches.

  6. Prescription medication use aboard US submarines during periods underway.

    PubMed

    Jan, M H; Thomas, T L; Hooper, T I

    2002-01-01

    Since January 1997, automated medical records from U.S. submarines have been stored in a centralized database as part of a descriptive epidemiology study. 200 medical encounter notes were randomly selected from 1,017 initial health visits during submarine underway periods between April 1996 and January 1998. Medication prescription appropriateness was assessed using a modified Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) described in the literature. Seven diagnostic categories accounted for 51.4% of all diagnoses: acute upper respiratory infections (17.6%), superficial wounds (9.7%), elevated blood pressure without the diagnosis of hypertension (7.9%), sprain/strains (4.7%), skin infections (4.3%), eye disorders (3.6%), and ear disorders (3.6%). Prescribed medications were consistent with the care of minor health problems. Mean number of medications prescribed per encounter was 1.4 +/- 1.1 (S.D.). 84% of prescribed medications were assigned a modified MAI summary score of 0, indicating the prescription was appropriate in all aspects. However, anti-infective medication prescriptions demonstrated a significant proportion of non-zero summary scores suggesting some room for improvement in the prescribing practices for this specific medication category.

  7. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  8. Use of Prescription and Non-Prescription Medications and Supplements by Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy; Questionnaire Validation

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Marie H.; Cruz, Brian L. dela; Thompson, David M.; Farmer, Kevin C.; Medina, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cancer patients take medications for coexisting disease and self medicate with over-the-counter drugs (OTCs). A complete analysis of the use of prescription drugs, OTCs and supplements during cancer treatment has never been done. Methods The study developed and validated a self-administered questionnaire on the use of concomitant medications by patients undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. The questionnaire listed 510 prescription medications, OTCs, and supplements (including vitamins, minerals and herbs). Fifty-two subjects completed the questionnaire while visiting the infusion clinic to receive chemotherapy. On a subsequent visit the subjects brought their medications to the clinic and a pharmacist reviewed their completed questionnaire. Results Ninety-six percent of the subjects reported taking prescription medications within three days prior to chemotherapy, 71% reported taking OTCs and 69% reported use of supplements. The subjects took an average of 5.5 (range 0-13) prescription drugs, 2.2 (0-20) OTCs and 1.9 (0-11) supplements. Twenty-one drugs were each taken by at least 10% of the subjects. Acetaminophen was taken by 59.6% of the subjects. One subject reported taking five acetaminophen-containing drugs. The questionnaire’s sensitivity was 92.0%, specificity 99.9%. Conclusion Within 3 days prior to chemotherapy, subjects took an average of 9.6 concomitant medications, many of which alter drug metabolism and or disposition. In clinical trials, multivariate analysis of all concomitant medications could add to clinically relevant data to identify drug interactions that negate or potentiate the efficacy of cancer treatment regimens. In some instances, apparent resistance of tumors to chemotherapy may be the result of drug interactions. PMID:18719067

  9. 21 CFR 200.200 - Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and... Prescription Drug Consumer Price Listing § 200.200 Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to consumers. (a) Prescription drug reminder advertisements...

  10. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  11. Evaluation of antibiotic prescriptions for urinary tract infections in a geriatric rehabilitation unit.

    PubMed

    Afekouh, Hind; Baune, Patricia; De Falvelly, Diane; Guermah, Fatima; Ghitri, Saïda; Haber, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    Prescription of antibiotic in elderly patients must follow guidelines. to study the quality of antibiotic prescriptions for urinary tract infections (UTI) in the geriatric rehabilitation unit. Over a four-month period, all the antibiotics treatments prescribed for UTI in the rehabilitation ward were analyzed prospectively by medical experts and confronted with the recommendations of the local antibiotic guidelines. The methodology was based on Gyssens' algorithm. Treatments were considered appropriate if indication, choice of the molecule, duration and dose were approved by the experts, unnecessary if the indication was incorrect, and inappropriate in all other cases. The re-assessment of the prescription between 48 and 72 h was also evaluated. We reviewed 39 prescriptions. About half of all prescriptions (51.3%) was found to be unnecessary due to misdiagnosis, 16 prescriptions (41%) were considered inappropriate (2 for inadequate duration and 14 for inappropriate spectrum of activity, mainly with ceftriaxone prescriptions (9 cases)). Ten prescriptions (25.6%) were re-assessed between 48 and 72 hours after treatment initiation. According to this study, an improvement program was implemented. A diagnostic algorithm for UTI in elderly was drafted and will be integrated into the local guidelines. A supporting document for the re-assessment of the prescriptions 48-72h after treatment initiation was created. We decided to perform an evaluation of antibiotic prescriptions by the subcutaneous route.

  12. Combinations of Prescription Drug Misuse and Illicit Drugs among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse remains a critical drug trend. Data indicate that young adults in nightlife scenes misuse prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is necessary, particularly assessments that spotlight specific areas of risk, such as polydrug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of recent combinations of prescription drugs and other substances among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results Overall, 16.4% of the sample reported combining illicit drug use with prescription drug misuse. Of those who reported any prescription drug misuse, 65.9% used prescription drugs in combination with at least one of the illicit drugs assessed. The most common combination was marijuana, followed by alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, and psychedelics. Being male and identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual predicted the combination of prescription drugs with ecstasy, cocaine, and psychedelics. Conclusions Rates of combining alcohol and illicit drug use with prescription drug misuse were high, especially among men and those identified as a sexual minority. These rates are alarming in light of the host of negative health outcomes associated with combining prescription and illicit drugs. PMID:24462348

  13. Misperceptions of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: A Web Survey of College Students

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study compared undergraduate students’ perceived versus actual prevalence rates of nonmedical use of marijuana, prescription opioids and prescription stimulants. Methods In 2005, a randomly selected sample of 3,639 college students self-administered a Web survey regarding their substance use behaviors and attitudes (68% response rate). Results The majority of undergraduate students overestimated the prevalence of nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (70.2%) and prescription opioids (69.9%) and marijuana use (50.5%) among peers on their campus. The mean difference between perceived versus actual past year use was considerably greater for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (mean difference = 12.2, 95% CI = 11.7 – 12.7) and prescription opioids (mean difference = 8.8, 95% CI = 8.3 – 9.2) than marijuana (mean difference = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.2 – 3.6). Multivariate regression analysis revealed overestimation of nonmedical use of prescription drugs was significantly associated with gender and medical use of prescription drugs. Conclusions The findings provided strong evidence of misperception of nonmedical prescription drug use among college students. Future research and prevention efforts should assess the impact of correcting misperceived norms on reducing nonmedical prescription drug use. PMID:18242002

  14. The Use of Prescription Drugs, Recreational Drugs, and “Soft Enhancers” for Cognitive Enhancement among Swiss Secondary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Schaub, Michael P.; Maier, Larissa J.; Glauser, Gaëlle-Vanessa; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of prescription or recreational drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE) is prevalent among students. However, the prevalence of CE among Swiss school students is unknown. We therefore performed a cross-sectional online survey including ≥ 16-year-old students from bridge-year schools (10th grade), vocational schools, and upper secondary schools (10th-12th grade) in the Canton of Zurich to investigate the prevalence of and motives for the use of prescription drugs, recreational drugs, and/or freely available soft enhancers for CE. A total of 1,139 students were included. Of these, 54.5% reported the use of prescription drugs (9.2%), recreational drugs including alcohol (6.2%), or soft enhancers (51.3%) explicitly for CE at least once in their lives. The last-year and last-month prevalence for CE considering all substances was 45.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Soft enhancers were the substances that were most commonly used (ever, last-year, and last-month, respectively), including energy drinks (33.3%, 28.4%, and 24.6%), coffee (29.8%, 25.1%, and 21.9%), and tobacco (12.6%, 9.3%, and 8.3%). CE with methylphenidate was less prevalent (4.0%, 2.8%, and 2.0%). However, the use of prescription drugs, alcohol, or illegal drugs for CE was reported by 13.3% of the participants. The most common motives for use were to stay awake and improve concentration. CE was more prevalent among students who reported higher levels of stress or performance pressure and students with psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, half of the school students had used a substance at least once in their lives to improve school performance. Soft enhancers were most commonly used. Prevalence rates were similar to those reported by Swiss university students, indicating that the use of prescription or recreational drugs for CE already occurs before starting higher education. Performance pressure, stress, and psychiatric disorders may be associated with CE. PMID:26505633

  15. The Use of Prescription Drugs, Recreational Drugs, and "Soft Enhancers" for Cognitive Enhancement among Swiss Secondary School Students.

    PubMed

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Schaub, Michael P; Maier, Larissa J; Glauser, Gaëlle-Vanessa; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    The use of prescription or recreational drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE) is prevalent among students. However, the prevalence of CE among Swiss school students is unknown. We therefore performed a cross-sectional online survey including ≥ 16-year-old students from bridge-year schools (10th grade), vocational schools, and upper secondary schools (10th-12th grade) in the Canton of Zurich to investigate the prevalence of and motives for the use of prescription drugs, recreational drugs, and/or freely available soft enhancers for CE. A total of 1,139 students were included. Of these, 54.5% reported the use of prescription drugs (9.2%), recreational drugs including alcohol (6.2%), or soft enhancers (51.3%) explicitly for CE at least once in their lives. The last-year and last-month prevalence for CE considering all substances was 45.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Soft enhancers were the substances that were most commonly used (ever, last-year, and last-month, respectively), including energy drinks (33.3%, 28.4%, and 24.6%), coffee (29.8%, 25.1%, and 21.9%), and tobacco (12.6%, 9.3%, and 8.3%). CE with methylphenidate was less prevalent (4.0%, 2.8%, and 2.0%). However, the use of prescription drugs, alcohol, or illegal drugs for CE was reported by 13.3% of the participants. The most common motives for use were to stay awake and improve concentration. CE was more prevalent among students who reported higher levels of stress or performance pressure and students with psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, half of the school students had used a substance at least once in their lives to improve school performance. Soft enhancers were most commonly used. Prevalence rates were similar to those reported by Swiss university students, indicating that the use of prescription or recreational drugs for CE already occurs before starting higher education. Performance pressure, stress, and psychiatric disorders may be associated with CE.

  16. Inadvertent prescription of gelatin-containing oral medication: its acceptability to patients.

    PubMed

    Vissamsetti, Bharat; Payne, Mark; Payne, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    When prescribing, doctors usually only consider the 'active' component of any drug's formulation ignoring the majority of the agents which make up the bulk of the tablet or capsule, collectively known as excipients. Many urological drugs contain the excipient gelatin which is, universally, of animal origin; this may conflict with the dietetic ideals of patients. A questionnaire-based study, undertaken between January and June 2010 in a mixed ethnicity inner-city population presenting with urological symptoms, asked which patients preferred not to ingest animal-based products, who would ask about the content of their prescribed treatment and who would refuse to take that medication if alternatives were available. Ultimately, the authors sought to find out how many patients had been inadvertently prescribed gelatin-containing oral medications and to suggest ways in which prescriptions might be more congruous with an individual patient's dietetic wishes. This study demonstrated that 43.2% of the study population would prefer not to take animal product-containing medication even if no alternative were available. 51% of men with lower urinary tract symptoms were also found to have inadvertently been prescribed gelatin-containing products against their preferred dietary restriction. Education of healthcare professionals about excipients and getting them to ask about a patient's dietetic preferences may help avoid inadvertent prescription of the excipient gelatin in oral medications. Substitution of gelatin with vegetable-based alternatives and clearer labelling on drug packaging are alternative strategies to help minimise the risks of inadvertently contravening a patient's dietetic beliefs when prescribing oral medication.

  17. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  18. Prescription and practice of dialysis in Australia, 1988.

    PubMed

    Disney, A P

    1990-05-01

    Facilities for provision of treatment of end-stage renal failure with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are available in many centers, most of which are government-funded. Medicare provides free treatment for all patients. There are no specific criteria for determining a patient's acceptance for dialysis treatment: age, quality of life, and capacity for independent living are important factors. The usual HD prescription is three dialysis periods weekly, hollow-fiber dialyzer, 1.0-1.2 m2 surface area, for 4 to 5 hours, with blood flow rate 250 mL/min and acetate-based dialysate flow rate 500 mL/min. Reuse of the dialyzer is common, but many units practice single use to reduce the expense and time necessary for processing the dialyzer and the risks of formalin exposure. There is only limited use of hemofiltration, or highly efficient dialyzers for shortened hours at higher blood flow rates. The choice of dialysis prescription is influenced by the physician's preference for the patient to be treated at home or in a self-care center with limited assistance. CAPD is preferred for home dialysis, especially for elderly or diabetic patients. There is no personal financial incentive to the physician to favor any particular form of dialysis. The costs of dialysis do influence the provision and prescription of treatment, causing the reuse of dialyzers and the limited use of bicarbonate-based HD and highly permeable dialyzers. Nevertheless, adequate dialysis should be available to all patients, and noncompliance with prescribed dialysis is infrequent. Quality-assurance programs have been developed both for nursing and medical care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The rise in prescription drug abuse: raising awareness in the dental community.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Marnie; O'Donnell, Jean; Moore, Paul A; Martin, James

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drugs classified as controlled dangerous substances are essential therapeutic modalities in treating a variety of healthcare conditions; however, their pleasurable side effects can appeal to patients for uses other than their intent. As a result, unfortunate consequences of prescription drug use can arise. Misuse or abuse of prescription drugs can contribute to addictive behaviors, serious health risks, and potentially, death. It is imperative that the dental community remains educated and informed of nationwide healthcare trends, and prescription drug abuse is no exception. Ethically, dentists should be able to respond in a manner that addresses the best interests of their patients. To respond appropriately, dentists need to understand the terminology of prescription drug abuse; be able to identify and describe the drugs most often misused or abused; be able to identify individuals who may be at risk for prescription drug abuse; and be prepared to manage patients at risk in the dental setting.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Antihypertensive Prescription at Emergency Department Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Aaron; Rahman, Tahsin; Reed, Brian; Millis, Scott; Ference, Brian; Flack, John M.; Levy, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor blood pressure (BP) control is a primary risk factor for target organ damage in the heart, brain, and kidney. Uncontrolled hypertension is common among emergency department (ED) patients, particularly in underresourced settings, but it is unclear what role ED providers should play in the management of chronic antihypertensive therapy. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prescribing antihypertensive therapy from the ED. Methods This was a retrospective study of data pooled from two prospective, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials, both of which enrolled ED patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Antihypertensives were prescribed at emergency physician discretion, and this was not related to randomization arm. Demographic data, BP at screening and randomization visit, and data on adverse effects potentially related to antihypertensive therapy were compiled. Means were compared using Student’s t-tests, and proportions were compared using chi-square tests. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on BP control was further analyzed using multivariable regression modeling controlling for age, race, sex, hypertension history, study cohort, and ED BP. Results Data were abstracted for 217 subjects. The median interval from ED visit to randomization was 12 days. Seventy-six subjects (35%) received one or more prescriptions for antihypertensive therapy. Age, sex, race, hypertension history, and mean duration of hypertension were equivalent between groups. Although mean ED BP was higher among those who received prescriptions, the mean systolic BP (sBP) reduction from ED to randomization was significantly greater (difference = 19 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval = 12 to 26 mm Hg). No patient in either group had an sBP less than 100 mm Hg at randomization. On multiple regression modeling, randomization sBP reduction was independently associated with antihypertensive prescription (p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse effects

  1. Determination of the prescription dose for biradionuclide permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttens, V. E.; Lucas, S.

    2008-12-15

    A model based on the linear quadratic model that has been corrected for repopulation, sublethal cell damage repair, and RBE effect has been used to determine the prescription dose for prostate permanent brachytherapy using seeds loaded with a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I or a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 131}Cs. The prescription dose was determined by comparing the tumor cell survival fractions between the considered biradionuclide seed implant and one monoradionuclide seed implant chosen from {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs. Prostate edema is included in the model. The influence of the value of the radiobiological parameters and RBE were also investigated. Two mixtures of radionuclides were considered: {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.75}-{sup 125}I{sub 0.25} and {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.25}-{sup 131}Cs{sub 0.75}, where the subscripts indicate the fractions of total initial internal activity in the biradionuclide seed. These fractions were selected in order to obtain a dose distribution that lies between that of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I/{sup 131}Cs. As expected, the computed prescription dose values are dependent on the model parameters (edema half-life and magnitude, radiobiogical parameters, and RBE). The radionuclide used as a benchmark also has a strong impact on the derived prescribed dose. The large uncertainties in the radiobiological parameters and RBE values produce big errors in the computed prescribed dose. Averaged over the range of all the parameters and depending on the radionuclide used as a benchmark (in subscript), the derived prescription dose for the first mixture (PdI) would be: D{sub Pd}{sup PdI}=142{sub -16}{sup +15} Gy and D{sub I}{sup PdI}=142{sub -8}{sup +6} Gy; and D{sub Pd}{sup PdCs}=128{sub -13}{sup +13} Gy and D{sub Cs}{sup PdCs}=115{sub -7}{sup +6} Gy for the PdCs mixture. The uncertainties could be reduced if the radiobiological parameters and RBE value were known more accurately. However, as edema characteristics are patient

  2. Searching for answers: proper prescribing of controlled prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Martha E; Swiggart, William H; Dewey, Charlene M; Ghulyan, Marine V

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is increasing at alarming rates in this country. Most often drugs are obtained through relatives or friends. An important step in addressing this problem is educating healthcare providers in the proper prescribing of scheduled drugs. Physicians and other healthcare workers receive little training in proper screening for substance abuse, proper prescribing of scheduled drugs, and referral for those needing treatment. Continuing medical education is one venue for addressing this problem. However, screening, brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) should be taught in medical school and residency.

  3. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs.

  4. Methodology for security development of an electronic prescription system.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, J; Savolainen, M; Forsström, J J

    1998-01-01

    Data security is an essential requirement in all health care applications. Developers of medical information systems should utilize the existing security development and evaluation methods to foresee as many of the technical and human factors that may endanger data security as possible and apply appropriate precautions. Modern smart card technology facilitates the building of robust security framework for interorganizational shared care systems. In this article, we describe the way we utilized the existing security evaluation criteria in developing the security concept of our electronic prescription system.

  5. Mechanisms of Prescription Drug Diversion Among Impaired Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Simone Marie; Merlo, Lisa; Cottler, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    The diversion of medications by physicians is a seldom discussed problem in the United States. A better understanding of the mechanisms of diversion could assist decision-makers as they seek to develop preventive. To identify these mechanisms, nine focus groups of physicians undergoing monitoring for substance abuse by a state-based physician health program (PHP) were conducted. The content analysis revealed that physicians divert medications by stealing from the office or hospital, by defrauding patients and insurers, by using medication samples, and by misusing valid prescriptions. The implementation of policy interventions targeting these mechanisms has the potential to mitigate the amount of physician diversion that occurs. PMID:21745042

  6. [When is the prescription of prismatic eyeglasses reasonable?].

    PubMed

    Kommerell, G

    2014-03-01

    Prismatic glasses are used to deflect rays of light. In ophthalmology, prisms are mainly used to correct double vision caused by strabismus which is acquired after early childhood. In congenital or infantile strabismus, the image of the deviated eye is usually suppressed so that double vision does not occur and prismatic glasses are not indicated. Latent strabismus is very common and only rarely leads to double vision or asthenopic symptoms so that correction with prismatic glasses is only indicated in exceptional cases. The "Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.-J. Haase" is based on flawed assumptions, and therefore can not be recommended for the prescription of prisms.

  7. Collegiality and Complexity: Humboldt's Relevance to British Universities Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    The two fundamental features of Humboldt's prescription for the new University of Berlin in 1810--research-like learning as a collaboration of teachers and students, and academic freedom of research and teaching (based essentially on an intuitive, but deep understanding of complexity theory)--are as valid now as they were 200 years ago in spite of…

  8. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  9. A Wellness Program for University Faculty and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishler, J. Ward

    A program designed to provide physical fitness, assessment, prescription, and training was developed in a university setting. In addition, health education was provided to participants concerning nutrition and stress management. A study sought to determine whether the health of professionals enrolled in the program could be significantly improved.…

  10. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H

    2004-03-01

    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality.

  11. Free vector propagator in the light-cone gauge and the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetto, A. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova )

    1992-10-15

    We show that the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt causal prescription in the light-cone gauge leads to a free vector propagator which is a tempered distribution, at variance with the Cauchy principal-value prescription and other ones related to it by residual gauge transformations, which unavoidably entail infrared singularities already at the free level of the theory. In this respect the causal prescription seems to enjoy a privileged status.

  12. Modeling and Control of the Cobelli Model as a Personalized Prescriptive Tool for Diabetes Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-05

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 445 Modeling and Control of the Cobelli Model as a Personalized Prescriptive Tool for Diabetes ...Trident Scholar project report; no. 445 (2016) MODELING AND CONTROL OF THE COBELLI MODEL AS A PERSONALIZED PRESCRIPTIVE TOOL FOR DIABETES ...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling and Control of the Cobelli Model as a Personalized Prescriptive Tool for Diabetes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  13. [Discussion on the contribution of Thousand golden prescriptions to the art of tuina].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Li, W; Wei, Y

    2000-01-01

    Thousand Golden Prescriptions, including Thousand Golden Prescriptions for Emergencies and Supplements to Thousand Golden Prescriptions is an important medical book containing the main medical achievements before the Tang dynasty. It attaches great attention to daily tuina for health-care, enriches its contents, and makes a description to the method of tuina for children, offering detailed materials for later ages with significant reference value, and makes an important contribution to the art of tuina.

  14. Illicit use of prescription stimulants among college students: prescription status, motives, theory of planned behaviour, knowledge and self-diagnostic tendencies.

    PubMed

    Judson, Rachel; Langdon, Susan W

    2009-01-01

    Published studies have reported that illicit prescription stimulant use is increasingly common on college campuses in the United States. The present study investigates the relationship between prescription status, motives, theory of planned behaviour, knowledge of side effects and self-diagnostic tendencies and illicit use of prescription stimulants among undergraduates (N = 333). Prescription holders and non-holders responded to a self-administered online survey. Results revealed that dependent variables were significantly different between illicit users and non-illicit users. Specifically, prescription holders were more likely than non-holders to report illicit use. Illicit users, relative to non-illicit users, reported more motives to use, less concern with ethics and safety of use, greater perception of use as socially acceptable, less perceived control over their behaviour without stimulant aid, more knowledge, and, among non-prescription holders, were more likely to self-diagnosis having an attention disorder. This study provides additional insight into students' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and practices related to prescription stimulant use on campus. Implications for future research and the need for interventions to provide aid to students who are at risk for using stimulant medications illicitly are discussed.

  15. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care: a 1-yearpopulation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete; Vedsted, Peter; Huibers, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. Design and setting A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry data. Main outcome measures Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number of prescriptions per 100 contacts. Results Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3.9%), adrenergic inhalants (3.0%) and antihistamines (2.3%). Conclusion About 25% of all OOH contacts involved one or more medication prescriptions. The highest prescription rate was found for clinic consultations, but more than half of all prescriptions were made by telephone. KEY POINTSAs the out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important.General practitioners (GPs) are

  16. [Standard prescriptions for the formulation of medicinal preparations in pharmacies. I. Suspensions for dermal administration].

    PubMed

    Subert, J; Kolár, J; Vasková, V

    2008-04-01

    The paper summarizes the present state of standard prescriptions for the formulation of suspensions for dermal administration in the Czech Republic and compares it with the NRF (Neues Rezeptur-Formularium in Deuscher Arzneimittel-Codex) standard prescriptions. The analysis of medical prescriptions for suspensions for dermal administration dispensed in the pharmacies of the Czech Republic has revealed that 18.8 % of the prescriptions were for 50% suspension of zinc(II) oxide in sunflower oil. This preparation should therefore become a candidate for standardization as a monograph in the national part of the Czech Pharmacopoeia.

  17. 77 FR 1877 - Medicare Program; Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit Programs: Negotiated Pricing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit Programs: Negotiated Pricing and Remaining Revisions..., governing what was renamed the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (formerly Medicare+Choice). The MMA...

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid–related deaths

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Emilie; Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive systems for surveilling prescription opioid–related harms provide clear evidence that deaths from prescription opioids have increased dramatically in the United States. However, these harms are not systematically monitored in Canada. In light of a growing public health crisis, accessible, nationwide data sources to examine prescription opioid–related harms in Canada are needed. We sought to examine the performance of 5 algorithms to identify prescription opioid–related deaths from vital statistics data against data abstracted from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario as a gold standard. Methods: We identified all prescription opioid–related deaths from Ontario coroners’ data that occurred between Jan. 31, 2003, and Dec. 31, 2010. We then used 5 different algorithms to identify prescription opioid–related deaths from vital statistics death data in 2010. We selected the algorithm with the highest sensitivity and a positive predictive value of more than 80% as the optimal algorithm for identifying prescription opioid–related deaths. Results: Four of the 5 algorithms had positive predictive values of more than 80%. The algorithm with the highest sensitivity (75%) in 2010 improved slightly in its predictive performance from 2003 to 2010. Interpretation: In the absence of specific systems for monitoring prescription opioid–related deaths in Canada, readily available national vital statistics data can be used to study prescription opioid–related mortality with considerable accuracy. Despite some limitations, these data may facilitate the implementation of national surveillance and monitoring strategies. PMID:26622006

  19. 38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.483 Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring...

  20. 38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.483 Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring...

  1. Widening Consumer Access to Medicines: A Comparison of Prescription to Non-Prescription Medicine Switch in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Natalie J.; Kelly, Fiona S.; Emmerton, Lynne M.; Buetow, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in ‘switching’ (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. Objectives To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. Methods We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000–2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher’s knowledge and experience. Results The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ (‘third-party switch’), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Conclusion Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch. PMID:25785589

  2. Prescription opioid dependence and treatment with methadone in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sander, Stephanie C Eken; Hays, Lon R

    2005-01-01

    Prescription opioids are used medically to treat pain, but their diversion and abuse continues to escalate in the United States. Abuse of OxyContin (Purdue Pharma LP, Stamford, CT), a timed-release form of oxycodone, is a major focus of public health and law enforcement agencies. The rise in opioid abuse may lead to an increase in opioid dependence in pregnancy, which was a focus of this study. Our retrospective chart review examined the demographics and patterns of opioid addiction of pregnant women admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit in an academic medical center in central Kentucky. Charts of 94 women admitted from January 2001 to May 2004 were reviewed. Information obtained included demographics and details of their opioid use, including the specific opioid(s) used, route of administration, and duration of use. Treatment information included length of hospital stay, stabilizing dose of methadone, comorbid drug use, and concomitant Axis I diagnoses. Most women were in their mid-twenties and in the second trimester of pregnancy when they sought treatment. Benzodiazepines were the most common comorbid drugs of abuse and the most frequent medical complication of their drug use was hepatitis C, newly diagnosed in 11 patients. This study demonstrates the need for further research in prescription opioid dependency in pregnancy, methadone maintenance therapy, the safety of detoxification, and neonatal outcomes.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment.

  4. Multiple Determinants of Specific Modes of Prescription Opioid Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Ibanez, Gladys E.; Ellis, Matthew S.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Inciardi, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous national surveys and surveillance programs have shown a substantial rise in the abuse of prescription opioids over the past 15 years. Accessibility of these drugs to non-patients is the result of their unlawful channeling from legal sources to the illicit marketplace (diversion). Empirical data on diversion remain absent from the literature. This paper examines abusers’ sources of diverted drugs from two large studies: 1) a national sample of opioid treatment clients (N=1983), and 2) a South Florida study targeting diverse populations of opioid abusers (N=782). The most common sources of diverted medications were dealers, sharing/trading, legitimate medical practice (e.g., unknowing medical providers), illegitimate medical practice (e.g., pill mills), and theft, in that order. Sources varied by users’ age, gender, ethnicity, risk-aversiveness, primary opioid of abuse, injection drug use, physical health, drug dependence, and either access to health insurance or relative financial wealth. Implications for prescription drug control policy are discussed. PMID:22287798

  5. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research.

    PubMed

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Scott, Jessica; Jones, Lee W

    2015-06-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary study end point, the vast majority of studies have tested the efficacy of an exercise prescription that adhered to traditional guidelines consisting of either supervised or home-based endurance (aerobic) training or endurance training combined with resistance training, prescribed at a moderate intensity (50-75% of a predetermined physiological parameter, typically age-predicted heart rate maximum or reserve), for two to three sessions per week, for 10 to 60 min per exercise session, for 12 to 15 weeks. The use of generic exercise prescriptions may, however, be masking the full therapeutic potential of exercise treatment in the oncology setting. Against this background, this opinion paper provides an overview of the fundamental tenets of human exercise physiology known as the principles of training, with specific application of these principles in the design and conduct of clinical trials in exercise-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis.

  6. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research†

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Scott, Jessica; Jones, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary study end point, the vast majority of studies have tested the efficacy of an exercise prescription that adhered to traditional guidelines consisting of either supervised or home-based endurance (aerobic) training or endurance training combined with resistance training, prescribed at a moderate intensity (50–75% of a predetermined physiological parameter, typically age-predicted heart rate maximum or reserve), for two to three sessions per week, for 10 to 60 min per exercise session, for 12 to 15 weeks. The use of generic exercise prescriptions may, however, be masking the full therapeutic potential of exercise treatment in the oncology setting. Against this background, this opinion paper provides an overview of the fundamental tenets of human exercise physiology known as the principles of training, with specific application of these principles in the design and conduct of clinical trials in exercise-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26136187

  7. Do concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sewage reflect prescription figures?

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Beyers, Herman; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Verpooten, Gert; Neels, Hugo; Jorens, Philippe G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, it has been demonstrated that sewage-based epidemiology can deliver interesting information on trends in illicit drug consumption. However, until now, no real evidence exists that the measured concentrations of drugs in sewage can be exactly correlated with the amounts of drugs used by a specific population. This study aimed therefore at correlating detailed monthly prescription figures of 11 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, citalopram, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, carbamazepine, metformin, and tramadol) with measured concentrations of these compounds in influent sewage from five sewage treatment plants in Belgium. For 7 out of the 11 substances, a ratio between loads calculated from the prescription figures and loads calculated from measured concentrations in the range of 0.30-3.00 was observed. For four pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, telmisartan, and venlafaxine), the observed relationship was less pronounced. The manuscript gives an overview of the possible uncertainties that are related with the calculated correlations. This study highlights the need for gathering all the necessary information regarding sewage sampling, stability of substances in sewage, pharmacokinetics, and analytical method performance when sewage-based epidemiology studies are performed.

  8. Mechanotherapy: how physical therapists' prescription of exercise promotes tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Khan, K M; Scott, A

    2009-04-01

    Mechanotransduction is the physiological process where cells sense and respond to mechanical loads. This paper reclaims the term "mechanotherapy" and presents the current scientific knowledge underpinning how load may be used therapeutically to stimulate tissue repair and remodelling in tendon, muscle, cartilage and bone. The purpose of this short article is to answer a frequently asked question "How precisely does exercise promote tissue healing?" This is a fundamental question for clinicians who prescribe exercise for tendinopathies, muscle tears, non-inflammatory arthropathies and even controlled loading after fractures. High-quality randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews show that various forms of exercise or movement prescription benefit patients with a wide range of musculoskeletal problems.1(-)4 But what happens at the tissue level to promote repair and remodelling of tendon, muscle, articular cartilage and bone? The one-word answer is "mechanotransduction", but rather than finishing there and limiting this paper to 95 words, we provide a short illustrated introduction to this remarkable, ubiquitous, non-neural, physiological process. We also re-introduce the term "mechanotherapy" to distinguish therapeutics (exercise prescription specifically to treat injuries) from the homeostatic role of mechanotransduction. Strictly speaking, mechanotransduction maintains normal musculoskeletal structures in the absence of injury. After first outlining the process of mechanotransduction, we provide well-known clinical therapeutic examples of mechanotherapy-turning movement into tissue healing.

  9. Motives for Medical Misuse of Prescription Opioids among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the motives for medical misuse of prescription opioids among adolescents, and assessed differences in motives by demographic characteristics, substance abuse, and diversion behaviors. A survey was conducted in 2011–2012 and the sample consisted of 2,964 adolescents (51% female). Thirteen percent reported past-year medical use of prescription opioids. Among those prescribed opioids in the past-year (n = 393), 17.9% reported medical misuse (e.g., using too much, to get high, or to increase alcohol or other drug effects). The most prevalent motives for medical misuse were “to relieve pain” (84.2%) and “to get high” (35.1%). Multivariate analyses indicated that the motives differed by race, and that different motives were associated with different substance abuse and diversion behaviors. The odds of past-year substance abuse among medical misusers motivated by non-pain relief were over fifteen times greater than for nonusers (AOR = 15.2, 95% CI = 6.4 – 36.2, p < .001). No such differences existed between nonusers and appropriate medical users, or between nonusers and medical misusers motivated by pain relief only. These findings improve our understanding of opioid medication misuse among adolescents and indicate the need for enhanced education about appropriate medical use, pain management, and patient communication with prescribers. PMID:23954519

  10. Prescription of antiepileptics and the risk of road traffic crash.

    PubMed

    Orriols, Ludivine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Delorme, Bernard; Tricotel, Aurore; Philip, Pierre; Moore, Nicholas; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Studies assessing the impact of epilepsy and its medication on the risk of road traffic crashes have shown inconsistent results. The aim in this study was to assess this risk using French databases. Data from three French national databases were extracted and matched: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Only antiepileptics prescribed predominantly in epilepsy were studied (phenobarbital, phenytoin, ethosuximide, valproic acid, vigabatrin, tiagabin, levitiracetam, zonisamide, and lacosamide). A case-control analysis comparing responsible and non-responsible drivers and a case-crossover analysis were performed. Drivers (72 685) involved in an injurious crash in France between July 2005 and May 2008, were included. Drivers exposed to prescribed antiepileptic medicines (n = 251) had an increased risk of being responsible for a crash (OR 1.74 [1.29-2.34]). The association was also significant for the most severe epileptic patients (n = 99; OR = 2.20 [1.31-3.69]). Case-crossover analysis found no association between crash risk and treatment prescription. Patients with prescription of antiepileptic drugs should be cautioned about their potential risk of road traffic crash. This risk is however more likely to be related to seizures than to the effect of antiepileptic medicines.

  11. [The evolution of principal drugs in prescription compatibility].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Shi, Dong-ping

    2009-01-01

    The principal drugs of principal, adjuvant, auxiliary and conductant compatiblity in prescriptions recorded in the ancient literatures had different meaning and quantities. According to the current literatures, Zhuangzi Xu Wugui took the one can cure diseases as the principal drug; The principal, adjuvant, auxiliary and conductant drugs in Shennong Bencao Jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) can be used to differentiate the good and bad of drugs; Yaoxing Lun (Treatise on medicinal property) of Zheng quan (Tang dynasty) stipulated some drugs as principal drugs; Zazhu Bencao of Jiang Xiaowan (Tang dynasty) took the one can cure yin diseases as the principal drugs; Yixue Qiyuan (the origination of medicine) of Zhang Yuansu (Jin dynasty) took the one of maximum dosage as principal drugs; Piwei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach) of LI gao (Jin dynasty) took the powerful one as the principal drug; The principal drugs in Yi Lun (medicine treatise) of Wang Kentang (Ming dynasty) changed according to different ages. The quantities of principal drugs can had two and three ingredients even took one prescription as principal drug instead of one ingredient.

  12. Primary Care Clinic Re-Design for Prescription Opioid Management

    PubMed Central

    Parchman, Michael L.; Von Korff, Michael; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Stephens, Mark; Ike, Brooke; Cromp, DeAnn; Hsu, Clarissa; Wagner, Ed H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The challenge of responding to prescription opioid overuse within the United States has fallen disproportionately on the primary care clinic setting. Here we describe a framework comprised of 6 Building Blocks to guide efforts within this setting to address the use of opioids for chronic pain. Methods Investigators conducted site visits to thirty primary care clinics across the United States selected for their use of team-based workforce innovations. Site visits included interviews with leadership, clinic tours, observations of clinic processes and team meetings, and interviews with staff and clinicians. Data were reviewed to identify common attributes of clinic system changes around chronic opioid therapy (COT) management. These concepts were reviewed to develop narrative descriptions of key components of changes made to improve COT use. Results Twenty of the thirty sites had addressed improvements in COT prescribing. Across these sites a common set of 6 Building Blocks were identified: 1) providing leadership support; 2) revising and aligning clinic policies, patient agreements (contracts) and workflows; 3) implementing a registry tracking system; 4) conducting planned, patient-centered visits; 5) identifying resources for complex patients; and 6) measuring progress toward achieving clinic objectives. Common components of clinic policies, patient agreements and data tracked in registries to assess progress are described. Conclusions In response to prescription opioid overuse and the resulting epidemic of overdose and addiction, primary care clinics are making improvements driven by a common set of best practices that address complex challenges of managing COT patients in primary care settings. PMID:28062816

  13. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  14. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  15. Levels and potential health risks of mercury in prescription, non-prescription medicines and dietary supplements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Determination of mercury is important in the case of pharmaceuticals for which the European Union regulations have not defined the maximum permissible concentration of this metal. The aim of the study was to determine the levels of mercury in the following groups of drugs (n = 119): analgesics, diuretics, cardiacs, antihypertensives, anti-influenza, antibiotics, anti-allergics, tranquilizers, antibacterials and in dietary supplements (n = 33) available on the Polish market. Mercury was analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry CV-AFS. Its content in the samples varied in the range of 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1). Higher mercury concentrations were reported for prescription drugs (Rx): 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1) (median: 7.4 ng g(-1)), lower--for non-prescription medicines (OTC): 1.2-45.8 ng g(-1) (median: 6.0 ng g(-1)). In the analyzed dietary supplements the concentrations were: 0.9-16.7 ng g(-1) (median: 5.9 ng g(-1)). On the basis of the information contained in the leaflet accompanying the medicine, a daily dose of mercury taken into the body with an analyzed medicament was estimated and the health risk posed by using such medicines was assessed. The study indicates that it is justified to carry out measurements of mercury in pharmaceuticals due to its high, potentially harmful.

  16. Bibliotherapy and information prescriptions: a summary of the published evidence-base and recommendations from past and ongoing Books on Prescription projects.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, D; Heaps, D; Robert, I

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the published evidence and reports from ongoing and completed projects that used Bibliotherapy and Information Prescription to deliver patient care. A literature search was conducted and relevant papers were summarized into: type of study, type of Bibliotherapy, client group and recommendations. In total, 65 papers were considered with 57 reviewed. A survey was also sent to Library Authorities subscribing to national survey standards asking for details about delivery of Information Prescription projects. There were 21 returned surveys. The experiences and recommendations were then summarized. The aim of the paper is to collate the evidence-base of written research and the experience and recommendations of projects into an easy format so that practitioners interested in using Bibliotherapy/Information Prescription/Books on Prescription have an understanding what they are, the extent of the evidence-base to inform practice, and highlight gaps in the research.

  17. Prescription of Protective Paternalism for Men in Romantic and Work Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarlet, Marie; Dumont, Muriel; Delacollette, Nathalie; Dardenne, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic…

  18. The economics of prescription drug prices, government intervention, and the importation of drugs from Canada.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Matthew S

    2005-01-01

    Popular attention has focused on the skyrocketing health care costs in the United States and specifically on increasing insurance and prescription drug prices. Individuals and some local governments have advocated importing price-controlled prescription drugs from Canada to help ease the financial burden. What effects would this have on consumer prices, drug companies' incentives, and the development of new medications?

  19. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  20. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  1. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  2. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  3. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  4. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution § 203.50 Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying statement for sales by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution...

  5. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution § 203.50 Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying statement for sales by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution...

  6. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution § 203.50 Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying statement for sales by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution...

  7. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution § 203.50 Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying statement for sales by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution...

  8. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution § 203.50 Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying statement for sales by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution...

  9. [Standard prescriptions for extemporaneously produced medicinal preparations in pharmacies VI. Collection Neues Rezeptur-Formularium].

    PubMed

    Subert, Jan; Kolář, Jozef

    2013-10-01

    The paper deals with the content of the collection Neues Rezeptur-Formularium (NRF) and some prescriptions potentially usable in innovations and standardization of prescriptions for extemporaneously produced medicinal preparations in pharmacies in the Czech Republic. Another possible use of NRF in the Czech Republic consists in the revision of the National Section of the Czech Pharmacopoeia.

  10. Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections? A systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Arroll, Bruce; Kenealy, Tim; Kerse, Ngaire

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the increasing resistance of antibiotics to common bacteria. Delayed prescribing for respiratory tract infections is a strategy that may reduce the use of antibiotics. AIM: To systematically review controlled trials of delayed prescriptions to establish their capacity to reduce antibiotic intake. DESIGN OF STUDY: A systematic review of the literature. SETTING: Four studies were conducted in the United Kingdom and one in New Zealand. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from 1966 to April 2003, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register using the following terms: 'delayed', 'antibiotics', 'prescriptions', and 'back-up' (as in back-up prescription). We included controlled trials of studies in which the intervention was a delayed prescription compared to an immediate prescription for patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The studies were selected independently and the results compared. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. The data and quality of the studies were extracted and assessed independently by two of the authors. RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials and one before-after controlled trial contributed to the review. The relative risk in the randomised trials for lower antibiotic usage when a delayed prescription was given ranged from 0.54 for the common cold to 0.25 for otitis media. CONCLUSION: The consistent reduction in antibiotic usage in the five controlled trials included in this review suggests that delayed prescription is an effective means of reducing antibiotic usage for acute respiratory infections. The duration of delay for prescriptions ranged widely, from 1 to 7 days. PMID:14702908

  11. 77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container... container labels accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired. The working group will hold its... working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug container...

  12. 21 CFR 1300.03 - Definitions relating to electronic orders for controlled substances and electronic prescriptions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a special hardware device (e.g., a PDA, cell phone, smart card, USB drive, one-time password device... practitioner's final authorization that he intends to issue the prescription for a legitimate medical reason in... a prescription that is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by an individual...

  13. 21 CFR 1300.03 - Definitions relating to electronic orders for controlled substances and electronic prescriptions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a special hardware device (e.g., a PDA, cell phone, smart card, USB drive, one-time password device... practitioner's final authorization that he intends to issue the prescription for a legitimate medical reason in... a prescription that is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by an individual...

  14. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  15. A Computer Program for the Management of Prescription-Based Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Patricia M.; Gumtow, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    The Prescription Management Program, a software program using Apple's HyperCard on a MacIntosh, was developed to simplify the creation, storage, modification, and general management of prescription-based problems. Pharmacy instructors may customize the program to serve their individual teaching needs. (Author/DB)

  16. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  17. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  18. 77 FR 32407 - Medicare Program; Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Medicare Program; Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for...; Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for Contract Year...), the final rule with comment period entitled ``Medicare Program; Changes to the Medicare Advantage...

  19. 75 FR 71064 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit... Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs for Contract Year 2012 and Other... the Office of the Federal Register base the comment period closing date on the date the proposed...

  20. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Adolescents: The Influence of Bonds to Family and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents in recent years. Research now indicates that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use is greater than the prevalence of other illicit drug use, excluding marijuana. Despite these recent trends, there is a dearth of research in the…

  1. Monetary Value of a Prescription Assistance Program Service in a Rural Family Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Heather P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…

  2. Motivations for Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Ibañez, Gladys E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users, their motives for abusing prescription drugs are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to 1) determine the motivations for engaging in the non-medical use of prescription opioids and sedatives among street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and residential drug treatment clients, 2) examine associations between prescription drug abuse motivations and gender, age, race/ethnicity, and user group, and 3) examine associations between specific motivations and prescription drug abuse patterns. Quantitative surveys (n = 684) and in-depth interviews (n = 45) were conducted with a diverse sample of prescription drug abusers in South Florida between March 2008 and November 2009. The three most common motivations reported were “to get high”, “to sleep”, and “for anxiety/stress”. There were age, race/ethnicity, and gender differences by motives. Prescription drug abuse patterns were also found to be associated with specific motivations. While additional research is needed, these findings serve to inform appropriate prevention and treatment initiatives for prescription drug abusers. PMID:20667680

  3. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but... administered during treatment for: (1) A nonservice-connected disability for which the veteran is entitled...

  4. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  5. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  6. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  7. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  8. 21 CFR 1300.03 - Definitions relating to electronic orders for controlled substances and electronic prescriptions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... encryption and algorithm transformation ensure that the signer's identity and the integrity of the file can... point chosen on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for a specific algorithm at which the... specific algorithm on a specific set of data. Paper prescription means a prescription created on paper...

  9. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  10. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  11. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  12. 76 FR 45831 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates for prescription drug user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The Federal Food, Drug,...

  13. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  14. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  15. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  16. Risk factors for medication errors in the electronic and manual prescription 1

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Cris Renata Grou; de Melo, Eveline Maria Magalhães; de Aguiar, Lucas Barbosa; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura; Stival, Marina Morato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare electronic and manual prescriptions of a public hospital of Brasilia, identifying risk factors for the occurrence of medication errors. Method: descriptive-exploratory, comparative and retrospective study. Data collection occurred from July 2012 to January 2013, using an instrument for the review of the information contained in medical records related to the medication process. A total of 190 manual and 199 electronic records composed the sample, with 2027 prescriptions each. Results: compared to the manual prescription, a significant reduction was observed in the risk factors after implantation of the electronic prescription, in items such as "lack of the form of dilution" (71.1% to 22.3%) and "prescription with brand name" (99.5% to 31.5%). Conversely, the risk factors "no check" and "lack of CRM of the prescriber" increased. The lack of the allergy registration and the occurrences related to medication were the same for both groups. Conclusion: generally, the use of the electronic prescription system was associated with a significant reduction in risk factors for medication errors, concerning the following aspects: illegibility, prescription with brand name and presence of essential items that provide a safe and effective prescription. PMID:27508913

  17. The use and abuse of prescription medication to facilitate or enhance sexual behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, T R; Moser, N C

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents naturally experience an increased interest in sexual behavior, but they usually lack much experience. Thus, any prescription medication that holds the potential to ease or facilitate sexual matters holds a unique allure. Widespread cultural awareness of medications to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) has combined with a recent trend toward increased adolescent prescription drug abuse to create unique challenges for industry, clinicians, and researchers.

  18. 50 CFR 221.20 - What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When NMFS... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? 221.20 Section 221.20 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  19. Total and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Prescription Drugs among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Shea, Dennis; Crystal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The burden of prescription drug costs on Medicare beneficiaries has become a critical policy issue in improving the Medicare program, yet few studies have provided detailed and current information on that burden. The present study estimates total and out-of-pocket expenditures for prescription drugs and the burden of these costs in…

  20. Investigating the exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda; Reaburn, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nurses working in mental health are well positioned to prescribe exercise to people with mental illness. However, little is known regarding their exercise-prescription practices. We examined the self-reported physical activity and exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health facilities. Thirty-four nurses completed the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire - Health Practitioner Version. Non-parametric bivariate statistics revealed no relationship between nurses' self-reported physical activity participation and the frequency of exercise prescription for people with mental illness. Exercise-prescription parameters used by nurses are consistent with those recommended for both the general population and for people with mental illness. A substantial number of barriers to effective exercise prescription, including lack of training, systemic issues (such as prioritization and lack of time), and lack of consumer motivation, impact on the prescription of exercise for people with mental illness. Addressing the barriers to exercise prescription could improve the proportion of nurses who routinely prescribe exercise. Collaboration with exercise professionals, such as accredited exercise physiologists or physiotherapists, might improve knowledge of evidence-based exercise-prescription practices for people with mental illness, thereby improving both physical and mental health outcomes for this vulnerable population.