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  1. The Nature of VeLLOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huard, Tracy L.; Pound, Marc W.; Mundy, Lee; Dunham, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) are young stellar sources that are defined by luminosities less than 0.1 solar luminosity and rising mid-infrared spectral energy distributions. But, what exactly are they? Brown dwarfs or low-mass stars in formation? Systems exhibiting low accretion rates? Extremely young objects? We have completed an ALMA survey of 33 candidates in the nearby Serpens, Ophiuchus, and Lupus star-forming molecular clouds. Continuum emission at 1.3 mm, consistent with the presence of an inner envelope and/or disk, was detected toward 17 candidates, with at least 6 of these candidates exhibiting CO outflow emission, suggesting ongoing formation. We will present these observations and results, and discuss their implications concerning the nature of VeLLOs.

  2. The nature of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Elbakyan, Vardan; Dunham, Michael M.; Guedel, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Aims: The nature of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs) with the internal luminosity Lobj ≤ 0.1 L⊙ is investigated by means of numerical modeling coupling the core collapse simulations with the stellar evolution calculations. Methods: The gravitational collapse of a large sample of model cores in the mass range 0.1-2.0 M⊙ is investigated. Numerical simulations were started at the pre-stellar phase and terminated at the end of the embedded phase when 90% of the initial core mass had been accreted onto the forming protostar plus disk system. The disk formation and evolution was studied using numerical hydrodynamics simulations, while the formation and evolution of the central star was calculated using a stellar evolution code. Three scenarios for mass accretion from the disk onto the star were considered: hybrid accretion in which a fraction of accreted energy absorbed by the protostar depends on the accretion rate, hot accretion wherein a fraction of accreted energy is constant, and cold accretion wherein all accretion energy is radiated away. Results: Our conclusions on the nature of VeLLOs depend crucially on the character of protostellar accretion. In the hybrid accretion scenario, most VeLLOs (90.6%) are expected to be the first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs) and only a small fraction (9.4%) are true protostars. In the hot accretion scenario, all VeLLOs are FHSCs due to overly high photospheric luminosity of protostars. In the cold accretion scenario, on the contrary, the majority of VeLLOs belong to the Class I phase of stellar evolution. The reason is that the stellar photospheric luminosity, which sets the floor for the total internal luminosity of a young star, is lower in cold accretion, thus enabling more VeLLOs in the protostellar stage. VeLLOs are relatively rare objects occupying 7%-11% of the total duration of the embedded phase and their masses do not exceed 0.3 M⊙. When compared with published observations inferring a fraction of VeLLOs in the

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  4. NACA Pilots at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1945-07-21

    The Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory’s pilot corps during the final days of World War II: from left to right, Joseph Vensel, Howard Lilly, William Swann, and Joseph Walker. William “Eb” Gough joined the group months after this photograph. These men were responsible for flying the various National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) aircraft to test new engine modifications, study ice buildup, and determine fuel performance. Vensel, a veteran pilot from Langley, was the Chief of Flight Operations and a voice of reason at the laboratory. In April 1947 Vensel was transferred to lead the new Muroc Flight Tests Unit in California until 1966. Lilly was a young pilot with recent Navy experience. Lilly also flew in the 1946 National Air Races. He followed Vensel to Muroc in July 1947 where he became the first NACA pilot to penetrate the sound barrier. On May 3, 1948, Lilly became the first NACA pilot to die in the line of duty. Swann was a young civilian pilot when he joined the NACA. He spent his entire career at the Cleveland laboratory, and led the flight operations group from the early 1960s until 1979. Two World War II veterans joined the crew after the war. Walker was a 24-year-old P–38 reconnaissance pilot. He joined the NACA as a physicist in early 1945 but soon worked his way into the cadre of pilots. Walker later gained fame as an X-plane pilot at Muroc and was killed in a June 1966 fatal crash. Gough survived being shot down twice during the war and was decorated for flying rescue missions in occupied areas.

  5. Mass Accretion Rate of Very Low Luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ren-Shiang; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hsieh, Tien-Hao

    2013-08-01

    We propose to measure the mass accretion rate of six Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) using Near-infrared Integral Spectrometer (NIFS). The extremely low luminosity of VeLLOs, L_int ≤ 0.1 L_⊙, was previously thought not existing in the nature because the typical accretion rate gives much larger accretion luminosity even for the lowest mass star (``Luminosity Problem''). The commonly accepted solution is that the accretion rate is not constant but episodic. Thus, VeLLOs could be interpreted as protostars being in the quiescent phase of accretion activities. However, there is no observational data directly measuring the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs. The main goal of this proposal is to examine such theory and directly measure the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs for the first time. We propose to measure the blue continuum excess (veiling) of the stellar spectrum, which is the most reliable method for measuring the accretion rate. The measurements have to be made in infrared due to the very high extinction for highly embedded protostars. Our proposal provide a first opportunity to explain the long time ``Luminosity Problem'' through the observational aspects, and Gemini is the only instrument that can provide accurate and high sensitivity infrared spectroscopy measurements within reasonably short time scale.

  6. Complete NACA Muroc Staff of 1947, in front of the XS-1 and B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The NACA Muroc Contingent in October 1947 in front of the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and Boeing B-29 launch aircraft. Standing left to right: Le Roy Proctor, Jr., Don Borchers, Harold Nemecek, Phyllis Actis Rogers, Milton McLaughlin, Roxanah Yancey, Arthur 'Bill' Vernon, Dorothy Clift Hughes, Naomi C. Wimmer, Frank Hughes, John Mayer, Elmer Bigg, De E. Beeler. Kneeling left to right: Charles Hamilton, Joseph Vensel, Herbert Hoover, Hubert Drake, Eugene Beckwith, Walter Williams, Harold Goodman, Howard Lilly, John Gardner.

  7. Aero Spacelines B377PG Pregnant Guppy on ramp in preparation for flight tests and pilot evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Aero Spacelines B377PG Pregnant Guppy was flown by Aero Spacelines pilots to Dryden for tests and evaluation by pilots Joe Vensel and Stan Butchart in October 1962. The outsized cargo aircraft incorporated the wings, engines, lower fuselage and tail from a Boeing 377 Stratocruiser with a huge upper fuselage more than 20 feet in diameter. The modified aircraft was built to transport outsized cargo for NASA's Apollo program, primarily to carry portions of the Saturn V rockets from the manufacturer to Cape Canaveral. Later versions of the aircraft, including the Super Guppy and the Super Guppy Turbine, are still in use.

  8. Flood of May 26-27, 1984 in Tulsa, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergman, DeRoy L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The greatest flood disaster in the history of Tulsa, Oklahoma occurred during 8 hours from 2030 hours May 26 to 0430 hours May 27, 1984, as a result of intense rainfall centered over the metropolitan area. Storms of the magnitude that caused this flood are not uncommon to the southern great plains. Such storms are seldom documented in large urban areas. Total rainfall depth and rainfall distribution in the Tulsa metropolitan area during the May 26-27 storm were recorded by 16 recording rain gages. This report presents location of recording rain gages with corresponding rainfall histograms and mass curves, lines of equal rainfall depth (map A), and flood magnitudes and inundated areas of selected streams within the city (map B). The limits of the study areas (fig. 1) are the corporate boundaries of Tulsa, an area of about 185 square miles. Streams draining the city are: Dirty Butter, Coal, and Mingo Creeks which drain northward into Bird Creek along the northern boundary of the city; and Cherry, Crow, Harlow, Joe Haikey, Fry, Vensel, Fred, and Mooser Creeks which flow into the Arkansas River along the southern part of the city. Flooding along Haikey, Fry, Fred, Vensel, and Mooser Creeks was not documented for this report. The Arkansas River is regulated by Keystone Dam upstream from Tulsa (fig. 1). The Arkansas River remained below flood stage during the storm. Flooded areas in Tulsa (map B) were delineated on the topographic maps using flood profiles based on surveys of high-water marks identified immediately after the flood. The flood boundaries show the limits of stream flooding. Additional areas flooded because of overfilled storm drains or by sheet runoff are not shown in this report. Data presented in this report, including rainfall duration and frequency, and flood discharges and elevations, provide city officials and consultants a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions.

  9. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  10. NACA Groundbreaking Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    The NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, had initially been subordinate to the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory near Hampton, Virginia, but as the flight research in the Mojave Desert increasingly proved its worth after 1946, it made sense to make the Flight Research Station a separate entity reporting directly to the headquarters of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. But an autonomous center required all the trappings of a major research facility, including good quarters. With the adoption of the Edwards 'Master Plan,' the Air Force had committed itself to moving from its old South Base to a new location midway between the South and North Bases. The NACA would have to move also--so why not take advantage of the situation and move into a full-blown research facility. The Air Force issued a lease to NACA for a location on the northwestern shore of the Roger Dry Lake. Construction started on the NACA station in early February 1953. On a windy day, January 27, 1953, at a groundbreaking ceremony stood left to right: Gerald Truszynski, Head of Instrumentation Division; Joseph Vensel, Head of the Operations Branch; Walter Williams, Head of the Station, scooping the first shovel full of dirt; Marion Kent, Head of Personnel; and California state official Arthur Samet.

  11. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  12. IRAS 16253–2429: THE FIRST PROTO-BROWN DWARF BINARY CANDIDATE IDENTIFIED THROUGH THE DYNAMICS OF JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud

    2016-07-20

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD in the embedded phase. IRAS 16253–2429 is classified as a very low-luminosity object (VeLLO) with an internal luminosity of <0.1 L {sub ⊙}. VeLLOs are believed to be very low-mass protostars or even proto-BDs. We observed the jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253–2429 in CO (2–1), (6–5), and (7–6) using the IRAM 30 m and Atacama Pathfinder Experimentmore » telescopes and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in order to study its dynamical features and physical properties. Our SMA map reveals two protostellar jets, indicating the existence of a proto-binary system as implied by the precessing jet detected in H{sub 2} emission. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position–velocity diagrams along the jet axes, which is likely due to the binary orbital motion. Based on this information, we derive the current mass of the binary as ∼0.032 M{sub ⊙}. Given the low envelope mass, IRAS 16253–2429 will form a binary that probably consist of one or two BDs. Furthermore, we found that the outflow force as well as the mass accretion rate are very low based on the multi-transition CO observations, which suggests that the final masses of the binary components are at the stellar/substellar boundary. Since IRAS 16253 is located in an isolated environment, we suggest that BDs can form through fragmentation and collapse, similar to low-mass stars.« less

  13. Magnetic field structure around cores with very low luminosity objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soam, A.; Maheswar, G.; Lee, Chang Won; Dib, Sami; Bhatt, H. C.; Tamura, Motohide; Kim, Gwanjeong

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We carried out optical polarimetry of five dense cores, (IRAM 04191, L1521F, L328, L673-7, and L1014) which are found to harbour very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; Lint ≲ 0.1 L⊙). This study was conducted mainly to understand the role played by the magnetic field in the formation of very low and substellar mass range objects. Methods: Light from the stars, while passing through the dust grains that are aligned with their short axis parallel to an external magnetic field, becomes linearly polarised. The polarisation position angles measured for the stars can provide the plane-of-the sky magnetic field orientation. Because the light in the optical wavelength range is most efficiently polarised by the dust grains typically found at the outer layers of the molecular clouds, optical polarimetry mostly traces the magnetic field orientation of the core envelope. Results: The polarisation observations of stars projected on IRAM 04191, L328, L673-7, and L1014 were obtained in the R-band and those of L1521F were obtained in the V-band. The angular offsets between the envelope magnetic field direction (inferred from optical polarisation measurements) and the outflow position angles from the VeLLOs in IRAM 04191, L1521F, L328, L673-7, and L1014 are found to be 84°, 53°, 24°, 08°, and 15°, respectively. The mean value of the offsets for all the five clouds is ~ 37°. If we exclude IRAM 04191, the mean value reduces to become ~ 25°. In IRAM 04191, the offset between the projected envelope and the inner magnetic field (inferred from the submillimetre data obtained using SCUBA-POL) is found to be ~ 68°. The inner magnetic field, however, is found to be nearly aligned with the projected position angles of the minor axis, the rotation axis of the cloud, and the outflow from the IRAM 04191-IRS. We discuss a possible explanation for the nearly perpendicular orientation between the envelope and core scale magnetic fields in IRAM 04191. The angular offset between the

  14. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.

  15. 3D numerical calculations and synthetic observations of magnetized massive dense core collapse and fragmentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commerçon, B.; Hennebelle, P.; Levrier, F.; Launhardt, R.; Henning, Th.

    2012-03-01

    I will present radiation-magneto-hydrodynamics calculations of low-mass and massive dense core collapse, focusing on the first collapse and the first hydrostatic core (first Larson core) formation. The influence of magnetic field and initial mass on the fragmentation properties will be investigated. In the first part reporting low mass dense core collapse calculations, synthetic observations of spectral energy distributions will be derived, as well as classical observational quantities such as bolometric temperature and luminosity. I will show how the dust continuum can help to target first hydrostatic cores and to state about the nature of VeLLOs. Last, I will present synthetic ALMA observation predictions of first hydrostatic cores which may give an answer, if not definitive, to the fragmentation issue at the early Class 0 stage. In the second part, I will report the results of radiation-magneto-hydrodynamics calculations in the context of high mass star formation, using for the first time a self-consistent model for photon emission (i.e. via thermal emission and in radiative shocks) and with the high resolution necessary to resolve properly magnetic braking effects and radiative shocks on scales <100 AU (Commercon, Hennebelle & Henning ApJL 2011). In this study, we investigate the combined effects of magnetic field, turbulence, and radiative transfer on the early phases of the collapse and the fragmentation of massive dense cores (M=100 M_⊙). We identify a new mechanism that inhibits initial fragmentation of massive dense cores, where magnetic field and radiative transfer interplay. We show that this interplay becomes stronger as the magnetic field strength increases. We speculate that highly magnetized massive dense cores are good candidates for isolated massive star formation, while moderately magnetized massive dense cores are more appropriate to form OB associations or small star clusters. Finally we will also present synthetic observations of these