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Sample records for aarnos jenni kavn

  1. Jenny's story: reinventing oneself through occupation and narrative configuration.

    PubMed

    Price-Lackey, P; Cashman, J

    1996-04-01

    Two life history interviews were conducted to discover how one women, Jenny, experienced a traumatic head injury, rehabilitation, and recovery. Narrative analysis of the transcribed interviews revealed a rich story of how Jenny had fashioned her identity and character through childhood occupations, including studying classical literature and music, and of how she drew upon resources developed in childhood to engineer her recovery. It also illustrated how Jenny used a recursive process of narrative construction and engagement in self-devised graduated occupations, including studying, playing music, writing, computer graphics, and theater production, to create a new identity and develop capacities to process complex information and exercise creativity. Jenny's story illustrates the usefulness of gaining a perspective on patients as occupational beings through the gathering of life histories focused on occupation, the importance of collaborative patient-therapist goal setting, and the necessity for considering both the doing (practic) and the meaning (narrative) aspects of occupation. Her story supports many scholars' arguments that the therapeutic relationship, and thus occupational therapy practice, may be enhanced through the use of life history interviewing in occupational therapy evaluation and treatment.

  2. A Shape and Spin Axis Model for 607 Jenny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Robert D.; Warner, Brian D.

    2018-04-01

    A combination of dense lightcurves obtained by the authors over several apparitions and sparse data was used to model the outer main-belt asteroid 607 Jenny. A reasonably reliable spin axis with ecliptic coordinates of (220°, –40°, 8.52234 h) was found, although one of (35°, –17°, 8.52234 h) cannot be formally excluded.

  3. Ecofutures in Africa: Jenny Robson's "Savannah 2116 AD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloete, Elsie

    2009-01-01

    Jenny Robson's "Savannah 2216 AD", a dark, futuristic novel for young adults, provides a strong critique on much of the world's predilection for saving Africa's animals at the expense of those human communities who are perceived to be in the way of the preservation of the continent's remaining wild spaces. Using Robson's novel as…

  4. Short communication: jenny milk as an inhibitor of late blowing in cheese: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Calluso, A M

    2013-06-01

    Late blowing on semihard and hard cheese may have an important economic effect on dairy production. Many studies have attempted to prevent this defect by physical treatment, the use of additives, and the use of bacteriocins. In this paper, we look at the effect of jenny milk as an inhibitor of blowing caused by clostridia and coliforms in ewe cheese making. Bulk ewe and jenny milk samples were collected in the morning by mechanical milking and were refrigerated at 4°C. On the collected samples, the count of somatic cells, coliforms, Clostridium butyricum, and Escherichia coli were determined. The bulk raw milk was divided in two 45-L vats: vat 1 was used as a control, whereas 0.5L of jenny milk was added to vat 2. Four semihard cheeses, weighing about 2 kg each, were made from each vat. Cheese making was replicated twice. After a ripening period of 60 d, the count of coliforms and of C. butyricum was determined. In the treated group, a significant inhibition of coliform bacteria was observed. The addition of jenny milk in cheese making may prove to be a useful and innovative approach for the inhibition of spore-forming clostridia strains. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor System (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fol...

  6. Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena, MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fo...

  7. Factors affecting pregnancy length and phases of parturition in Martina Franca jennies.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Augusto; Gloria, Alessia; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; De Amicis, Ippolito; Noto, Federico; Contri, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge of normal pregnancy length, duration of parturition stages, and neonatal early adaptation is mandatory for a rationale management of birth, especially in monotocous species with long gestations. This study reports data obtained from a large number of Martina Franca jennies with normal healthy pregnancies and spontaneous eutocic delivery of a mature, healthy, and viable donkey foal. Pregnancy lasts, on average, 371 days, and only the fetal gender significantly determines pregnancy length, with longer gestations observed in jennies bearing male fetuses. Other factors such as the year of foaling, month of ovulation, month of parturition, birth weight of the foal, and age of the jenny did not influence pregnancy length. The first stage of foaling lasted on average 65 minutes, the second stage 19 minutes, and the third stage 58 minutes. The umbilical cord ruptured on average within 16 minutes after birth; the foal stood up in 61 minutes and suckled the colostrum for the first time within 10 minutes after birth and again after 143 minutes of birth; meconium passage occurred, on average, 86 minutes after birth. Although times reported for the process of foaling are similar to data reported for the horse, the times for early neonatal donkey foal adaptation are longer as compared to the horse foal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproductive Patterns in the Non-Breeding Season in Asinina de Miranda Jennies.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, M; Silva, S R; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the reproductive patterns in Asinina de Miranda jennies during the non-breeding season. Reproductive activity was surveyed in 12 females, aged between 3 and 18 years old, using ultrasound and teasing with a jack. The animals were monitored from September to April, six in each consecutive year. Of these 12 females, nine showed disruption to the normal pattern of ovarian activity during the non-breeding season. Loss of normal cyclicity included anoestrus (41.7%), silent ovulatory oestrus (25%), and persistence of corpus luteum (8.3%). Only three females maintained a regular cyclic pattern with oestrous behaviour during the non-breeding season. Anoestrus began in early November and lasted for an average of 147 ± 28 days (113-191 days), ending near to the spring equinox. Onset of silent oestrous cycles began more erratically, between October and February. In both groups the first behavioural ovulation of the year occurred around the time of the spring equinox. Disrupted reproductive activity was preceded by a shorter oestrous cycle only in females entering anoestrus. The mean follicle size in the first ovulation of the year was larger than in the reproductive season (44.7 ± 2.45 mm vs 39.2 ± 3.60 mm) in anoestrous jennies with protracted oestrus. Though age and body condition score (BCS) were associated, changes in BCS below a threshold of four points (for anoestrus) and five points (for silent oestrus) contributed greatly to disruption of reproductive cycles. BCS in females with regular oestrous cycles during the winter season remained unchanged or exceeded five points prior to the winter solstice. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  10. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  11. Effects of breed, age, season, and multiple ovulations on cyclic, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrus characteristics in Spanish jennies.

    PubMed

    Perez-Marin, C C; Galisteo, I; Perez-Rico, A; Galisteo, J

    2016-04-01

    This retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed data for a total of 104 jennies reared in southern Spain over the period 1995 to 2014. Intervals to ovulation and incidence of multiple ovulation and pregnancy were charted for spontaneous, PGF2α-induced, and postpartum estrous cycles. In spontaneous estrous cycles, the interovulatory interval varied as a function of breed (P < 0.03) and month of ovulation (P < 0.01), and duration of estrus signs was longer in older jennies (0.04). Spontaneous cycles were also associated with higher ovulation rates from September to January (P < 0.006). When PGF2α was used to induce the estrus, not only did estrus signs last longer in old (P < 0.004) and in polyovular (0.02) jennies but old jennies also displayed significantly higher ovulation rates (P < 0.03). In postpartum jennies, no variations were observed as a function of any of the independent variables analyzed. Comparison of ovulation rates between different types of cycle revealed that postpartum jennies exhibited significantly lower ovulation rates (1.32 ± 0.07) and a lower incidence of multiple ovulation (30.4%) than spontaneous (1.62 ± 0.04, 55.0%) and PGF2α-induced (1.74 ± 0.08, 65.5%) groups. No differences were observed in the incidence of ovulation or pregnancy depending on the location of ovulation in polyovular cycles, and ovulation occurred at similar rates in the right and left ovaries. These findings shed further light on reproductive physiology in jennies and may be of value in improving animal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cold seeps associated with a submarine debris avalanche deposit at Kick'em Jenny volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Ballard, Robert; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Bell, Richard J.; Connally, Patrick; Dondin, Frederic; Fuller, Sarah; Gobin, Judith; Miloslavich, Patricia; Phillips, Brennan; Roman, Chris; Seibel, Brad; Siu, Nam; Smart, Clara

    2014-11-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) exploration at the distal margins of a debris avalanche deposit from Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in Grenada has revealed areas of cold seeps with chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. The seeps occur on steep slopes of deformed, unconsolidated hemipelagic sediments in water depths between 1952 and 2042 m. Two main areas consist of anastomosing systems of fluid flow that have incised local sediments by several tens of centimeters. No temperature anomalies were observed in the vent areas and no active flow was visually observed, suggesting that the venting may be waning. An Eh sensor deployed on a miniature autonomous plume recorder (MAPR) recorded a positive signal and the presence of live organisms indicates at least some venting is still occurring. The chemosynthetic-based ecosystem included giant mussels (Bathymodiolus sp.) with commensal polychaetes (Branchipolynoe sp.) and cocculinid epibionts, other bivalves, Siboglinida (vestimentiferan) tubeworms, other polychaetes, and shrimp, as well as associated heterotrophs, including gastropods, anemones, crabs, fish, octopods, brittle stars, and holothurians. The origin of the seeps may be related to fluid overpressure generated during the collapse of an ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano. We suggest that deformation and burial of hemipelagic sediment at the front and base of the advancing debris avalanche led to fluid venting at the distal margin. Such deformation may be a common feature of marine avalanches in a variety of geological environments especially along continental margins, raising the possibility of creating large numbers of ephemeral seep-based ecosystems.

  13. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs <1 as compared to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume identified on the volcanic edifice using (VolcanoFit 2

  14. Hydrothermal venting and mineralization in the crater of Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Olsen, Rene; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Ballard, Robert; Dondin, Frederic; Roman, Chris; Smart, Clara; Lilley, Marvin; Lupton, John; Seibel, Brad; Cornell, Winton; Moyer, Craig

    2016-03-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (˜70 × 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180°C. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. Gas flux measurements of individual bubble streams range from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5-35°C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are colonized by reddish-yellow bacteria with the production of Fe-oxyhydroxides as surface coatings, fragile spires up to several meters in height, and elongated mounds up to tens of centimeters thick. A high-resolution photomosaic of the inner crater depression shows fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression toward the crater floor. We suggest that the negatively buoyant fluid flow is the result of phase separation of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature.

  15. Using telepresence enabled remote-operated vehicles to assess hydrothermal outflow along a collapse scar near the Kick'em Jenny Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, S. Z.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    During expedition NA054 of the E/V Nautilus from 18 September to 9 October 2014 and as part of the TREET (Transforming Remotely Conducted Research through Ethnography, Education, and Rapidly Evolving Technologies) project, a series of photographic surveys along the shoulder of the Kick'em Jenny volcano were performed under direction of a remote research team located at the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center. The primary goal of these surveys was to map the distribution and extent of active and extinct hydrothermal activity along a large collapse scar surrounding the current edifice of the Kick'em Jenny volcano. Photomosaic surveys cover a area of 3000 m2 and reveal extensive basalt alteration with areas of active diffuse hydrothermal outflow. The spatial extents of orange-colored alteration and white, bacterial mats, taken to indicate active outflow, are quantified using both manual identification and an automated, supervised classification scheme. Both methods find that alteration covers 7-8% and active outflow 1-3% of the survey region. It is unclear if the observed hydrothermal fluids are part of the fluid circulation network of the nearby Kick'em Jenny volcano or if a separate heat source is driving this flow. To test these two endmember cases, we use a 2D, finite-difference, marker-in-cell code to simulate hydrothermal circulation of a single-phase fluid within the oceanic crust. Parameters varied include the permeability structure (e.g., inclusion of a permeability barrier representing the collapse surface), the depth to the heat source beneath Kick'em Jenny, and the bathymetry. We will discuss results from the photomosaic analysis and our initial models.

  16. Geogenic Enrichment of PTEs and the " Serpentine Syndrome"(H. Jenny, 1980). A proxy for soil remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Serpentine soils have relatively high concentrations of PTEs (e.g., Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni) but generally low amounts of major nutrients. They often bear a distinctive vegetation, and a frequently-used approach to understanding serpentine ecology and environmental hazard has been the chemical analysis of soils and plants. Long-term studies on aspects of serpentine soils and their vegetation provide results on total concentrations, or on plant-available fractions, of soil elements which counteract ecological conditions. For example, there is evidence of Ni toxicity at Ni-concentration >0.3 mg/L in the soil solution (Johnston and Proctor, 1981). The serpentine vegetation differs from the conterminous non-serpentine areas, being often endemic, and showing macroscopic physionomical characters such as dwarfism, prostrate outcome, glaucescence and glabrescence, leaves stenosis, root shortening (what Jenny, 1980, called "the serpentine syndrome"). Similarly, at microscopic level cytomorphological characteristics of the roots and variations in biochemical parameters such as LPO and phenols have been recorded in serpentine native vegetation (Giuliani et al., 2008). Light microscopy observations showed depressed mitotic activity in the meristematic zone, and consequent reduced root growth (Gabbrielli et al., 1990) The metal content of plants growing on serpentine soils at sites with different microclimatic conditions has been examined by several authors (e.g. Bini et al., 1993; Dinelli and Lombini, 1996) . A preferential Ni distribution in epidermis and sclerenchima has been observed in the stem of Alyssum bertoloni, a well known Ni-accumulator plant (Vergnano Gambi, 1975). The different tolerance mechanisms responsible for plant adaption to high concentrations of PTEs in serpentine soils can be related to the capacity of plants either to limit metal uptake and translocation or to accumulate metals in non toxic forms. The majority of serpentine species (e.g. Silene italica) tend

  17. ­­­­High-Resolution Mapping of Kick`em Jenny Submarine Volcano and Associated Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchala, T. L.; Carey, S.; Hart, L.; Chen, M.; Scott, C.; Tominaga, M.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Fujii, M.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physical and geological processes that drive the volcanism and control the morphology of Kick`em Jenny (KEJ) volcano, the only active submarine volcano in the in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, we conducted near-source, high-resolution mapping of KEJ and its subsurface using the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules during cruise NA054 of the E/V Nautilus (Sept.-Oct. 2014). Shipboard bathymetric data (EM302 system) and slope analysis maps were used to decipher the detailed seafloor morphology surrounding KEJ. Multiple generations of submarine landslides and canyons were observed, suggesting the area has been hosting dynamic sediment transport systems at multiple scales over time. Some of them might have been associated by past eruptions. Clear contacts between partially lithified carbonate sediments and volcanic formations were identified from ROV videos at the middle of the landslide slope face. Detailed observations of facies on these exposures provide constraints on the time intervals between landslide events along the western slope of KEJ. ROV video imagery also identified outcrops of columnar basalts located in the middle of the landslide deposits. These are similar in appearance to those observed in the KEJ crater during previous ROV dives, indicating a possible travel distance of volcanic materials from the crater region along landslide path. High-resolution photo mosaics, bathymetry, and magnetic data acquired by ROV Hercules were used to investigate geological processes and the possible volcanic source of landslide material within the KEJ crater. Mapping in the northwestern part of the crater floor revealed distinctive regions, including (i) microbial mats, (ii) active hydrothermal vent sites; (iii) landforms curved by channelized bottom current where seafloor is outcropped; and (iv) coarse scree the distribution of which may correlate with the distance from the crater rim. Near-bottom magnetic profiles show coherent magnetic

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 27 (WSTOTH00070027) on Town Highway 7, crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WSTOTH00070027 on Town Highway 7 crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 2.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge while upstream of the bridge is forested. In the study area, the Jenny Coolidge Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 122 mm (0.339 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Jenny Coolidge Brook is a 52-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 7, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 49.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. The legs of the skeleton-type right abutment were exposed approximately 2 feet

  19. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Heap, Michael; Robert, Richard E. A.; Dorville, Jean-Francois M.; Carey, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landslides - the result of volcanic flank failure - are highly hazardous mass movements due to their high mobility, the wide area they can impact, and their potential to generate tsunamis. In the Lesser Antilles at least 53 episodes of flank collapse have been identified, with many of them associated with voluminous (Vdeposit exceeding 1 km3) submarine volcanic landslide deposits. The existence of such voluminous deposits highlights the hazard of potentially devastating tsunami waves to the populated islands of the Lesser Antilles. To help understand and mitigate such hazards, we applied a relative stability assessment method to the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles island arc: Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ). KeJ - located 8 km north of the island of Grenada - is the southernmost edifice in the arc with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide prehistoric episodes, one is associated with a collapse volume of about 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. A volume estimate of the present day edifice is about 1.5 km3. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using relative instability analysis (RIA). The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to 1 and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface named Volcanoid. To do so we use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.5. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method (Janbu's rigorous method) as a slope stability computation analysis performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1

  20. Flank instability assessment at Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano (Grenada, Lesser Antilles): a multidisciplinary approach using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J.-Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J.-F. M.; Carey, S.

    2017-01-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ)—located ca. 8 km north of the island of Grenada—is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc. Previous investigations of KeJ revealed that it lies within a collapse scar inherited from a past flank instability episode. To assess the likelihood of future collapse, we employ here a combined laboratory and modeling approach. Lavas collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) provided samples to perform the first rock physical property measurements for the materials comprising the KeJ edifice. Uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments showed that the dominant failure mode within the edifice host rock is brittle. Edifice fractures (such as those at Champagne Vent) will therefore assist the outgassing of the nearby magma-filled conduit, favoring effusive behavior. These laboratory data were then used as input parameters in models of slope stability. First, relative slope stability analysis revealed that the SW to N sector of the volcano displays a deficit of mass/volume with respect to a volcanoid (ideal 3D surface). Slope stability analysis using a limit equilibrium method (LEM) showed that KeJ is currently stable, since all values of stability factor or factor of safety (Fs) are greater than unity. The lowest values of Fs were found for the SW-NW sector of the volcano (the sector displaying a mass/volume deficit). Although currently stable, KeJ may become unstable in the future. Instability (severe reductions in Fs) could result, for example, from overpressurization due to the growth of a cryptodome. Our modeling has shown that instability-induced flank collapse will most likely initiate from the SW-NW sector of KeJ, therefore mobilizing a volume of at least ca. 0.7 km3. The mobilization of ca. 0.7 km3 of material is certainly capable of generating a tsunami that poses a significant hazard to the southern islands of the West Indies.

  1. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Carey, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the Lesser Antilles over 52 volcanic landslide episodes have been identified. These episodes serve as a testament to the hazard posed by volcanic landslides to a region composed of many islands that are small independent countries with vulnerable local economies. This study presents a relative slope stability analysis (RIA) to investigate the stability condition of the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc: Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (KeJ). Thus we hope to provide better constraint on the landslide source geometry to help mitigate volcanic landslide hazards at a KeJ. KeJ is located ca. 8 km north of Grenada island. KeJ lies within a collapse scar from a prehistorical flank collapse. This collapse was associated with a voluminous landslide deposit of about 4.4km3 with a 14 km runout. Numerial simulations showed that this event could generate a regional tsunami. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using a RIA. The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to unity and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface. We use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.7. and produce a 3D representation of the stability map. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1-18 November 2013 NA039 E/V Nautilus cruise. We performed triaxial and uniaxial deformation tests to obtain values of strength at the top and bottom of the edifice. We further characterized the permeability and P-wave velocity of the samples collected. The chosen internal structure for the model is composed of three bodies: (i) a body composed of basaltic

  2. Jennie Jorgenson | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Quantitative and statistical analysis Power grid topology of the Western Interconnection Energy storage for grid applications Research Interests Understanding the implications of high penetrations of renewable

  3. Jenny Heeter | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-63052. Heeter, J., G. Barbose, L. Bird, S. Weaver, F. Flores-Espino, K Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-54991. Cochran, J., L. Bird, J. Heeter, and D.J. Arent. 2012. Integrating , CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-53732. Holt, E., J. Sumner, and L. Bird. 2011

  4. Characterizing Volcanic Processes using Near-bottom, High Resolution Magnetic Mapping of the Caldera and Inner Crater of the Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchala, T. L.; Chen, M.; Tominaga, M.; Carey, S.

    2016-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny (KEJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, 7.5 km north of the Caribbean island Grenada. KEJ, known as one of the most explosive volcanoes in Caribbean, erupted 12 times since 1939 with recent eruptions in 2001 and possibly in 2015. Multiple generations of submarine landslides and canyons have been observed in which some of them can be attributed to past eruptions. The structure of KEJ can be characterized as a 1300 m high conical profile with its summit crater located around 180 m in depth. Active hydrothermal venting and dominantly CO2 composition gas seepage take place inside this 250m diameter crater, with the most activity occurring primarily within a small ( 70 x 110 m) depression zone (inner crater). In order to characterize the subsurface structure and decipher the processes of this volcanic system, the Nautilus NA054 expedition in 2014 deployed the underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules to conduct near-bottom geological observations and magnetometry surveys transecting KEJ's caldera. Raw magnetic data was corrected for vehicle induced magnetic noise, then merged with ROV to ship navigation at 1 HZ. To extract crustal magnetic signatures, the reduced magnetic data was further corrected for external variations such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field and diurnal variations using data from the nearby San Juan Observatory. We produced a preliminary magnetic anomaly map of KEJ's caldera for subsequent inversion and forward modeling to delineate in situ magnetic source distribution in understanding volcanic processes. We integrated the magnetic characterization of the KEJ craters with shipboard multibeam, ROV visual descriptions, and photomosaics. Initial observations show the distribution of short wavelength scale highly magnetized source centered at the north western part of the inner crater. Although locations of gas seeps are ubiquitous over the inner crater area along ROV

  5. 30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: The evolution of Kick-`em-Jenny and implications for hazard in the southern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. W.; Berry, C.; Henstock, T.; Collier, J.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Latchman, J. L.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Effective monitoring is an essential part of the process of identifying and mitigating volcanic hazards. In the submarine environment this task is made all the more difficult with observations typically limited to land-based seismic networks and infrequent shipboard surveys. Since announcing itself to the world in 1939, the Kick-`em-Jenny (KeJ) volcano, 8km off of the north coast of Grenada, has been the source of 13 episodes of T-phase recordings. These distinctive seismic signals, often coincident with heightened seismicity, have been interpreted as extrusive eruptions with a mean recurrence interval of 5-6 years. Visual confirmation of these episodes is rare and many would be unknown without the seismic evidence. By conducting new bathymetric surveys in 2016 and 2017 and reprocessing 3 further legacy data sets spanning more than 30 years and several such events we are able to present a clearer picture of the development of KeJ through time. The final bathymetric grids produced have a cell size of just 5m and, for the more modern surveys, a vertical accuracy on the order of 1m. These grids easily demonstrate the correlation between T-phase episodes and morphological changes at the volcano's edifice. In the time-period of observation we document a clear construction deficit at KeJ with only 5.75x106m3 of material added through constructive volcanism, while 5 times this amount is lost through landslides and volcanic dome collapse. The peak depth of KeJ now sits at 196m b.s.l., the lowest recorded since 1966. Limited recent magma production means that KeJ may be susceptible to larger eruptions with longer repeat times than those covered in our study. These larger eruptions would pose a more significant local hazard than the small scale volcanic events observed in recent decades. We conclude that T-phase recordings are likely to have a more varied origin than previously discussed, and are unlikely to be solely the result of extrusive submarine eruptions. This

  6. Insights on volcanic behaviour from the 2015 July 23-24 T-phase signals generated by eruptions at Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Latchman, J. L.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Lynch, L.; Stewart, R.; Smith, P.; Ramsingh, C.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, H.; Ash, C.

    2015-12-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny volcano (KeJ) is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Since 1939, the year it revealed itself, and until the volcano-seismic unrest of 2015 July 11-25 , the volcano has erupted 12 times. Only two eruptions breached the surface: 1939, 1974. The volcano has an average eruption cycle of about 10-11 years. Excluding the Montserrat, Soufrière Hills, KeJ is the most active volcano in the Lesser Antilles arc. The University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) has been monitoring KeJ since 1953. On July 23 and 24 at 1:42 am and 0:02 am local time, respectively, the SRC recorded T-phase signals , considered to have been generated by KeJ. Both signals were recorded at seismic stations in and north of Grenada: SRC seismic stations as well as the French volcano observatories in Guadeloupe and Martinique, Montserrat Volcano Observatory, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. These distant recordings, along with the experience of similar observations in previous eruptions, allowed the SRC to confirm that two explosive eruptions occurred in this episode at KeJ. Up to two days after the second eruption, when aerial surveillance was done, there was no evidence of activity at the surface. During the instrumental era, eruptions of the KeJ have been identified from T-phases recorded at seismic stations from Trinidad, in the south, to Puerto Rico, in the north. In the 2015 July eruption episode, the seismic station in Trinidad did not record T-phases associated with the KeJ eruptions. In this study we compare the T-phase signals of 2015 July with those recorded in KeJ eruptions up to 1974 to explore possible causative features for the T-phase recording pattern in KeJ eruptions. In particular, we investigate the potential role played by the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) layer in influencing the absence of the T-phase on the Trinidad seismic station during this eruption.

  7. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 02LCA02 in Lakes Ada, Crystal, Jennie, Mary, Rice, and Sylvan, Central Florida, July 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    In July of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) conducted geophysical surveys in Lakes Ada, Crystal, Jennie, Mary, Rice, and Sylvan, central Florida, as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 02LCA02 tells us the data were collected in 2002 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the second field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water, sediment column, or rock beneath. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor, sediment, or rock layers beneath the

  8. NASA JSC EV2 Intern Spring 2016 - Jennie Chung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is a mission to resume the manned exploration of the Solar System. This mission is the first crewed mission of NASA’s Orion on the Space Launch System. The target for EM-2 is to perform a flyby of a captured asteroid in lunar orbit, which NASA plans to launch in 2023. As an intern working with EV-2 – Avionics Systems Division in Johnson Space Center, we are developing flight instrumentation systems for EM-2 (MISL & RFID). The Modular Integrated Stackable Layer (MISL) is a compact space-related computer system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable. The RFID (radio frequency identification) sensors are used to take lower frequency (TC) type measurements and be able to stream data real-time to an RF (radio frequency) interrogator upon demand. Our job, in EV-2, is to certify, test, manufacture/assemble and deliver flight EM-2 DFI System (MISL & RFID). Our goal is to propose a development effort to design low-mass wire and wireless data acquisition and sensor solutions for EM-2 DFI (Development Flight Instrumentation). The team is tasked to provide the most effective use of 75 pounds to acquire DFI data and to collect sensor data for 100-200 high priority DFI channels (mass driven).

  9. Jenny's ABC's: AIDS, Blood, and Children. A Guide for Adults To Read with Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christine

    This guide, written in simple language appropriate for young children, uses a direct, conversational style to explain Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how safely and comfortably to be with individuals who have AIDS, and how to avoid contracting the disease. The text is in the voice of an 11-year-old girl whose uncle died of AIDS. It…

  10. Jimmy's baby doll and Jenny's truck: young children's reasoning about gender norms.

    PubMed

    Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    To assess the flexibility of reasoning about gender, children ages 4, 6, and 8 years (N = 72) were interviewed about gender norms when different domains were highlighted. The majority of participants at all ages judged a reversal of gender norms in a different cultural context to be acceptable. They also judged gender norms as a matter of personal choice and they negatively evaluated a rule enforcing gender norms in schools. Older children were more likely to show flexibility than younger children. Justifications obtained from 6- and 8-year-olds showed that they considered adherence to gender norms a matter of personal choice and they viewed the rule enforcing gender norms as unfair. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Jimmy's Baby Doll and Jenny's Truck: Young Children's Reasoning about Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    To assess the flexibility of reasoning about gender, children ages 4, 6, and 8 years (N = 72) were interviewed about gender norms when different domains were highlighted. The majority of participants at all ages judged a reversal of gender norms in a different cultural context to be acceptable. They also judged gender norms as a matter of personal…

  12. Identifying and Using Picture Books with Quality Mathematical Content: Moving beyond "Counting on Frank" and "The Very Hungry Caterpillar"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    This article by Jennie Marston provides a framework to assist you in selecting appropriate picture books to present mathematical content. Jennie demonstrates the framework by applying three specific examples of picture books to the framework along with examples of activities.

  13. 2. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE PARAPETS AND RECENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE PARAPETS AND RECENT INFILLING BY BULLDOZER (SCALE ROD IS MEASURED IN FEET) - Jenny Lind Bridge, Spanning Vache Grasse Creek tributary at County Road No. 8, Jenny Lind, Sebastian County, AR

  14. Palliative care for people with cancer (3rd edition) Jenny Penson Palliative care for people with cancer (3rd edition) Ronald Fisher (editors) Arnold 427pp £18.99 0340763965 0340763965 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2003-02-01

    This has been a successful textbook since publication of its first edition 11 years ago. This updated edition remains a useful resource for newcomers to palliative care in relation to cancer for nurses and other health professionals.

  15. Scaling up... : Professional Development to Serve Young Children in Chinese Welfare Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Cotton, Janice N.; Zhao, Wen; Muntaner-Gelabert, Jeronia

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 a group of American adoptive parents led by Jenny Bowen created Half the Sky Foundation (HTS) to provide nurturing care and education for children living in Chinese orphanages (known as children's welfare institutions). Jenny, a former screenwriter and film director, and her husband Richard wanted to ensure that the children still waiting…

  16. The Dokuchaev hypothesis as a basis for predictive digital soil mapping (on the 125th anniversary of its publication)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    Predictive digital soil mapping is widely used in soil science. Its objective is the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil taxonomic units and quantitative soil properties via the analysis of spatially distributed quantitative characteristics of soil-forming factors. Western pedometrists stress the scientific priority and principal importance of Hans Jenny's book (1941) for the emergence and development of predictive soil mapping. In this paper, we demonstrate that Vasily Dokuchaev explicitly defined the central idea and statement of the problem of contemporary predictive soil mapping in the year 1886. Then, we reconstruct the history of the soil formation equation from 1899 to 1941. We argue that Jenny adopted the soil formation equation from Sergey Zakharov, who published it in a well-known fundamental textbook in 1927. It is encouraging that this issue was clarified in 2011, the anniversary year for publications of Dokuchaev and Jenny.

  17. Long-term leptin fluctuations in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Čebulj-Kadunc, N; Škibin, A; Kosec, M

    2015-11-01

    The interest in donkeys is growing due to their integration in the systems of ecological farming, among other reasons. Due to limited reports on leptin concentrations in donkeys, the aim of the present study was to examine age-dependent and seasonal changes in the circulating leptin concentration in female donkeys (jennies) and thus contribute to knowledge about the physiological characteristics of this species. Prospective longitudinal study. The study was performed over a year (September 2008 to September 2009) on 20 yearling and young adult (pregnant, lactating or barren) jennies aged 1-5 years at the onset of the study; the animals were kept on pasture from May to September and stabled for the rest of the year. Blood samples were taken monthly and analysed for serum leptin concentrations by a commercial radioimmunoassay kit. Circulating leptin concentrations in studied jennies were lower than those reported for donkeys and horses. Despite the tendency for lower values in yearling vs. young adult jennies, the age range of the examined animals was insufficient to confirm any age-related leptin variations. Significant seasonal leptin fluctuations with peak levels in late spring and the lowest levels in autumn months, correlated with photoperiod, were detected in yearling, barren as well as pregnant jennies. Therefore, it was impossible to identify any effects of gestation or lactation on leptin concentrations of jennies. The results of this study cannot be used as evidence of a causal relationship between the photoperiod and seasonal circulating leptin fluctuations in donkeys, but could reflect changes induced by various external or internal factors enabling adaptations of grazing animals in variable submediterranean environments. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning situations, she advanced from recreational para-swimming instructor to developmental adaptive sailing coach. The conclusions inform future research in disability sport coaching, coach education, and applied sport psychology. PMID:25210408

  19. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M

    2014-10-02

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning situations, she advanced from recreational para-swimming instructor to developmental adaptive sailing coach. The conclusions inform future research in disability sport coaching, coach education, and applied sport psychology.

  20. Use of bar coding technology to flag ER patients on metformin-containing drugs.

    PubMed

    Lipcamon, James D; Miller, Pam; Kaiser, Tom; Campbell, Bonnie; Freemen, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Sixty percent of Jennie Edmundson Hospital's inpatients are admitted through the emergency room. Type II diabetes accounts for 90-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. There were about 1.6 million new cases of diabetes diagnosed in people 20 years or older in 2007. Consequently, we should expect to see an increase in Americans on metformin-containing drugs in the future. Jennie Edmundson Hospital's goal was to develop a hardwired process to identify patients on the medication metformin and who had a CT scan with contrast in the ER and were then admitted as an inpatient.

  1. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  2. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  3. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  4. Forest vegetation monitoring protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Treesearch

    Andrea Woodward; Karen M. Hutten; John R. Boetsch; Steven A. Acker; Regina M. Rochefort; Mignonne M. Bivin; Laurie L. Kurth

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the...

  5. Engaging & Challenging Gifted Students: The Five OEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2017-01-01

    Though nearly 5 million students can be characterized as gifted and talented in the United States, many exceptional learners "fly under the radar." Because they are not appropriately challenged in the general classroom, they never meet their full potential--in school or in life. Author Jenny Grant Rankin equips general classroom teachers…

  6. Engaging & Challenging Gifted Students: Tips for Supporting Extraordinary Minds in Your Classroom (ASCD Arias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2016-01-01

    Though nearly 5 million students can be characterized as gifted and talented in the United States, many exceptional learners "fly under the radar." Because they are not appropriately challenged in the general classroom, they never meet their full potential--in school or in life. Author Jenny Grant Rankin equips general classroom teachers…

  7. Lori Bird | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    , Nickie Menemenlis, Antje Orths, Peter Borre Eriksen, J. Charles Smith, Lennart Soder, Poul Sorensen Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 65 November 2016 pp. 577-586. Jenny Heeter, Jeffrey J. Cook, Lori Bird. 2017 -6A20-64011. Bird, L., J. Cochran, and X. Wang. 2014. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and

  8. Key Elements in Successful Training A Comparative Study of Two Workplaces. Project Report, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium, Alice Springs. Northern Territory Centre.

    This publication presents case studies of two sites--one with and one without a history of involvement in Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL)-funded training programs. Case study 1, "Partnership, Flexibility, and Experience: Key Elements in Successful Training" (Jenny McGuirk), investigates a food processing company in New South Wales…

  9. Workplace Education Guide, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    These eight chapters share diverse experiences, lessons, and tips gleaned by the Massachusetts Workplace Literacy Consortium. "Workplace Needs Analysis (WNA)" (Harneen Chernow, Emily Singer, Jenny Lee Utech) focuses on the Worker Education Program's (WEP's) strategy, including tools, access, interviews and focus groups, presenting findings to the…

  10. Multiply Math Skills with Literature. Literature Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoodt, Barbara D.

    1995-01-01

    This column discusses five children's books selected to develop math concepts involving problem solving, reasoning, and communication. The books are "Only One" (Marc Harshman); "The Librarian Who Measured the Earth" (Kathryn Lasky); "Counting Jennie" (Helena C. Pittman); "The Search for Delicious" (Natalie Babbitt); and "The Toothpaste…

  11. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnan, Peter, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The first paper in this issue, "Towards a Re-examination of Learning and Teaching at Charles Sturt University" (Perry Share, Mark Farrell, Erica Smith, Jenni Brackenreg, Lesley Ballantyne, Lisa Fawkes, Michelle Dean, Mark McFadden, and Judith Parker) is a major discussion paper by a Working Party of Academic Senate at Charles Sturt…

  12. Ethnography and Language in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Judith L., Ed.; Wallat, Cynthia, Ed.

    This compilation includes the following essays: (1) "Conversational Inference and Classroom Learning" (John J. Gumperz); (2) "Persuasive Talk--The Social Organization of Children's Talk" (Jenny Cook-Gumperz); (3) "Ethnography--The Holistic Approach to Understanding Schooling" (Frank W. Lutz); (4) "Triangulated Inquiry--A Methodology for the…

  13. ARC-2009-ACD09-0153-004

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-23

    Janice Hahn, Councilwoman, District 15, City of Los Angeles visits NASA Ames Research Center. Associate Director Steve Zornetzer and Center Director S. Pete Worden meet with .Janice Hahn, Councilwoman, District 15, City of Los Angeles, Jenny Chavez, Staffer for Councilwoman Hahn, Walter Zifkin, Commissioner, Los Angles International Airport, Michael Molina, Chief of External Affairs, LAWA, Jaideep Vaswani. Chief of Airport Planning, LAWA

  14. 77 FR 20438 - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Units 1 and 2 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Issuance of an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennie Rankin, Project Manager..., located in Louisa County, Virginia. II. Environmental Assessment (EA) Identification of Proposed Action...

  15. 77 FR 20440 - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... and 2 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Issuance of an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennie Rankin, Project Manager... reactors, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2, located in Surry County, Virginia. II. Environmental...

  16. Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1285–1294, 2005. 3 [14] Le Yu, Dengrong Zhang, and Eun- Jung Holden, “A fast and...Xiaoyang Wang, Qiang Ji, Kishore K. Reddy, Mubarak Shah, Carl Vondrick, Hamed Pirsiavash, Deva Ramanan, Jenny Yuen, Antonio Tor- ralba, Bi Song, Anesco

  17. 76 FR 42072 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Specialist, or Christian D. Nissen, Regional Manager... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0047... Wisconsin; Suspension of Order Regulations Regarding Random Row Diversion AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  18. 76 FR 37618 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...: Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Specialist, or Christian D. Nissen, Regional Manager, Southeast Marketing... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0016... Past Due Assessments AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  19. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  20. Post Conflict Reconstruction: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    www.heritage.org/research/nation alsecurity/bg1859.cfm Clover, Jenny, and Richard Cornwell , eds. Supporting Sustainable Livelihoods: A Critical Review of...and Bernard E. Trainor. “Starting from Scratch.” In Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq, 475-496. New York: Pantheon

  1. The Double Bind for Women: Exploring the Gendered Nature of Turnaround Leadership in a Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jennie Miles; Burton, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study of nine participants in a turnaround principal preparation program, Jennie Miles Weiner and Laura J. Burton explore how gender role identity shaped participants' views of effective principal leadership and their place within it. The authors find that although female and male participants initially framed effective leadership…

  2. The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 7, Number 1, Summer 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Meghan, Ed.; Price, Jennifer M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of "The Link" newsletter contains the following articles: (1) Convention on the Rights of the Child and Juvenile Justice (Jenni Gainborough and Elisabeth Lean); and (2) ABA (American Bar Association) Policy and Report on Crossover and Dual Jurisdiction Youth. Director's Message, Policy Update information and News/Resources are…

  3. Best Practices for High School Classrooms: What Award-Winning Secondary Teachers Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Randi

    This book provides guidance on high-impact teaching practices, offering first-hand accounts of award-winning teachers. Nine chapters include: (1) "Award-Winning Words of Wisdom," with topics: "High School Teaching Tips" (Jenny W. Holmstrom); "What Is a Good Teacher?" (Carey Jenkins); "Student Creativity"…

  4. Unseen Workers in the Academic Factory: Perceptions of Neoracism among International Postdocs in the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan; Lee, Jenny J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Brendan Cantwell and Jenny J. Lee examine the experiences of international postdocs and their varying career paths in the current political economy of academic capitalism through the lens of neoracism. Using in-depth interviews with science and engineering faculty and international postdocs in the United States and the United…

  5. The Idea Generator: Lori Bell--Mid-Illinois Talking Book Center, East Peoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Anyone who hires Loft Bell is getting two librarians: one who enthusiastically does the job, and another who develops new ideas, secures grants to fund them, and swiftly puts the ideas into action. There's nothing that makes a job more attractive to Bell than the freedom to try out new things. Jenny Levine, Internet development specialist at…

  6. Studies in Teaching: 2008 Research Digest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of Annual Research Forum. 34 studies. Cultural Awareness in Secondary Spanish (Amy Allen), Writing in Mathematics (Lindsey L. Bakewell), Homework: Assignment Methods and Student Engagement (Lia Beresford), Current Events and Social Studies (Jennie Marie Biser), Authentic Assessments in Social Studies (Carl Boland), Assessment in High…

  7. How the Montessori Upper Elementary and Adolescent Environment Naturally Integrates Science, Mathematics, Technology, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John

    2016-01-01

    John McNamara shares his wisdom and humbly credits Camillo Grazzini, Jenny Höglund, and David Kahn for his growth in Montessori. Recognizing more than what he has learned from his mentors, he shares the lessons he has learned from his students themselves. Math, science, history, and language are so integrated in the curriculum that students…

  8. Shopping for Mathematics in Consumer Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ann L.; Wimer, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Justin and Jenny, grade 12 math students, walk with their preschool friends Sean and Meg to the local grocery store. There, two classmates are tending the cash registers. The six of them, along with others, are participating in an in-school "field trip" to Consumer Town, located in the South Windsor High School front lobby. The field…

  9. Sailing for stretched lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Having managed to get themselves and all their instruments on board a ship not too far away from an imminent war zone, Jenny Collier and colleagues enjoyed the serenity of life at sea as they investigated the rifted continental margin of India.

  10. College Readiness for All: The Challenge for Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Nagaoka, Jenny; Coca, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Melissa Roderick, Jenny Nagaoka, and Vanessa Coca focus on the importance of improving college access and readiness for low-income and minority students in urban high schools. They stress the aspirations-attainment gap: although the college aspirations of all U.S. high school students, regardless of race, ethnicity, and family income, have…

  11. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-In-Cell Methods on 3-D Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Pusok, A. E.; Popov, A.

    2015-12-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered to be a flexible and robust method to model advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e. rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems or incompressible Stokes problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an immobile, Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without preserving the zero divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e. non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Jenny et al., 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. Solutions to this problem include: using larger mesh resolutions and/or marker densities, or repeatedly controlling the marker distribution (i.e. inject/delete), but which does not have an established physical background. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (2001) and Meyer and Jenny (2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation (CVI) scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we follow up with these studies and report on the quality of velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We adapt the formulations from both Jenny et al. (2001) and Wang et al. (2015) for use on 3-D staggered grids, where the velocity components have different node locations as compared to finite element, where they share the same node location. We test the different interpolation schemes (CVI and non-CVI) in combination with different advection schemes (Euler, RK2 and RK4) and with/out marker control on Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. We show that a conservative formulation

  12. DCAA Contract Audit Manual. Volume 1, Chapters 1 - 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Office de Carvalho, Jenny Alexandria Branch Office Davids, Steve J. Melbourne Branch Office Dean, Clay Defense Contract Audit Institute Desert Valley...Justice DOL Department of Labor DOT Department of Transportation DPRO Defense Plant Representative Offices EAC Estimate At Completion (Cost) EDP...in the Department of De - vide accounting and financial advisory fense- services regarding contracts and subcon- tracts to all Department of Defense

  13. Module 1: Text Versions | State, Local, and Tribal Governments | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    bonus module is on using solar PV for resilience. And, as Jenny and Harrison both mentioned, if you do working definition. To simply resilience and to incorporate solutions like on-site solar PV, NREL has into solar PV projects. Energy resilience can only be achieved by understanding energy needs and

  14. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P < 0.01), higher final live weight (P < 0.001), and carcass weight (P < 0.01), but no effects were observed on carcass dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals.

  15. Quick, Quick, Slow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Will

    2008-01-01

    As someone more at home in jeans and pumps it was a bit of a shock. The author could not quite get used to the sight of his feet in his father-in-law's black and pointy dancing shoes. Jennie, more often seen in trainers or steel-capped boots, had on a pair of strappy heels she'd borrowed from her mum. They felt like kids dressing up in their…

  16. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    government, led by Chiang Kai -shek and his Kuomintang (KMT) party, fled mainland China and moved to Taiwan, an island off the southern Chinese...system in which Chiang Kai -shek’s authoritarian Nationalist Party (KMT) ruled under martial law.7 The KMT permitted no political opposition and held no...19 Hsu, Jenny, “’Taipei’ gets direct link to WHO unit,” Taipei Times, January 23, 2009, p. 1. 20 Xie Yu , “Taiwan put under WHO

  17. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    Chinese government, led by Chiang Kai -shek and his Kuomintang (KMT) party, fled mainland China and moved to Taiwan, an island off the southern Chinese...system in which Chiang Kai -shek’s authoritarian Nationalist Party (KMT) ruled under martial law.7 The KMT permitted no political opposition and held...19 Hsu, Jenny, “’Taipei’ gets direct link to WHO unit,” Taipei Times, January 23, 2009, p. 1. 20 Xie Yu , “Taiwan put under WHO

  18. Stability and Performance Robustness Assessment of Multivariable Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    00- STABILITY AND PERFORMANCE ROBUSTNESS ASSESSMENT OF MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL SYSTEMS Asok Ray , Jenny I. Shen, and Chen-Kuo Weng Mechanical...Office of Naval Research Assessment of Multivariable Control Systems Grant No. N00014-90-J- 1513 6. AUTHOR(S) (Extension) Professor Asok Ray , Dr...20 The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 (20 for Professor Asok Ray ) Naval Postgraduate School

  19. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  20. SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state formore » air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.« less

  1. Looking beyond satisfaction: evaluating the value and impact of information skills training.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Michael; Craven, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    In this feature guest writers Michael Raynor and Jenny Craven from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) present an overview of their evaluative research study on the value and impact of the information skills training courses they provide at NICE. In particular, this small study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to look beyond satisfaction and confidence levels and identify whether learning had actually taken place as a result of attending the sessions, and how new skills were used by the attendees in their day-to-day work. H.S. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.

  2. A systematic review of commercial weight loss programmes' effect on glycemic outcomes among overweight and obese adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Z W; Doshi, R S; Mehta, A K; Jacobs, D K; Vakil, R M; Lee, C J; Bleich, S N; Kalyani, R R; Clark, J M; Gudzune, K A

    2016-08-01

    We examined the glycemic benefits of commercial weight loss programmes as compared with control/education or counselling among overweight and obese adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and references cited by individual programmes. We included randomized controlled trials of ≥12 weeks duration. Two reviewers extracted information on study design, population characteristics, interventions, and mean changes in haemoglobin A1c and glucose. We included 18 randomized controlled trials. Few trials occurred among individuals with T2DM. In this population, Jenny Craig reduced A1c at least 0.4% more than counselling at 12 months, Nutrisystem significantly reduced A1c 0.3% more than counselling at 6 months, and OPTIFAST reduced A1c 0.3% more than counselling at 6 months. Among individuals without T2DM, few studies evaluated glycemic outcomes, and when reported, most did not show substantial reductions. Few trials have examined whether commercial weight loss programmes result in glycemic benefits for their participants, particularly among overweight and obese individuals without T2DM. Jenny Craig, Nutrisystem and OPTIFAST show promising glycemic lowering benefits for patients with T2DM, although additional studies are needed to confirm these conclusions. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  3. Effect of farming system on donkey milk composition.

    PubMed

    Valle, Emanuela; Pozzo, Luisa; Giribaldi, Marzia; Bergero, Domenico; Gennero, Maria Silvia; Dezzutto, Daniela; McLean, Amy; Borreani, Giorgio; Coppa, Mauro; Cavallarin, Laura

    2018-05-01

    Donkey milk is considered as a functional food for sensitive consumers, such as children who are allergic to cow milk. No information is available regarding the effect of farming systems on the quality of donkey milk. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the farming system and lactation stage on donkey milk with respect to gross composition, as well as fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids (FA). Individual milk samples were collected from lactating jennies (n = 53) on the six of the largest farms located in North West Italy. The performance of lactating jennies, herd characteristics and feeding strategies were recorded at each milk sampling. The gross composition of the milk, along with the fat-soluble vitamin content, differed in accordance with the farming system. The lactation stage had limited effects on milk quality. A higher milk fat content corresponded to a higher amount of fresh herbage proportion in the diet, with the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), C18:1c9, C18:3n-3, n-3 FA, retinol and α-tocopherol content and the lowest concentrations of the FA that are less favorable for human health in the milk of animals fed on only forage diets. Extensive farming of dairy donkeys increased the fat content and fat-soluble vitamin concentration of milk and also altered the FA composition to a more favorable profile for human nutrition. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Transrectal ultrasonographic evaluation of combined utero-placental thickness during the last half of pregnancy in Martina Franca donkeys.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Noto, F; Parrillo, S; Contri, A; De Amicis, I; Gloria, A; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, the donkey population decreased dramatically so that many breeds are presently considered as endangered. In comparison to the horse, the donkey placenta still remains not completely studied. In the horse, one of the diagnostic tools useful to identify pregnant mares at risk of abortion or premature delivery, include the transrectal ultrasound examination of the uterus and its contents; and especially of the combined thickness of the uterus and of the placenta (CUPT). Since the CUPT was never investigated in donkeys, the present study was aimed to define the transrectal CUPT values during the last half of pregnancy in 20 Martina Franca jennies. Foalings times, foals characteristics and placental gross appearance, and measurements were also evaluated and values resulted always within normality. Differently to the mare, a continuous significant CUPT increase between the sixth to the 12 months of pregnancy, and a substantial increase from the ninth to the 12th month of pregnancy, was found. Although statistically not evaluable, the CUPT values recorded from three jennies with pregnancy loss did not show evidence of CUPT increases. In conclusion, normal CUPT values from the sixth to the 12th month of pregnancy in Martina Franca donkeys are provided, but further investigations are needed to define possible breed or body-size CUPT specific differences, as well as the CUPT values during pregnancy disturbances or placental abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The long journey to the Higgs boson and beyond at the LHC: Emphasis on CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdee, Tejinder Singh

    2016-11-01

    Since 2010 there has been a rich harvest of results on standard model physics by the ATLAS and CMS experiments operating on the Large Hadron Collider. In the summer of 2012, a spectacular discovery was made by these experiments of a new, heavy particle. All the subsequently analysed data point strongly to the properties of this particle as those expected for the Higgs boson associated with the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism postulated to explain the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector, thereby explaining how elementary particles acquire mass. This article focuses on the CMS experiment, the technological challenges encountered in its construction, describing some of the physics results obtained so far, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and searches for the widely anticipated new physics beyond the standard model, and peer into the future involving the high-luminosity phase of the LHC. This article is complementary to the one by Peter Jenni4 that focuses on the ATLAS experiment.

  6. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Papini, Roberto; Mugnaini, Linda; Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The purpose of the present paper was to detect the presence of parasite DNA in milk of T. gondii positive donkeys. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 11 out of 44 healthy lactating donkeys by IFAT. T. gondii DNA was detected by PCR in blood of 6 and milk of 3 seropositive jennies. Results of limited RFLP-PCR genotyping indicated the presence of T. gondii genotype II or III, commonly found in Europe. The occurrence of T. gondii DNA in milk suggests that the consumption of raw milk from seropositive donkeys could be a potential source of human infection.

  7. Advancing an In situ Laser Spectrometer for Carbon Isotope Analyses in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.; Kapit, J.; Girguis, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    Development of in situ chemical sensors is critical for improving our understanding of deep-ocean biogeochemistry and recent advances in chemical sensors are already expanding the breadth and depth of deep sea/seafloor exploration and research. Although initially developed for high sensitivity measurements of atmospheric gases, laser-based spectroscopic sensors are now being developed for research in the deep sea by incorporating the use of semi-permeable membranes. Here we present on recent deep-sea deployments of an in situ laser-based analyzer of carbon isotopes of methane (δ13CH4), highlighting several advances including a new capability for also measuring δ13C of DIC or CO2 by incorporating a second laser and an in line acidification module. A bubble trapping approach was designed and implemented for the collection and analysis of both CH4 and CO2 from deep-sea bubbles. The newly advanced laser spectrometer was deployed at both Kick `Em Jenny volcano off of the island of Grenada and in a brine pool in the western Gulf of Mexico ("The Jacuzzi of Despair") using the E/V Nautilus and the ROV Hercules. At Kick `Em Jenny, seafloor measurements were made of both emanating fluids and bubbles from within and around the crater - revealing high levels of magmatic CO2 with minor amounts of CH4 and hydrogen sulfide. At the brine pool, spot measurements and depth profile measurements into the brine pool were made for chemical mapping, revealing fluids that were saturated with respect to methane. New technologies such as the laser spectrometer will enable us to obtain high resolution and near real-time, in situ chemical and isotopic data and to make geochemical maps over a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  8. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-in-Cell Method and Staggered Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.

    2017-03-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e., rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e., non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and Meyer and Jenny (Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 4:466-467, 2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(6):2015-2023, 2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we adapt this formulation for 3-D staggered grids (correction interpolation) and we report on the quality of various velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We test the interpolation schemes in combination with different advection schemes on incompressible Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. Our results suggest that a conservative formulation reduces the dispersion and clustering of markers, minimizing the need of unphysical marker control in geodynamic models.

  9. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene

  10. On Russian concepts of Soil Memory - expansion of Dokuchaev's pedological paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatskin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Having developed from Dokuchaev's research on chernosem soils on loess, the Russian school of pedology traditionally focused on soils as essential component of landscape. Dokuchaev's soil-landscape paradigm (SLP) was later considerably advanced and expanded to include surface soils on other continents by Hans Jenny. In the 1970s Sokolov and Targulian in Russia introduced the new term of soil memory as an inherent ability of soils to memorize in its morphology and properties the processes of earlier stages of development. This understanding was built upon ideas of soil organizational hierarchy and different rates of specific soil processes as proposed by Yaalon. Soil memory terminology became particularly popular in Russia which is expressed in the 2008 multi-author monograph on soil memory. The Soil Memory book edited by Targulian and Goryachkin and written by 34 authors touches upon the following themes: General approaches (Section 1), Mineral carriers of soil memory (Section 2), Biological carriers of soil memory (section 3) and Anthropogenic soil memory (section 4). The book presents an original account on different new interdisciplinary projects on Russian soils and represents an important contribution into the classical Dokuchaev-Jenny SL paradigm. There is still a controversy as to in what way the Russian term soil memory is related to western terms of soil as a record or archive of earlier events and processes during the time of soil formation. Targulian and Goryachkin agree that all of the terms are close, albeit not entirely interchangeable. They insist that soil memory may have a more comprehensive meaning, e.g. applicable to such complex cases when certain soil properties whose origin is currently ambiguous cannot provide valid environmental reconstructions or dated by available dating techniques. Anyway, not terminology is the main issue. The Russian soil memory concept advances the frontiers of pedology by deepening the time-related soil functions and

  11. Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17β (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17∝-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in

  12. The Arctic Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  13. Telepresence-enabled research and developing work practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmalek, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, a group of scientists and students conducted two weeks of telepresence-enabled research from the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with the Exploration Vessel Nautilus, which was at sea studying the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano and Barbados Mud Volcanoes. The way that they conducted their work was not so different from other telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration. As a group, they spanned geographic distance, science expertise, exploration experience, and telepresence-enabled research experience. They were connected through technologies and work culture (e.g., shared habits, values, and practices particular to a community). Uniquely, their project included an NSF-sponsored cultural study on the workgroups' own use of technologies and social processes. The objective of the cultural study was, in part, to identify social and technical features of the work environment that present opportunities to better support science exploration via telepresence. Drawing from this case, and related research, I present some analysis on the developing work culture of telepresence-enabled research and highlight potential adjustments.

  14. Talking with members of the globalization of materials R&D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byko, Maureen

    2006-03-01

    The Committee on Globalization of Materials Research and Development was appointed by the U.S. National Research Council in December 2003. Its charge: to assess the status and impacts of the globalization of materials R&D. The 12-member committee, which included representatives from both U.S. and international academia and industry, published its findings in August 2005 in the form of a report Globalization of Materials R&D —Time for a National Strategy. To gain some perspective on the report's findings, JOM spoke with representatives of the committee, retired from Alcoa; Gordon Geiger, director of the engineering management program and professor of industrial engineering at the University of Arizona; Jennie Hwang, president of H-Technologies Group in Cleveland. Ohio: and Michael Jaffe, director, Medical Device Concept Laboratory of New Jersey Institute of Technology and associate research professor at Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey. See the sidebar for a listing of the committee's recommendations. The interviews were conducted by e-mail and telephone; respondents chose which questions to answer.

  15. Monkey extensor digitorum communis motoneuron pool: Proximal dendritic trees and small motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Arthur B; Cheney, Paul D; Jenny, Andrew K

    2018-05-14

    Transverse sections of the monkey cervical spinal cord from a previous study (Jenny and Inukai, 1983) were reanalyzed using Neurolucida to create a three-dimensional display of extensor digitorum communis (EDC) motoneurons and proximal dendrites that had been labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HRP). The EDC motoneuron pool was located primarily in the C8 and T1 segments of the spinal cord. Small motoneurons (cell body areas less than 500 μm 2 and presumed to be gamma motoneurons) comprised about ten percent of the motoneurons and were located throughout the length of the motoneuron pool. Most small motoneurons were oblong in shape and had one or two major dendrites originating from the cell body in the transverse plane of section. The majority of the HRP labeled dendritic trees were directed either superiorly, dorsal-medially to the mid zone area between the base of the dorsal horn and the upper portion of the ventral horn, or medially to the ventromedial gray matter. The longer HRP labeled dendrites usually continued in the same radial direction as when originating from the cell body. As such we considered the radial direction of the longer proximal HRP labeled dendrites to be a reasonable estimate of the radial direction of the more distal dendritic tree. Our data suggest that the motoneuron dendritic tree as seen in transverse section has direction-oriented dendrites that extend toward functional terminal regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives formore » CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.« less

  17. 'And next, just for your enjoyment!': sex, technology and the constitution of desire.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    In the 1976 sci-fi film Logan's Run, actor Michael York, relaxing in a fetching caftan after a day hunting 'Runners', logs-in to the 'Circuit', a de- and re-materialisation technology that allows those seeking sex to select partners. Logan's first candidate, a young man, is passed over with a smile. The second is co-star Jenny Agutter; she is accepted and we join a sexual ride in the future. Online dating sites such as Gaydar® and RSVP® would seem to have a long way to go to achieve that, and Microsoft™ needs some fast apps development to get us there. Against this background, this paper examines some starting points in our fascination with technosex, long before the Internet, in books and magazines, the creative arts and other media and cultural forms. It focuses upon gay men's contribution to this fascination, and looks at the queering of heterosexuality and the part technology has played in that process. Online technologies are examined, particularly in relation to the 'publicisation' of sexual life and to shifts in sexual identity and practice related to changing processes of sexual objectification, self-objectification and subjectification. Finally, the transformation of sex into health and healthy sex is discussed.

  18. COMMITTEES: Quark Matter 2008 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Organising Committee Madan M Aggarwal (Chandigarh) Jan-e Alam (Kolkata) Convener Arup Bandyopadhyay (Kolkata) Debades Bandyopadhyay (Kolkata) Rahul Basu (Chennai) Rakesh K Bhandari (Kolkata) Anju Bhasin (Jammu) Subhasis Chattopadhyay (Kolkata) Convener Sukalyan Chattopadhyay (Kolkata) Asis Chaudhuri (Kolkata) Premomoy Ghosh (Kolkata) Sanjay Ghosh (Kolkata) Sourendu Gupta (Mumbai) Muhammad Irfan (Aligarh) Durga P Mahapatra (Bhubaneswar) DAmruta Mishra (New Delhi) Ajit K Mohanty (Mumbai) Bedangadas Mohanty (Kolkata) Vaisali Naik (Kolkata) Tapan K Nayak (Kolkata) Convener Sudhir Raniwala (Jaipur) Sourav Sarkar (Kolkata) Bikash Sinha (Kolkata) Chair Dinesh Srivastava (Kolkata) Raghava Varma (Mumbai) Yogendra P Viyogi (Bhubaneswar)Co-chair International Advisory Committee R Aymar,Switzerland Jean Paul Blaizot, France Peter Braun Münzinger, Germany Igor M Dremin, Russia Kari Eskola, Finland Jens Jorgen Gaardhoje,Denmark Rajiv V Gavai, India Hans-Ake Gustaffson, Sweden Hans Gutbrod, Germany Miklos Gyulassy, USA Timothy Hallman, USA Hideki Hamagaki, Japan Tetsuo Hatsuda, Japan Huan-Zhong Huang, USA Barbara Jacak, USA Peter Jenni, Switzerland Taka Kajino, Japan Takeshi Kodama, Brazil T D Lee, USA Peter Levai, Hungary Luciano Maiani, Italy Larry McLerran, USA Berndt Müller, USA Guy Paic, Mexico Sibaji Raha, India Lodovico Riccati, Italy Hans Georg Ritter, USA Helmut Satz, Germany Jurgen Schukraft, Switzerland Yves Schutz, France Edward V Shuryak, USA Johanna Stachel, Germany Horst Stöcker, Germany Itzhak Tserruya, Israel Xin-Nian Wang, USA Bolek Wyslouch, USA Glenn R Young, USA William A Zajc, USA Wen-Long Zhan, China

  19. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize: The Long Journey to the Higgs Boson: CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdee, Tejinder

    2017-01-01

    There has been a rich harvest of physics from the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In July 2012, the ground-breaking discovery of the Higgs boson was made by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. This boson is a long-sought particle expected from the mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in the electro-weak sector that provides an explanation of how elementary particles acquire mass. The discovery required experiments of unprecedented capability and complexity. This talk, complementing that of Peter Jenni, will trace the background to the search for the Higgs boson at the LHC, the conception, the construction and the operation of the CMS experiment, and its subsequent discovery of the boson. The SM is considered to be a low energy manifestation of a more complete theory - physics beyond the SM is therefore widely anticipated. Selected CMS results will be presented from the search for physics beyond the SM from the 13 TeV Run-2 at the LHC.

  20. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  1. Nonlinearity Analysis for Efficient Modelling of Long-Term CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boxiao; Benson, Sally; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2014-05-01

    . Our analysis of the numerical flux theoretically describes the cause of the convergence failures for simulating long-term CO2 storage. This understanding provides useful guidance in designing numerical schemes and nonlinear solvers that overcome the convergence bottlenecks. For example, to reduce the nonlinearity introduced by the two kinks in the presence of capillarity, we modify the method of Cances (2009) to discretize the capillary flux. Consequently, only one kink will occur even for coupled viscous, buoyancy, and heterogeneous capillary forces, and the kink depends only on the upstream saturation of the total velocity. An efficient nonlinear solver that is a significant refinement of the works of Jenny et al. (2009) and Wang and Tchelepi (2013) has also been proposed and demonstrated. References [1] C. Cances. Finite volume scheme for two-phase flows in heterogeneous porous media involving capillary pressure discontinuities. ESAIM:M2AN., 43, 973-1001, (2009). [2] P. Jenny, H.A. Tchelepi, and S.H. Lee. Unconditionally convergent nonlinear solver for hyperbolic conservation laws with S-shaped flux functions. J. Comput. Phys., 228, 7497-7512, (2009). [3] X. Wang and H.A. Tchelepi. Trust-region based solver for nonlinear transport in heterogeneous porous media. J. Comput. Phys., 253, 114-137, (2013).

  2. A 20-ka reconstruction of a Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment using multi-method dating on pedogenic carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; King, Georgina E.; Valla, Pierre G.; Sebag, David; Herman, Frédéric; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-04-01

    Soils can be precious environmental archives as they are open systems resulting from external persistent disturbance, or forcing (Jenny, 1941). Pedogenic carbonate nodules associated with clay-rich soils have been investigated in the Far North region of Cameroon in non-carbonate watersheds (Chad Basin). Nodule bearing soils have mima-like mound morphologies, within stream networks. Such settings raise questions on the processes leading to carbonate precipitation as well as landscape genesis. The mima-like mounds have been identified as degraded Vertisols, resulting from differential erosion induced by a former gilgai micro-relief (Diaz et al., 2016). Non-degraded Vertisols occur in waterlogged areas, located downstream from mima-like mound locations (Braband and Gavaud, 1985). Therefore during a former wetter period Vertisols may have been extended to the mima-like mound areas, followed by a shift toward drier conditions and erosion (Diaz et al., 2016). Consequently, mima-like mounds and associated carbonate nodules are inherited from climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The aim of this study is to validate the scenario above using the carbonate nodules collected in a mima-like mound as time archives. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of K-feldspars trapped within the nodules is used to assess the deposition time of the soil parent material, composing the mima-like mounds. The carbonate and organic nodule parts have been radiocarbon dated with the aim of assessing the carbonate precipitation age and the age range of soil formation, respectively. Results show that the soil parent material was deposited between 18 ka and 12 ka BP and that the nodules precipitated between 7 ka and 5 ka BP. These results suggest that the deposition occurred during the arid climatic period of the Bossoumian (20 ka to 15 ka BP; Hervieu, 1970) and during the first drier part of the African Humid Period (14.8 ka to 11.5 ka BP; deMenocal et al., 2000

  3. DTMiner: identification of potential disease targets through biomedical literature mining.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Meizhuo; Xie, Yanping; Wang, Fan; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Kenny Q; Wei, Jia

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical researchers often search through massive catalogues of literature to look for potential relationships between genes and diseases. Given the rapid growth of biomedical literature, automatic relation extraction, a crucial technology in biomedical literature mining, has shown great potential to support research of gene-related diseases. Existing work in this field has produced datasets that are limited both in scale and accuracy. In this study, we propose a reliable and efficient framework that takes large biomedical literature repositories as inputs, identifies credible relationships between diseases and genes, and presents possible genes related to a given disease and possible diseases related to a given gene. The framework incorporates name entity recognition (NER), which identifies occurrences of genes and diseases in texts, association detection whereby we extract and evaluate features from gene-disease pairs, and ranking algorithms that estimate how closely the pairs are related. The F1-score of the NER phase is 0.87, which is higher than existing studies. The association detection phase takes drastically less time than previous work while maintaining a comparable F1-score of 0.86. The end-to-end result achieves a 0.259 F1-score for the top 50 genes associated with a disease, which performs better than previous work. In addition, we released a web service for public use of the dataset. The implementation of the proposed algorithms is publicly available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php?page=download.php The web service is available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php CONTACT: jenny.wei@astrazeneca.com or kzhu@cs.sjtu.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Assessing climate-change risks to cultural and natural resources in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Waste, Stephen M.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of an interdisciplinary special issue that examines the influence of climate change on people and fish in the Yakima River Basin, USA. Jenni et al. (2013) addresses stakeholder-relevant climate change issues, such as water availability and uncertainty, with decision analysis tools. Montag et al. (2014) explores Yakama Tribal cultural values and well-being and their incorporation into the decision-making process. Graves and Maule (2012) simulates effects of climate change on stream temperatures under baseline conditions (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios (increased air temperature of 1 °C and 2 °C). Hardiman and Mesa (2013) looks at the effects of increased stream temperatures on juvenile steelhead growth with a bioenergetics model. Finally, Hatten et al. (2013) examines how changes in stream flow will affect salmonids with a rule-based fish habitat model. Our simulations indicate that future summer will be a very challenging season for salmonids when low flows and high water temperatures can restrict movement, inhibit or alter growth, and decrease habitat. While some of our simulations indicate salmonids may benefit from warmer water temperatures and increased winter flows, the majority of simulations produced less habitat. The floodplain and tributary habitats we sampled are representative of the larger landscape, so it is likely that climate change will reduce salmonid habitat potential throughout particular areas of the basin. Management strategies are needed to minimize potential salmonid habitat bottlenecks that may result from climate change, such as keeping streams cool through riparian protection, stream restoration, and the reduction of water diversions. An investment in decision analysis and support technologies can help managers understand tradeoffs under different climate scenarios and possibly improve water and fish conservation over the next century.

  5. DTMiner: identification of potential disease targets through biomedical literature mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Meizhuo; Xie, Yanping; Wang, Fan; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Kenny Q.; Wei, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Biomedical researchers often search through massive catalogues of literature to look for potential relationships between genes and diseases. Given the rapid growth of biomedical literature, automatic relation extraction, a crucial technology in biomedical literature mining, has shown great potential to support research of gene-related diseases. Existing work in this field has produced datasets that are limited both in scale and accuracy. Results: In this study, we propose a reliable and efficient framework that takes large biomedical literature repositories as inputs, identifies credible relationships between diseases and genes, and presents possible genes related to a given disease and possible diseases related to a given gene. The framework incorporates name entity recognition (NER), which identifies occurrences of genes and diseases in texts, association detection whereby we extract and evaluate features from gene–disease pairs, and ranking algorithms that estimate how closely the pairs are related. The F1-score of the NER phase is 0.87, which is higher than existing studies. The association detection phase takes drastically less time than previous work while maintaining a comparable F1-score of 0.86. The end-to-end result achieves a 0.259 F1-score for the top 50 genes associated with a disease, which performs better than previous work. In addition, we released a web service for public use of the dataset. Availability and Implementation: The implementation of the proposed algorithms is publicly available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php?page=download.php. The web service is available at http://gdr-web.rwebox.com/public_html/index.php. Contact: jenny.wei@astrazeneca.com or kzhu@cs.sjtu.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27506226

  6. Record of Plio-Pleistocene extreme event in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc basin. Example of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe, French West Indies).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanlèn, L.; Philippon, M. M.; Randrianasolo, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Cornée, J. J.; Münch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Guadeloupe archipelago is part of the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc and is therefore subjected to both enhanced seismic and volcanic activity related to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, along which the Atlantic plate is subducted westward bellow the Caribbean plate. The volcanic arc is composed of several immerged volcanic islands (St Kitts, Nevis Montserrat, Basse Terre, Dominica, Martinique, St Lucia, Grenada) and submerged volcanoes (Kick em'Jenny). These volcanoes are known to be explosives and when they are entering in an eruptive cycle, debris flow could potentially initiate a tsunami and generate peculiar deposits within the sedimentary record recognized as tsunami deposits (or tsunamite). Subduction- related earthquakes might also initiate slope instabilities and trigger debris flow. Another controlling factor of slope (in-)-stabilities and debris flow is massive rainfalls. During cyclonic season (June to December), massive rainfalls are recorded in the area, which moreover is located on the trajectory of Atlantic Hurricanes that are responsible for numerous landslides. As a consequence, tsunami deposit are described and well studied in the Lesser Antilles arc as the islands shoreline and coastal plain are perpetually re-shaped by hurricanes responsible for tempestite deposits. However, the report of these deposit concern recent to actual events, for example present-day deposits consisting of large (metric) boulders, more or less aligned, located in the supralittoral fringe can be observed along Guadeloupe shore. In this study, we investigate the Plio-pleistocene sedimentary sequence of Grande Terre carbonate platform (Guadeloupe), and track the presence of such extreme-event related deposits and discuss our findings in the frame of the Lesser Antilles geological context.

  7. Operation Everest II and the 1978 Habeler/Messner ascent of Everest without bottled O2: what might they have in common?

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    In 1978, Peter Habeler and Reinhold Messner climbed Everest without supplemental O 2 . Subsequently, Oelz et al. (Oelz O, Howald H, Di Prampero PE, Hoppeler H, Claassen H, Jenni R, Bühlmann A, Ferretti G, Brückner JC, Veicsteinas A, Gussoni M, Cerretelli P. J Appl Physiol (1985) 60: 1734-1742, 1986) assessed their cardiopulmonary function, finding no advantageous physiological attributes to explain their success, and leading West (West JB. High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine. New York: Oxford University, 1998) to suggest that grit and determination were more important. In 1985, Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Al Cymerman hosted a scientific project assessing a simulated ascent of Everest (OE II) at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Included were measurements of O 2 transport. In particular, mixed venous Po 2 was measured at/near maximal exercise, for calculating pulmonary O 2 -diffusing capacity. A serendipitous observation was made: while both V̇o 2max and mixed venous Po 2 fell with altitude (as expected), it was how they fell-in direct proportion-that was remarkable. It later became clear that this reflected diffusion limitation of O 2 transport from muscle microvessels to the mitochondria, and that this last step in O 2 transport plays a major role in limiting V̇o 2max . Thus, how Habeler and Messner made it up Everest without bottled O 2 and no special cardiopulmonary attributes might be explained if their muscle O 2 -diffusing capacity, which depends largely on muscle capillarity, was unusually high. Oelz et al. mention that muscle capillary density was substantially-40%-above normal, but did not suggest that this accounted for the climbers' success. Therefore, high muscle capillarity, enhancing diffusive unloading of O 2 , may have been a major enabling physiological attribute for Habeler and Messner and that OE II, by chance, played a key role in bringing this to light.

  8. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    How big is your project world? Is it big enough to contain other cultures, headquarters, hierarchies, and weird harpoon-like guns? Sure it is. The great American poet Walt Whitman said it best, 'I am large/I contain multitudes.' And so must you, Mr. and Ms. Project Manager. In this issue of ASK, we look outside the project box. See how several talented project managers have expanded their definition of project scope to include managing environments outside the systems and subsystems under their care. Here's a sampling of what we've put together for you this issue: In 'Three Screws Missing,' Mike Skidmore tells about his adventures at the Plesetek Cosmodrome in northern Russia. Ray Morgan in his story, 'Our Man in Kauai,' suggests we take a broader view of what's meant by 'the team.' Jenny Baer-Riedhart, the NASA program manager on the same Pathfinder solar-powered airplane, schools us in how to sell a program to Headquarters in 'Know Thyself--But Don't Forget to Learn About the Customer Too.' Scott Cameron of Proctor and Gamble talks about sharpening your hierarchical IQ in 'The Project Manager and the Hour Glass.' Mike Jansen in 'The Lawn Dart' describes how he and the 'voodoo crew' on the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program borrowed a harpoon-like gun from the Coast Guard to catch particles inside of a plume. These are just some of the stories you'll find in ASK this issue. We hope they cause you to stop and reflect on your own project's relationship to the world outside. We are also launching a new section this issue, 'There are No Mistakes, Only Lessons.' No stranger to ASK readers, Terry Little inaugurates this new section with his article 'The Don Quixote Complex.'

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536more » Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure« less

  10. Why I wrote my advance decision to refuse life-prolonging treatment: and why the law on sanctity of life remains problematic.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Raanan

    2016-06-01

    This paper, pursuing themes indefatigably defended in this journal and elsewhere by Professors Jenny and Celia Kitzinger, explains what led me to write my own advance decision (AD) to refuse life-prolonging treatment if I become legally incapacitated to make my own healthcare decisions for longer than 3 months and am medically assessed as very unlikely to regain such legal capacity. I attach my Advance Decision to Refuse Life Prolonging Treatment to the online version of this paper for comment advice and possible general interest. I argue that while a Supreme Court judgement in 2013, followed by a Court of Protection judgement in 2015 greatly ameliorate my earlier concerns about excessive judicial emphasis on the sanctity of life, certain current requirements in the Code of Practice to the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and in the Rules of the Court of Protection, especially Practice Direction 9E, concerning permanent vegetative state and minimally conscious state, seem clearly to contradict aspects of that Supreme Court judgement. If the logical implications of those legal requirements were thoroughly implemented medical practice would be substantially and undesirably skewed towards provision of treatments to prolong life that are unwanted, non-beneficial and wasteful of healthcare resources. I urge that these legal requirements are modified to make them consistent with the Supreme Court's judgement in Aintree v James. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Selected Aspects of Soil Science History in the USA - Prehistory to the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Fenton, Thomas E.; Homburg, Jeffrey A.

    2017-04-01

    Interest in understanding America's soils originated in prehistory with Native Americans. Following European settlement, notable individuals such as Thomas Jefferson and Lewis and Clark made observations of soil resources. Moving into the 1800s, state geological surveys became involved in soil work and E.W. Hilgard started to formulate ideas similar to those that would eventually lead to V.V. Dokuchaev being recognized as the father of modern soil science. However, Hilgard's advanced ideas on soil genesis were not accepted by the wider American soil science community at the time. Moving into the 1900s, the National Cooperative Soil Survey, the first nationally organized detailed soil survey in the world, was founded under the direction of M. Whitney. Initial soil classification ideas were heavily based in geology, but over time Russian ideas of soil genesis and classification moved into the American soil science community, mainly due to the influence of C.F. Marbut. Early American efforts in scientific study of soil erosion and soil fertility were also initiated in the 1910s and university programs to educate soil scientists started. Soil erosion studies took on high priority in the 1930s as the USA was impacted by the Dust Bowl. Soil Taxonomy, one of the most widely utilized soil classification systems in the world, was developed from the 1950s through the 1970s under the guidance of G.D. Smith and with administrative support from C.E. Kellogg. American soil scientists, such as H. Jenny, R.W. Simonson, D.L. Johnson, and D. Watson-Stegner, developed influential models of soil genesis during the 20th Century, and the use of soil information expanded beyond agriculture to include issues such as land-use planning, soil geomorphology, and interactions between soils and human health.

  12. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  13. Bathythermal distribution, maturity, and growth of lake trout strains stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1996-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions, sexual maturity, and growth of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) strains stocked in Lake Ontario were determined for fish collected with trawls and gill nets in 1978-93. The purpose was to augment the basis for deciding which strains to continue stocking in an effort to reestablish a self-sustaining population. The Clearwater Lake (CWL) strain was found in shallower, warmer water than all other strains; the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain was usually shallower than the Jenny Lake (JEN) and Lake Superior (SUP) strains at ages 1 and 2 but was usually deeper at age 3 and older. Depth distribution of the 'Ontario strain'--from gametes of several strains that survived to maturity in Lake Ontario-- was similar to that of the SEN and SUP strains. About half the males matured at age 4 and half the females at age 5; males < 500 mm and females < 600 mm long were rarely mature. Least-sqaures mean lengths and weights of the CWL strain were greater than those of all other strains through age 4. At age 7 and older, CWL and JEN fish were generally smaller than all other strains. Means lengths and weights of males and females of the same age and strain frequently differed at age 4 and older. Growth in weight at age 4 and older was not associated with biomass indices of prey fishes. Differences in growth rates among strains were associated with bathythermal distribution which is a heritable trait. Weight-length regressions differed by year, sex, and stage of maturity but were rarely different among strains. Competition for space appeared to affect condition of large lake trout. Growth rates and maturity schedules provide little basis for recommending stocking one strain in preference to another. Depth ranges of strains overlapped widely, but lake trout occupied only about one-fourth of available bottom habitat. Stocking several strains should be continued to maximize use of sustainable habitat.

  14. Chemical and Isotopic Exploration: A Tale of Two Telepresence-Enabled Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, S. D.; Michel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean exploration has traditionally required a large team of shipboard scientists for quick decision-making as well as for sample handling and processing tasks. However, with the development of new field-going in situ sensors for chemical oceanography, comes the capability of making measurements in the deep ocean without the need for sample collection, processing and laboratory analysis. Through our participation in two cruises aboard the E/V Nautilus, we tested a new model for ocean exploration using Telepresence technology for making chemical analyses in the deep ocean with a laser spectrometer designed for in situ analyses of methane and carbon dioxide. In 2014, we used the E/V Nautilus and ROV Hercules to explore the chemical and isotopic composition of fluids and bubbles in the crater of the Kick `Em Jenny volcano ( 180m depth) just northwest off the island of Grenada. In 2015, we carried out exploration of a mud volcano/brine pool in the western Gulf of Mexico ( 1300m depth). For our focused chemical explorations in 2014, one scientist was shipboard while two were ashore at the Inner Space Center at the University of Rhode Island. Decisions concerning instrument parameters, sampling strategies and data collection and management were all carried out through this two-way remote operation scheme, while the shipboard scientist was responsible for all deployments, maintenance, and troubleshooting technical issues with instrumentation. In comparison, in 2015, two scientists were shipboard. Here we compare the successes and challenges of using Telepresence for chemical exploration. In addition, we detail our interactions with scientists, educators, and interested citizens ashore. The use of Telepresence enhanced both science communication, by enabling direct scientist-to-scientist interactions and decision-making, and science education, through broad participation of a global audience. As in situ chemical sensing advances, telepresence promises to increase

  15. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  16. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-09-01

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (P<0.05) and increased the monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05), and vitamins A and E (P<0.01) values. On the serum parameters, the VB supplementation decreased total cholesterol (P<0.01), tryglicerides, bilirubin, ALT and TBARs, and increased (P<0.01) vitamin E. In conclusion, the VB dietary supplementation affects the nutritional quality of donkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  17. Amiata Donkey Milk Chain: Animal Health Evaluation and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ragona, Giuseppe; Corrias, Franco; Benedetti, Martina; Paladini, Maria; Salari, Federica; Altomonte, lolanda; Martini, Mina

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1). In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis-causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27853717

  18. The Sleep EEG as a Marker of Intellectual Ability in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anja; Huber, Reto; Kurth, Salomé; Ringli, Maya; Jenni, Oskar G.; Achermann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the within-subject stability in the sleep EEG and the association between the sleep EEG and intellectual abilities in 9- to 12-year-old children. Design: Intellectual ability (WISC-IV, full scale, fluid, and verbal IQ, working memory, speed of processing) were examined and all-night polysomnography was performed (2 nights per subject). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy children (mean age 10.5 ± 1.0 years; 6 girls). Measurements and Results: Spectral analysis was performed on artifact-free NREM sleep epochs (C3/A2). To determine intra-individual stability and inter-individual variability of the sleep EEG, power spectra were used as feature vectors for the estimation of Euclidean distances, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for the 2 nights. Sleep spindle peaks were identified for each individual and individual sigma band power was determined. Trait-like aspects of the sleep EEG were observed for sleep stage variables and spectral power. Within-subject distances were smaller than between-subject distances and ICC values ranged from 0.72 to 0.96. Correlations between spectral power in individual frequency bins and intelligence scores revealed clusters of positive associations in the alpha, sigma, and beta range for full scale IQ, fluid IQ, and working memory. Similar to adults, sigma power correlated with full scale (r = 0.67) and fluid IQ (r = 0.65), but not with verbal IQ. Spindle peak frequency was negatively related to full scale IQ (r = −0.56). Conclusions: The sleep EEG during childhood shows high within-subject stability and may be a marker for intellectual ability. Citation: Geiger A; Huber R; Kurth S; Ringli M; Jenni OG; Achermann P. The sleep EEG as a marker of intellectual ability in school age children. SLEEP 2011;34(2):181-189. PMID:21286251

  19. Pleistocene glaciation of the Jackson Hole area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Good, John M.; Jaworowski, Cheryl

    2018-01-24

    bouldery moraines that commonly enclose lakes. On the southern margin of the GYGS, prominent glacial outwash terraces define three phases of the Pinedale glaciation in Jackson Hole: Pinedale-1 (Pd-1) by Antelope Flats with subdued channel patterns on the east side of Jackson Hole; Pinedale-2 (Pd-2) by a large outwash fan that includes Baseline Flat on the west side of Jackson Hole with well-defined channel patterns; and Pinedale-3 (Pd-3) by The Potholes and other outwash fans farther up the Snake River in central Jackson Hole. During Pinedale glaciation, three glacial lobes of the GYGS fed into Jackson Hole, and the relative importance of these lobes changed dramatically through time. During the Pd-1 glaciation, the eastern Buffalo Fork lobe dominated whereas in Pd-2 and Pd-3 time the northern Snake River lobe dominated. This is consistent with migration of the GYGS center of ice mass westward and southward as glaciers built up towards the moisture source provided by storms moving northeastward up the eastern Snake River Plain. The recession of the eastern Buffalo Fork lobe in Pd-2 and Pd-3 times is consistent with an enlarged ice mass on the Yellowstone Plateau that placed the eastern part of the GYGS in a precipitation or snow shadow.In Pd-1 time, the Buffalo Fork lobe reached its maximum extent and was joined by the Pacific Creek lobe. This culmination may correlate with the ~21–18 ka ages of moraines in the Teton Range and nearby ranges. Three subdivisions of Pd-1 glaciation built moraines that are nearly or entirely covered by outwash almost 100 meters thick. In Pd-2 time, the Snake River lobe joined with the Pacific Creek lobe and built a large outwash fan south of the present-day Jackson Lake. Boulders on a moraine at the head of this fan are dated to 15.5 ± 0.5 ka. The relation between Teton glaciers and those of the GYGS is indicated by outwash from these Pd-2 moraines that partly buries outer Jenny Lake moraines dated to 15.2 ± 0.7 ka. East of the large

  20. Out of the Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Foreword Freeman J. Dyson; Introduction Nina Byers; 1. Hertha Aryton 1854-1923 Joan Mason; 2. Margaret Maltby 1860-1944 Peggy Kidwell; 3. Agnes Pockels 1862-1935 Gary A. Williams; 4. Marie Curie 1867-1934 A. Pais; 5. Henrietta Leavitt 1868-1921 Jean L. Turner; 6. Harriet Brooks 1876-1933 C. W. Wong; 7. Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Ruth Lewin Sime; 8. Emmy Noether 1882-1935 Nina Byers; 9. Inge Lehmann 1888-1993 Bruce A. Bolt; 10. Marietta Blau 1894-1970 Leopold Halpern and Maurice M. Shapiro; 11. Hertha Sponer 1895-1968 Helmut Rechenberg; 12. Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956 Hélène Langevin-Joliot and Pierre Radvanyi; 13. Katherine Burr Blodgett 1898-1979 Gary A. Williams; 14. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin 1900-1979 Vera C. Rubin; 15. Mary Cartwright 1900-1998 Freeman J. Dyson; 16. Bertha Jeffreys 1903-1999 Ruth M. Williams; 17. Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale1903-1971 Judith Milledge; 18. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972 Steven A. Moszkowski; 19. Helen Megaw 1907-2002 A. Michael Glazer and Christine Kelsey; 20. Yvette Cauchois 1908-1999 Christiane Bonnelle; 21. Marguerite Perey 1909-1975 Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman; 22. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 1910-1994 Jenny P. Glusker; 23. Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber 1911-1998 Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; 24. Chien Shiung Wu 1912-1997 Noemie Bencze-Koller; 25. Margaret E. Burbidge 1919 Virginia Trimble; 26. Phyllis Freier 1921-1992 Cecil J. Waddington; 27. Rosalyn S. Yalow 1921 M. S. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 28. Esther Conwell 1922 Lewis Rothberg; 29. Cecile Dewitt-Morette 1922 Bryce DeWitt; 30. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat 1923 James W. York Jr.; 31. Vera Rubin 1928 Robert J. Rubin; 32. Mildred S. Dresselhaus 1930 G. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 33. Myriam Sarachik 1933 Jonathan R. Friedman; 34. Juliet Lee-Franzini 1933 Paolo Franzini; 35. Helen T. Edwards 1936 John Peoples; 36. Mary K. Gaillard 1939 Andreszej Buras; 37. Renata Kallosh 1943 Andrei Linde and Michael Gutperle; 38. Jocelyn Bell Burnell 1943 Ferdinand V. Coroniti and Gary A

  1. Out of the Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary

    2010-12-01

    Foreword Freeman J. Dyson; Introduction Nina Byers; 1. Hertha Aryton 1854-1923 Joan Mason; 2. Margaret Maltby 1860-1944 Peggy Kidwell; 3. Agnes Pockels 1862-1935 Gary A. Williams; 4. Marie Curie 1867-1934 A. Pais; 5. Henrietta Leavitt 1868-1921 Jean L. Turner; 6. Harriet Brooks 1876-1933 C. W. Wong; 7. Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Ruth Lewin Sime; 8. Emmy Noether 1882-1935 Nina Byers; 9. Inge Lehmann 1888-1993 Bruce A. Bolt; 10. Marietta Blau 1894-1970 Leopold Halpern and Maurice M. Shapiro; 11. Hertha Sponer 1895-1968 Helmut Rechenberg; 12. Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956 Hélène Langevin-Joliot and Pierre Radvanyi; 13. Katherine Burr Blodgett 1898-1979 Gary A. Williams; 14. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin 1900-1979 Vera C. Rubin; 15. Mary Cartwright 1900-1998 Freeman J. Dyson; 16. Bertha Jeffreys 1903-1999 Ruth M. Williams; 17. Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale1903-1971 Judith Milledge; 18. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972 Steven A. Moszkowski; 19. Helen Megaw 1907-2002 A. Michael Glazer and Christine Kelsey; 20. Yvette Cauchois 1908-1999 Christiane Bonnelle; 21. Marguerite Perey 1909-1975 Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman; 22. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 1910-1994 Jenny P. Glusker; 23. Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber 1911-1998 Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; 24. Chien Shiung Wu 1912-1997 Noemie Bencze-Koller; 25. Margaret E. Burbidge 1919 Virginia Trimble; 26. Phyllis Freier 1921-1992 Cecil J. Waddington; 27. Rosalyn S. Yalow 1921 M. S. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 28. Esther Conwell 1922 Lewis Rothberg; 29. Cecile Dewitt-Morette 1922 Bryce DeWitt; 30. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat 1923 James W. York Jr.; 31. Vera Rubin 1928 Robert J. Rubin; 32. Mildred S. Dresselhaus 1930 G. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 33. Myriam Sarachik 1933 Jonathan R. Friedman; 34. Juliet Lee-Franzini 1933 Paolo Franzini; 35. Helen T. Edwards 1936 John Peoples; 36. Mary K. Gaillard 1939 Andreszej Buras; 37. Renata Kallosh 1943 Andrei Linde and Michael Gutperle; 38. Jocelyn Bell Burnell 1943 Ferdinand V. Coroniti and Gary A

  2. Distribution and movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Charrier, Jodi; Dixon, Chris

    2010-01-01

    . This growth rate is within the range reported in other river systems and is indicative of good habitat conditions. Mark-recapture methods were used to estimate a population of 147 age-1 or older bull trout in the reach of Jack Creek upstream of Jenny Creek.

  3. Efficacy of a randomized trial examining commercial weight loss programs and exercise on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Baetge, Claire; Earnest, Conrad P; Lockard, Brittanie; Coletta, Adriana M; Galvan, Elfego; Rasmussen, Christopher; Levers, Kyle; Simbo, Sunday Y; Jung, Y Peter; Koozehchian, Majid; Oliver, Jonathan; Dalton, Ryan; Sanchez, Brittany; Byrd, Michael J; Khanna, Deepesh; Jagim, Andrew; Kresta, Julie; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutrisystem Advance Select (NS, n = 28)) or control (n = 20) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and weight loss. We randomized 133 sedentary, overweight women (age, 47 ± 11 years; body mass, 86 ± 14 kg; body mass index, 35 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) into respective treatment groups for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using chi square and general linear models adjusted for age and respective baseline measures. Data are means ± SD or mean change ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed a significant trend for a reduction in energy intake for all treatment groups and significant weight loss for all groups except control: CC (-4.32 kg; 95% CI, -5.75, -2.88), WW (-4.31 kg; 95% CI, -5.82, -2.96), JC (-5.34 kg; 95% CI, -6.86, -3.90), NS (-5.03 kg; 95% CI, -6.49, -3.56), and control (0.16 kg, 95% CI, -1.56, 1.89). Reduced MetS prevalence was observed at follow-up for CC (35% vs. 14%, adjusted standardized residuals (adjres.) = 3.1), but not WW (31% vs. 28% adjres. = 0.5), JC (37% vs. 42%, adjres. = -0.7), NS (39% vs. 50% adjres. = -1.5), or control (45% vs. 55% adjres. = -1.7). While all groups improved relative fitness (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) because of weight loss, only the CC group improved absolute fitness (L/min). In conclusion, commercial programs offering concurrent diet and exercise programming appear to offer greater improvements in MetS prevalence and cardiovascular function after 12 weeks of intervention.

  4. Weight loss and retention in a commercial weight-loss program and the effect of corporate partnership.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Talamini, L; Johnson, A; Hymel, A M; Khavjou, O

    2010-04-01

    No studies report whether improvements to commercial weight-loss programs affect retention and weight loss. Similarly, no studies report whether enrolling in a program through work (with a corporate partner) affects retention and weight loss. To determine whether: (1) adding evidence-based improvements to a commercial weight-loss program increased retention and weight loss, (2) enrolling in a program through work increased retention and weight loss and (3) whether increased weight loss was because of longer retention. Data were collected on 60 164 adults who enrolled in Jenny Craig's Platinum Program over 1 year in 2001-2002. The program was subsequently renamed the Rewards Program and improved by increasing treatment personalization and including motivational interviewing. Data were then collected on 81 505 participants of the Rewards Program who enrolled during 2005 (2418 of these participants enrolled through their employer, but paid out-of-pocket). Retention (participants were considered active until >or=42 consecutive days were missed) and weight loss (percent of original body weight) from baseline to the last visit (data were evaluated through week 52) were determined. Alpha was set at 0.001. Mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) retention (weeks) was significantly higher among Rewards (19.5 (19.4-19.6)) compared with Platinum (16.3 (16.2-16.4)) participants, and Rewards Corporate (25.9 (25.0-26.8)) compared with Noncorporate (21.9 (21.7-22.1)) participants. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that mean (95% CI) percent weight loss was significantly larger among Rewards (6.36 (6.32-6.40)) compared with Platinum (5.45 (5.41-5.49)) participants, and Rewards Corporate (7.16 (6.92-7.40)) compared with Noncorporate (6.20 (6.16-6.24)) participants, with and without adjustment for baseline participant characteristics. In all cases, greater weight loss was secondary to longer retention. The study was not a randomized controlled trial, rather, a translational

  5. Integrating volcanic hazard data in a systematic approach to develop volcanic hazard maps in the Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the process of generating the first suite of integrated volcanic hazard zonation maps for the islands of Dominica, Grenada (including Kick 'em Jenny and Ronde/Caille), Nevis, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Saint Lucia and St Vincent in the Lesser Antilles. We developed a systematic approach that accommodated the range in prior knowledge of the volcanoes in the region. A first-order hazard assessment for each island was used to develop one or more scenario(s) of likely future activity, for which scenario-based hazard maps were generated. For the most-likely scenario on each island we also produced a poster-sized integrated volcanic hazard zonation map, which combined the individual hazardous phenomena depicted in the scenario-based hazard maps into integrated hazard zones. We document the philosophy behind the generation of this suite of maps, and the method by which hazard information was combined to create integrated hazard zonation maps, and illustrate our approach through a case study of St. Vincent. We also outline some of the challenges we faced using this approach, and the lessons we have learned by observing how stakeholders have interacted with the maps over the past 10 years. Based on our experience, we recommend that future map makers involve stakeholders in the entire map generation process, especially when making design choices such as type of base map, use of colour and gradational boundaries, and indeed what to depict on the map. We also recommend careful consideration of how to evaluate and depict offshore hazard of island volcanoes, and recommend computer-assisted modelling of all phenomena to generate more realistic hazard footprints. Finally, although our systematic approach to integrating individual hazard data into zones generally worked well, we suggest that a better approach might be to treat the integration of hazards on a case-by-case basis to ensure the final product meets map users' needs. We hope that the documentation of

  6. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA), eicosapentanoic (EPA), and arachidonic (AA) acids were present in very small amounts (<1%). In addition, the AA/EPA ratio was low (0.18). The fat and energetic values decreased (P < 0.01) during lactation. The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acids content and an increase (P < 0.01) in the unsaturated fatty acids content. The n-6 to n-3 ratio and the LA/ALA ratio were approximately 2:1, with values <1 during the last period of lactation, suggesting the more optimal use of milk during this period. Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio

  7. Thyroid hormones in milk and blood of lactating donkeys as affected by stage of lactation and dietary supplementation with trace elements.

    PubMed

    Todini, Luca; Salimei, Elisabetta; Malfatti, Alessandro; Ferraro, Stefano; Fantuz, Francesco

    2012-05-01

    The traditional utilization of donkeys (Equus asinus) as dairy animals has recently attracted substantial scientific interest with regard to human nutrition. Donkey milk is well tolerated by infants with cows' milk allergy, useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases, in the prevention of atherosclerosis, and in-vitro studies showed an anti-proliferative effect. Active 3-3'-5-triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could play different physiological roles, systemic and paracrine, for both the mother and the suckling offspring. The aim was to evaluate whether thyroid hormones (TH) concentrations in milk and blood of lactating donkeys change with the advancing lactation and whether they can be affected by dietary supplementation with several trace elements, some of them directly involved with TH synthesis (I), metabolism (Se) and action (Zn). Sixteen lactating jennies were divided into two groups (CTL and TE). Mixed feed for TE was added with Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, I, Se and Co. Every 2 weeks milk and blood samples were collected at 11·00. Total concentrations of T3 in milk (T3M) and T3 and T4 in plasma (T3P and T4P) were assayed using ELISA kits, validated for the donkey species. T3M was not correlated with TH concentrations in blood, did not change with the stage of lactation, and was significantly higher in TE (4·09 ± 0·07 ng/ml, mean ± SE) than in CTL group (3·89 ± 0·08 ng/ml). T4P (81·8 ± 5·2 ng/ml) and T3P (15·2 ± 1 ng/ml) significantly changed with time, but were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. T3P/T4P ratio was significantly lower in TE group. This study indicates that in donkey milk the concentration of T3, a human-like bioactive compound, can be affected by trace elements intake.

  8. Comparison of different cryopreservation methods for horse and donkey embryos.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, C C; Vizuete, G; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Galisteo, J J

    2018-05-01

    Few studies have been published about cryopreservation and embryo assessment in horses and donkeys. To evaluate the viability of embryos collected from mares and jennies that were cryopreserved by slow freezing or by vitrification. Randomised controlled experiment. Horse (n=19) and donkey (n=16) embryos (≤300 μm) were recovered on days 6.5-7.5 post-ovulation and assigned to control or cryopreservation protocols of slow freezing or vitrification. For slow freezing, 1.5 mol/L ethylene glycol (EG) was used. For vitrification, horse embryos were exposed to 1.4 mol/L glycerol, 1.4 mol/L glycerol + 3.6 mol/L EG and 3.4 mol/L glycerol + 4.6 mol/L EG, using Fibreplug or a 0.25 mL straw; donkey embryos were vitrified using Fibreplug with similar EG-glycerol solutions to above or 7.0 mol/L EG. Dead cells, apoptotic and fragmented nuclei, and cytoskeleton quality were assessed on thawed/warmed embryos. A significant decrease in embryo quality was observed after cryopreservation (P<0.05). Although the percentage of dead cells was lower (P<0.05) in control than in cryopreserved embryos, no differences were observed between freezing protocols used for horse or donkey embryos. While no differences were detected in the number of apoptotic cells in warmed horse embryos, in donkey embryos a higher incidence of apoptosis was measured after vitrification with EG-glycerol in Fibreplug (P<0.05). Vitrified horse embryos had a significantly (P<0.05) higher percentage of nonviable cells than donkey embryo. Actin cytoskeleton quality did not differ between treatments. Difficulties in obtaining a large number of embryos meant that the number of embryos per group was low. Vitrified horse and donkey embryos did not show higher susceptibility to cell damage than those preserved by slow freezing, whether using straws or Fibreplug. However, Fibreplug with EG 7 mol/L resulted in fewer nonviable and apoptotic cells in donkey embryos. Donkey embryos showed lower susceptibility to vitrification

  9. A continuous stochastic model for non-equilibrium dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, M.; Gorji, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    While accurate simulations of dense gas flows far from the equilibrium can be achieved by direct simulation adapted to the Enskog equation, the significant computational demand required for collisions appears as a major constraint. In order to cope with that, an efficient yet accurate solution algorithm based on the Fokker-Planck approximation of the Enskog equation is devised in this paper; the approximation is very much associated with the Fokker-Planck model derived from the Boltzmann equation by Jenny et al. ["A solution algorithm for the fluid dynamic equations based on a stochastic model for molecular motion," J. Comput. Phys. 229, 1077-1098 (2010)] and Gorji et al. ["Fokker-Planck model for computational studies of monatomic rarefied gas flows," J. Fluid Mech. 680, 574-601 (2011)]. The idea behind these Fokker-Planck descriptions is to project the dynamics of discrete collisions implied by the molecular encounters into a set of continuous Markovian processes subject to the drift and diffusion. Thereby, the evolution of particles representing the governing stochastic process becomes independent from each other and thus very efficient numerical schemes can be constructed. By close inspection of the Enskog operator, it is observed that the dense gas effects contribute further to the advection of molecular quantities. That motivates a modelling approach where the dense gas corrections can be cast in the extra advection of particles. Therefore, the corresponding Fokker-Planck approximation is derived such that the evolution in the physical space accounts for the dense effects present in the pressure, stress tensor, and heat fluxes. Hence the consistency between the devised Fokker-Planck approximation and the Enskog operator is shown for the velocity moments up to the heat fluxes. For validation studies, a homogeneous gas inside a box besides Fourier, Couette, and lid-driven cavity flow setups is considered. The results based on the Fokker-Planck model are

  10. Discovering the essence of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of

  11. Vitrification of ovarian tissue of Brazilian North-eastern donkeys (Equus asinus) using different cryoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Kátia Regina F; Praxedes, Erica Camila G; Campos, Livia B; Bezerra, Marcelo B; Lima, Gabriela L; Saraiva, Márcia Viviane A; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-05-29

    The aim of this study was to assess a vitrification protocol for asinine ovarian tissue, to preserve preantral follicles using different cryoprotectant solutions, composed of various concentrations (EG 3 M or 6 M) of dimethyl sulfoxide or ethylene glycol isolate, or as a combination (DMSO 3 M + EG 3 M). Ten pairs of ovaries from Brazilian north-eastern breed jennies were obtained through videolaparoscopy, and cortical fragments were submitted to a solid-surface vitrification (SSV) using each cryoprotectant solution. The ovarian tissue was evaluated for follicular morphology and viability, DNA integrity (TUNEL technique) and the presence of nucleolar organizing regions in granulosa cells (AgNOR technique). After thawing, the percentage of normal preantral follicles was significantly reduced in the vitrified ovarian tissue fragments compared to the fresh control (p < 0.05). When comparing treatments, the use of DMSO 3 M (81.7 ± 37.5%), EG 3 M (83.7 ± 27.4%) and the combination of both DMSO 3 M + EG 3 M (81.8 ± 46.8%) allowed a greater percentage of follicular survival in contrast to DMSO 6 M (69.8 ± 16.5%) and EG 6 M (72.3 ± 18.0%; p < 0.05). When vitrified using the DMSO + EG combination, a higher percentage (62.5 ± 29.1%) of viable follicles (trypan blue) was observed in relation to the other vitrification treatments (p < 0.05). The TUNEL technique identified that all treatments tested showed DNA fragmentation in the follicular cells, except in the case of the DMSO 3 M + EG 3 M treatment. When evaluating the presence of NORs, no significant differences were observed in the amount of NORs between the fresh and vitrified groups using DMSO 3 M + EG 3 M (p > 0.05). We concluded that the combination DMSO 3 M + EG was more efficient for the vitrification of ovarian tissue taken from Equus asinus, allowing adequate preservation of PAFs morphology, viability, DNA integrity and cell proliferative capacity. © 2018

  12. The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia Website blackholes.stardate.org

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Benningfield, D.; Preston, S.

    2013-01-01

    The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia website was developed over the past seven years to provide an extensive but easy-to-read resource for the public and students. A Spanish-language version, Enciclopedia de agujeros negros, is also available at blackholes.radiouniverso.org. Evaluation shows that the sites are used by the public, students, and astronomy professionals, and the site is among the top references in most web searches for individual black holes. The site comprises seven major subsections: Basics, Directory, Research, History, Pop Culture, News, and Resources. The Basics section introduces black holes, explains how they are discovered and studied, and covers their basis in the theory of gravity. This section also includes a six-minute video introduction, “Black Holes: Stranger than Fiction.” The Directory section contains extensive descriptions of more than 80 well-known stellar, intermediate, and supermassive black holes as well as images and vital statistics of each. The Research section takes a look at three NSF-funded projects, including the work of Andrea Ghez, Karl Gebhardt and Jenny Greene, and the LIGO project. The History section provides a timeline of black holes from Isaac Newton to the present. Some of the best and worst roles played by black holes in films, TV shows, and books are included in the Pop Culture section (and pop culture references and images are sprinkled through the rest of the site). An archive of news reports about black holes is available in the News section, which provides links to the original stories or press releases. And the Resources section offers FAQs, articles from StarDate magazine and radio programs, activities for students that are tied to national standards, a glossary, and a reading list of books and websites. We have conducted both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the black hole websites. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0935841. Any

  13. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not

  14. Web-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, General Caregiving Outcomes, and General Health for Informal Caregivers of Adults With Chronic Conditions Living in the Community: Rapid Evidence Review.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; McAiney, Carrie; Duggleby, Wendy; Bartholomew, Amy; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-07-28

    outcome of anxiety; 2 of these found significant reductions in anxiety. Other significant results of the interventions were seen in the outcomes of caregiver gain (ie, positive aspects of caregiving), knowledge, bonding, reduction of anger-hostility, and negative mood. Based on this review, it is not possible to determine which interventions were most effective since studies differed in their design, sample, and intervention. Study results suggest that Web-based interventions may result in reduced depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress or distress among informal caregivers of adults with chronic conditions in the community. This is the first review assessing the impact of Web-based technologies on mental health, general caregiving outcomes, and general health for caregivers of adults with chronic conditions living in the community. Further rigorous research is needed that includes adequately powered studies examining the critical components of the intervention and the dosage needed to have an effect. ©Jenny Ploeg, Maureen Markle-Reid, Ruta Valaitis, Carrie McAiney, Wendy Duggleby, Amy Bartholomew, Diana Sherifali. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.07.2017.

  15. A Geophysical Study in Grand Teton National Park and Vicinity, Teton County, Wyoming: With Sections on Stratigraphy and Structure and Precambrian Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John Charles; Tibbetts, Benton L.; Bonini, William E.; Lavin, Peter M.; Love, J.D.; Reed, John C.

    1968-01-01

    An integrated geophysical study - comprising gravity, seismic refraction, and aeromagnetic surveys - was made of a 4,600-km2 area in Grand Teton National Park and vicinity, Wyoming, for the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the structural relationships in the region. The Teton range is largely comprised of Precambrian crystalline rocks and layered metasedimentary gneiss, but it also includes granitic gneiss, hornblende-plagioclase gneiss, granodiorite, and pegmatite and diabase dikes. Elsewhere, the sedimentary section is thick. The presence of each system except Silurian provides a chronological history of most structures. Uplift of the Teton-Gros Ventre area began in the Late Cretaceous; most of the uplift occurred after middle Eocene time. Additional uplift of the Teton Range and downfaulting of Jackson Hole began in the late Pliocene and continues to the present. Bouguer anomalies range from -185 mgal over Precambrian rocks of the Teton Range to -240 mgal over low-density Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Jackson Hole. The Teton fault (at the west edge of Jackson Hole), as shown by steep gravity gradients and seismic-refraction data, trends north-northeast away from the front of the Teton Range in the area of Jackson Lake. The Teton fault either is shallowly inclined in the Jenny Lake area, or it consists of a series of fault steps in the fault zone; it is approximately vertical in the Arizona Creek area. Seismic-refraction data can be fitted well by a three-layer gravity model with velocities of 2.45 km per sec for the Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks above the Cloverly Formation, 3.9 km per sec for the lower Mesozoic rocks, and 6.1 km per sec for the Paleozoic (limestone and dolomite) and Precambrian rocks. Gravity models computed along two seismic profiles are in good agreement (sigma=+- 2 mgal) if density contrasts with the assumed 2.67 g per cm2 Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are assumed to be -0.35 and -0.10 g per cm2 for the 2

  16. Implementing an Internet-Delivered Skin Cancer Genetic Testing Intervention to Improve Sun Protection Behavior in a Diverse Population: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer L; Berwick, Marianne; Zielaskowski, Kate; White, Kirsten Am; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Robers, Erika; Guest, Dolores D; Sussman, Andrew; Talamantes, Yvonne; Schwartz, Matthew R; Greb, Jennie; Bigney, Jessica; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Hunley, Keith; Buller, David B

    2017-04-25

    average-risk personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk findings, and examine predictors of sun protection at 3 months as the outcome. These findings will be used to develop messages for groups that receive average-risk feedback. Aim 2 will compare rates of test consideration in Hispanics versus non-Hispanics, including consideration of testing pros and cons and registration of a decision to either accept or decline testing. Aim 3 will examine personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk feedback comprehension, recall, satisfaction, and cancer-related distress in those who undergo testing, and whether these outcomes differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), or sociocultural or demographic factors. Final outcome data collection is anticipated to be complete by October 2017, at which point data analysis will commence. This study has important implications for personalized genomics in the context of melanoma risk, and may be broadly applicable as a model for delivery of personalized genomic feedback for other health conditions. ©Jennifer L Hay, Marianne Berwick, Kate Zielaskowski, Kirsten AM White, Vivian M Rodríguez, Erika Robers, Dolores D Guest, Andrew Sussman, Yvonne Talamantes, Matthew R Schwartz, Jennie Greb, Jessica Bigney, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Keith Hunley, David B Buller. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.04.2017.

  17. Possible continuous-type (unconventional) gas accumulation in the Lower Silurian "Clinton" sands, Medina Group and Tuscarora Sandstone in the Appalachian Basin; a progress report of the 1995 project activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Aggen, Kerry L.; Hettinger, Robert D.; Law, Ben E.; Miller, John J.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Perry, William J.; Prensky, Stephen E.; Filipo, John J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier and others, 1995), the Appalachian basin was estimated to have, at a mean value, about 61 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of recoverable gas in sandstone and shale reservoirs of Paleozoic age. Approximately one-half of this gas resource is estimated to reside in a regionally extensive, continuous-type gas accumulation whose reservoirs consist of low-permeability sandstone of the Lower Silurian 'Clinton' sands and Medina Group (Gautier and others, 1995; Ryder, 1995). Recognizing the importance of this large regional gas accumulation for future energy considerations, the USGS initiated in January 1995 a multi-year study to evaluate the nature, distribution, and origin of natural gas in the 'Clinton' sands, Medina Group sandstones, and equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone. The project is part of a larger natural gas project, Continuous Gas Accumulations in Sandstones and Carbonates, coordinated in FY1995 by Ben E. Law and Jennie L. Ridgley, USGS, Denver. Approximately 2.6 man years were devoted to the Clinton/Medina project in FY1995. A continuous-type gas accumulation, referred to in the project, is a new term introduced by Schmoker (1995a) to identify those natural gas accumulations whose reservoirs are charged throughout with gas over a large area and whose entrapment does not involve a downdip gas-water contact. Gas in these accumulations is located downdip of the water column and, thus, is the reverse of conventional-type hydrocarbon accumulations. Commonly used industry terms that are more or less synonymous with continuous-type gas accumulations include basin- centered gas accumulation (Rose and others, 1984; Law and Spencer, 1993), tight (low-permeability) gas reservoir (Spencer, 1989; Law and others, 1989; Perry, 1994), and deep basin gas (Masters, 1979, 1984). The realization that undiscovered gas in Lower Silurian sandstone reservoirs of the

  18. Web-Based Intervention for Family Carers of Persons with Dementia and Multiple Chronic Conditions (My Tools 4 Care): Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ploeg, Jenny; McAiney, Carrie; Peacock, Shelley; Fisher, Kathryn; Ghosh, Sunita; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Swindle, Jennifer; Williams, Allison; Triscott, Jean Ac; Forbes, Dorothy; Jovel Ruiz, Kathya

    2018-06-29

    -month period. No significant differences in the primary outcome measure (mental component summary score from the SF-12v2) by group or time were noted at 3 months; however, significant differences were evident for HHI-factor 2 (P=.01), with higher hope scores in the treatment group than in the control group. General estimating equations showed no statistically significant group differences in terms of mental component summary score at all time points. Attrition and the fact that not all carers in the treatment group used MT4C may explain the absence of statistically significant results for the main outcome variable. Despite no significant differences between groups in terms of the primary outcome variable (mental component score), the significant differences in terms of one of the hope factors suggest that MT4C had a positive influence on the lives of participants. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02428387; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02428387 (Archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/708oFCR8h). ©Wendy Duggleby, Jenny Ploeg, Carrie McAiney, Shelley Peacock, Kathryn Fisher, Sunita Ghosh, Maureen Markle-Reid, Jennifer Swindle, Allison Williams, Jean AC Triscott, Dorothy Forbes, Kathya Jovel Ruiz. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 29.06.2018.

  19. ASK Magazine. Volume 4; [Volume Four; July 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Collins, Michelle (Editor); Post, Todd (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Not everyone looks forward to reviews. Dog and pony shows I've heard them called. Exercises in putting together Power Point charts. Other less tasteful descriptions abound, but I won't bother to summarize these. This is a tasteful magazine after all. In this issue, we've assembled a number of articles on the subject of reviews, particularly as they occur in the NASA project world (although we cover the subject from other perspectives too). Veteran NASA Project Manager Marty Davis, in his article Tangled Up in Reviews, writes, "Many people regard reviews as something onerous, but if we can tailor them so that they're not as bad as they have to be, it can be a great benefit to a project manager." Great benefits to the project manager is what you'll find in Marty's story as he describes not only tailoring a single review but the entire lifecycle of reviews in his project. In Jo Gunderson's story, Calling Down the Fire on Yourself, she describes a young NASA Project Manager who does just that because, as he tells her, I needed to know if there was anything that I had overlooked." How he brings fire down on himself at his project review will inspire other young Project Managers, seasoned managers, and anyone else who reads this powerful story. Leave Your Ego at the Door, by Jenny Baer-Reidhart and Ray Morgan, uses reviews to highlight the creative collaboration that existed between NASA and one of its industry partners. The protagonist of this story is a company who took advantage of NASAs expert advice during reviews and accomplished amazing feats as a result. The story also examines how disasters might well have been avoided by two other NASA partners had they been as open-minded as the first company during their reviews. In Roy Malone's story, Standing Offer, a NASA Project Manager describes how he used a crack review team to help him pass a critical certification inspection while he was a Combat Systems Officer in the Navy. Malone invited the reviewers to come back

  20. Implementation of a Web-Based Organ Donation Educational Intervention: Development and Use of a Refined Process Evaluation Model.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Nakeva; Harker, Laura; Bamps, Yvan; Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Patzer, Rachel E; Williams, Nancy S DeSousa; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2017-11-30

    were considered unique entries and could be considered for analyses. With respect to recruitment, 517 of the 772 valid entries (67.0%) of participants were recruited from a Web recruiter. Regarding dose received, no videos from the intervention website were watched in their entirety, and the average viewing duration was 17 seconds over the minimum. With respect to context, context analysis provided us with valuable insights into factors in the Internet environment that may have affected study implementation. Although only active for a brief period of time, the Craigslist website advertisement may have contributed the largest volume of fraudulent responses. We determined fraud and low uptake to be serious threats to this study and further confirmed the importance of conducting a process evaluation to identify such threats. We suggest checking participants' IP addresses before study initiation, selecting software that allows for automatic duplicate protection, and tightening minimum requirements for intervention uptake. Further research is needed to understand how process evaluation models can be used to monitor implementation of Web-based studies. ©Nakeva Redmond, Laura Harker, Yvan Bamps, Shauna St. Clair Flemming, Jennie P Perryman, Nancy J Thompson, Rachel E Patzer, Nancy S DeSousa Williams, Kimberly R Jacob Arriola. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 30.11.2017.

  1. Space Archeology Overview at Gordion: 2010 to 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Slayback, Daniel; Nigro, Joseph D.; Yager, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    In fiscal years 2010, 2011, and 2012, Compton Tucker was the principal investigator of a NASA Space Archaeology project that worked at Gordion, in Central Turkey. Tucker was assisted by an excellent team of co-workers including Joseph Nigro and Daniel Slayback of Science Systems Applications Incorporated, Jenny Strum of the University of New Mexico, and Karina Yager, a post doctoral fellow at NASA/GSFC. This report summaries their research activities at Gordion for the field seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012. Because of the possible use of our findings at Gordion for tomb robbing there and/or the encouragement of potential tomb robbers using our geophysical survey methods to locate areas to loot, we have not published any of our survey results in the open literature nor placed any of these results on any web sites. These 2010- 2012 survey results remain in the confidential archives of the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the group that leads the Gordion Excavation and Research Project. Excavations are planned for 2013 at Gordion, including several that will be based upon the research results in this report. The site of Gordion in central Turkey, famous as the home of King Midas, whose father's intricately tied knot gave the site its name, also served as the center of the Phrygian kingdom that ruled much of Central Anatolia in Asia Minor during the early first millennium B.C. Gordion has been a University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology excavation project since 1950, yet the site is incompletely published despite six decades of research. The primary obstacles related to the site and its preservation were two problems that NASA technology could address: (1) critical survey errors in the hundreds of maps and plans produced by the earlier excavators, most of which used mutually incompatible geospatial referencing systems, that prevented any systematic understanding of the site; and (2) agricultural

  2. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreurs, Guido

    2010-05-01

    , models accommodated initial shortening by a forward- and a backward-verging thrust. Further shortening was taken up by in-sequence formation of forward-verging thrusts. In all experiments, boundary stresses created significant drag of structures along the sidewalls. We therefore compared the surface slope and the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in sections through the central part of the model. All models show very similar cross-sectional evolutions demonstrating reproducibility of first-order experimental observations. Nevertheless, there are significant along-strike variations of structures in map view highlighting the limits of interpretations of analogue model results. These variations may be related to the human factor, differences in model width and/or differences in laboratory temperature and especially humidity affecting the mechanical properties of the granular materials. GeoMod2008 Analogue Team: Susanne Buiter, Caroline Burberry, Jean-Paul Callot, Cristian Cavozzi, Mariano Cerca, Ernesto Cristallini, Alexander Cruden, Jian-Hong Chen, Leonardo Cruz, Jean-Marc Daniel, Victor H. Garcia, Caroline Gomes, Céline Grall, Cecilia Guzmán, Triyani Nur Hidayah, George Hilley, Chia-Yu Lu, Matthias Klinkmüller, Hemin Koyi, Jenny Macauley, Bertrand Maillot, Catherine Meriaux, Faramarz Nilfouroushan, Chang-Chih Pan, Daniel Pillot, Rodrigo Portillo, Matthias Rosenau, Wouter P. Schellart, Roy Schlische, Andy Take, Bruno Vendeville, Matteo Vettori, M. Vergnaud, Shih-Hsien Wang, Martha Withjack, Daniel Yagupsky, Yasuhiro Yamada

  3. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    combining the Taylor expansion of velocity increments, du, and the Langevin equation for point particles we obtained the components of velocity fluxes which point to a drift and diffusion behavior in the velocity space. Thus a partial differential equation for the velocity PDF has been formulated that constitutes an advection-diffusion equation in velocity space (a Fokker-Planck equation) in which the drift and diffusion coefficients are obtained using the velocity conditioned statistics of the derivatives of the pore scale velocity field. This has been solved by both a Random Walk (RW) model and a Finite Volume method. We conclude that both, these methods are able to simulate the velocity PDF obtained by DNS. References [1] D. W. Meyer, P. Jenny, H.A.Tschelepi, A joint velocity-concentration PDF method for traqcer flow in heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 46, W12522, (2010). [2] Nowak, W., R. L. Schwede, O. A. Cirpka, and I. Neuweiler, Probability density functions of hydraulic head and velocity in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 44, W08452, (2008) [3] D. W. Meyer, H. A. Tchelepi, Particle-based transport model with Markovian velocity processes for tracer dispersion in highly heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11552, (2010)

  4. Development of an Agent-Based Model to Investigate the Impact of HIV Self-Testing Programs on Men Who Have Sex With Men in Atlanta and Seattle.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Katz, David A; Hamilton, Deven T; McKenney, Jennie; Jenness, Samuel M; Goodreau, Steven M; Stekler, Joanne D; Rosenberg, Eli S; Sullivan, Patrick S; Cassels, Susan

    2018-06-29

    % in Atlanta and Seattle, respectively. Previous studies provided sufficient data to estimate the model parameters representing nuanced HIV testing patterns and HIV self-test distribution. We calibrated the models to simulate the epidemics representing Atlanta and Seattle, including matching the expected stable HIV prevalence. The revised model facilitated the estimation of changes in 10-year HIV incidence based on counterfactual scenarios of HIV self-test distribution strategies and their impact on testing behaviors. We demonstrated that the extension of an existing agent-based HIV transmission model was sufficient to simulate the HIV epidemics among MSM in Atlanta and Seattle, to accommodate a more nuanced depiction of HIV testing behaviors than previous models, and to serve as a platform to investigate how HIV self-tests might impact testing and HIV transmission patterns among MSM in Atlanta and Seattle. In our future studies, we will use the model to test how different HIV self-test distribution strategies might affect HIV incidence among MSM. ©Wei Luo, David A Katz, Deven T Hamilton, Jennie McKenney, Samuel M Jenness, Steven M Goodreau, Joanne D Stekler, Eli S Rosenberg, Patrick S Sullivan, Susan Cassels. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 29.06.2018.

  5. An eHealth Application of Self-Reported Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport: Pilot Feasibility and Usability Study.

    PubMed

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas; Lexell, Jan

    2017-11-29

    requested, as the athletes perceived that injuries and illnesses often occurred because of the impairment. Options for description of multifactorial incidents including an injury, an illness, and the impairment were also insufficient. Few technical issues were encountered, but athletes with visual impairment reported usability difficulties with the speech synthesizer. An incidence rate of 1.8 injuries and 1.7 illnesses per 100 hours of athlete exposure were recorded. The weekly pain prevalence was 56% and the impairment contributed to 20% of the reported incidents. The novel eHealth-based application for self-reported SRIIPS developed and tested in this pilot study was generally feasible and usable. With some adaptation to accommodate Paralympic athletes' prerequisites and improved technical support for athletes with visual impairment, this application can be recommended for use in prospective studies of SRIIPS. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02788500; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02788500 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6v56OqTeP). ©Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Örjan Dahlström, Toomas Timpka, Jan Lexell. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 29.11.2017.

  6. In situ interactions between Opalinus Clay and Low Alkali Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, Catherine; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Warmont, Fabienne; Jenni, Andreas; Cloet, Veerle; Mäder, Urs

    2017-06-01

    A five-year-old interface between a Low Alkali Concrete (LAC) formulation (CEM III/B containing 66% slag and 10% nano-silica) and Opalinus Clay (OPA) from a field experiment at Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory in Switzerland (Jenni et al., 2014) has been studied to decipher the textural, mineralogical and chemical changes that occurred between the two reacting materials. Reactivity between LAC concrete and OPA is found to be limited to a ∼1 mm thick highly porous (ca. 75% porosity) white crust developed on the concrete side. Quantitative mineralogical mapping of the white crust using an electron microprobe and infrared spectroscopy on the cement matrix provides evidence of a Mg-rich phase accounting for approximatively 25 wt % of the matrix associated with 11 wt % of calcite, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and other cement phases. EDX analyses and electron diffraction combined with transmission electron microscopy of the Mg-rich phase provide evidence for a tri-octahedral 2:1 phyllosilicate with mean composition: (Ca0.5±0.2) (Mg2.0±0.4, Fe0.2±0.1, Al0.5±03, □0.3±0.3) (Al0.9±0.2, Si3.1±0.2) O10 (OH)2, where □ represents vacancies in the octahedral site. Apart from this reactive contact, textural, mineralogical and chemical modifications at the contact with the LAC concrete are limited. OPA mineralogy remains largely unmodified. X-ray micro-fluorescence and EPMA mapping of major elements on the OPA side also provides evidence for a Mg-enriched 300-400 μm thick layer. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) values measured in the OPA in contact with the LAC concrete range between 153 and 175 meq kg-1 of dry OPA, close to the reference value of 170 ± 10 meq kg-1 of dry OPA (Pearson et al., 2003). Changing cation occupancies at the interface with LAC concrete are mainly marked by increased Ca, Mg and K, and decreased Na. Leaching tests performed on OPA with deionized water and at different solid to water ratios strongly suggest that Cl and SO4 have

  7. Measuring distance “as the horse runs”: Cross-scale comparison of terrain-based metrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Ghandehari, M; Leyk, S; Stanislawski, Larry V.; Brantley, M E; Qiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Distance metrics play significant roles in spatial modeling tasks, such as flood inundation (Tucker and Hancock 2010), stream extraction (Stanislawski et al. 2015), power line routing (Kiessling et al. 2003) and analysis of surface pollutants such as nitrogen (Harms et al. 2009). Avalanche risk is based on slope, aspect, and curvature, all directly computed from distance metrics (Gutiérrez 2012). Distance metrics anchor variogram analysis, kernel estimation, and spatial interpolation (Cressie 1993). Several approaches are employed to measure distance. Planar metrics measure straight line distance between two points (“as the crow flies”) and are simple and intuitive, but suffer from uncertainties. Planar metrics assume that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) pixels are rigid and flat, as tiny facets of ceramic tile approximating a continuous terrain surface. In truth, terrain can bend, twist and undulate within each pixel.Work with Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data or High Resolution Topography to achieve precise measurements present challenges, as filtering can eliminate or distort significant features (Passalacqua et al. 2015). The current availability of lidar data is far from comprehensive in developed nations, and non-existent in many rural and undeveloped regions. Notwithstanding computational advances, distance estimation on DEMs has never been systematically assessed, due to assumptions that improvements are so small that surface adjustment is unwarranted. For individual pixels inaccuracies may be small, but additive effects can propagate dramatically, especially in regional models (e.g., disaster evacuation) or global models (e.g., sea level rise) where pixels span dozens to hundreds of kilometers (Usery et al 2003). Such models are increasingly common, lending compelling reasons to understand shortcomings in the use of planar distance metrics. Researchers have studied curvature-based terrain modeling. Jenny et al. (2011) use curvature to generate

  8. Dynamics of Populations of Planetary Systems (IAU C197)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    population of asteroids in the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter revised Miroslav Broz, D. Vokrouhlicky, F. Roig, D. Nesvorny, W. F. Bottke and A. Morbidelli; 22. On the reliability of computation of maximum Lyapunov Characteristic Exponents for asteroids Zoran Knezevic and Slobodan Ninkovic; 23. Nekhoroshev stability estimates for different models of the Trojan asteroids Christos Efthymiopoulos; 24. The role of the resonant 'stickiness' in the dynamical evolution of Jupiter family comets A. Alvarez-Canda and F. Roig; 25. Regimes of stability and scaling relations for the removal time in the asteroid belt: a simple kinetic model and numerical tests Mihailo Cubrovic; 26. Virtual asteroids and virtual impactors Andrea Milani; 27. Asteroid population models Alessandro Morbidelli; 28. Linking Very Large Telescope asteroid observations M. Granvik, K. Muinonen, J. Virtanen, M. Delbó, L. Saba, G. De Sanctis, R. Morbidelli, A. Cellino and E. Tedesco; 29. Collision orbits and phase transition for 2004 AS1 at discovery Jenni Virtanen, K. Muinonen, M. Granvik and T. Laakso; 30. The size of collision solutions in orbital elements space G. B. Valsecchi, A. Rossi, A. Milani and S. R. Chesley; 31. Very short arc orbit determination: the case of asteroid 2004 FU162 Steven R. Chesley; 32. Nonlinear impact monitoring: 2-dimensional sampling Giacomo Tommei; 33. Searching for gravity assisted trajectories to accessible near-Earth asteroids Stefan Berinde; 34. KLENOT - Near Earth and other unusual objects observations Michal Kocer, Jana Tichá and M. Tichy; 35. Transport of comets to the Inner Solar System Hans Rickman; 36. Nongravitational Accelerations on Comets Steven R. Chesley and Donald K. Yeomans; 37. Interaction of planetesimals with the giant planets and the shaping of the trans-Neptunian belt Harold F. Levison and Alessandro Morbidelli; 38. Transport of comets to the outer p

  9. The Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based Alcohol Management Intervention in Community Sports Clubs: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, Tameka; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Tindall, Jenny; Yoong, Sze Lin; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen; Sherker, Shauna; Rowland, Bosco; McLaren, Nicola; Kingsland, Melanie

    2017-06-30

    -based alcohol management program was significantly associated with perceived ease of use (P=.02, RR 1.4, CI 1.0-2.9), perceived usefulness (P=.03, RR 1.5, CI 1.0-6.8) and club size (P=.02, RR 0.8, CI 0.5-0.9). The most useful features of such a program included the perceived ability to complete program requirements within users' own time, complete program accreditation assessment and monitoring online, develop tailored action plans, and receive email reminders and prompts to complete action. A Web-based alcohol management approach to support sports clubs in the implementation of recommended alcohol management policies appears both feasible and acceptable. Future research should aim to determine if such intended use leads to actual use and club implementation of alcohol management policies. ©Tameka McFadyen, Luke Wolfenden, John Wiggers, Jenny Tindall, Sze Lin Yoong, Christophe Lecathelinais, Karen Gillham, Shauna Sherker, Bosco Rowland, Nicola McLaren, Melanie Kingsland. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 30.06.2017.

  10. Enhancing mHealth Technology in the Patient-Centered Medical Home Environment to Activate Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Multisite Feasibility Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, Ronald; Shi, Lu; Williams, Joel E; Dye, Cheryl J; Chen, Liwei; Crawford, Paul; Shry, Eric A; Griffin, Sarah F; Jones, Karyn O; Sherrill, Windsor W; Truong, Khoa; Little, Jeanette R; Edwards, Karen W; Hing, Marie; Moss, Jennie B

    2017-03-06

    Diabetes Self-care Activities Measure scores, clinical measures, comorbid conditions, health services resource consumption, and technology system usage statistics. We have completed phase 1 data collection. Formal analysis of phase 1 data has not been completed. We have obtained institutional review board approval and began phase 1 research in late fall 2016. The study hypotheses suggest that patients can, and will, improve their activation in chronic care management. Improved activation should translate into improved diabetes self-care. Expected benefits of this research to the scientific community and health care services include improved understanding of how to leverage mHealth technology to activate patients living with type 2 diabetes in self-management behaviors. The research will shed light on implementation strategies in integrating mHealth into the clinical workflow of the PCMH setting. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02949037. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02949037. (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6oRyDzqei). ©Ronald Gimbel, Lu Shi, Joel E Williams, Cheryl J Dye, Liwei Chen, Paul Crawford, Eric A Shry, Sarah F Griffin, Karyn O Jones, Windsor W Sherrill, Khoa Truong, Jeanette R Little, Karen W Edwards, Marie Hing, Jennie B Moss. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 06.03.2017.

  11. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    scope of solutions to be considered in the spatial planning field. Regional meteorology/climatology has demonstrated over the past decades that changes in land-uses and/or land cover may have substantial impacts on a) mean regional/local climate (Lobell & Bonfils, 2008), b) the magnitude and duration of extreme events (e.g. Marshall et al., 2004, Davin et al., 2014), c) air quality and therefore human's and ecosystems' health (e.g. Corchnoy et al. 1992, Hewitt et al., 2009). Such studies support the hypothesis that a careful regional climate modelling may help to refine the global climate projections and assess the local benefits or drawbacks of various land use/land cover policies. There is however a lack of studies at such spatial scales (from local to regional) to carefully quantify the impacts realistic land scenarios may have on atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, air quality, winds, incoming radiation). We have started to think about ways to evaluate those at the French national scale. That implies the choice of ad-hoc models, scenarios, data for evaluation, … that we will discuss. Our proposal is that in fine the regulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (where we live) may be considered as a service that land uses/cover/management may impact and that we need to study as much as other ecosystem services are. ____________ References: Bulkeley, H. (2006) A changing climate for spatial planning? In: Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2): 203-214. Corchnoy, S.B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. (1992) Hydrocarbon emission from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, air basin. In: Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3): 339-348. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. London: Earthscan, 344 p. Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T. (2014) Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management, Proceedings of

  12. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    Margarita Sandstone. The Santa Cruz Mudstone is a thin to medium-bedded siliceous mudstone with nonsiliceous mudstone and siltstone and minor amounts of sandstone. The siliceous nature implies organic deposition in a quiescent, deep-water environment. Bedrock is mantled by 1–4 meters of medium to coarse-grained regressive beach sediment and fluvial deposits from the Ben Lomond Mountains. Terrace age increases with elevation above sea level, and weathering of primary minerals increases with age. The suite of soils formed on the terraces is referred to as a soil chronosequence. Soil chronosequences, important tools in characterizing natural weathering rates, are defined as a group of soils that differ in age and therefore in duration of weathering but have similar climatic conditions, vegetation, geomorphic position, and parent material (Jenny, 1941; Birkland, 1999). Soils are frequently useful indicators of geomorphic age (Muhs, 1982; Switzer and others, 1988) and are a function of pedogenic and/or eolian processes. Some aspects of soil development can be episodic but when viewed on large time scales can be perceived as continuous (Switzer and others, 1988). The age of the soil may be constrained by the age of the deposit, since soil formation generally commences when deposition has ceased (Birkland, 1999). Dating of the terraces provides an unprecedented opportunity to study weathering and soil-formation rates (Perg and others, 2001; Hanks and others, 1984; Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Bradley and Addicott, 1968; Bradley, 1956). Ages of the terraces recently dated by cosmogenic radionuclide are, starting with the youngest, 65, 92, 137, 139, and 226 k.y. (Perg and others, 2001). However, these ages are much younger than recent radiometric dates on mollusk shells (Muhs, U.S. Geological Survey, personal communication, 2002; Bradley and Addicott, 1968). For this study, soils were sampled on five terraces. Terrace one in the Lighthouse Field along Westcliff in Santa Cruz was the

  13. Creating opportunities for parent empowerment: program effects on the mental health/coping outcomes of critically ill young children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Feinstein, Nancy Fischbeck; Crean, Hugh F; Johnson, Jean; Fairbanks, Eileen; Small, Leigh; Rubenstein, Jeffrey; Slota, Margaret; Corbo-Richert, Beverly

    2004-06-01

    -nine children (60.7%) were male and 64 (39.3%) were female. The major reasons for hospitalization were respiratory problems, accidental trauma, neurologic problems, and infections. Fifty-seven percent (n = 93) of the children had never been hospitalized overnight, and none had experienced a previous PICU hospitalization. Mothers in the experimental (COPE) group received a 3-phase educational-behavioral intervention program 1) 6 to 16 hours after PICU admission, 2) 2 to 16 hours after transfer to the general pediatric unit, and 3) 2 to 3 days after their children were discharged from the hospital. Control mothers received a structurally equivalent control program. The COPE intervention was based on self-regulation theory, control theory, and the emotional contagion hypothesis. The COPE program, which was delivered with audiotapes and matching written information, as well as a parent-child activity workbook that facilitated implementing the audiotaped information, focused on increasing 1) parents' knowledge and understanding of the range of behaviors and emotions that young children typically display during and after hospitalization and 2) direct parent participation in their children's emotional and physical care. The COPE workbook, which was provided to parents and children after transfer from the PICU to the general pediatric unit, contained 3 activities to be completed before discharge from the hospital, ie, 1) puppet play to encourage expression of emotions in a nonthreatening manner, 2) therapeutic medical play to assist children in obtaining some sense of mastery and control over the hospital experience, and 3) reading and discussing Jenny's Wish, a story about a young child who successfully copes with a stressful hospitalization. Primary outcomes included maternal anxiety, negative mood state, depression, maternal beliefs, parental stress, and parent participation in their children's care, as well as child adjustment, which was assessed with the Behavioral Assessment

  14. Modeled inundation limits of potential lahars from Mount Adams in the White Salmon River Valley, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griswold, Julia P.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Bard, Joseph A.

    2018-05-09

    inundation zones accompanying this report, shown in two different map perspectives, is intended to augment (not replace) the existing hazard maps for Mount Adams (W.E. Scott and others, 1995; Vallance, 1999). The maps in this report show potential areas of inundation by lahars of different initial volumes, which are determined by a computer model, LAHARZ (Iverson and others, 1998; Schilling, 1998). One map sheet presents LAHARZ-determined inundation areas on a normal plan-view shaded-relief map of the study area; the other gives an oblique perspective of the landscape with raised topography, as if one were viewing the landscape at an angle from an aircraft (Jenny and Patterson, 2007). LAHARZ was developed after the original hazard maps (based only on mapping of geologic deposits) were made. Predicted inundation zones on these maps provide an alternative approach to estimation of areas that could be inundated as lahars of different volumes pass through the valley. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the exact location of the hazard-zone boundaries shown on these maps, as well as on earlier maps.

  15. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends

  16. hwhap_Ep38 Stories of Her Strength

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-30

    Gary Jordan (Host): Houston, We Have a Podcast. Welcome to the official podcast of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Episode 38: Stories of Her Strength. I'm Gary Jordan, and I'll be your cohost today along with Jenny Turner, International Space Station flight controller and the chair of the Women Excelling in Life and Leadership employee resource group, more commonly known as WELL here on site. Jenny, thanks for coming on. Jenny Turner: Yeah, of course, thanks for having me. Host: So, Jenny, tell us more about these employee resource groups and their purpose and the one you chair as well. Jenny Turner: Yeah. So employee resource groups are here at JSC to help promote inclusion and innovation. So there's nine total. They focus on the experiences of different racial backgrounds, age, human systems integration, veterans, the LGBT community, employees with disabilities, and caregivers, and gender for WELL in particular. So at JSC and everywhere, really, the diverse experiences, backgrounds, and skills that we bring to work every day are, really, I think, what makes us so competitive and successful. So we really want to work to highlight that aspect of our community and just provide that resource for people in those groups, as well as allies. So for WELL in particular we are focused on promoting and supporting women at JSC. We provide mentoring opportunities so that women in management and entering into mid-level employees can connect. We do some outreach with the committee -- I'm sorry, the community, especially when it comes to girls and STEM. And we also have professional development luncheons with all sorts of topics that just also include personal development. Of course, being the women's group, we do tackle some harder subjects that are sometimes uncomfortable. But our intent is always, you know, never to accuse but just to make aware and kind of provide that forum for issues that affect us and the ones we love. Recently, especially with today's climate, we've also

  17. The 26th International Physics Olympiad: On top down under!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    As they opened the plane door on arrival at Canberra it was like stepping inside a freezer. I had escaped from the heatwave in Britain to experience winter in Australia. I have not found anyone who believes that there was really frost! The Australian welcome did its best to combat the cold, however, and Professor Rod Jury had soon introduced our guides and got us settled in on the campus of Canberra University. The British team of five students, selected through the British Physics Olympiad, were: Alan Bain of Birkenhead School, Chris Blake of King Edward VI School, Southampton, Richard Davies of Dulwich College, Tom Down of Embley Park School, Romsey and Chris Webb of Royal Grammar School, Worcester. The two Leaders of the party were Cyril Isenberg of the University of Kent and Guy Bagnall of Harrow School. Chris Robson of St Bee's School and myself from Stoke on Trent Sixth form College were interested Observers and Guy's wife, Jenny, completed the party. For the old hands there were many friendships stretching back years to renew, and with 51 countries this year many new ones to be made. Â Photo Figure 1. Photograph taken by C Robson of the British Physics Team immediately after the Awards Ceremony in Canberra in July 1995. From left to right: Chris Webb, Richard Davies, Tom Down, Alan Bain and Chris Blake. In addition to the confusion caused by the Sun being in the North and the Moon appearing to lie on its back, we had to get used to the flocks of chattering parrots browsing on the lawns and the kangaroos on campus! Everyone was presented with a boomerang and there were several sessions introducing the art of throwing them, even in the dark! The Opening Ceremony was colourful and a good mix of ceremony and fun with the Aboriginal entertainment and the Flame of Science to be lit. This was followed by my first examiners' meeting. Once the questions have been introduced no one is allowed to leave the group until ten hours later when the students are in bed! The

  18. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    ). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979

  19. Poster Session B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    -linked products from mammalian cells, and thus enables the determination of protein interaction interfaces. The utility of the developed method has been demonstrated by profiling PPIs in mammalian cells at the proteome scale and at the targeted protein complex level. Our work represents a general approach in studying in vivo PPIs, and provides a solid foundation for future studies towards the complete mapping of PPI networks in living systems. B.15 High-resolution Orbitrap Characterization of Preferential Chain Pairing in Co-expressed Bispecific Antibody Production by MS Under Native and Acidic Conditions Luis Schachner, Jianhui Zhou, Luke McCarty, Diego Ellerman, Michael Dillon, Christoph Spiess, Jennie Lill, Paul Carter, Wendy Sandoval Departments of Protein Chemistry and Antibody Engineering, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA Bispecific antibodies possess the characteristics and binding specificity of two distinct monoclonal antibodies, and as such can bind to two targets or epitopes simultaneously. Bispecific antibodies have recently received great attention for their promising results in clinical trials or potential new modes to deliver therapeutics. Generation of a bispecific antibody by co-expression of two light and heavy chains, would result in several mispaired species. While the “knobs-into-holes” technology enables efficient hetero-dimerization of the two heavy chains, the presumed random mispairing of the light chains has not been studied in detail as technologies to readily characterize and quantify the heterodimer species were missing. Using an anti-IL-4/IL-13, a bispecific antibody, which targets the IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines involved in type 2 cytokine-induced inflammation, we describe a mass spectrometry characterization assay under native and acidic conditions for co-expressed bispecific antibodies using an Exactive Plus Extended Mass Range (EMR) Orbitrap instrument. The high mass resolving power of the EMR Orbitrap allows unambiguous

  20. Houston, We Have a Podcast. Episode 48: Moon Rocks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-08

    February 14, 2018. Thanks to Alex Perryman, and Tracy Calhoun, and Jenny Knotts. Thanks again to Dr. Ryan Zeigler for coming on the show. We'll be back next week.

  1. hwhap_ep19_weather_to_launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST! WELCOME TO THE OFFICIAL PODCAST OF THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, EPISODE 19: WEATHER TO LAUNCH. I’M GARY JORDAN AND I’LL BE YOUR HOST TODAY. SO IF YOU’RE NEW TO THE SHOW, THIS IS WHERE WE BRING IN NASA EXPERTS-- SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, ASTRONAUTS, METEOROLOGISTS-- ALL TO TELL YOU EVERYTHING ABOUT WHAT’S GOING ON HERE AT NASA. SO TODAY WE’RE TALKING WITH TIM GARNER. HE’S THE METEOROLOGIST FOR THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, MORE COMMONLY KNOWN AS NOAA, HERE AT THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER IN HOUSTON, TEXAS. WE TALKED ABOUT WEATHER AND HOW IT AFFECTS HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT, ESPECIALLY IN TERMS OF LAUNCHES, LANDINGS, TESTS AND TRAINING, AND EVEN HOW WEATHER COULD IMPACT FUTURE SPACEFLIGHTS. SO WITH NO FURTHER DELAY, LET’S GO LIGHTSPEED AND JUMP RIGHT AHEAD TO OUR TALK WITH MR. TIM GARNER. ENJOY. [ MUSIC ] >> T MINUS FIVE SECONDS AND COUNTING-- MARK. [ INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER ] >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST. [ MUSIC ] THANKS FOR COMING TODAY, TIM. I GUESS I’LL JUST START OFF BY SAYING, BEAUTIFUL WEATHER WE’RE HAVING, HUH? >> YOU BET IT IS. I WILL SAY THAT I’M IN ADVERTISING, NOT PRODUCTION, SO I DIDN’T CREATE IT. [ LAUGHTER ] >> ALL RIGHT. WELL, I’M EXCITED ABOUT THIS TOPIC TODAY BECAUSE YOU WOULDN’T IMMEDIATELY CONSIDER THINKING ABOUT WEATHER WHENEVER YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT SPACEFLIGHT, BUT IT MAKES A LOT OF SENSE, RIGHT, BECAUSE EVERYTHING WE DO EVENTUALLY LAUNCHES FROM EARTH, RIGHT? IT COMES FROM EARTH. >> AT SOME POINT, YOU GO UP THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE, AND USUALLY YOU COME BACK DOWN THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE AS WELL. >> EXACTLY. SO THAT’S KIND OF WHAT I WANTED TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT TODAY, JUST KIND OF WEATHER AND HOW IT AFFECTS HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT. SO I GUESS WE’LL JUST START OFF WITH JUST HOW THIS IS ALL STRUCTURED. AND I KNOW WE WERE TALKING A LITTLE BIT JUST HERE IN THE BEGINNING JUST ABOUT NOAA AND NASA AND THOSE DIFFERENT LAYERS, BUT SO THE PART THAT YOU’RE IN, THE SPECIFIC PART, IS CALLED THE SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP, RIGHT? >> THAT’S CORRECT. >> OKAY. SO WHAT DO THEY DO? >> WELL, LARGELY, ANYTHING INVOLVED WITH THE MANNED SPACEFLIGHT PROGRAM, THE OPERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THAT. LAUNCHES ARE USUALLY HANDLED FROM 45TH WEATHER SQUADRON, TYPICALLY OUT AT KENNEDY SPACE CENTER-- THE AIR FORCE HANDLES THE LAUNCH WEATHER. >> OKAY. >> SO ANYTHING INVOLVING THE LANDING WEATHER IN MANNED SPACEFLIGHT THAT’S CONTROLLED BY THE MISSION CONTROL CENTER HERE AT JSC, SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP GETS INVOLVED WITH THAT. >> OKAY. >> LARGELY IT’S LANDING WEATHER, AND SOME EARTH OBSERVATION STUFF WHEN YOU’RE ON ORBIT AS WELL. AND A LITTLE BIT OF MONITORING OF LOCAL WEATHER FOR JSC, WHICH I THINK WE’LL TALK ABOUT LATER. >> YEAH, ABSOLUTELY. AND THAT’S KIND OF LIKE THE BROAD SPECTRUM OF THINGS, BUT IT’S PART OF-- AND WE’RE TALKING ABOUT THE LAYERS-- SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP IS PART OF NOAA-- NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, RIGHT? >> YEAH, SPECIFICALLY THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE. >> OKAY, YEAH, RIGHT, THERE’S EVEN MORE LAYERS TO THAT. SO WHAT’S JUST A GENERAL OVERVIEW, JUST EVEN PULLING BACK A LITTLE MORE? WHAT’S NOAA? WHAT’S THEIR CONCERN? >> NOAA IS THE AGENCY THAT’S CHARGED WITH THE OCEANS AND THE ATMOSPHERES. AS A MATTER OF FACT, THE MAN IN CHARGE OR THE PERSON IN CHARGE IS THE UNDER SECRETARY FOR THE OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES. THAT’S WHAT HIS OFFICIAL TITLE IS IN THE GOVERNMENT. NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IS A PART OF THAT. IT’S CHARGED WITH THE PROMOTING THE NATION’S ECONOMY THROUGH EFFICIENT ISSUANCE OF WEATHER FORECAST AND RIVER FORECAST WARNINGS AS WELL. >> OKAY. >> SO THAT’S WHAT THE LARGER ROLE IS. >> OKAY, ALL RIGHT. NICE LITTLE OVERVIEW THERE. SO THEN WE’RE GOING BACK DOWN TO THE SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP. THINKING ABOUT SPACEFLIGHT JUST IN GENERAL, WHAT IS-- WHY IS WEATHER SUCH A CONCERN, OR WHY IS IT A CONSIDERATION WHEN YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT? >> WELL, MOST VEHICLES, THEY HAVE SOME SENSITIVITY TO THE ATMOSPHERE. MOST PEOPLE WOULD THINK IT’D BE SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS, WHICH ARE SOME OF THE BIGGER IMPACTS. >> YEAH. >> BUT ALSO THE WINDS NEAR THE SURFACE AND THE WINDS ALOFT. THE WINDS ALOFT WILL AFFECT THE VEHICLE TRAJECTORY ON LAUNCH AND ON LANDING AS WELL. AS WE GET BACK TO DEALING MORE WITH REENTRY VEHICLES THAT USE PARACHUTES, THEY’LL DRIFT WITH THE WIND A LITTLE BIT AS WELL. AND YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE YOU HIT YOUR TARGET. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> SO KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER WINDS IS VERY VITAL TO A SUCCESSFUL LANDING. >> OKAY, SO WHAT SORTS OF THINGS ARE YOU LOOKING AT FOR, THEN, WHEN YOU’RE LOOKING AT WEATHER AND MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SPACEFLIGHT? >> IT’LL DEPEND IN LARGE PART ON THE VEHICLE AND ITS PARTICULAR SENSITIVITIES TO THE WEATHER, BUT ALMOST ALL OF THEM WILL HAVE A SENSITIVITY TO LIGHTNING. >> OKAY. >> BECAUSE YOU DON’T WANT TO GET ANY VEHICLE ON LAUNCH OR LANDING STRUCK BY LIGHTNING. >> DEFINITELY NOT. >> YOU COULD BUILD A VEHICLE THAT WAS PERFECTLY HARDENED TO JUST ABOUT ANY KIND OF WEATHER, BUT IT’D PROBABLY BE TOO HEAVY TO GET OFF THE GROUND. >> OH, YEAH. >> SO IT’S LIKE EVERYTHING IN SPACEFLIGHT-- IT’S A TRADEOFF BETWEEN WEIGHT, AND MONEY, AND THE ABILITY TO GET INTO ORBIT. >> SURE. >> SO A LOT OF THE WEATHER THINGS IMPACT THAT. SOME OF THE NEWER VEHICLES AS WELL, SINCE THEY’RE GOING TO SPLASH DOWN-- BACK TO THE FUTURE-- OR BACK TO THE PAST, IN A CERTAIN WAY. >> YEAH. >> WE’RE ALSO WORRIED ABOUT WAVE HEIGHTS AT SEA. >> OH, YEAH. >> AND THE WIND SPEEDS AT SEA. AND THE VEHICLE CAN SPLASH DOWN IN CERTAIN WAVE HEIGHTS, BUT THEN YOU HAVE A SECONDARY PROBLEM OF THE PEOPLE THAT GO OUT THERE AND TAKE THEM OUT OF THE VEHICLE AND RECOVER THE VEHICLE. >> RIGHT. >> THEY CAN’T BE EXPOSED TO HIGH WINDS, HIGH WAVES WHILE THEY’RE AT SEA AS WELL. AND THEN WHEN THINGS COME IN TO LAND ON THE LAND WITH PARACHUTES, FOR EXAMPLE, YOU DON’T WANT TO COME DOWN TOO HARD OR THE WINDS BE TOO HIGH, BECAUSE THEN THE PARACHUTE WILL DRAG IT OVER, AND IT COULD CONCEIVABLY DRAG THE CAPSULE ALONG. >> YEAH. >> USUALLY THAT’S PRETTY HIGH WIND SPEED TO DO THAT, SO THOSE LIMITS ARE USUALLY SET PRETTY HIGH. >> OKAY. >> AS I MENTION, WE WORRY ABOUT SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS. YOU DON’T WANT, SAY, A PARACHUTE TO GET WET. OR IF YOU HAD A REENTRY VEHICLE THAT WAS WINGED, YOU WANT TO BE ABLE TO SEE THE RUNWAY AS YOU’RE COMING IN. WITH A THUNDERSTORM NEARBY, YOU HAVE CONCERNS OF LIGHTNING. YOU COULD TRIGGER LIGHTNING. USUALLY WHEN AN AIRCRAFT OR A SPACE VEHICLE ENCOUNTERS LIGHTNING, IT ARTIFICIALLY TRIGGERS THE LIGHTNING-- IT’S NOT USUALLY NATURALLY OCCURRING. BECAUSE ITS MERE PRESENCE IN A HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD WILL BE THAT THING THAT SETS OFF THE LIGHTNING STRIKE. >> WOW. >> AND THAT’S WHAT HAPPENED FOR APOLLO 12 ON LAUNCH. >> HUH. >> TRIGGERED LIGHTNING TWO TIMES ON LAUNCH. >> OH, WOW. >> AND ATLAS-CENTAUR 67 IN THE LATE ‘80s TRIGGERED LIGHTNING UPON LAUNCH. IT WAS AN UNMANNED VEHICLE. >> OKAY. >> AND THAT VEHICLE HAD TO BE DESTROYED, BECAUSE IT GOT OFF TRAJECTORY. >> OH, OKAY. >> SO WE WORRY ABOUT LIGHTNING AND THUNDERSTORMS QUITE A LOT. >> YEAH. >> AND IF IT’S A WINGED VEHICLE OR A PARACHUTE VEHICLE AND YOU’RE NEARBY ENOUGH TO A THUNDERSTORM, YOU COULD ALSO ENCOUNTER SOME TURBULENCE, WHICH WOULD BE A BAD DAY. >> YEAH. >> SO THERE’S LOTS OF THINGS TO WORRY ABOUT. YOU WANT TO BE ABLE TO SEE THE VEHICLE. CLOUDS OUT THERE WHEN YOU LAUNCH OR RECOVER THE VEHICLE-- A LOT OF TIMES YOU WANT TO HAVE GOOD VIDEOGRAPHY OF THE VEHICLE. YOU WANT TO FILM IT SO YOU CAN GO BACK AND DO SOME ENGINEERING ANALYSIS LATER. SO YOU WANT TO BE ABLE TO SEE IT. CLOUDS GET IN THE WAY. >> OH, YEAH. >> SO WE WORRY QUITE A BIT ABOUT THAT AS WELL. SOME OF THE RECENT TESTING WE’VE BEEN DOING IN PREPARATION FOR SOME OF THE MISSIONS UPCOMING-- WE’RE ALSO DROPPING THE TEST VEHICLE FROM HIGH HEIGHTS, EITHER FROM AN AIRPLANE OR BY A BALLOON IN CASE FOR SOMETIMES IT CAN BE LIFTED UP BY A BALLOON. YOU WANT TO KNOW WHERE THE BALLOON’S GOING TO GO BEFORE YOU DROP SOMETHING. >> YEAH. >> BECAUSE YOU DON’T WANT TO DROP IT ON SOMEBODY OR SOMEBODY’S HOUSE. >> OF COURSE. >> YOU WANT TO KEEP IT ON THE RANGE. SO WE WORRY ABOUT THE UPPER WINDS FOR THINGS LIKE THAT AS WELL. SO THERE’S LOTS OF DIFFERENT WEATHER IDEAS THAT ARE OUT THERE THAT YOU’VE GOT TO LOOK AT. >> YEAH. SO YOU IN YOUR POSITION AS METEOROLOGIST IN CHARGE, SO WHEN YOU’RE LOOKING AT THIS STUFF, YOU SAY YOU’RE LOOKING AT THIS AND YOU’VE GOT TO WORRY ABOUT THAT. YOU’RE LOOKING AT THIS, YOU’VE GOT TO WORRY ABOUT THIS. WHAT ARE YOU DOING TO ADVISE, TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS? ARE YOU THERE IN THE TESTING FIELD LIKE SAYING, “HEY, YOU’VE GOT TO WATCH OUT FOR THESE WINDS,” OR HOW ARE YOU INVOLVED?>> MOSTLY AT SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP WE’RE WORKING IN ONE OF THE MULTIPURPOSE SUPPORT ROOMS IN THE MISSION CONTROL CENTER. >> OKAY. >> THERE’S A WEATHER ROOM, ESSENTIALLY. IT’S THE SINGLE PURPOSE MULTIPURPOSE SUPPORT ROOM, I GUESS. >> OKAY. >> AND WE’VE GOT SEVERAL-- WE’VE GOT TWO MAJOR WEATHER SYSTEMS BACK THERE. ONE THAT NASA PROVIDED, THAT LEGACY SYSTEM WE’VE HAD FOR YEARS AND YEARS CALLED THE [ INDISTINCT ]. AND THEN I’VE GOT ANOTHER COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR WEATHER STUFF CALLED AWIPS II, WHICH IS IN EVERY NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE ACROSS THE COUNTRY. >> OKAY. >> AND BOTH OF THOSE SYSTEMS GET WEATHER SATELLITE DATA, INCLUDING THE NEW GOES-16, WHICH IS A TREMENDOUS ASSET TO THE NATION’S ECONOMY IN PROTECTION, AND IT’S A WONDERFUL SATELLITE. >> YEAH, I WAS GOING TO SAY, THAT’S THE SATELLITE, RIGHT. >> AND WE ALSO GET RADAR DATA FROM THE NETWORK OF NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RADARS THAT ARE ACROSS THE COUNTRY. ALSO GET DATA FROM THE AIR FORCE’S RADAR AT THE CAPE. THEY HAVE A WEATHER RADAR NEAR PATRICK AIR FORCE BASE WHO OVERSEE THAT. AND ALL THE COMPLETE SUITE OF THE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS FROM GROUND REPORTING STATIONS, TYPICALLY AT AIRPORTS, BUT MORE AND MORE WE’RE GETTING SMALLER SCALE MEASUREMENTS-- MEZZO SCALE IS WHAT WE CALL IT-- AND A LOT OF THOSE ARE SPECIAL NETWORKS, INCLUDING SOME THAT NASA OPERATES, AND THE OTHER SPACE AND MISSILE RANGES OPERATE, THAT DENSE NETWORK OF SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. AND A LOT OF THEM ARE HOME HOBBYISTS. >> OH! >> WE RETRIEVED THAT DATA AS WELL. IT DOES NEED A LITTLE BIT MORE QUALITY CONTROL FROM TIME TO TIME, BUT WE DO DRAG THAT IN, SO WE ACTUALLY HAVE QUITE A LOT OF DATA. AND THEN OUT IN THE FIELD, THEY’LL TYPICALLY BE-- ESPECIALLY ON THE DoD SPACE AND MISSILE RANGES, WHERE WE DO A LOT OF THE ACTIVITIES, THERE’LL BE SOME METEOROLOGIST OR METEOROLOGISTS IN THE FIELD, AND THEY’LL BE RELEASING SPECIAL WEATHER BALLOONS FOR US AS WELL, AND TAKING SPECIAL SURFACE LEVEL MEASUREMENTS AS WELL. AND THERE’S OTHER TECHNOLOGIES TO MEASURE THE UPPER WINDS. THERE’S SOME WIND PROFILERS THAT WE USE. SO WE COLLECT ALL THAT DATA FROM THE FIELD BACK HERE IN THE MCC, AND WE’LL ADVISE THE FLIGHT CONTROL TEAM. >> OH. >> PRIMARILY THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR. >> OKAY. >> MY OFFICE IS ATTACHED TO THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR OFFICE HERE AT JSC. >> OKAY. >> SO I HAVE A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BOSS AND A NASA BOSS. MY NASA BOSS IS ONE OF THE FLIGHT DIRECTORS. TYPICALLY, THE ASCENT AND ENTRY FLIGHT DIRECTORS. >> OKAY. IS THAT MAINLY WHEN YOU’RE PULLED IN, ASCENT AND ENTRY? >> YEAH. >> OKAY. >> WELL, WHEN THERE’S A MISSION ON ORBIT, WE WILL MONITOR SOME THINGS. >> SURE. >> FOR EXAMPLE, FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, I’M ON CALL IF I’M NOT ON CONSOLE. >> OKAY. >> SO IF THEY HAVE SOME SORT OF EMERGENCY AND THEY’VE GOT TO GET INTO SOYUZ AND THEY WANT TO MAINTAIN SITUATIONAL AWARENESS OF WHERE THEY COULD LAND, I CAN BE CALLED IN AND PROVIDE WEATHER SUPPORT FOR THAT AS WELL. >> OKAY, AND JUST MAKE SURE THAT WHEREVER THEY’RE GOING TO LAND, YOU HAVE A GOOD IDEA OF WHAT THAT WEATHER’S GOING TO BE AT THAT TIME. >> YEAH, AND FOR THE SOYUZ CAPSULE IN PARTICULAR, IT’S PRETTY ROBUST WEATHER-WISE. >> YEAH. >> THE RUSSIANS MAKE PRETTY HARDY HARDWARE. >> YEAH. THEY’VE LAUNCHED IN COLD WEATHER. >> YES THE HAVE. >> AND ALL KINDS OF STUFF, SO YEAH, EXCELLENT VEHICLE. YOU KNOW, YOU SAY YOU’RE BACK IN MISSION CONTROL AND YOU’RE GETTING ALL OF THESE DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KEY THINGS THAT YOU’RE LOOKING FOR? WHAT DO YOU NEED TO MAKE AN INFORMED DECISION, WHAT KINDS OF DATA? >> TYPICALLY IT’D BE THE WIND SPEEDS. >> WIND SPEEDS, OKAY. >> ESPECIALLY NEAR THE SURFACE. AND FROM THE WEATHER BALLOON, IT’LL BE THE WINDS THAT WE MEASURE ALOFT. WE’LL COMBINE THOSE OBSERVATIONS WITH THE COMPUTER MODEL FORECAST THAT WE HAVE, AND WE GET THOSE FROM OUR NATIONAL CENTER. AND ON OCCASION WE’LL RUN SOME SPECIAL LOCALIZED MODELS AS WELL AT A HIGHER SCALE. >> YEAH. >> AND WE’LL BLEND THOSE TOGETHER AND COME UP WITH A FORECAST AT THE LANDING TIME. >> OKAY, OKAY. >> ALSO WE’LL MONITOR THE RADAR, OF COURSE. AND A LOT OF PEOPLE DON’T KNOW THIS-- THERE’S LIGHTNING DETECTION NETWORKS OUT THERE NOW, SO WE CAN TELL WHERE LIGHTNING’S STRIKING THE GROUND. >> WOW. >> YEAH, IT’S PRETTY NEAT. THERE’S SEVERAL NETWORKS OUT THERE, AND ALSO WE HAVE WHAT’S CALLED LIGHTNING MAPPING ARRAYS OR-- WHICH IS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL LIGHTNING DISPLAY, WHICH WILL SHOW LIGHTNING BOLTS IN THREE DIMENSIONS SO YOU CAN SEE THE IN-CLOUD FLASHES AS WELL. IT’S-- I REMEMBER WHEN I FIRST GOT HERE AND I SAW THAT KIND OF DATA. I WAS LIKE, “WOW, THAT STUFF EXISTS?” AND IT’S STILL, TO THIS DAY IT’S STILL REALLY PHENOMENAL AND REALLY NEAT TO LOOK AT. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> SO THAT’S HOW WE MONITOR FOR THE LIGHTNING DATA. >> OKAY. >> WITH THAT AND THE RADAR AS WELL. >> SO YOU CAN-- OBVIOUSLY, IT HAS A LOT OF SPACEFLIGHT APPLICATIONS, BUT THAT SOUNDS LIKE LIGHTNING DATA, THAT COULD BE USED FOR SOMETHING ELSE, RIGHT? >> OH, YEAH, POWER COMPANIES USE IT ALL THE TIME. >> OH, YEAH. >> MATTER OF FACT, SOME OF THE INITIAL FUNDS WAY BACK IN THE LATE ‘80s-- EARLY ‘80s, GOT THAT STARTED WAS SOME OF THE POWER COMPANIES WANTED TO KNOW WHEN THEIR LINES WERE GOING TO GO DOWN, THAT SORT OF THING. >> YEAH. >> SO THAT’S WHERE A LOT OF THE INITIAL IMPETUS FOR THAT KIND OF RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY CAME ABOUT. BUT IT’S EXPANDED INTO LOTS OF SECTORS OF THE COUNTRY RIGHT NOW. >> OH, SURE. THAT SEEMS-- THAT’S GOOD DATA. >> OH, AND THERE’S A LIGHTNING SENSOR THAT’S ON THE NEW GOES-16 SATELLITE AS WELL. >> OKAY. >> SO, AND IT’LL SEND DATA DOWN TO THE GROUND EVERY 20 SECONDS AND IT USES AN OPTICAL DETECTOR FOR THAT. SO YOU HAVE PRACTICALLY GLOCAL COVER-- WELL, AT LEAST HALF THE GLOBE THAT THE SATELLITE CAN SEE FROM GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT. >> OKAY. >> SO THEIR LIGHTNING DATA IS EVERYWHERE NOW. >> YEAH. WHAT’S MORE ABOUT THE GOES-16 SATELLITE, WHAT IS THAT? >> GOES-16 IS THE NEW GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE, WHICH MEANS IT SITS IN A RELATIVE POSITION-- SAME RELATIVE POSITION OVER THE EARTH ALL THE TIME. >> RIGHT. >> IT SCANS THE EARTH ROUTINELY EVERY 5 MINUTES. >> WOW. >> IT'S GOT WHAT’S CALLED TWO MESOSCALE SECTORS, WHICH YOU CAN ZOOM IN ON A SMALLER PART OF THE EARTH, AND IT’LL SCAN THOSE EVERY MINUTE, AND IF YOU OVERLAP THOSE TWO YOU CAN GET DATA EVERY 30 SECONDS. SO IT LOOKS LIKE A HIGH RESOLUTION MOVIE. >> OH. >> THE VISIBLE CHANNEL IS TWICE THE-- HAS TWICE THE PRECISION OF THE PREVIOUS ERA OF SATELLITE, SO YOU SEE MORE DATA, SMALLER DATA. AND IT'S ALSO GOT MORE INFRARED CHANNELS SO YOU CAN SEE HOW THE WATER VAPOR’S MOVING AROUND THE ATMOSPHERE, YOU CAN SEE CLOUDS, YOU CAN SEE AREAS OF-- THAT RESPOND TO SULFUR CONTENT. SO YOU CAN PICK OUT VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS, FOR EXAMPLE, WITH IT. >> WHOA. >> YEAH, THERE’S A LOT OF THINGS YOU CAN DO WITH IT AND IT’S-- GET ON THE WEB, LOOK FOR GOES-16, LOOK FOR HIGH-RES MOVIE LOOP. IT’S REALLY COOL TO LOOK AT. >> YEAH. >> AND FOR A SCIENTIST, IT’S REALLY EXCITING DATA. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> AND FOR THE SPACEFLIGHT SIDE OF THAT, NOW THAT WE GET DATA MORE FREQUENTLY WE CAN-- IF A SITUATION’S KIND OF DICEY ON WHAT’S GOING ON WITH CLOUD COVER, YOU CAN WATCH THAT RIGHT UP ALMOST UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE AND YOU DON’T HAVE TO WAIT. PREVIOUSLY, WE’D HAVE TO WAIT UP TO 15 MINUTES FOR THE DATA TO COME IN. AND A LOT CAN HAPPEN IN 15 MINUTES. >> YEAH. >> FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE SHUTTLE ERA, FOR THE RETURN TO LAUNCH SITE ABORT, THAT WAS 25 MINUTES AFTER LANDING. IF WE HAD TO WAIT 15 MINUTES FOR A SATELLITE PICTURE, SOMETHING CAN MOVE A LONG WAY OR FORM PRETTY QUICKLY IN THAT AMOUNT OF TIME, WHICH IS ALMOST THE SAME AMOUNT OF TIME YOU’RE TRYING TO FORECAST. >> WOW. >> IT’S REALLY NICE. >> DID THE NEEDS OF THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM SORT OF DRIVE THIS, LIKE, THE NEED FOR QUICKER DATA? >> NO, NOT DIRECTLY. >> OKAY. >> BUT IT WAS MORE OR LESS JUST TECHNOLOGY MARCHING ON. >> OH, YEAH. >> YEAH. >> WHICH IT WILL DO, RIGHT? SO THE GOES-16, I DO REMEMBER SEEING A LOT OF IMAGERY WHEN HARVEY WAS PASSING THROUGH. >> YES. >> THEY WERE-- THERE WAS A LOT THAT WAS BEING MONITORED. I THINK SOIL SATURATION, OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT. >> SOIL MOISTURE, SOIL SATURATION. >> YEAH, YEAH. >> YEAH, ONE OF THE INFRARED CHANNELS WILL RESPOND TO WATER ON THE GROUND REALLY WELL AND YOU CAN SEE THE SOILS BECOME SATURATED USING THE INFRARED CHANNELS. >> YEAH. >> SO THE NEAR CHANNELS THAT RESPOND TO VEGETATION. >> OKAY. >> YEAH, IT’S SOMETHING WE DIDN’T HAVE BEFORE. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> YEAH. >> SO BACK-- LET’S GO TO THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM FOR A BIT. WERE YOU-- DID YOU WORK THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM, THE WEATHER FOR IT? >> YES, I DID. >> OKAY. >> SINCE 1991 IS WHEN I ARRIVED. >> OKAY. >> AND FOR ABOUT ‘92 WAS THE SPACE SHUTTLE MISSIONS. >> ALL RIGHT. >> AND I WAS THE ASCENT ENTRY LEAD FORECASTER HERE AT SMG FOR ABOUT 14 OF THOSE. >> ALL RIGHT. >> SO IT WAS QUITE A LOT OF THEM. >> ASCENT ENTRY-- OKAY, SO WHAT DID THAT LOOK LIKE? WHAT SORTS OF THINGS WERE YOU DOING SPECIFICALLY FOR SHUTTLE MISSIONS IN FLORIDA, LAUNCHES AND LANDINGS? >> FOR FLORIDA, ON ASCENT DAY, SMG WAS PRIMARILY WORRIED ABOUT THE WEATHER AT THE ABORT LANDING SITES. >> OKAY. >> ONE OF THOSE WAS THE RETURN TO LAUNCH SITE, WHICH WOULD’VE BEEN THE SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY THERE AT THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER. >> OKAY. >> THE INTERESTING THING ABOUT THAT ON A LAUNCH DAY WAS WHILE EVERYBODY WAS LOOKING OUT TOWARDS THE PAD FROM THE LAUNCH CONTROL CENTER, IT LOOKED OUT OVER THE OCEAN. AND IF A SEA BREEZE MOVED INLAND YOU COULD HAVE SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS OCCURRING BEHIND YOU OVER AT THE SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY. >> OH. >> SO YOU’D LOOK OUT ONE DIRECTION AND IT’S, “OH, IT’S GREAT. WHY ARE WE WAITING?” AND YET, AT FIVE MILES BEHIND YOU THERE’S A THUNDERSTORM GOING ON. >> OKAY. >> THE OTHER THING WE WOULD LOOK AT WOULD BE THE TRANSOCEANIC ABORT LANDING SITES. THOSE WERE IN AFRICA AND SPAIN, AND LATER IN FRANCE. AND WE’D MONITOR THE WEATHER FOR THOSE AS WELL. ON LAUNCH DAY YOU HAD TO HAVE GOOD RTLS WEATHER, RETURN TO LAUNCH SITE, AND YOU HAD TO HAVE AT LEAST ONE OF THE TRANSOCEANIC ABORT LANDING SITES HAD TO HAVE GOOD WEATHER. AND WE DID ACTUALLY SCRUB FOUR LAUNCHES FOR TAL WEATHER DURING THE ENTIRE HISTORY OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM. >> WOW, JUST BECAUSE NOTHING WAS LINING UP AT THOSE TIMES? >> ALL THREE OR ALL FOUR SITES WOULD BE DOWN FOR THE WEATHER CRITERIA. >> HUH. >> AND YOU WERE NOT A POPULAR PERSON ON THAT DAY BECAUSE THAT MEANT THAT THE WEATHER WAS GOOD AT KSC AND EVERYBODY’S WAITING FOR SOMETHING THAT’S ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE OCEAN. >> RIGHT. >> BUT, YOU KNOW, KEEPING THOSE ASTRONAUT’S SAFETY IN MIND, THAT’S WHY THOSE RULES WERE THERE. >> YEAH. WHAT WERE SOME OF THE BIG TAKEAWAYS THAT YOU LEARNED IN YOUR TENURE AT WORKING SHUTTLE? >> MOSTLY THE NEWER TECHNOLOGY THAT CAME ALONG WE GOT BETTER AND BETTER AT FORECASTING. >> AH. >> EARLY ON, WE WERE KIND OF SPLIT BETWEEN LANDING AT KSC AND AT EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE. EACH SITE HAD ITS OWN UNIQUE WEATHER ISSUES. AT EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE IS TYPICALLY THE SURFACE WINDS WERE GOING TO BE A PROBLEM, EITHER THE CROSSWINDS OR A HEADWIND FOR THE SHUTTLE. >> OKAY. >> KSC, YOU KNOW, WE USUALLY PICKED LAUNCH AND LANDING TIMES-- WE USE SOME CLIMATOLOGY TO HELP PICK THOSE, SO WE USUALLY WOULD LAUNCH DURING THE TIME OF THE DAY THAT WAS GOOD FOR THAT. SO THE RTLS WEATHER WOULD GENERALLY BE GOOD. ONCE WE HAD THE GROUND-UP RENDEZVOUS TO THE SPACE STATION THAT MEANT YOU COULDN’T CHOOSE THE LAUNCH TIME ANYMORE LIKE YOU USED TO. YOU USED TO ALWAYS BE EARLY IN THE MORNING WHEN THE WEATHER’S TYPICALLY GOOD AND THE WINDS ARE LIGHT. >> OKAY. >> BUT WHEN YOU HAD GROUND-UP RENDEZVOUS YOU’RE PRETTY MUCH HAVE TO BE IN THE SAME ORBITAL PLANE AS THE ISS. >> RIGHT. >> WHICH MEANT ANY TIME OF DAY. THEN WE STARTED MOVING INTO THE LATE AFTERNOON. WE RAN INTO MORE THUNDERSTORMS. WE RAN INTO MORE CROSSWINDS BECAUSE THE WAY THE RUNWAY’S BUILT OUT THERE, IT’S PARALLEL WITH THE COAST. SEA BREEZE WOULD COME IN WITH AN EAST WIND, THAT’D BE ALL CROSSWINDS. SO WE GOT MORE AND MORE INSTRUMENTATION TO TRACK THE SEA BREEZE. WE CAN DO THAT WITH A REALLY DENSE NETWORK OF SURFACE WIND TOWERS. YOU CAN ALSO SEE IT ON THE RADAR AND YOU CAN ALSO SEE IT ON SATELLITE IMAGERY AS WELL. SO THE WAY TECHNOLOGY HAS HELPED US WITH THAT AND THEN THE ADVANCES IN COMPUTER MODELING FOR FORECASTING, IT KEPT GETTING SMALLER AND SMALLER IN THE SCALE THAT YOU COULD LOOK AT AND THE SHORTER TIMES THAT YOU COULD LOOK AT AND IT KEPT GETTING BETTER AND BETTER. SO THINGS ALWAYS-- SEEMS LIKE WE GOT MUCH BETTER AS WE GOT ALONG IN THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM. >> VERY COOL. >> YEAH. >> SO THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM ENDED IN 2011. NOW, WE’RE INTO 2017 LOOKING FORWARD TO COMMERCIAL CREW LAUNCHES HERE SOON. WHAT TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN DEVELOPING OVER THESE PAST COUPLE YEARS THAT WE CAN APPLY TO COMMERCIAL CREW? >> FOR COMMERCIAL CREW WE GOT THE NEWER SATELLITE WE’VE BEEN TALKING ABOUT, GOES-16. >> YEAH. >> WE’RE GETTING NEWER AND MORE PORTABLE WEATHER BALLOON SYSTEMS THAT WE CAN USE AS WELL. >> HMM. >> I’VE GOT ONE BACK IN THE OFFICE, WHERE IT’S A GROUND RECEIVER. IT’S A LAPTOP COMPUTER AND A HANDHELD RADIO, ESSENTIALLY, AND A LITTLE TINY ANTENNA. YOU USED TO, YOU HAD TO HAVE A GREAT BIG RADIO DIRECTION FINDER THAT WOULD FOLLOW THE BALLOON OR YOU WOULD TRACK IT WITH RADAR. >> YEAH. >> NOW, IT’S ALL GPS BASED. >> OKAY. >> SO IT’S HIGHER PRECISION, MORE PORTABLE, MORE BETTER EVERYTHING, AS A MATTER OF FACT. AS TECHNOLOGY’S GOTTEN BETTER WE’VE GOTTEN BETTER MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS AND BETTER FORECASTING SYSTEMS AS WELL. BUT IN LARGE PART, IT’S STILL THE SAME OLD METEOROLOGY WE’RE USING AND APPLYING FOR THE NEW VEHICLES THAT ARE COMING DOWN THE-- BOTH SLS, ORION, AND THE COMMERCIAL CREW PROGRAMS. >> OKAY. ALL RIGHT. A LOT OF THE SAME STUFF. SO ARE YOU-- IS THE WEATHER THAT TAKES PLACE FOR LAUNCHES AND LANDINGS, WHAT ELSE BESIDES, YOU KNOW, JUST MAINLY ASCENT AND ENTRY, ARE YOU LOOKING AT THAT HELPS OUT WITH HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT? >> OH, IN TERMS OF THE-- JUST ABOUT ALL OF THE WEATHER THAT YOU CAN THINK OF, REALLY. >> OH, OKAY. >> YEAH. >> YEAH. >> LIKE I SAID, IT DEPENDS UPON THE VEHICLE. SOMETIMES YOU’LL BE LOOKING AT THE HUMIDITY, SOMETIMES YOU’LL BE LOOKING AT THE CLOUD COVERAGE, SOMETIMES IT’S THE RADAR. USUALLY, IT’S ALL OF THE ABOVE. >> YEAH. >> AND YOU ALSO HAVE TO KEEP AN EYE OUT ON THINGS THAT AREN’T NECESSARILY WEATHER RELATED AS WELL. >> HMM. >> BECAUSE SOMETIMES YOU’LL SEE THINGS ON RADAR THAT ARE-- THAT LOOK LIKE A SHOWER OR A THUNDERSTORM AND IT TURNS OUT IT’S CHAFF. IT’S THE SAME-- IT’S WHAT THE MILITARY DROPS TIN FOIL, LITTLE DROPLETS TO FOOL RADAR. >> OH. >> AND WHEN THEY’RE DOING TESTS, YOU KNOW, THAT’LL PICK UP ON THE WEATHER RADAR. >> I SEE. >> AND WE’VE HAD THAT IN THE PAST IN THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM. >> OKAY. >> THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS-- SO YOU GOT TO BE AWARE OF WHEN THEY’RE DOING TESTS AND EXERCISES UPWIND FROM YOU BECAUSE THAT STUFF’LL BLOW OVER YOU. >> OH. >> SO THERE’S-- YOU GOT TO KEEP AN EYE ON LOTS OF DIFFERENT THINGS WHAT’S GOING ON, AS WELL AS THE STATE OF THE EQUIPMENT. AND ON OCCASION, THE SATELLITES, THEY’LL SHUT THEM DOWN WHEN THEY’RE LOOKING AT THE SUN DURING CERTAIN PERIODS. IF YOU’RE LOOKING AT LOW EARTH ORBITING SATELLITES, YOU GOT TO MAKE SURE IT COMES OVER AT THE RIGHT TIME. SO THERE’S A LOT OF DIFFERENT THINGS, NOT JUST PURE METEOROLOGY, BUT THE LOGISTICAL SIDE THAT YOU GOT TO MAINTAIN AWARENESS OF AS WELL. >> YEAH. >> AS WELL AS KNOWING WHAT THE FLIGHT CONTROL TEAM’S DOING. >> YEAH. IS THERE-- SO, IT SOUNDS LIKE A LOT OF THE WEATHER THAT YOU’RE LOOKING AT IS WITHIN THE ATMOSPHERE. YOU HAVE A LOT OF DATA COMING THERE. IS THERE ANYTHING THAT KIND OF GOES INTO SPACE? IS THERE A SPACE WEATHER ELEMENT TO THIS? >> THERE IS. GENERALLY, THE TRUE SPACE WEATHER, THINGS LIKE SOLAR FLARES, GEOMAGNETIC STORMS, LIKE THAT. THERE’S A GROUP HERE AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER CALLED THE SHRAG, THE SPACE RADIATION ANALYSIS GROUP. >> COOL. >> YEAH. THEY GENERALLY HANDLE MOST OF THAT ACTIVITY, AND THEY WORK CLOSELY WITH ANOTHER NOAA CENTER AS A MATTER OF FACT. >> OH. >> THERE’S THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT GROUP, WHICH IS IN BOULDER. IT’S A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE AND THEY MAINTAIN ALL THE FORECASTS FOR SPACE WEATHER FOR THE COUNTRY, BECAUSE IT-- BUT GENERALLY, IN SMG, SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP, WE’RE LOOKING AT WEATHER PRIMARILY IN THE LOWEST LIKE 100,000 FEET. ALTHOUGH, ON OCCASION, WE DO GO HIGHER FOR VEHICLES THAT COME IN ON LIKE A HIGH INCLINATION TRAJECTORY. THEY’RE COMING IN IN AN ORBIT THAT GOES LIKE 57 DEGREES NORTH AND SOUTH. >> HMM. >> DURING CERTAIN TIMES OF THE YEAR YOU DO HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THINGS LIKE NOCTILUCENT CLOUDS, WHICH ARE ABOUT 82 KILOMETERS HIGH IN THE ATMOSPHERE. >> OH. >> YEAH, WE HAD THE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SHUTTLE FOR THAT BECAUSE YOU DIDN’T WANT TO FLY THROUGH THAT BECAUSE IT’S A CLOUD AND YOU’RE GOING VERY, VERY FAST AT THOSE ALTITUDES. >> YEAH. >> BUT, THEY’RE GENERALLY RESTRICTED TO VERY HIGH LATITUDES. >> HMM. >> SAO, WE USUALLY DIDN’T HAVE A PROBLEM WITH THAT AND THAT MISSION WAS DESIGNED AROUND THAT. >> OKAY. >> ON OCCASION, WE DID DO SOME THINGS THAT WERE UP IN THE MESOSPHERE, THE STRATOSPHERE, THE HIGHER ATMOSPHERE. BUT GENERALLY, IT’S WHAT MOST PEOPLE CONSIDER WEATHER IS WHAT WE’RE LOOKING AT. >> OKAY. SO HOW DOES WEATHER RELATE TO CLIMATE? YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT LOOKING AT WEATHER THROUGH LONG PERIODS OF TIME. >> MM-HMM. >> YOU HAVE A LOT OF DATA AND THE DATA SEEMS TO JUST BE-- THE INSTRUMENTS USED TO GATHER DATA ARE JUST GETTING BETTER AND BETTER. IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP THERE, WEATHER AND CLIMATE? >> YEAH. THE OLD SAYING IS CLIMATE IS WHAT YOU EXPECT, YOU KNOW, FROM-- YOU EXPECT WINTER TO BE COLD. >> YEAH. >> AND WEATHER IS WHAT YOU GET DAY TO DAY. >> MM-HMM. >> YOU CAN THINK OF IT ALONG TERMS LIKE THAT. SO I MENTIONED EARLIER, FOR SPACE SHUTTLE, A LOT OF MISSIONS WERE PLANNED WITH CLIMATE DATA IN MIND IN THAT WE KNEW THAT EARLY IN THE MORNING WINDS WERE LIGHT. >> RIGHT. >> SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS WOULDN’T BE AROUND. SO A LOT OF THOSE WERE PLANNED WITH THAT IN MIND. >> MM-HMM. >> A LOT OF THE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SOME OF THE NEW PROGRAMS COMING UP, WE’RE INTO THAT, AS WELL AS WE’VE GONE AND LOOKED AT THE OCEAN WAVE CLIMATOLOGY, ESPECIALLY IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC. A LOT OF THE MISSIONS ARE DESIGNED WITH THAT IN MIND BECAUSE IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC, FOR EXAMPLE, WAVES GET PRETTY HIGH, ESPECIALLY IN THE WINTER TIME-- 20, 30 FOOT WAVES, THEY’RE NOT ALL THE UNCOMMON. >> YEAH. >> AND YOU REALLY CAN’T DESIGN A VEHICLE TO LAST VERY LONG IF IT SHOULD HAPPEN TO SPLASH DOWN IN THAT, EITHER THROUGH SOME SORT OF CONTINGENCY OR AN ABORT. >> YEAH. >> SO MOST OF THE VEHICLES ARE DESIGNED THAT IF THEY DO ABORT THEY’LL TURN AROUND AND NOT-- AND AVOID THOSE AREAS. SO THAT’S ONE WAY CLIMATE DATA, LONG TERM HISTORICAL DATA, HAS BEEN USED TO HELP PLAN THOSE KIND OF ACTIVITIES. >> RIGHT. >> AND THE OTHER THING IS, EVEN BACK IN THE SHUTTLE DAYS WHEN WE USED TO LAND ON THE EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE LAKE BEDS, YOU KNOW, GENERALLY THEY’RE DRY, BUT THEY’RE STILL A LAKE BED. AND WE WENT BACK AND LOOKED AT A LOT OF THE DATA FOR THAT BECAUSE SOMETIMES THEY WOULD FILL UP WITH WATER AND THOSE TYPICALLY HAPPEN DURING EL NINO YEARS. >> OH. >> WHICH ARE USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVIER THAN NORMAL PRECIPITATION AND RAINFALL IN THE DESERT SOUTHWEST IN THE WINTER TIME. SO IF WE KNEW THERE WAS AN EL NINO YEAR COMING UP WE HAD A PRETTY GOOD IDEA THAT WE MIGHT LOSE THE LAKE BEDS AND WE’D HAVE TO LAND IT STRICTLY ON THE CONCRETE RUNWAY OUT THERE. >> OH. >> SO THERE’S A LOT OF THINGS YOU CAN USE CLIMATE DATA FOR, GENERALLY IN THE PLANNING AND DESIGN STAGE FOR JUST ABOUT ANY SPACECRAFT. >> HUH. IS THERE MAJOR CLIMATE CONSIDERATIONS FOR-- OR NOT-- NECESSARILY MAJOR, BUT JUST ANYTHING YOU’RE WATCHING OUT FOR FOR COMMERCIAL CREW LAUNCHES IN THE FUTURE? >> THERE WILL BE, AT LEAST IN THE SORT OF THE SHORTER TIME SPAN BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE. >> OKAY. >> BECAUSE FOR COMMERCIAL CREW AND ALSO FOR ORION, WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON SOME OF THOSE MISSIONS ARE GOING TO BE VERY LONG DURATION. >> YEAH. >> SO YOU’RE GETTING OUT PAST THE TYPICAL ABILITY TO FORECAST DAY TO DAY WEATHER. SO YOU’RE LOOKING MORE AT WHAT THE WEATHER THREE AND FOUR WEEKS OUT MIGHT BE LIKE. >> MM-HMM. >> AND A LOT OF THAT IS CLIMATE BASED AND YOU CAN USE SOME OF THE LONGER RANGED CLIMATE KIND OF WEATHER PATTERNS, LIKE EL NINO. >> YEAH. >> OR MADDEN-JULIAN OSCILLATIONS, THINGS LIKE THAT THAT HAPPEN IN THE TROPICS TO HELP YOU PREDICT WHAT THE GENERAL TREND THAT WE-- IT MIGHT BE DRYER THAT WEEK. >> OH. >> IT MIGHT BE LESS WINDY THAT WEEK. >> OKAY. >> OR IT MIGHT BE MORE STORMY, WHICH WOULD DRIVE MORE HIGHER OCEAN WAVES, THAT SORT OF THING. >> HMM. >> WE DO LOOK AT SOME OF THAT KIND OF DATA AS WELL, EVEN IN THE OPERATIONS. >> SO WHEN YOU SAY BEYOND YOUR CAPACITY TO LOOK FOR WEATHER, BECAUSE YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT ORION MISSIONS AND SOME OF THESE MOON MISSIONS ARE SEVERAL DAYS, SEVERAL WEEKS, SO YOU GOT TO PLAN AHEAD, BUT YOU ONLY CAN GO TOWARD A CERTAIN LIMIT. I KNOW WHENEVER I LISTEN TO THE WEATHER FORECAST OR GO AND CHECK IT IT CAN ONLY GO FOR ABOUT TWO WEEKS. AND EVEN THEN IT’S-- YOU THROW YOUR HANDS UP IN THE AIR BECAUSE YOU’RE NOT SURE. >> YEAH, THE THEORETICAL LIMIT FOR ABOUT A DAY TO DAY KIND OF FORECAST IS ABOUT TWO WEEKS. YOU KNOW, WE’RE NOT EVEN REALLY THAT GOOD YET. >> OKAY. >> WE’VE GOT COMPUTER MODELS THAT’LL SPIT THOSE OUT ALL THE TIME. >> YEAH. >> BUT THERE’S LARGER SCALE, IF YOU LOOK MORE TOWARDS THE MEANS AND EXTREMES, YOU CAN PRESS THAT OUT AND GET A PRETTY GOOD IDEA WHAT’S GOING TO HAPPEN. >> HMM. >> LIKE I MENTIONED, THREE WEEKS FROM NOW WE EXPECT IT TO BE VERY DRY THAT WEEK. >> YEAH. >> THAT DOESN’T TELL YOU IT’S GOING TO BE 34 DEGREES AT 7:00 A.M. IN THE MORNING, BUT IF YOU’RE JUST INTERESTED IN, “I DON’T WANT IT TO BE WET. I’VE GOT THIS THING SITTING OUTDOORS I CAN’T GET WET. I GOT A PAYLOAD SITTING OUTSIDE THAT CAN’T GET WET.” >> OH, YEAH. >> THAT’S THE KIND OF GOOD THING TO KNOW AS WELL. >> OKAY, COOL. SO, BESIDES LAUNCHES, AND LANDINGS, AND PLANNING FOR FORECASTS, WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS HERE AT THE CENTER? BECAUSE WE HAVE MISSION CONTROL AND MISSION CONTROL HAS TO MAKE SURE THAT WE’RE OPERATING. SO I’M GUESSING THERE’S CERTAIN IMPLICATIONS FOR WEATHER HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER? >> YES, I DO MAINTAIN A BASIC SORT OF WEATHER WATCH WHENEVER I’M ON DUTY FOR THE SPACE CENTER. >> OKAY. >> AND FOR THOSE ON SITE, IF YOU RECEIVE THOSE EMAIL WARNINGS FROM [ INDISTINCT ]. SOME PEOPLE USUALLY PASS THOSE ON. AND FOR THE LIGHTNING ALERTS, OR SOME SEVERE WEATHER, I’LL BE THE ONE GENERALLY SENDING THOSE OUT. >> OKAY. >> AS A MATTER OF FACT, I THINK TI HAS MY NAME ON THE BOTTOM OF IT. >> YEAH. >> AND THAT’S GENERALLY DONE FOR EVERYONE’S PERSONAL SAFETY HERE ON THE CENTER. >> OKAY. >> FOR THE MISSION CONTROL TEAM AND THE-- A LARGE PART OF THAT IS TO MAINTAIN SO THAT THEY KNOW IF THEY’RE GOING TO HAVE ANY POWER OUTAGES COMING THEIR WAY. >> HMM. >> AND ALSO, FOR SOME OF THE MEDIA PLANNING FOR SOME OF THEIR COMMUNICATIONS TO AND FROM THE SPACECRAFT, ESPECIALLY THE ISS, I’LL MONITOR THE LOCAL WEATHER AND ALSO WEATHER AT SOME OF THE TDRS DOWNLINK SITES. >> OH, THAT’S RIGHT. >> WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE. >> YEAH. >> AND ALSO, OVER AT GUAM. THEY HAVE ANOTHER ANTENNA. >> OKAY. >> SO I MONITOR THAT, BUT FOR TROPICAL SEASON, FOR LIKE HURRICANES, THE ISS FLIGHT CONTROL TEAM, IF THEY NEED TO THEY CAN SHUT DOWN THE CENTER. THEY CAN RELOCATE AND SET UP SHOP SOMEPLACE ELSE REMOTELY AND STILL CONTROL THE SPACE STATION. >> RIGHT. >> AND PART OF THAT PLANNING IS, “WELL, WE WANT TO KNOW WHERE THE HURRICANE’S GOING TO GO.” >> YEAH. >> SO I’LL BRIEF THE FLIGHT CONTROL TEAM HERE, AS WELL AS THE CENTER DIRECTOR AND THE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT FOLKS HERE AT JSC ON THE POTENTIAL OF THE HURRICANE’S TRACK. AND I’LL TAILOR IT SO IT’S SPECIFIC TO THE CENTER ITSELF AND OUR OPERATIONS. >> OKAY, I SEE. >> SO WHAT WAS HARVEY LIKE THEN? BECAUSE I KNOW HARVEY WAS PRETTY RECENT AND-- >> HARVEY WAS VERY RECENT. THE INTERESTING THING ABOUT HARVEY IS OVER THE FOUR DAYS THAT IT RAINED AROUND HERE WE GOT-- IT WAS 40-- I WROTE IT DOWN, BROUGHT IT WITH ME BECAUSE I COULDN’T REMEMBER-- 42.99 INCHES OF RAIN HERE AT JSC. >> WHOA! >> WHICH EASILY SET A RECORD. WE HAD 20.72 INCHES THAT OCCURRED IN ONE DAY. >> WHOA. >> SO THAT’S OVER A FOOT AND A HALF OF RAIN IN ONE DAY. >> YEAH. >> NEARLY FOUR FEET OVER THE COURSE OF FOUR DAYS. SO I SENT OUT SOME MESSAGES AND BRIEFED THE CENTER DIRECTORS AND THE EMERGENCY MANAGERS HERE AT JSC DURING THE STORM. >> MM-HMM. >> I ALSO MAINTAINED THESE OBSERVATIONS, WHICH I DON’T KNOW YOUR LISTENERS IF THEY’RE INTERESTED, IF YOU WANT TO SEE WHAT THE WEATHER IS HERE AT JSC, PARTICULARLY ON BUILDING 30, THERE’S SOME WEATHER INSTRUMENTATION THAT THE CENTER OF OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE MAINTAINS.AND I TAKE THAT DATA AND I POST IT OUT INTO THE WORLD WIDE WEB. >> OKAY. >> SO YOU CAN GO TO WEATHER.GOV/SMG/BLDG30-- BUILDING 30. >> OKAY. >> AND IT’LL GIVE YOU THE LATEST WEATHER FROM THE ROOFTOP. SO I MAINTAIN THAT DATA GOING OUT FOR EVERYONE TO USE. >> YEAH. >> GOT ANOTHER RAIN GAUGE HERE ON SITE, AN OLD STYLE RAIN GAUGE OUT NEAR BUILDING 421. INTERESTING THING DURING HARVEY WAS, I CAME OUT ON SATURDAY TO EMPTY THAT RAIN GAUGE, BECAUSE IT HOLDS 11 INCHES AND I FIGURED IT MIGHT FILL UP. >> YEAH. >> SO I DUMPED IT OUT AND IT HAD ABOUT 7 OR 8 INCHES. AFTER THAT, I COULDN’T GET BACK ON SITE. >> OH, THAT’S RIGHT. >> YEAH, SO THAT ONE I DON’T KNOW HOW MUCH IT HAD IN IT. BUT THE RAIN GAUGE ON TOP OF THE ROOF, IT’S WHAT WE CALL A TIPPING BUCKET. IT CONTINUOUSLY MEASURES. SO THAT’S THE ONE WE KNOW WHERE WE GOT 42.99 INCHES OF RAIN. >> OH, OKAY. >> WHICH IS QUITE A LOT OF RAIN. >> YEAH, YOU SAID RECORD-- >> BUT, OVERALL, THE FLOODING HERE ON SITE, DIRECTLY ON SITE, WASN’T TOO BAD, FROM WHAT I UNDERSTAND. >> OKAY. >> JUST COULDN’T GET HERE. >> YEAH. >> OR LEAVE HERE. >> DID YOU HAVE ANY-- DID YOU ADVISE WHETHER TO SHUT DOWN THE CENTER OR ANY SORT OF-- DID YOU HAVE ANY CONTINGENCY PLANS IN PLACE KNOWING THE WEATHER? >> YEAH, LEADING UP TO IT, BRIEFED THE CENTER OF OPERATIONS FOLKS AND THE ISS CONTROL TEAM. >> OKAY. >> AND ALSO, BRIEFED THE FLIGHT OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE FOLKS THAT ARE IN CHARGE OF THE AIRCRAFT OUT AT ELLINGTON FIELD. >> OH, THAT’S RIGHT. >> WHETHER OR NOT THEY WANT TO MOVE SOME OF THE AIRCRAFT. >> YEAH. >> MOST OF THEM REMAINED ON SITE BECAUSE IT WASN’T GOING TO BE A HIGH WIND EVENT. IT WAS MOSTLY GOING TO BE A HEAVY RAIN EVENT FROM HARVEY AROUND HERE. SO MOST OF THOSE PLANES WERE LEFT THERE. A FEW OF THEM FLEW OUT. >> YEAH. >> SO A LOT OF FOLKS ON SITE GOT BRIEFINGS ON THAT. DID THAT LEADING UP TO IT. OVER THE WEEKEND WHEN IT WAS RAINING AND NO ONE COULD GET INTO WORK, FORTUNATELY FOR ME, I WORKED REMOTELY. I HAD REMOTE ACCESS TO MY WEATHER SYSTEMS HERE ON SITE. >> OH, GOOD, YOU HAD A CONNECTION. >> I HAD A CONNECTION. >> YEAH. >> I COULD USE ALMOST EVERYTHING I COULD BY-- THAT I COULD USE WHEN I’M SITTING HERE. >> YEAH. >> NOT EVERYTHING, BUT PRETTY CLOSE TO IT. >> THAT’S GOOD. >> SO I WAS ABLE TO CONTINUE THE WEATHER BRIEFINGS AND SEND OUT THE JSC EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEM MESSAGES FROM HOME. >> RIGHT. >> YEAH, SO THAT’S ONE UNIQUE WAY OF DOING-- WORKING FROM HOME, I GUESS. >> YEAH. NO, IT WAS COMPLETELY NECESSARY, RIGHT? BECAUSE EVERYONE NEEDED TO STAY SAFE DURING THAT WHOLE THING. >> YES. >> BUT, YOU HAVE INSTRUMENTATION THAT’S SPECIFIC TO JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, RIGHT? >> YES. >> SO WHEN YOU’RE LOOKING AT THIS DATA YOU CAN MAKE DECISIONS BECAUSE YOU KNOW THAT IT’S GOING TO IMPACT THIS EXACT AREA. ARE THERE INSTRUMENTS THAT KIND OF DO THE SAME THING ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, TOO? >> OH, YEAH. >> YEAH. >> YEAH. >> YEAH. >> THE NICE THING ABOUT JSC AND ESPECIALLY HARRIS COUNTY, THE COUNTY OFFICIALS HERE AROUND HOUSTON THEY MAINTAIN A REALLY DENSE NETWORK OF RAIN GAUGES AND STREAM GAUGES SO THEY KNOW HOW MUCH RAIN’S FALLING. IT’S THE HARRIS COUNTY FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT. >> OKAY. >> THEY’RE REALLY GOOD AT THEIR JOB TOO, BY THE WAY. >> YEAH. >> AND SO, YOU REALLY GOT A PRETTY GOOD IDEA WHERE IT’S FLOODING AND HOW HARD THE RAIN’S COMING DOWN JUST ABOUT ANYWHERE IN THE IMMEDIATE AREA AROUND HERE. >> WOW. >> YEAH. >> ALL RIGHT. WELL, COMPLETELY NECESSARY FOR HOUSTON, TEXAS. >> YES, IT IS. IT FLOODS A LOT HERE. WHEN IT RAINS IT RAINS A LOT. I LEARNED THAT WHEN I MOVED DOWN HERE. >> YEAH. >> ANY BIG LESSONS THAT YOU LEARNED OR SOME JUST FASCINATING FINDINGS FROM THIS RECORD SETTING STORM? >> JUST HOW MUCH IT RAINED! >> YEAH. >> THE ODD THING WAS, WE HAD FORECAST GUIDANCE THAT SUGGESTED IT COULD BE THAT HIGH, BUT NO ONE QUITE BELIEVED IT WAS GOING TO BE THAT MUCH. >> RIGHT. >> OF COURSE, WHEN YOU’RE TELLING SOMEBODY IT’S GOING TO RAIN 20 INCHES IN A COUPLE OF DAYS, THAT’S STILL REALLY, REALLY, REALLY BAD. >> YEAH. >> BUT TO SEE 40 AND UPWARDS OF-- A FEW REPORTS OF OVER 50 INCHES IN THE IMMEDIATE AREA, THAT WAS JUST TRULY AMAZING. >> OH, THAT’S RIGHT, BECAUSE THE 40 WAS JUST AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. >> YES. >> YEAH, THAT’S NOT EVEN CONSIDERING OTHER PLACES. >> AND THE SHEER GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF THE 30-PLUS INCHES RAINFALL AMOUNTS IS MIND BOGGLING. >> YEAH. >> AND I SAW SOME REPORTS FROM SOME GPS SENSORS THAT THE WEIGHT OF THE WATER ENOUGH WAS MEASURABLE IN THE AMOUNT THAT IT SUNK THE EARTH FOR A FEW DAYS FROM THE WATER RISING. >> RIGHT. >> RESIDING ON TOP. IT WAS-- >> THE ELEVATED [ INDISTINCT ] OF HOUSTON WENT DOWN BY LIKE A CENTIMETER OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT. >> YEAH. > YEAH. > YEAH, THAT’S JUST MIND BOGGLING. >> YEAH. >> TO USE THAT WORD AGAIN. >> RIGHT. HOW MANY-- WHAT WAS THE-- WHAT-- I DON’T-- I FORGET THE NUMBER OF GALLONS. IT WAS 50 TRILLION, OR SOMETHING? >> IT’S A HUGE AMOUNT. >> YEAH, IT WAS. >> YOU COULDN’T DRINK IT, I KNOW THAT. >> OH, MAN. IT WAS A LOT THOUGH. WHAT ARE WE LEARNING ABOUT HURRICANES AND HOW THEY AFFECT MISSION OPERATIONS? SO WHAT’S THE BACKUP PLAN IF-- I GUESS THE PLAN RIGHT HERE WAS FOR THE FLIGHT CONTROLLERS IN-- >> THE REMAINED IN PLACE. >> THE REMAINED IN PLACE, RIGHT? >> YEAH. >> AND THEY WERE DOING EVERYTHING. NOBODY LEAVES. THEY SET UP COTS AND EVERYTHING, RIGHT? >> YES, THEY DID-- THEY DID, LARGELY BECAUSE WE EXPECTED IT TO BE A HEAVY RAIN EVENT. >> YEAH. >> IF IT HAD BEEN MORE OF A STRONGER STORM-- IF HARVEY WOULD’VE COME ASHORE AROUND HOUSTON INSTEAD OF DOWN NEAR ROCKPORT AND CORPUS CHRISTI, WE PROBABLY WOULD’VE SHUT THE CENTER DOWN COMPLETELY AND THEY WOULD’VE RELOCATED. >> OH. >> BECAUSE IN THAT CASE, IT’D BEEN A HIGH WIND EVENT AS WELL. BECAUSE IT CAME ASHORE AS A CATEGORY 4 HURRICANE, I BELIEVE. >> YEAH. >> AND YOU WOULD’VE HAD SOME STORM SURGE PROBLEMS AS WELL. YOU KNOW, YOU WOULD’VE HAD WATER PUSHED UP INTO GALVESTON BAY AND THAT WOULD’VE GOTTEN INTO CLEAR CREEK AND WATER WOULD’VE COME ON SITE. >> HUH. >> NOW, THE SITE DOES HAVE SOME MEASURES TO PROTECT SOME OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FROM STORM SURGE, BUT YOU’D BE LOSING POWER, YOU’D HAVE TO BE ON BACKUP POWER. AND THEN, EVEN THEN YOUR BACKUP POWER IT’S-- THE WATER LEVELS ROSE ENOUGH FROM THE STORM SURGE BEING PUSHED IN YOU COULD LOSE SOME OF YOUR GENERATORS WE WELL. >> OH, YEAH. >> THE INTERESTING THING IS IF YOU’VE EVER VISITED THE MISSION CONTROL CENTER, ESPECIALLY IN THE LOBBY, WHEN YOU WALK IN YOU’LL SEE SOME GATES THAT ARE LYING FLAT ON THE GROUND. THOSE ARE DESIGNED FOR A HURRICANE STORM SURGE. THEY’LL-- IF WE EXPECT A LARGE ENOUGH STORM OR A POWERFUL ENOUGH STORM, THEY’LL RAISE THOSE LITTLE GATES UP AND THAT’LL KEEP WATER FROM COMING INTO THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE BUILDING. >> OH, WOW. >> YEAH, YOU CAN SEE THOSE AS YOU WALK INTO THE LOBBY. THEY WERE PUT IN 5 TO 6 MAYBE 10 YEARS AGO. >> OKAY. >> BUT YEAH, SO THE BUILDING HAS GOT SOME PROTECTION FROM RISING WATERS. >> RIGHT. >> MOST OF THEM ARE DESIGNED FOR SOME DECENT WIND SPEEDS AS WELL I THINK. THE WEAKEST PART OF THE STRUCTURE THERE IS DESIGNED FOR 90 MILES AN HOUR. BUT THE MAIN PART OF THE MCC CAN WITHSTAND MUCH MORE THAN THAT, I THINK. >> WOW. ALL RIGHT, WELL, SOUNDS LIKE THEY HAVE A LOT OF PROTECTION JUST FOR THE BUILDING ITSELF, BUT THEN THERE’S BACKUP PLANS, RIGHT? >> YEAH. >> IN CASE-- IF THEY DO, FOR WHATEVER REASON, EVACUATE THE CENTER, JUST GET OUT, THEY CAN OPERATE THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FROM REMOTE LOCATIONS, RIGHT? >> YES, THEY CAN. THEY’VE GOT A COMPLETE WAY OF DOING IT FROM HOTELS. >> YEAH. >> AS I UNDERSTAND. >> WOW. >> THEY CAN MOVE FURTHER INLAND HERE IN TEXAS AND DO MOST OF THE CONTROLS REMOTELY. THEY’LL SET THAT UP AND THEY’LL BE IN CLOSE CONTACT WITH MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER AT THE HOSC OVER THERE. >> MM-HMM. >> AND THEN IN CONTACT WITH THE RUSSIAN CONTROL ROOM AS WELL. >> MM-HMM. >> SO THEY CAN-- IN CERTAIN THINGS THAT THEY MAY OR MAY NOT BE ABLE TO CONTROL. THEY COULD STILL PASS OFF TO EITHER-- TO THE RUSSIAN CONTROL ROOM OR TO THE HOSC AS WELL. BUT I THINK NEARLY EVERYTHING THEY CAN CONTROL REMOTELY. THEY’LL TAKE A WHOLE BUNCH OF LAPTOPS AND SEND PEOPLE OUT AND RUN IT SOMEWHERE DEEP IN SOUTH TEXAS OR CENTRAL TEXAS. >> WOW. JUST HURRICANES IN GENERAL AND HOW THEY AFFECT THE COAST, JUST THESE PAST HURRICANES OVER JUST 2017, INCLUDING MARIA AND ALL THESE THAT SWEPT BY, I’M SURE THE NOAA-- THE GOES-16 SATELLITE WAS CHECKING OUT SOME DATA THERE, BUT IS THERE SOME SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS THAT WE FOUND FROM SOME OF THE HURRICANES THIS YEAR? >> WELL, THERE WAS A LOT OF THEM. >> YEAH, YEAH. >> I THINK THAT’LL WAIT UNTIL THE SEASON’S OVER TO ANALYZE SOME OF THE DATA. >> I SEE. >> ONE OF THE INTERESTING THINGS THEY’VE DONE A LOT THIS YEAR THOUGH IS A COMBINATION BETWEEN THE NOAA AND NASA. NASA’S BEEN FLYING SOME UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES AROUND HURRICANES AND ABOVE THEM, AND THEY’RE DROPPING WHAT’S CALLED A DROPSON. IT’S ESSENTIALLY A WEATHER BALLOON IN REVERSE. IT’S ON A PARACHUTE. AND THE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE, IT CAN DROP LIKE 60 TO 100 OF THESE LITTLE THINGS AROUND THE STORM AND BE UP THERE IN THE AIR AROUND IT FOR 12 TO 24 HOURS. SO YOU CAN COLLECT LOTS AND LOTS OF DATA ON THE IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING THE HURRICANE SO YOU KNOW WHAT IS STEERING IT AROUND. >> YEAH. >> SO THERE’S A LOT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES BEING FLOWN BY NASA AND BY NOAA OUT THERE. NOW I THINK SOME OF THAT WILL HELP US GET DATA INTO OUR COMPUTER MODELS AND MAKE BETTER FORECASTS IN THE FUTURE FOR HURRICANES. >> RIGHT. A LOT OF TECHNOLOGIES TO MEASURE, YOU KNOW, A LOT OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS. BUT, HAS THERE BEEN ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OR MAYBE MILESTONES TO COUNTER-- BECAUSE YOU SAID-- YOU WERE TALKING ABOUT-- YOU SAID IT WAS APOLLO 12 THAT GOT STRUCK BY LIGHTNING? >> YES. >> BUT IT KEPT GOING, RIGHT? >> YES. >> SO AND I KNOW THAT I THINK THEY HAD TO FIX SOME THINGS ONCE THEY WERE UP THERE. >> YES, THEY DID. >> YEAH. BUT, WHAT KINDS OF ENGINEERING THINGS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO PROTECT FROM WEATHER? >> A LOT OF THAT’S BEEN PROCEDURAL. >> OH, OKAY. >> A LOT OF IT’S-- YOU GO TO A LOT OF MEETINGS HERE AT NASA AND YOU’LL HEAR ABOUT THE INTEGRATED VEHICLE, MAKING SURE THE LEFT HAND KNOWS WHAT THE RIGHT HAND IS DOING. >> OH. >> SO IF YOU’RE PROTECTED FROM LIGHTNING HERE BUT YOU’RE NOT PROTECTED FOR LIGHTNING OVER HERE, WHAT HAPPENS IF THIS PARTS GETS STRUCK AND IT GETS OVER THROUGH ANOTHER MEANS. >> OH, YEAH. >> SO IT’S PULLING TOGETHER EVERYTHING AS A WHOLE IN TERMS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT-- LIGHTNING, OR WINDS, OR WHATEVER. A LOT OF THAT’S BEEN PROCEDURAL NOW. THERE’S A LOT OF THINGS YOU CAN DO NOW TO HARDEN THINGS AGAINST LIGHTNING, BUT THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF TECHNOLOGIES THE EXACT OPPOSITE AS WELL. A LOT OF AIRPLANES USED TO BE MADE OUT OF METAL SKINS. WHEN LIGHTNING WOULD TRICK THE OUTSIDE IT WOULD CONDUCT AROUND THE OUTSIDE, MORE AND MORE COMPOSITE MATERIALS NOW. >> AH. >> THEY DIFFERENTLY THAN METAL. SO A LOT OF ENGINEERING’S GOT TO GO INTO LOOKING AT WHEN YOU USE COMPOSITES, HOW CAN YOU TREAT THAT FOR LIGHTNING STRIKES THAT MIGHT OCCUR IN THE FUTURE. >> OKAY. >> THERE’S LOTS OF LITTLE THINGS THAT YOU-- IT TRICKLES DOWN TO. >> YEAH. A LOT OF THE DATA, A LOT OF THE INSTRUMENTS MEASURE WIND TOO AND WIND SEEMS TO BE JUST A GIANT CONSIDERATION FOR SPACEFLIGHT IN GENERAL. >> YEAH. >> WHICH MAKES SENSE, RIGHT? >> MM-HMM. >> YOU HAVE THINGS GOING UP INTO SPACE AND COMING DOWN FROM SPACE AND WIND’S GOING TO BLOW IT. BUT, ARE THERE WAYS TO SORT OF FIGHT THAT? IS THERE-- I GUESS, TRY TO MAKE IT SO IF YOU’RE GOING TO LAND THERE’S-- YOU HAVE THE BEST CHANCE OF LANDING WHERE YOU WANT TO REGARDLESS OF WIND OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT? >> A LOT OF THAT’S MONITORING. >> MONITORING. >> EITHER WITH WEATHER BALLOONS AND WE USE RADAR WIND PROFILERS NOW. >> OH, OKAY. >> YOU CAN ESSENTIALLY TAKE A PHASED ARRAY RADAR AND POINT IT STRAIGHT UP. YOU CAN GET WIND MEASUREMENTS FROM THAT, EVEN IN CLEAR AIR. >> AH. >> AND THERE’S ONE OF THOSE THAT’S OPERATED OUT OF THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, REALLY LARGE ONES. THE ANTENNA’S A BUNCH OF WIRES LAYING OUT IN A FIELD. AND IT MEASURES WINDS UP TO 60,000 FEET AND YOU GET SOME ABOUT EVERY FIVE TO SIX MINUTES. >> HMM. >> WHICH IS REALLY, REALLY FREQUENT. >> YEAH. >> SO IF YOU DESIGN THINGS FOR YOUR TRAJECTORY-- THE WAY THINGS ARE STILL DONE TODAY IN LARGE PART IS YOU MEASURE THE WINDS AND YOU KNOW FROM PAST EXPERIENCE HOW MUCH THEY CHANGE IN TWO HOURS AND FOUR HOURS, AND YOU PROTECT AGAINST THAT STATISTICALLY. BUT, IF YOU CAN PUSH THAT FURTHER AND FURTHER TO LAUNCH TIME BECAUSE YOU CAN MEASURE IT MORE FREQUENTLY YOU CAN SAVE A LOT OF LAUNCHES BECAUSE YOU CAN SAY, “OH, WELL, I’M PROTECTING WAY TOO MUCH HERE, OR I’M NOT PROTECTING ENOUGH BECAUSE I CAN SEE CHANGES THAT ARE ARRIVING.” >> AH. >> WITH A WEATHER BALLOON YOU’D HAVE TO RELEASE IT, AND FOR ONE THING, IT’S BLOWING DOWN RANGE. IT'S NOT DIRECTLY OVERHEAD. >> YEAH. >> SO IF THE WINDS ARE HIGH AND HOUR INTO THE FLIGHT THE BALLOON COULD BE 50, 60 MILES AWAY, AND THAT’S WHERE YOU’RE REALLY MEASURING THE WIND INSTEAD OF LIKE OVERHEAD. >> WHERE YOU NEED TO. >> WITH A PROFILER, IT’S PRETTY MUCH STRAIGHT OVERHEAD. >> OKAY. >> AIRCRAFT CAN MEASURE WINDS AS WELL. >> MM-HMM. >> EVEN THE SATELLITES, YOU CAN TRACK CLOUD ELEMENTS AND YOU CAN GET AN IDEA WHAT THE WIND SPEEDS ARE AT CERTAIN HEIGHTS AS WELL. >> RIGHT. >> THERE’S A LOT OF WAYS TO DO THAT. AND EVEN THE USUAL RADARS THAT WE USE FOR WEATHER TO DETECT CLOUDS AND STORMS IN MOTION. >> YEAH. >> THEY’LL MEASURE WINDS AS WELL. >> WOW. >> THERE’S A LOT OF WAYS TO DO IT NOW. >> IS THERE OTHER PARTS OF THE ECONOMY WHERE ALL OF THIS DATA IS BEING BROUGHT INTO? I’M SURE THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY MUST HAVE SOME, RIGHT? >> OH, YEAH, YEAH, YEAH. THERE’S A LARGE PRIVATE WEATHER INDUSTRY OUT THERE. A LOT OF PEOPLE DON’T KNOW ABOUT IT. MOST PEOPLE THINK THERE’S ONLY TWO, WELL, MAYBE THREE THINGS IN WEATHER. THERE’S THE GUY I SEE ON TELEVISION. MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION I ALWAYS GET WHEN I TELL THEM I’M A METEOROLOGIST IS, “WHAT CHANNEL DO YOU WORK ON?” >> YEAH. >> AND THEN, THE SECOND ONE IS, “OH, YOU WORK FOR THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OR THE MILITARY.” >> MM-HMM. >> BECAUSE THEY EMPLOY A LOT-- OR YOU KNOW, “YOU TEACH.” >> OH, YOU TEACH. >> BUT, THERE’S A LARGE PRIVATE WEATHER INDUSTRY OUT THERE THAT TAILOR WEATHER INFORMATION TO SPECIFIC INDUSTRIES. A LOT OF THAT DOES WITH ENERGY TRADING. >> HMM. >> THEY’LL ADVISE. IF YOU’VE GOT A PRETTY GOOD IDEA THAT TWO WEEKS FROM NOW IT’S GOING TO BE MUCH COLDER THAN NORMAL IN THE NORTHEAST, YOU CAN GO OUT AND BUY A LOT OF FUEL OIL AND YOU TRADE THAT JUST LIKE ANYTHING. IT’S ANOTHER PIECE OF INFORMATION TO HELP YOU BUY FUTURES, FOR EXAMPLE. >> OKAY. >> THERE’S-- IT’S A BIG SECTOR OF THE ECONOMY. THE MORE I LEARN ABOUT THAT THE MORE I’M AMAZED AT HOW LARGE IT IS. >> YEAH. >> THE INSURANCE COMPANIES, THEY WANT TO KNOW WHERE HAIL STORMS HAVE OCCURRED. >> OH, YEAH. >> TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY, OF COURSE-- MANY, MANY YEARS AGO I WORKED FOR A PRIVATE WEATHER FIRM. >> OKAY. THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY LOVED US. >> OH. >> IF THERE WAS A BIG SNOW STORM IN THE MIDWEST THEY COULD REROUTE ALL THEIR TRUCKS, DRIVE FURTHER SOUTH, AND THEY WOULDN’T GET STUCK FOR DAYS ON END. >> RIGHT. >> SO AND THEN OF COURSE IF YOU’VE EVER FLOWN ON AN AIRPLANE YOU’VE HAD A WEATHER DELAY. >> THAT’S RIGHT. IT’S PRETTY EXPANSIVE. BECAUSE WEATHER AFFECTS-- I GUESS YOU COULD SAY WEATHER AFFECTS EVERYONE. >> JUST ABOUT EVERYBODY. >> YEAH, HOW ABOUT THAT. AWESOME. SO WHAT’S YOUR BACKGROUND? HOW DID YOU GET TO GO INTO METEOROLOGY AND HOW DID YOU END UP IN SPACEFLIGHT? >> WELL, IT’S INTERESTING THAT MOST OF THE PEOPLE I’VE THAT ARE METEOROLOGISTS, THERE’S ONLY GENERALLY TWO KINDS OF THOSE. NOT COMPLETELY TRUE, BUT-- THERE’S THOSE THAT, “WELL, I WAS IN THE MILITARY AND I HAD A MATH AND PHYSICS BACKGROUND. THEY MADE ME ONE.” >> OH. >> AND THEN THERE’S THE, “THAT’S ALL I EVER WANTED TO DO.” WELL, I’M ONE OF THAT, THAT’S ALL I EVER WANTED TO DO. >> OH, COOL. >> EVER SINCE I WAS A CHILD, THAT’S THE ONLY THING I EVER WANTED TO DO. >> COOL. >> AND FORTUNATELY, I WAS ABLE TO DO THAT. >> YEAH. >> AND I THINK IT WAS LARGELY-- I GREW UP IN OKLAHOMA, SO YOU’RE WORRIED ABOUT TORNADOS. >> OH, YEAH. >> WELL, I TAKE THE INTERESTING THING ABOUT THAT WAS GROWING UP IN OKLAHOMA AS A CHILD, WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, STUDIES METEOROLOGY, NEVER SAW A TORNADO. >> REALLY? >> NEVER. >> I WAS WAITING FOR A GOOD TORNADO STORY TO SAY THAT’S WHAT INSPIRED YOU. >> WELL, THEN-- WELL, BEING SCARED BY THEM, THAT WAS PART OF THE DEAL THAT MADE ME DO THAT. >> OH, SURE. >> BUT MY FIRST JOB AT THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE, I WAS STATIONED IN AMARILLO, TEXAS, AND WE GOT A RADAR INDICATION OF A TORNADO. >> HUH. >> SO WE ISSUED A TORNADO WARNING FOR THE COUNTY WE WERE IN, AND SOMEBODY LOOKED OUT THE WINDOW AND GOES, “HEY, THERE IT IS.” SO THAT WAS THE FIRST ONE I SAW. >> WAS IN AMARILLO, TEXAS. >> YEAH, WAS IN AMARILLO. THE SECOND ONE WAS A WATERSPOUT AT GALVESTON BAY, WHICH WE SEE FROM TIME TO TIME. >> OH, OKAY. >> YEAH. >> MATTER OF FACT, JUST THIS SUMMER SOMEONE SENT A PICTURE TO ME OF ALONGSIDE OF A WATERSPOUT OVER CLEAR LAKE. >> WHAT? >> YEAH. >> I’VE GOT SEVERAL PICTURES OF WATERSPOUTS FROM OVER GALVESTON BAY AND CLEAR LAKE THAT ARE NEARBY US OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS. >> OH, MAN, CLOSE TO HOME. >> SINCE 2000, WE’VE HAD FIVE MAYBE 6 OF THEM WE’VE SEEN FROM JSC. >> FIVE MAYBE SIX IN THE PAST 17 YEARS? OKAY. >> YEAH. SO IT’S NOT ENTIRELY UNCOMMON. >> OKAY. >> BUT, IT’S NOT COMMON EITHER. >> RIGHT. >> BUT YEAH, SO WE DO HAVE THEM HERE AS WELL. >> HMM. >> SO THAT’S WHAT GOT ME INTERESTED INTO IT. I WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, STUDIED METEOROLOGY. WE’RE WELL KNOWN FOR SEVERE STORMS. THEN, WORKED FOR A PRIVATE WEATHER COMPANY FOR A WHILE, THEN JOINED THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE, AND SAW AN OPENING FOR TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT METEOROLOGIST AT THE SPACEFLIGHT METEOROLOGY GROUP. DIDN’T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT IT. NEVER HEARD OF IT. >> YEAH. >> SO I APPLIED. SOMEWHERE ALONG THE LINE I MUST’VE GOT THE APPLICATIONS TURNED UPSIDE DOWN AND THEY HIRED ME. AND I CAME IN AS A TECHNIQUE'S DEVELOPMENT METEOROLOGIST, WHICH MEANT I WAS DEVELOPING FORECAST TECHNIQUES AND WORKED WITH THE COMPUTER SYSTEMS TO MAKE THEM FRIENDLIER FOR THE LEAD FORECASTERS WHO DID THE ACTUAL FORECASTING FOR THE LAUNCHES AND THE-- OR FOR THE ABORT LANDINGS AND FOR THE END OF MISSION LANDINGS FOR THE SPACE SHUTTLE. AND ABOUT A YEAR AND HALF INTO THAT I WAS PROMOTED TO BE ONE OF THE LEAD FORECASTERS, AND SINCE THEN I’VE GROWN UP TO BE THE METEOROLOGIST IN CHARGE. >> ALL RIGHT. >> I’VE GONE FROM THE GROUND FLOOR TO THE PENTHOUSE ALL AT SMG. >> VERY COOL. SO HOW HAS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY CHANGED FROM WHEN YOU FIRST CAME HERE AND YOU SAID YOU WERE WORKING 90-SOMETHING SHUTTLES LAUNCHES. >> NINETY-TWO MISSIONS. >> NINETY-TWO SHUTTLE MISSIONS TO METEOROLOGIST IN CHARGE. >> WELL, GIVEN THE CURRENT STAFFING, I’M THE METEOROLOGIST IN CHARGE OF MYSELF. THE SIZE OF THE OFFICE HAS WAXED AND WANED WITH THE AMOUNT OF FLIGHTS WE’VE GOT GOING. >> I SEE. >> SO FOR RIGHT NOW, I’M DOING EVERYTHING. >> OH, WOW. >> SO THAT’S-- SO I MANAGE THE COMPUTER SYSTEMS, I’M THE PROPERTY CUSTODIAN, NEVER A GOOD JOB TO HAVE. AND SO, I DO ALL OF THE FORECASTING OUT FOR ALL THE PROJECTS AND TESTS THAT WE’RE SUPPORTING. I’M PRETTY MUCH DOING EVERYTHING NOW, SO I’VE LEARNED A LOT OF MANAGEMENT SIDE OF THINGS. >> YEAH. >> AND HOPEFULLY SOONER OR LATER THE OFFICE WILL EXPAND AGAIN BECAUSE THE AMOUNT OF FLIGHTS WE’LL HAVE AND PROGRAMS WE’RE SUPPORTING. THAT’S REALLY STARTING TO RAMP UP NOW. WE’RE DOING MORE AND MORE TEST SUPPORT, QUALIFICATION TESTS, AND THE ACTUAL LAUNCHES AND LANDINGS AREN'T TOO FAR AWAY NOW SO WE’LL NEED SOME EXTRA PEOPLE THAT-- >> OH, THAT’S RIGHT. >> IT WON’T BE AS MANY AS THE SHUTTLE. THE NEW VEHICLES ARE LESS WEATHER SENSITIVE THAN THE SHUTTLE, THAT’S ONE THING I’VE NOTICED SO FAR. AND THAT’S A GOOD THING. >> OH, YEAH. THAT’S VERY TRUE. SO HAVE YOU GONE OUT TO SOME OF THE TESTS TO SEE HOW EVERYTHING’S WORKING? >> YES, I HAVE. >> OH, OKAY. >> I’VE BEEN OUT TO SEE ONE OF THE PARACHUTE QUALIFICATION TESTS FOR THE ORION CAPSULE. >> OKAY. >> OUT OF YUMA PROVING GROUNDS. WE WERE VERY, VERY CLOSE TO THE ACTION. >> YEAH. >> ENOUGH SO THAT SOMEONE DROVE BY AND SAID, “ARE YOU SUPPOSED TO BE HERE?” SO I SAID, “YEAH.” THE WEATHER CHECK IS REALLY, REALLY CLOSE. >> WOW. >> BECAUSE THEY’RE RELEASING WEATHER BALLOONS FOR THE-- TO MEASURE THE UPPER WINDS. >> YEAH, THIS IS IN YUMA, UTAH, RIGHT? >> YEAH, YUMA, ARIZONA. >> OH, ARIZONA. >> YUP. >> OKAY, OKAY. >> THE FUNNY THING I THOUGHT ABOUT THAT THOUGH WAS I HAD PARKED A RENTAL CAR THERE AND I SEE CAPSULE COMING DOWN WITH THE PARACHUTES AND IT LOOKS LIKE IT’S REALLY CLOSE. >> YEAH. >> AND MY FIRST THOUGHT WAS, “IT’S GOING TO-- HOW AM I GOING TO EXPLAIN TO THE RENTAL CAR COMPANY A SPACESHIP FEEL ON THE CAR?” FORTUNATELY, THAT DIDN’T HAPPEN. >> YEAH. DID YOU GET THE SPACESHIP INSURANCE THOUGH WHEN YOU CHECKED IT OUT? >> NO, I DID NOT GET THAT, NO. >> OKAY. >> AND I’VE BEEN OUT ON BOARD SOME OF THE NAVY SHIPS THAT WE USED TO RECOVER THE EFT-1 FLIGHT, THAT SPACE CAPSULE FROM-- >> OH. >> YEAH, SO I WAS THE FORECASTER FOR THAT MISSION AS WELL HERE AT JSC. >> YEAH, THAT WAS OUT-- DID IT LAND IN THE PACIFIC? >> LANDED OUT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN, ABOUT 600, 700 MILES SOUTHWEST OF BAJA, CALIFORNIA. >> ALL RIGHT. >> OUT IN THE MIDDLE OF NOWHERE. NOT FAR FROM WHERE SHARKS LIKE TO HANG OUT, FOR SOME REASON. >> OH. >> THE OCEANOGRAPHIC THINGS I LEARNED ABOUT THE MISSION. BUT YEAH, I GOT TO GO OUT ON BOARD THAT SHIP AND TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHERE WE WANTED TO PLACE SOME SPECIAL WEATHER EQUIPMENT ON BOARD. >> OKAY. >> WE ENDED UP PUTTING IT RIGHT NEAR THE-- RIGHT ABOVE THE HANGAR ON THE BACK OF THE SHIP, SO IT WORKED OUT PRETTY WELL. THE NAVY’S PRETTY HANDY WITH THEIR STUFF. THEY KNOW WHAT THEY’RE DOING OUT THERE. >> ALL RIGHT. >> ONE THING-- UNIQUE THING ABOUT THAT IS FOR THINGS THAT SPLASH DOWN, YOU SEND THE PEOPLE AND EQUIPMENT OUT, IF SOMETHING BREAKS YOU CAN’T GO TO THE STORE TO BUY SOMETHING. IT’S GOT TO BE WITH YOU. SO YOU GOT TO PLAN FOR EVERY LAST CONTINGENCY WHILE YOU’RE OUT THERE. >> OH, WOW. >> YEAH. >> YEAH. >> SO, DID YOU ENCOUNTER LIKE A FAILURE THAT YOU HAD TO KIND OF DEAL WITH? OR YOU WERE PREPARED? >> WE WERE PRETTY WELL PREPARED. >> COOL. >> WE HAD A METEOROLOGICAL-- METEOROLOGIST FROM YUMA GO OUT AND RELEASE THE BALLOONS FROM THE SHIP FOR US. >> OKAY. >> AND ONE OF THE THINGS HE LEARNED WAS YOU CAN’T TAKE LITHIUM BATTERIES OUT ON THE SHIP. >> AH. >> THEY DON’T LIKE THOSE ON THE AIRPLANES EITHER ANYMORE. >> YEAH, RIGHT. >> AND HE HAD AN EXTENSION CORD WHICH DIDN’T MEET STANDARDS. >> OH. >> FORTUNATELY, THEY LOAN YOU ONE, SO WE LEARNED QUITE A BIT FROM THAT. >> OKAY. >> AND WE’LL BE ABLE TO USE FOR FUTURE ORION AS WELL. >> YEAH. TAKE THAT ALL WITH YOU. AWESOME. ALL RIGHT, WELL, I THINK WILL ABOUT WRAP IT UP FOR TODAY. I KNOW I HAVE A LOT MORE QUESTIONS ABOUT WEATHER AND CLIMATE AND ALL THAT KIND OF STUFF, BUT I GUESS WE’LL JUST SAVE IT FOR ANOTHER TIME. BUT HEY, TIM, THANKS FOR COMING ON THE SHOW. THIS WAS REALLY JUST EYE OPENING ABOUT JUST THE WORLD OF WEATHER AND HOW IT AFFECTS HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT AND JUST THE OPERATIONS HERE AT THE CENTER, TOO, BUT JUST ALL OVER THE PLACE. AND SOUNDS LIKE A PRETTY GOOD JOB. I KNOW YOU’RE DOING EVERYTHING, BUT AT THE SAME TIME YOU’RE DOING EVERYTHING SO THAT’S KIND OF COOL. >> IT IS A GOOD JOB AND THE MORE YOU LEARN ABOUT WEATHER THE MORE YOU LEARN IT IMPACTS EVERYTHING. >> THAT’S RIGHT. OKAY, WELL, TIM, THANKS SO MUCH FOR BEING ON THE SHOW. >> YOU BET. [ MUSIC ] >> HOUSTON, GO AHEAD. >> TOP OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE. >> ROGER, ZERO-G AND I FEEL FINE. >> SHUTTLE HAS CLEARED THE TOWER. >> WE CAME IN PEACE FOR ALL MANKIND. >> IT’S ACTUALLY A HUGE HONOR TO BREAK THE RECORD LIKE THIS. >> NOT BECAUSE THEY ARE EASY, BUT BECAUSE THEY ARE HARD. >> HOUSTON, WELCOME TO SPACE. >> HEY, THANKS FOR STICKING AROUND. SO TODAY, WE TALKED ABOUT WEATHER AND HOW IT AFFECTS HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT WITH TIM GARNER, THE METEOROLOGIST IN CHARGE HERE AT THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. SO IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE ABOUT WHAT’S GOING ON HERE AT THE CENTER, NASA.GOV/JOHNSON IS A GREAT RESOURCE FOR EVERYTHING NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. OBVIOUSLY, WE HAVE SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS FOR THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER-- FACEBOOK, TWITTER, AND INSTAGRAM. IF YOU WANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION OR COMMERCIAL CREW PROGRAMS AND WHAT’S GOING ON, WE KIND OF ALLUDED TO SOME OF THE DEVELOPMENTS GOING ON IN THE COMMERCIAL CREW PROGRAM ESPECIALLY. SOON WE’RE GOING TO BE LAUNCHING IN AMERICA, SO IF YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT’S GOING ON THERE JUST GO TO NASA.GOV/COMMERCIALCREW, NASA.GOV/ISS IS ALSO A GOOD RESOURCE, AND OF COURSE ALL OF THOSE ARE ON FACEBOOK, TWITTER, AND INSTAGRAM AS WELL. IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION, JUST USE THE HASHTAG #ASKNASA ON YOUR FAVORITE PLATFORM. IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT THE WEATHER, WE CAN ANSWER IT IN A LATER PODCAST LIKE WE’VE DONE BEFORE. OF IF YOU HAVE A SUGGESTION FOR A TOPIC THAT YOU REALLY WANT US TO COVER, JUST LET US KNOW USING THAT HASHTAG AND JUST MAKE SURE TO USE HWHAP, H-W-H-A-P IN THAT POST SO I CAN FIND IT AND THEN WE CAN MAKE AN EPISODE ON IT. AND FOR EVERYONE SO FAR WHO HAS SUBMITTED SOME IDEAS, THANKS SO MUCH BECAUSE WE’VE ACTUALLY BEEN LOOKING AT THEM AND HAVE ALREADY MADE SOME EPISODES DEDICATED TO SOME OF YOUR QUESTIONS AND ANSWERED THEM. SO THANKS AGAIN. THIS PODCAST WAS RECORDED ON OCTOBER 25th, 2017. THANKS TO ALEX PERRYMAN, JOHN STOLL, AND JENNY KNOTTS FOR HELPING OUT WITH THE EPISODE. THANKS AGAIN TO MR. TIM GARNER FOR COMING ON THE SHOW. WE’LL BE BACK NEXT WEEK.

  2. HWHAP_Ep27_ The Search for Life

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-12

    Production Transcript for Ep27_ The Search for Life.mp3 [00:00:00] >> Houston, We Have a Podcast. Welcome to the official podcast of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Episode 27, The Search for Life. I'm Gary Jordan, and I'll be your host today. So this is the podcast where we bring in the experts -- NASA scientists, engineers, astronauts -- all to tell you the coolest information about NASA and about space. So today we're talking about something super cool, how we're looking for life in the universe. We're talking with Aaron Burton and Marc Fries. Aaron and Marc are both planetary scientists here at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. And we had a great discussion about the different NASA initiatives all looking at organic material in the solar system and what we're finding from these studies that help us understand the fundamentals of life here on Earth and possibly in the universe. So with no further delay, let's go light speed and jump right into our talk with Dr. Aaron Burton and Dr. Marc Fries. Enjoy. [00:00:50] [ Music ] [00:00:57] >> T minus five seconds and counting. Mark. [00:01:05] >> [Inaudible] there she goes. [00:01:06] >> Houston, we have a podcast. [00:01:08] [ Music ] [00:01:14] >> Well, this one's going to be good because -- I'm excited because this one's about the ultimate question, right? Are we alone in the universe? That's literally -- I mean, it's in the NASA mission statement, right? Everything we do is to explore the unknown and -- reveal the unknown for the benefit of humankind or something like that. So I guest I'll start off with this question: How many times a day do you ask yourself that question, "Are we alone?" [00:01:40] [ Laughter ] [00:01:42] >> Well, it's back there, you know, squirrel caging around somewhere all the time. [00:01:46] >> Yeah. [00:01:46] >> I don't know if I stop in, like, the middle of shaving and go, "Wait a minute, but are we alone?" [00:01:51] [ Laughter ] But, you know, I do think about it on a regular basis, sure. [00:01:54] >> I figure, well, because that's the whole thing, right? This is your job. Your job is to look for organic material, right? So I guess to just pull back. And I just think that would be super cool, are we alone or -- you know, that's not bad. [00:02:06] >> You know, I'd say I think about it more at night. Well, when you look up at the stars and you just see all of the stars. [00:02:13] >> Okay. [00:02:13] >> That's just what we can see. [00:02:15] >> Yeah, exactly. [00:02:16] >> So the thought that we're the only game in town seems a pretty -- pretty unlikely. [00:02:21] >> Yeah. I just took a camping trip out to Big Bend a couple weeks ago. And that was just an eye-opener. Because I thought I had seen, "Wow, there's a lot of stars in the sky," you know, when I was living in Pennsylvania. But out in Big Bend you can see the Milky Way. And there's constellations where you couldn't even see them because there was just that many more stars. It was just the clearest sky I've ever seen in my life. I was like, "Wow, this is just -- from a different part of Earth I can see this many stars." It was crazy. All right. Well, so let's start off with just a little bit about you guys and since you're both planetary scientists kind of what your focuses are. [00:02:59] >> Okay. Yeah. So I have built a research lab where we look for organic molecules that we find in meteorites. So these are carbon-containing molecules. And I'm interested in the ones that are related to biology. So things that biology could use. And so by looking at the organic molecules that are found in meteorites, that gives us a way to look at samples where biologically interesting molecules are made but they weren't made by life. They were just made by sort of abiotic chemistry, things that can happen in our solar system. And so I'm interested in doing that because I want to know about the chemistry that was going on before life started. And then from understanding that chemistry, try and take the next step forward to think of if we know the chemistry that was going on without life, how did that transition into a living system that we have? [00:03:53] >> Wow. Literally the origins of life. [00:03:56] >> Yeah. [00:03:56] >> That's pretty cool. How about you, Marc? [00:03:59] >> I work in curation. I'm a scientist in curation. And then curation I should explain. We basically take care of NASA's collections. We have the Apollo moon rock collection, we have meteorites from Antarctica, we have samples from -- delivered by a couple sample return missions. And all the curators, all the curation scientists are expected to have a scientific interest as well and maintain a scientific course of study. What I study is carbon in geological systems, not necessarily just organic chemistry. Aaron's much more of a specialist in that, much more of an expert in that than I am, per se. But more of carbon in entire systems ranging from, you know, gas phase carbon that you find in rocks, whether it's biological or geological carbon is part of a system on planetary surfaces and interiors and such. [00:04:54] >> But it's fair to say, you know, carbon is an essential component of life, right? [00:05:00] >> As far as we know, yes. [00:05:01] [ Laughter ] [00:05:02] >> That's true. There's a bunch of other things, you know, that we can talk about. I don't know -- I don't know if you guys actually discuss silicon-based life forms or anything like that or -- [00:05:12] >> Yeah, I -- [00:05:12] >> -- I would say carbon. Carbon's usually the good stuff, right? That's the basic form of life. [00:05:18] >> Yeah. So at the most simple aspect you have carbon, and we like it because it make four bonds. So you can make these long polymers out of it. And so if you just go down the periodic table, silicon, well, that does, you know, similar things. [00:05:31] >> Right. [00:05:32] >> But carbon's actually pretty special. So if you compare carbon and silane or methane and silane -- so metaion is CH4, silane is SIH4. You know, those would be sort of the analogous molecules. By silane actually is, like, an incredibly explosive gas. And it's very difficult to keep on Earth, whereas methane, you know, sort of hangs around and gets produced. So that works out well for organisms that produce methane and for life. And then if you start looking at other things like CO2 as a gas, that's what we breathe in and breathe out, you know, trees use that for photosynthesis. If you compare that SIO2, you know, that's -- [00:06:14] >> It's a rock. [00:06:15] >> [Laughs] Yeah, that's a -- [00:06:15] >> Kind of hard to breathe rock. [00:06:17] >> [Laughs] Yeah, it's -- yeah. So it's hard to breathe. It's not very easy for organisms to process it or to access it. And so, you know, it ends up being just a less mobile sort of building block. If you're whole life was centered around silicon, now it's all sand, right? [00:06:34] >> Yeah, a little harder. So carbon is just the magic ingredient, really, just because that ability to bond to so many things. [00:06:43] >> Yeah, at least based on physics in our solar system. [00:06:48] >> Well, so, you know, the whole just concept of life, searching for life, right? I mean, there's a lot of things that we study out in the universe, but this quest to find life outside the solar system, why is that so fundamental to us as humans, to go out and to search for it? [00:07:06] >> It's a good question, kind of hard to answer because it's just kind of -- best answer I could give is that it's just a fundamental question. I mean, anybody's who's looked up at night, like Aaron said, has had to wonder. You know, there's an awful lot of stuff up there. Surely there's got to be something else. It's just a basic, almost primal human query. I don't know how to put it any better than that, honestly. [00:07:34] >> Yeah. [00:07:35] >> Yeah. I mean, I think it's kind of like the human tradition of exploring. And, you know, first it started out, you know, humans on a land mass. And they said, "Well, what's on the other side? You know? What's over those mountains?" [00:07:46] >> Right. [00:07:47] >> What's across that river? And then expanded to what's across that ocean? And then what's at the bottom of the sea floor? And now, you know, what's on the next world over? And, you know, it's kind of that exploring but also then, you know, if we're asking these questions, is there anyone else out there that's asking those same questions? [00:08:06] >> Yeah. That's true. I mean, if you think about human history, just the fact that people travel, they find a new civilization and can open up new trade routes. Or even as far as cross the Atlantic Ocean and discover a whole new world trying to find more trade routes or something like that. So it's just -- I guess you're right, it's kind of built into our DNA that we just have this drive to -- it's not enough, right? We want to -- we want to know. We want to know why. We want to know more. [00:08:33] >> Yeah. You look at the sky and you say, "I'm pretty sure there's life out there. but I want to sort of prove it." You know? [00:08:37] >> Yeah. [00:08:38] >> I want to find it, actually know. [00:08:40] >> Pretty sure is not good enough [Laughs]. [00:08:42] >> Luckily humans have a low fascination threshold. [00:08:46] [ Laughter ] [00:08:48] >> So -- so I mean, just besides the fascinating of it, why is it important to understand the origins of life? You know, what can we get out of it? [00:08:59] >> Well, for me, you know, I've just been interested, I guess, from the scientific standpoint of, you know, how does life start? Which I think naturally leads to could life exist elsewhere? And so those are two kind of the basic questions. Because if life could exist elsewhere, then that answers your sort of fundamental, intrinsic question of is there life elsewhere? If you know how it started, then you know what signs to look for, what kinds of environments you need to look in, what types of chemistry needs to be going on for you to look there for life. [00:09:34] >> So how does just -- you know, once you do that, you know, I guess you can help you search for life outside, but what about here on Earth? You know? Is there applications for, you know, learning more about how the origins of life and how that comes to be? How can that help us here? [00:09:51] >> See, I would answer that by saying that, you know, fundamentally we're answering -- it's like we said, like [inaudible] talked about just a minute ago, this understanding the origin of life is one of primal fundamental human queries that most people want to know. And as scientists, our goal, our purpose is to discover exactly that sort of thing, to try to answer those sort of questions, to be the interpreters of the world around us, to try to enrich everyone's lives. And that's a really important thing that a lot of people are interested in. So it's a high priority for scientific investigation. For a more nuts and bolts approach, you know, maybe understanding the fundamentals of how life arose would give us better understanding into our own biochemistry at a very fundamental level. That's a possibility. [00:10:49] >> Improving life for us, you know, making life better for humans. Just however -- you know, bring it into industry, make better drugs or understand how, you know, people grow up or develop. You know, just life, right? [00:11:03] >> The fundaments of how a cell functions on the chemical level. It can't be bad to know more about that. [00:11:11] >> [Laughs] Well, talking to -- [00:11:13] >> I would -- [00:11:13] >> Oh, go ahead. [00:11:14] >> Sorry. So I would just add that a lot of what origins of life researchers try to do is sort of recreate how life could have started. You know, ideally if you had a time machine, you would just go back in time 4.5 billion years -- [00:11:28] >> Oh, that would be easy [Laughs]. [00:11:29] >> -- to the start of life. But it raises a philosophical issue, which is what if you disrupted that process and so you actually killed life? So maybe that's a bad idea. But, you know, without a time machine we don't have to worry about that. But the best we can hope to do is sort of recreate how life started or how life could have started. And so a lot of the experiments that have gone on in there have looked at sort of alternatives to DNA. And so these alternatives to DNA have actually been shown to not be recognized by sort of modern biology. So you can make sort of a drug out of this alternative DNA that now has a longer lifespan inside of a human. You know? So it's kind of expanded the range of drugs that are accessible and kind of opened up or helped contribute to the field of synthetic biology where we can start, you know, doing gene manipulation, genetic therapies. So there really are practical applications of it in addition to satisfying our kind of curiosity about how life started. [00:12:32] >> Just out of curiosity, these studies, are there any going on, on the International Space Station right now that have to do with sort of understanding life and how the origins or maybe just how it affects humans? [00:12:44] >> Well, yeah, every astronaut that we send up there is sort of an experiment on how -- [00:12:48] >> There you go. [00:12:49] >> -- how environmental conditions are affecting life and biology. But there's also exposures. So they put microorganisms on the outside of the ISS, for example, and then expose them to radiation, that sort of thing, bring the organisms back. So that's kind of, you know, an emerging field, too. [00:13:10] >> Wow. All right. So we talked a lot about the why of -- why search for life and all of that. But let's pull back and just kind of understand just what we're talking about here. So how -- as one of the experts in the field of understanding life and studying life, how would you define life, Aaron? [00:13:28] >> That's a good question [Laughs] that people have actually really wrestled with. [00:13:33] >> Really? [00:13:33] >> It's not an easy one to answer. So the origins of life community has settled on a sort of mouthful, which is that life is a self-sustaining chemical system that is capable of Darwinian evolution. And so, you know, there's a lot in there. [00:13:52] >> Yeah, yeah. That makes sense. [00:13:53] >> But self-sustaining means something that can actually reproduce itself and grow, not necessarily grow in size but grow in population. So if you have one molecule and now it can make, you know, ten more, etc. and continue to reproduce. But it's also important that it be able to actually change over time. And that's where the Darwinian evolution comes in. So if you have, you know, a salt crystal that's made up of sodium and chloride, and you can add more sodium and chloride to that salt crystal and it's getting bigger, so it's growing in some sense. There are more sodiums and chlorides in there. But it doesn't really change. Right? So we would never call a salt crystal alive, even though it can, you know, grow. It's a chemical system. So you really need that capacity to change for an organism to be able to do something different and to sort of respond to its environment. That's a very technical -- [00:14:43] >> It makes sense, right? You got to check those boxes. Because otherwise if you do the wrong definition, you know, salt is life now. So [Laughs]. [00:14:46] >> Yeah. [00:14:46] >> You'll get that salt life sticker on the back of your car. [00:14:48] [ Laughter ] [00:15:00] >> Yeah. [00:15:01] [ Laughter ] [00:15:02] >> Totally different thing. [00:15:03] >> Very funny. Yeah. [00:15:04] [ Laughter ] [00:15:05] >> That's awesome. [00:15:05] >> So then for you, Marc, I guess you're studying carbon specifically, right? So then how does that fit into the picture of understanding life? [00:15:15] >> It kind of goes to what Aaron was saying about understanding the chemical conditions at the origin of life. There's a fun conundrum there, actually, in that okay, we know that life arose on Earth and -- but it's basically being able to get directly at the conditions where that happened is very, very difficult because of ironically life itself. Life has basically overprinted everything on the planet. Whatever conditions it was that gave rise to life on Earth, you know, they might be here today, there might be something in the deep ocean, there's all manner of hypotheses about this, but it's very, very difficult to pin that down because life has altered this planet so -- so completely. I mean, from the mantle to the surface, to the top of the atmosphere, chemically, morphologically, isotopically, everything has been changed. And so trying to get back at that original set of conditions that gave rise to life is actually really difficult here on Earth. [00:16:16] >> Wow. Is it -- is it, you know, postulated more that life itself started on Earth and then just sort of spread and literally changed the makeup of the Earth, or is there some chance that maybe, you know, it came from somewhere else and maybe just got delivered to Earth or something? [00:16:34] >> I don't like that -- [00:16:36] [ Laughter ] Here's the reason I don't like that, is the notion of life coming from somewhere else. Just from the sake of samples that it doesn't actually answer the question of how life arose; you just moved it somewhere else and put an almost impossible journey in between the origin and its evolution on Earth. We know that the Earth has been changed considerably by life. We have oxygen in our atmosphere because of it. I guess that's off on a tangent a bit. [00:17:07] >> Please go if you need to. [00:17:09] [ Laughter ] [00:17:12] >> Yeah. So fundamentally that's my problem with saying that it started somewhere else and came here. Because that you are introducing a big complication to it without really putting any light on how it happened. [00:17:25] >> Yeah. [00:17:26] >> Yeah. As Marc was saying, you know, we think life started in water on a rocky body somewhere. So whether that's Earth, or Mars, or, you know, somewhere else, you still need life to start on a rocky body with water somewhere. So, you know, speculating that it was Mars and then it got transported here doesn't -- from a practical standpoint doesn't help you address, you know, those conditions necessarily any better. [00:17:54] >> Well, still, I mean, narrowing it down to, you know, we could say you need a rocky body with water for it to at least start, right; is that at least a starting point for understanding the origins life? [00:18:06] >> I think it is. That's a good distillation. There's another interesting little conundrum in there. Aaron mentioned Mars. And I was just talking about how Earth has been completely overprinted. There's a lot of interest in trying to find life on Mars. And that's fine, that's good. But there's kind of a -- a hidden value to a completely dead Mars. Let me go off on a little bit of a tangent here. [00:18:39] >> Please do. [00:18:40] >> Let's say that life started on Earth and that Mars, even though it had all the conditions for life -- apparently water, fairly warm, fairly dense atmosphere -- never had life. If that's the case, then basically Mars has preserved in a kind of mummified state those conditions early in the formation of the terrestrial planets when life arose on Earth. So one of the fun conundrums here is that a completely dead Mars with no history of life may give us -- may be a very powerful tool to understanding the origin of life on Earth. [00:19:15] >> Huh. So that's where the many rovers that we've sent to Mars over the year come into play, right? We're studying Mars and trying to understand its history to see what we can learn about its past and see if what you're saying is true. Maybe -- maybe the atmosphere was -- was thicker. Maybe there was water. And all of these instruments that we're sending there are the things that are finding all of this out. [00:19:39] >> That's right. Narrowing down that history. [00:19:41] >> Yeah. [00:19:42] >> And looking -- and trying to answer the question of whether there is or was life on Mars. That's an important part of it. [00:19:48] >> All right. Well, understanding Mars and the different, you know, rovers we've sent there to study that -- you said you were part of the curation facility. [00:19:56] >> Yes. [00:19:56] >> So -- and you said all the different things that are there, right? So you're talking about meteorites and moon rocks. Are there hints there that maybe can points towards the origin of life? [00:20:07] >> Right. So amongst the samples we have are samples of Mars. You know, they come to us as meteorites. The -- here at NASA we curate -- we partner with the Smithsonian to curate the Antarctic meteorite collection. We have a very large number of meteorites from Antarctica. There is a team called ANSMET, the Antarctic Search for Meteorites, which goes every year and collects more of them. Actually, the team for that left into the field to go start their annual search -- I believe it was two days ago. They just started off. [00:20:40] >> All right. [00:20:40] >> So we get these meteorites every year. And they include periodically Martian meteorites. To date, you know, not just the NASA collection, but all the collections in the world, we have on the order of -- well, in excess of a quarter of a metric ton of Mars meteorites. We have samples of Mars that date back to billions of years old or as young as ten of millions of years old. We have samples that have come from evidently only a meter deep to ten meters deep or so, others that were solidified in place like a kilometer deep, much deeper than that. There's this random sampling from all over the planet. Here's where I say the thing that a lot of people don't like to hear and that I am fairly -- there's a wide range of opinion about -- in the scientific community onto whether or not there's been life on Mars, is life on Mars? I'm fairly convinced by the meteorite evidence that there is not life on Mars, nor has there been. [00:21:45] Because in all those meteorites that we have from all over the surface, all manner of depth, all through a wide range of history is this neat random sampling all over the planet, we have yet to see any evidence -- any conclusive evidence of any metabolizing in those rocks. And that tell us that not just today but for a very long period through the past that these meteorites have witnessed that nothing has lived in them. I think that that's a fairly compelling result. It's not the final say, but yeah. [00:22:19] >> Yeah. Guys, it's kind of interesting because you say Martian meteorites. But, you know, to an average Joe like me, I would ask the question how does -- how does a piece of Mars get delivered to Earth? [00:22:33] >> Right. Well, the solar system's a wild, unruly place with a lot of things that run into each other. You know, basically take a look at Mars and you see impact craters all over it. What happens is a meteorite falls onto Mars, or the moon, or other asteroids and they spall material off in an energetic high-speed event known as an impact and kick material clean off the planet basically. And this stuff, you know, winds up in orbits across the Earth's orbit and fall to Earth. And we find them -- they fall -- meteorites fall all the time. The reason why these guys, ANSMET, goes to Antarctica is because they tend to concentrate in places where they're easier to find there. There are literally places in the Antarctic ice sheet where the only rock you'll see is something that fell there. And so they can go out and collect these things there. And that's the process. There's an impact at the beginning, a long period in the vacuum of space, a fall to Earth through a fireball which destroys most of the meteorite. [00:23:40] And if anything survives, it winds up here. [00:23:43] >> All right. So, Aaron, what would you be -- do you investigate the meteorites? Are you looking at organic compounds in them? [00:23:54] >> Yeah. [00:23:54] >> So what inside of them would sort of hint at life, that life would exist within that and you can find traces of it? [00:24:03] >> So I actually usually look at it from the other perspective. So to me, you know, I look at meteorites, which are the surviving remnants of likely asteroids but potentially even comets. You know, it's the material that falls to Earth. So I look at that material and I start with the hypothesis that there was no biology. So this to me is a dead rock from something that, you know, was an uninhabitable environment. And then I'm looking at it for the chemistry that can go on without life present. And so for me, this is, like, the next-best alternative to my time machine from earlier because now I have this asteroid that's been, you know, floating around. It was formed about at the same time that the Earth was forming in the solar system, so 4.5 billion years ago. And it's just been floating around in space. And every now and then pieces of these asteroids get fragmented off and they make their way into Earth. [00:25:05] And then we get these samples. And then when I look at one of these samples in this 4.5 billion-year-old rock and I find things like amino acids that are the building blocks of proteins, you know, then I say, "Okay, so what was the chemistry that was going on in this asteroid or in the solar system 4.5 billion years ago that led me to find the amino acid glycine?" That's kind of the perspective. And we know from sort of modern biology there's DNA, RNA, and proteins. And in proteins in particular there's 20 amino acids that are used in all of biology. And if you look at a particularly amino acid-rich meteorite like the Murchison meteorite, which is probably one of the most famous carbon-rich meteorites, so it's got about 80 different amino acids in them. [00:25:58] >> Whoa. [00:25:58] >> And many of them are not used in biology at all. And so, you know, that's both a good indicator that's it's not contamination from modern biology on it, but it's also indicative of sort of abiotic chemistry, you know, happening 4.5 billion years ago where there's a lot more random chemical reactions that are taking place. Whereas in biology everything is very controlled. You know, you take a range of chemicals in that you eat, and then you turn them into a fixed number of chemicals that, you know, make up your body. [00:26:34] >> Yeah. [00:26:35] >> Whereas abiotic chemistry will make all sorts of things, a whole range of things. [00:26:40] >> Wow. So what does that mean? That means that, you know, life here has restrictions based on what could be possible. And then maybe there's amino acids that could create life maybe on another planet with a different set of amino acids that are not restricted by the norms of Earth; is that kind of fair? [00:27:04] >> Yeah. [00:27:05] >> All right. I could be a scientist [Laughs]. Maybe not, too fast. Okay. [00:27:10] >> Yeah. So there's two sort of variations on that. And both of them would sort of be the ideal case -- or you can't have two ideal cases, can you? But both would be two very good cases. So one is that you're looking for life on another body, and you find life, and it uses entirely different amino acids. But it's got proteins, and they're just different than what we have on Earth. You can say, "Okay, cool. You know, that's life and it's not something that we just brought in our spacecraft." [00:27:41] >> Yeah. [00:27:41] >> The other difference that could happen is subtler. And it's -- and it's an interesting thing. So we talked about carbon being able to make four bonds. And carbon makes sort of a tetrahedron shape when it's in these -- when it's made four bonds. And so it's almost like a pyramid. [00:28:01] >> Oh, okay. [00:28:02] >> And so what's interesting is that the four atoms connected to that carbon atom, if they're arranged in a different way stereochemically or so, like, the different sides of the pyramid and then one point sort of floating up above it, you can actually have two different sort of chiralities or stereochemistries of those molecules. So we talk about it shorthand left-handed and right-handed molecules, which are really just an easier way for us to keep track of it. Your two hands are the same, they do the same job. You know, one's just a left hand and the other's a right hand. And you don't notice a problem until you grab the wrong glove and it no longer fits on your hand. [00:28:44] >> Okay. So it's more of a fitting problem rather than a dominant hand kind of a problem? [00:28:48] >> Yeah. [00:28:48] >> It's more of a -- okay -- how things put together. [00:28:50] >> Yeah. And then, you know, when you measure the chemical and physical properties of molecules that are handed, they're identical except in how they interact with other handed molecules or certain kinds of light. And so if you found life on another planet that didn't use different amino acids, it would be interesting if it used a different handedness than life on Earth. So all life on Earth makes left-handed proteins. And all life on Earth -- [00:29:18] >> All? [00:29:19] >> All. [00:29:19] >> What -- wow. Okay. [00:29:21] >> So all life on Earth uses left-handed amino acids in its proteins and all life on Earth uses right-handed sugars in its DNA and RNA. And so if you were looking for life elsewhere and you found only right-handed proteins and, say, only left-handed sugars, then, hey, you've got life and it's definitely not Earth life. So it's definitely a difference. [00:29:43] >> Yeah. So -- so DNA, RNA is a right-handed sugar that just happens to pair nicely with the left-handed amino acids, which are exclusive to Earth, right? [00:29:54] >> Yeah, to biology. [00:29:55] >> To biology? Okay. So then would -- is there a left-handed sugar of DNA, RNA, or are you thinking there's something entirely different, like, that would fit with the right-handed amino acid? Maybe I'm not asking the question right. [00:30:10] >> No, it's -- [00:30:11] >> It would still be DNA, RNA? [00:30:14] >> Yeah. So they're -- you know, so DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid and RNA is ribonucleic acid. [00:30:20] >> Right, right. [00:30:21] >> And what we leave out of there is a little prefix at the front that has a D. And in the case of amino acids and proteins, we leave out a little symbol in front that's an L. And so it's believed that one of those came first and was fixed. So you either had left-handed proteins or right-handed sugars that came about. And then proteins or -- the other one evolved around it. So you started with a system that had left-handed proteins and that fit really well with right-handed sugars. And that was where evolution took off and that was how you got, you know, sort of left-handed life and right-hand sugars. [00:31:00] >> I see. Okay. [00:31:01] >> But we were talking about synthetic biology and origins of life experiments. So I have left-handed proteins and right-handed sugars in me. And if you give me a drug that's made out of left-handed sugars, my left-handed proteins don't recognize those sugars anymore. And so those molecules can stick around a lot of longer in my body because my natural mechanisms for processing, you know, DNA from food I eat or, you know, bacteria that are floating around everywhere, they don't work on those molecules. [00:31:31] >> Hmm. So what's an example of a left-handed sugar that would just sort of stick around? [00:31:38] >> So you could actually make just left-handed DNA. [00:31:41] >> Oh. [00:31:41] >> And left-handed RNA. [00:31:43] >> How do you make it [Laughs]? [00:31:45] >> So that's a synthetic organic chemistry that ends up being fairly difficult. But what's interesting about this is so people have gone in the lab and taken a naturally-occurring left-handed protein and they've synthesized a right-handed version of it. [00:32:01] >> Yeah. [00:32:02] >> And they've found that it works just fine. You know, it fold into its active state. There's no difference in the activity, except that now this right-handed protein recognizes a left-handed sugar molecule. So in this case I think it was the glucose molecule. [00:32:16] >> Okay. [00:32:16] >> So we eat right-handed glucose all the time -- that's what our natural food is -- but this artificial enzyme that they made wouldn't recognize that. But when they gave it left-handed glucose, it processed its chemical reaction just fine. [00:32:32] >> Hmm. So then -- all right, let's think about a hypothetical. So if you're on another planet that isn't the mirror world, I guess, right, you got right-handed proteins and you got left-handed sugars, would it kind of look -- it's like a mirror version of Earth, right? It's just, like, the same. Would that work, or are we talking about something that would be entirely -- like, things would just look different, act different, or is it just a mirror image? [00:33:01] >> It would be weight loss world. [00:33:03] >> Weight loss world. [00:33:04] >> You go there and eat all you want. You don't actually -- you're not actually able to metabolize any of the food [Laughs]. Correct me if I'm wrong but, you know, there's no reason why that sort of biology wouldn't work within its own system. But, you know, if we went there and tried to live there and eat the foot off the tree or whatever, we wouldn't get anything out of it. If I'm not mistaken, there is a commercially available artificial sweetener that is the other-handed version of sugar and it tastes sweet, but you can't digest it. [00:33:34] >> Huh. So what does it do? Does it make you -- it's not weight loss city in that world, is it? Or is it because you're not processing it, maybe you don't gain any weight. I don't know how that would work. [00:33:46] >> You can't use it. [00:33:46] >> You can't use it? [00:33:47] >> Yeah. It's just -- yeah. [00:33:48] >> So would you pass it, then? It will be -- okay. So it wouldn't just, like, stick around and be fat. Okay, that's good to know [Laughs]. All right. Maybe I'll sprinkle that on some cupcakes or something and tell myself it's okay. [00:34:05] >> Yeah. [00:34:05] >> [Laughs] So that's interesting, just the idea of right-handedness and left-handedness. And there's a certain set of amino acids that exist on Earth, but there's a whole realm of possibilities that can exist just because we've studied, you know, rocks in space or something. So correct me if I'm wrong here because this is just piece of trivia that I thought I knew, but now that you guys are here, I want to ask you. It's an asteroid when it's in space, it's a meteor when it's passing through the atmosphere, and a meteorite once it hits the ground? [00:34:38] >> Or a meteoroid in space, which is -- [00:34:40] >> Meteoroid. [00:34:41] >> Smaller asteroid. [00:34:42] >> Oh, okay. [00:34:43] >> But yes, meteor when it's passing through the atmosphere, that's the luminous ball. And then if anything survives to the ground, that's a meteorite. [00:34:50] >> Okay. Yeah, that's always something that stuck in my mind just because, you know, I used to call it the wrong thing. So when you study meteorites, you are specifically talking about the things that are on the ground? [00:35:01] >> That's right. [00:35:01] >> You're not going out and grabbing things and bringing them back or you're not catching things as they're passing through the atmosphere? You're going out. And Antarctica's a good place to find them because black rocks on a white surface are pretty good, right? [00:35:12] >> Yep. [00:35:12] >> Is it fair to say meteors are falling throughout atmosphere all the time? [00:35:16] >> All the time. [00:35:16] >> Yeah. [00:35:17] >> On average there is a meteorite fall somewhere on Earth about once a day. [00:35:21] >> Wow. [00:35:22] >> But, you know, most of those are very small. You figure 70% of them are going to land in the ocean because planet's about 70% ocean. You know, of the remainder -- of the remaining 30% half of them are going to happen during the day and probably no one will notice them. Most of the ones that make it down of the remainder from that -- excuse me -- fall someplace that's, you know, difficult to recover. And it doesn't take much. You know, tall grass is enough and you won't find them. Swamp is enough, you won't them. If it lands on the nuclear power plant, you're not going to get those back, either. [00:35:56] [ Laughter ] [00:35:58] >> On -- so on average you get about a meteorite fall a day somewhere on Earth. There's the Meteoritical Society maintains a database of all the world's meteorites. And they record give or take about a dozen new meteorite falls per year. Those are the ones that are actually found. Some of those hit something and, you know, they become hard to miss, like, coming through the roof of someone's house or dentist office. Or other ones are just very large events that people go hunting for and find. So there's your statistics. [00:36:32] >> Yeah. And a lot of the material that comes in is just dust. By the time it makes it through. And so if you think about, like, meteor showers that we have all the time, that's when Earth is passing throughout debris from the tail of a comet. So this shooting star is material that's burning up, you know? But some of that material falls in as dust. And so you would never, you know, notice it. [00:36:52] >> Yeah. [00:36:53] >> But there's little grains of cosmic dust that are -- [00:36:55] >> Yeah. We actually have a collection of that, too. The cosmic dust collection. [00:37:00] >> How do you collect cosmic dust? [00:37:01] >> Airplanes -- very, very high altitude. NASA has a -- operates a fleet of basically former spy planes -- WB-57's here at Ellington and ER-2, which is sort of like a U2, out at Dryden, California. And they fly to 60,000 feet and up and deploy collectors that collect this falling dust out of the atmosphere. [00:37:24] >> Wow. So if it's not big enough to actually strike the Earth, you say it kind of disintegrates and doesn't hit the Earth, but it's there. It's in the atmosphere just kind of floating around at 60,000 feet. That's cool. All right. I like to see that collection. That would be a pretty cool collection. Cosmic dust. [00:37:38] >> We can do that. [00:37:40] >> [Laughs] So once it passes through the atmosphere, is there -- is there a change that happens? Like, is there a difference with if you were to pick up a meteorite off the grouped, maybe there's something that -- the way it interacted with the Earth's atmosphere or something that changed something that would be different from if you were to find the same thing up in space. [00:37:58] >> Yes. [00:37:59] >> Okay. [00:37:59] >> The most fundamental change is that a good probably 99% of it is now gone; it turned into a plasma on the way to the ground. So most of it's lost. The next big thing that happens is the outside of any meteorite you find is going to be covered with a molten crust. I think it's called a fusion crust. And it kind of looks like a pottery glaze. It's from basically flash melting the surface of the thing as it's coming through the atmosphere. And but the -- probably the biggest change that happens to any of them, you know, rule number one of meteorites is that they all have life. And they get the life from Earth. When they land here, they're coming into our biosphere. They will land on the ground somewhere. Even ones in Antarctica, we've found life in some -- terrestrial, excuse me -- life in a lot of these meteorites. So that's the biggest change. Because anything infecting these rocks tends to start to eat any of the carbon that's in there and process it and change the -- like he was saying, it takes the native amino acids and starts to process them into -- as you're basically turning it into microbial matter, now it has a chiral preference as the microbes grow. [00:39:14] They change it isotopically and chemically over time, and that's probably the single-biggest change that happens. Especially for organic chemistry and the things we're looking for, for the question of origin of life and whatnot. [00:39:29] >> Yeah. So then how do you isolate to find out what things have not been affected and what things you can tell are within the meteorite that, you know, were there before it came to Earth and was affected by Earth's atmosphere? [00:39:45] >> Exactly the kind of chemical signals that Aaron was just talking about -- chirality, you know, the amino acid abundance, you know, looking for biomarkers/biosignatures, depending on what you want to call them, such as DNA. If you find terrestrial DNA and terrestrial microbes in this thing, then it's been altered. You can kind of expect that. But good laboratory practice is, you know -- is fundamental to sorting out exactly that question. You know, you have your blanks, and standards, and replicate measurements, and statistical analyses. [00:40:20] >> And yeah, what I'm looking for molecules that are relevant to biology, I start with the assumption that anything that looks like biology in the sample is from biology that was introduced on Earth. And then I need the evidence in the meteorite to, you know, support that -- a conclusion other than that. So if the amino acids were made out in space, they should actually have an equal mixture of left-handed and right-handed amino acids. They shouldn't have that predominant left-handed excess that biology shows. So if I take a bacteria and I run it through my meteorite processing methods, I'll get all L amino acids. And a little bit of it gets converted back to D during the process. So a meteorite, the initial sort of baseline hypothesis is that if it's from the meteorite, it should be a 50/50 mixture. And if it's skewed towards left-handed, then I have to assume it's biological contamination unless there's some other piece of evidence that tells me that, you know, no, this really did actually happen out in space. [00:41:26] >> For example, way more right-handed amino acids, right? [00:41:30] >> So that would be, you know, the ideal scenario, especially when looking for life. [00:41:35] >> Yeah. [00:41:36] >> There are other less sort of obvious markers that we can look at. So one of them has to do with stable isotope ratios. And so if we think about something like carbon, it normally has in the most abundant form of carbon has six protons and six neurons. And it's carbon-12. [00:41:54] >> Okay. [00:41:54] >> And then about 1% of carbon on Earth is carbon-13. And then some trace amount is carbon-14, which is actually radioactive. And so that's what they use for radioactive dating. [00:42:05] >> Okay. [00:42:05] >> And so things that are found on Earth tend to be enriched in carbon-12 relative to carbon-13. And then even furthermore, things that are processed by biology on Earth really like carbon-12 and they don't like carbon-13 very much. Now, what's interesting is if you go out into a very cold environment, so out in sort of our pre-sun, our protosolar nebula where places were much colder, you actually prefer the heavy isotopes. So carbon-13 is actually favored over carbon-12 more so relative to the preference on Earth. So it's not like you have 10 times as much carbon-13, it's like 1.01% carbon-13 instead of, you know, 1% carbon-13. And so from these very small signal differences, you can actually tell that something was actually made out in space rather than processed by biology on Earth. And it's these kind of subtle differences that they actually use in, like, Olympics events to determine whether people were using steroids. [00:43:11] >> Oh, really? [00:43:12] >> Because our biochemistry produces different, like, testosterone than, like, soy plants if you're getting it from plants. And so you can actually tell from the isotopic signatures whether the testosterone in an athlete came from them or if it was produced in a lab or grown in, you know, some plant somewhere. [00:43:32] >> Wow. The answer's in the details. [00:43:34] >> Yes. [00:43:34] >> Literally you're looking at the finest details and even the slightest change, you can tell if it's otherworldly. That's pretty cool. [00:43:42] >> Yeah. And that's where you have to start with the hypothesis that this is contamination. [00:43:47] >> Yeah. [00:43:48] >> You know? Unless you can prove that it's not. [00:43:51] >> Okay. So then -- so then is there an effort to go out and, you know, find something more pristine? Maybe rather than doing -- getting a meteorite maybe go out and get an asteroid that has not touched the Earth's atmosphere, is there something we're doing now? [00:44:09] >> Yep. That would be OSIRIS-REx. [00:44:11] >> Okay. [00:44:12] >> So OSIRIS-REx mission is on its way to Bennu. It will collect samples from that asteroid. It is a carbonaceous body. We can tell this by, you know, spectroscopy at a distance. And actually, what we're touching on here is a sample return missions and why you would want them. This is actually really nice conversation leading up to it. For example, let me explain why you want to do missions like this in general. Let me use the example of Mars. Okay? We're seriously talking about doing this, collecting samples from Mars and returning them from Earth now. I had said earlier that we already have a quarter of metric ton of Martian meteorites on Earth. So if you're just going to go get more for the sake of getting more, it's really not a really use of your resources. But we also talked about how any meteorite that falls to Earth, you have to assume it's contaminated. And so what you -- the really nice things you get out of a sample return mission that you can't get from meteorites is you get to collect materials where you to great detail know their contamination and alteration history. [00:45:25] And by and large you're going to get stuff that's very minimally altered. That's usually one of design goals of the mission -- definitely part of the ones we've ever done. So you control the contamination history of the meteorite, and you get to know to great detail what it is by monitoring during the course of the mission. You also get to select your samples. For the example of Mars samples, what we can do is collect types of rock that we don't have in the Martian meteorite collection. Sedimentary rocks take very poorly to getting pounded by a meteorite and blasted off the planet. They tend to turn into dust and you never see them. But we can go and carefully collect these. Basically, the meteorites that survive the trip from Mars to Earth tend to be very, very tough rocks. Now we can go and carefully collect the ones that we are actually more interested in, in some respects for investigating the hypothesis of past or present life on that planet -- the sedimentary rocks, the evaporites, the very friable, crumbly stuff that may preserve evidence of ancient organics. [00:46:34] Those we can collect. So -- and finally, you get to know exactly where your rock came from. When you look at a meteorite, you know, most meteorites, Martian meteorites, we can say, "Where this from? Well, it's from Mars, you know, somewhere on the planet." If you go and do a sample return mission, you know the contamination history, you get to select samples that you don't otherwise have access to, and you know exactly where it came from on the planet. And you can take everything you learned about it in the lab and apply it to, you know, an outcrop, a spot, a crater, a lithology, some location on that planet and start to build the greater history of the planet in great detail that way. So that -- whether it's for Mars or for Bennu or, you know, eventually comets or otherwise, that's kind of the driving impetus for doing these sample return missions. [00:47:26] >> Hey well, I'm going to stay optimistic and say if we explore some of these spots in the more pristine environment of Mars, I think we can maybe look for the origins of life that way. [00:47:37] >> But if there's -- you know, so as Marc was saying, you know, the rocks that we get on Earth from meteorites are really hard, tough ones. And so, you know, the chances of life living in a solidified lava flow is probably a little bit different than if you could actually get material that was in a location that we think was the bottom of a lake, say, where would expect life to have existed and perhaps get actually trapped into that sedimentary material. [00:48:05] >> Yeah, that's true. Because location, location, location, right? [Laughs] [00:48:09] >> It's a fair argument. Like I said, you know, there's a lot of discussion about this. It is a -- not all scientists are -- how do I put it? We're still discussing it. [00:48:23] [ Laughter ] [00:48:25] >> More research is needed. [00:48:26] >> More research. [00:48:28] >> And scientists hate consensus. [00:48:30] >> Ah. [00:48:30] >> Yeah, pretty much. [00:48:33] >> So then what's -- you said Bennu is carbaceous [phonetic]? Is that the word? [00:48:38] >> Carbonaceous. [00:48:39] >> Okay. Carbonaceous. [00:48:40] >> It is black as coal. [00:48:41] >> Black as coal. So it's full of carbon. Very interesting thing to observe. So what's OSIRIS-REx going to do? Is it going to land and bring something back or is it just going to stay there? What's the mission like? [00:48:53] >> Yeah. So Bennu is about a half-kilometer-wide asteroid. OSIRIS-REx launched in September of 2016. [00:49:01] >> Okay. [00:49:01] >> Rendezvous is going to be in 2018. [00:49:05] >> All right. [00:49:06] >> And actually, the spacecraft is going to orbit for about a year and a half and carefully map out surface of the asteroid to identify scientifically interesting regions that it can collect a sample from. And the scientifically interesting question will be counterbalanced by safety. [00:49:23] >> Ah. [00:49:23] >> Because you can't, you know, really endanger the spacecraft while you're trying to collect the sample. [00:49:27] >> Yeah. Oh, that sharp mountain looks really, really interesting. [00:49:31] >> Yeah. Yeah, it's more important that you get the sample back than [Laughs] that you choose the exact-most scientifically interesting place. And so the -- after finding a suitable location, the spacecraft is going to go down and it's got almost like a little reverse vacuum cleaner. So it's got a little touch and go sample acquisition mechanism that will actually contact the surface of the asteroid. And then it's got nitrogen gas that will it will actually blow into that surface. And that will actually push the dust into the sample collector. And so like I was saying, like a reverse vacuum cleaner. You're blowing the dirt in. [00:50:12] >> Blowing it, yeah. [00:50:13] >> You know, that works on a rather small body because gravity is much less of an issue there. So the mission requirement is to get at least 60 grams. And from experiments on Earth and under similar gravity conditions, they should be able to get several hundred grams or more that will then be tucked away into a sample return capsule that will make its way back to Earth. It will land. I'm amazed that people can do this with orbital dynamics. But it will land in Utah. [00:50:45] >> Wow. [00:50:46] >> In the desert in September of 2023. And these samples will be transported to a curation facility and processed and then eventually made available to researchers all over the world who are interested in, you know, studying this material. [00:51:01] >> Oh, that is cool. Fire it out to space and land it in Utah. That's -- that's a target. That's quite a target practice right there. That's pretty cool. So I guess it's going to kind of be like -- so the moon rocks that we have here in our -- some of them have actually never been exposed to Earth's atmosphere, right? They've been sealed. Like, are we going to expect the same thing for OSIRIS-REx? It's going to be sealed away from Earth's atmosphere? [00:51:27] >> Some of the samples will be preserved for future research. [00:51:31] >> Okay. [00:51:31] >> I think the design of the capsule doesn't keep it entirely free of Earth's atmosphere. But for what they're trying to do for the mission goals, that was appropriate. But yeah, definitely some will be preserved away for future generations just like any other collections. [00:51:49] >> All right. That's a pretty cool mission. [00:51:51] >> Yeah, yeah. Looking forward to seeing it. [00:51:54] >> Yeah. 2023, that will be a cool thing to watch it come back. So, Aaron, since I have you here, I did kind of want to bring up DNA sequencing just because you -- you know, that's such an interesting thing that will happen on the International Space Station, literally sequencing DNA in real-time. Can you kind of explain kind of what that project is all about? [00:52:15] >> Yeah. So this -- this is a project that actually has sort of two goals. So one is, you know, crew health and human exploration. And then I have my sort of ulterior motive or goal, which is looking for life elsewhere in the solar system. So it's a nice marriage of two applications of the same technology. [00:52:38] >> Pretty cool marriage. [00:52:39] >> Yeah. [00:52:40] >> Looking for life outside the solar system and studying astronauts in space. Pretty cool pairing. [00:52:44] >> Yeah. [00:52:45] >> Yeah. [00:52:45] >> And so this -- the DNA sequencing, we want to use it for crew health, to be able to do environmental monitoring. And so you want to look on the International Space Station or ISS for microbes, be able to identify them to know if there's harmful organisms there. And as we think about going beyond ISS, if you're going to send humans to Mars and they're going to go on a three-year mission, if the crew member shows signs of an infection, you know, we want to have a diagnostic capability to know, you know, so if you cough up some phlegm, okay, what's in that phlegm? And then is that something that needs to be treated with an antibiotic or that something your body will clear on its own? You know, be able to make informed decisions about that. Because we're not going to be able to do resupply missions on -- it would hard to hit a moving target flying to Mars and catch up to it. [00:53:40] >> Yeah. [00:53:41] >> So we're trying to give that sort of in-flight, you know, diagnostic capability with the DNA sequencing. And then when the humans get to Mars, you know, I'd like them to be able to go out and dig up a sample and extract it and actually look for life that's present on Mars. [00:53:58] >> Wow. So sequencing DNA is kind of like -- I'm trying to explain it in as laymen terms as possible to wrap my brain around it because it is pretty complicated stuff. But it's basically identifying, right? [00:54:08] >> Yeah. [00:54:08] >> It's -- so if you said, you know, if they have a cough, they can do a sample and they know exactly what you're coughing up. They know the exact makeup, and then you can identify what kind of antibiotic you need to take because you know exactly what's inside your body. [00:54:21] >> Yeah, yeah. So DNA, you know, is like a language. It's got an alphabet. There's only four letters -- there's A, G, C, and T. But all life on Earth uses that same alphabet from the tiniest microbe to humans. And so it's sort of like books in a library, right? The books are all different because they have more letters or less letters that are arranged in different words. And so, you know, analyzing -- I guess sequencing DNA is like taking a page out of that book and then searching for all the words on that page. And then if you had a computer that could process it, you could say, "Oh, that page came from A Tale of Two Cities. Or that page came from this book." [00:55:07] >> All right. [00:55:08] >> Or that paragraph. And so the more of that page or paragraph, the better of a match you can get, you know? If you have a chapter of a book, then you can nail it down to -- discounting plagiarism. You know? [Laughs] You can nail it down to a single book or a single organism. [00:55:25] >> All right. That's pretty cool. Although, I mean, for an alphabet of four letters, you know, life is pretty diverse [Laughs] for such a tiny alphabet. And, you know, you're taking analogies from books and I'm imagining the books. But four letters that can make all these different things, that's pretty astounding. [00:55:45] >> Yeah. Well, so a virus can have around 50,000 of these letters in its entire genome. So all the instructions that a virus needs to do to infect a cell and then get the cell to make more copies of it all encapsulated in 50,000 letters. [00:56:01] >> Whoa. [00:56:01] >> And that's something like the microbe that that virus might affect could have several million of these letters. And then humans are about 2.5 billion of these letters or 3 billion. And then actually, there are certain plants that even have, like, ten-fold more of these letters in their genome. But it's a -- you know, it's pretty amazing that biology can do so much with a limited -- sort of the limited alphabet. [00:56:31] >> That's true. But thank goodness there's no -- there's no word in the English language that's 10 million letters long. [00:56:38] >> Yeah. [00:56:38] >> So that's pretty good. It would be really hard to write A Tale of Two Cities with [Laughs] -- you would probably get one word in and still it would be the biggest novel you've ever seen in your life [Laughs]. [00:56:51] >> Yeah. An interesting thing about that is they are actually starting to switch to -- or trying to develop DNA as a way to store information. So it's like a new data, I guess, like replacing solid state drives or spinning hard drives is to encapsulate things in DNA. [00:57:09] >> Whoa. All right. Well, it's got a lot of storage, right? Because you can -- [00:57:12] >> Yeah, yeah. [00:57:13] >> -- you can fit it. Wow. Okay. That's difficult to wrap my mind around [Laughs]. I'm thinking about storing something in, like, a cell. [00:57:22] >> Can I talk about something else weird, too? [00:57:24] >> Yes, please. [00:57:25] >> No [Laughs]. [00:57:26] >> This is not the place for that [Laughs]. [00:57:28] >> So one of the things interesting that we've -- you know, we've talked about life as we know it and the search for life. And then there's this concept of being able to identify life as you don't know it. [00:57:41] >> Whoa. [00:57:42] >> And so we've talked about, you know, left-handed and right-handed proteins and it would be great if you could find right-handed proteins or amino acids that aren't on Earth, or left-handed sugars, or sugars that aren't on Earth. So that's one of the cool things for me about the DNA Sequencer Project is the way that it sequences DNA has actually got these little tiny pores that are actually just big enough for a single strand of DNA to pass through. And when there's nothing in the pore, you get basically an open current. And then as the DNA molecule passes through it, it blocks that pore. And so the current is reduced. And the reduction in current tells you something about the sequence of DNA that's passing through it. So, like, AGCTA would have a different signal blocking than GACTA, for example. And so it's an entirely electrochemical way of detecting this. And you can apply it to other molecules that we might not necessarily recognize as life. [00:58:46] So -- [00:58:46] >> L, M, N, O, P. [00:58:48] >> Yes [Laughs]. That's exactly right. And so people are using this technology to sequence RNA, which is different than DNA. It differs in the sugar, so it's deoxyribose versus ribose. But in RNA an interesting thing is that you have more than the A, G, C, and T -- actually, RNA uses U instead of T. But in things like ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA, which are present in biology, extensive modification is made of the bases. So there's actually, like, 118 different letters that show up in RNA that people are figuring out how to actually characterize using this nanopore sequencing. [00:59:28] >> Wow. [00:59:29] >> And so I'm interested -- and not just me, a number of people are looking at this -- but, you know, making a more universal life detection mechanism. So, you know, if you can do DNA by now you don't need the deoxyribose, it can be any sugar in there. [00:59:46] >> Oh. [00:59:46] >> Or instead of the A, G, C, and T letters, if you can L, M, N, O, P as Marc said. [00:59:51] >> Yeah. It will just look for letters and then just see what pops up. [00:59:54] >> Yeah. [00:59:54] >> Yeah. [00:59:55] >> Yeah. And so you lose some of the resolution. So maybe you won't know that it was an A. But if you start seeing a polymer of semirepeating, you know, signals or letters, you know, at some point that starts to tell you there's information there. [01:00:12] >> Oh, wow. [01:00:13] >> Yeah. That's where it gets really deep [Laughs], is that, you know, probably one of the most important biosignatures or biomarkers is information. Right? You have to have instructions for how to do whatever it is that the organism is doing and a way to copy that information. [01:00:29] >> Wow. All right. I can think of, like, 100 different ways we can go and just go on a tangent and talk about all these crazy topics. It's amazing. But we do have to wrap up. So I kind of wanted to end on something like a -- some of the guests I like to bring and ask this question specifically because we're at the Johnson Space Center and it's human space flight. But for you guys, you know, in the search for life, why from your point of view is human exploration so important to discovery, especially in the field of looking for the origins of life? [01:01:01] >> I can give my answer, sure. [01:01:02] >> Yeah. [01:01:03] >> You know, basically humans have an innate need to explore. It's something written into, I think, most children. Unfortunately, I think a lot of adults tend to lose that over time. But it's there. The -- we can explore with robots. You know, I'll use some air quotes, you can't see them. It's exploration, but in a sense you're -- with a robot, you are exploring through a computer screen. And that's fine, you do learn. It is exploration. But on -- it may not be -- you know, at what point is that no longer satisfactory? I'd answer that with a question: At what point do you just have to go there and see it yourself? You know, there's technical arguments for why you want send people. They are, I believe, much better in a field environment when you're investigating something. You know, they can turn around data, they can come up with new ideas, they can process things. [01:02:07] You know, you can get a whole lot more out of having somebody kneel down, pick up a rock, and turn it over in their hand in some instances than some of the data you get from rovers and landers and such. You know, that's been my experience. But fundamentally there's that innate drive to explore. And yeah, that's the question. You know, when is watching all this through a computer screen going to be unsatisfactory? [01:02:39] >> How about, you Aaron? [01:02:41] >> I got to follow that up? [01:02:43] [ Laughter ] So I would, you know, echo the -- the -- just the much more versatile skillset that, you know, a human has compared to a robot, you know, where a human can look out for several miles and walk and adjust its path in a pretty easy way and, you know, not get stuck somewhere. So you can, you know, explore a lot more ground in a given, you know, time period. If you want to dig a hole, you can dig a deeper hole because you've got a shovel and you just keep digging until you decide that -- you know, it's easier for a human to make these decisions themselves than, you know, try to communicate all that to a -- to a robot. But I think, yeah, as Marc was saying, it comes back to that sort of innate curiosity, you know, where -- what's over the mountain, what's across the river, what's at the bottom of the ocean. You know, we didn't know that these other places would be good or great or, you know, useful. [01:03:44] But you kind have to know. And so, you know, going to Mars or the moon and learning how to live on the moon or learning how to live on Mars teaches you something about how to live on Earth, how to travel in space, how to live on other planets. And then it serves as a stepping stone. Okay, well, what's beyond Mars? What's beyond our solar system? You know? We're going to need to develop light speed travel and all that. But, you know, assuming that we're able to do those things, you know, it just -- it enables the next frontier, if you will. [01:04:21] >> Very cool. Guys, thanks so much for coming on today. This was a fascinating topic. And always at the end of these I get so charged, especially when we end with, like, the why. I'm like, "Yes, let's do it. Let's go out and explore." So thanks so much for coming on and talking about life. Can't wait to follow it up with one of these weird tangents that we almost went on today. But thanks again, guys. [01:04:40] >> No, our pleasure. [01:04:42] [ Music ] [01:04:50] >> Houston, go ahead. [01:04:50] >> [Inaudible] of the space shuttle. [01:04:52] >> Roger, zero G and I feel fine. [01:04:54] [ Inaudible ] [01:04:55] >> We came in peace for all mankind. [01:04:57] >> It's actually a huge honor to bring [inaudible]. [01:05:00] >> Not because they are easy but because they are hard. [01:05:02] >> [Inaudible] Houston, welcome to space. [01:05:05] [ Music ] [01:05:06] >> Hey. Thanks for sticking around. So today we talked about Dr. Aaron Burton and Dr. Marc Fries about life in the solar system, went off on a couple awesome tangents and had some great conversations just about everything life in the universe and just kind of scratched the surface, really. We can do a bunch more episodes just on this topic alone. But if you cannot wait and need to know this stuff right now, both Aaron and Marc are part of the astromaterials group known as ARES here. You can go to ARES.jsc.nasa.gov to learn all about the different initiatives. Just going on, on astromaterials alone and that's -- you can learn more about OSIRIS-REx there, and you can learn more about meteorites and curation. And even you can learn how to get your hands on a meteorite, if you are dying to get your hands on and study the sample material yourself and maybe search for organic compounds. Otherwise if you just want to focus on just OSIRIS-REx, go to NASA.gov/OSIRIS-REx. On social media if you want to talk to us there, there is the Johnson Space Center accounts on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. [01:06:09] Also astromaterials has their own, NASA ARES on several different accounts. Otherwise you can find them, it's NASA Astromaterials. If you want to use the hashtag #AskNASA on any one of those platforms, any one of those pages, you can submit an idea. Just make sure to mention it's for Houston, We Have a Podcast so we can find it and answer it in a later episode for you or perhaps dedicate an entire episode to it. So this podcast was recorded on November 28th, 2017. Thanks to Alex Perryman, Tracy Calhoun, and Jenny Knots. Thanks to again Dr. Aaron Burton and Dr. Marc Fries for coming on the show. We'll be back next week.

  3. Ep8_Exploring the Cosmos with Styx

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-25

    >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST! WELCOME TO THE OFFICIAL PODCAST OF THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, EPISODE 8, “EXPLORING THE COSMOS.” I’M GARY JORDAN AND I’LL BE YOUR HOST TODAY. SO THIS IS THE PODCAST WHERE WE BRING IN NASA EXPERTS, AND IN THE CASE OF TODAY’S EPISODE, SOME SUPER COOL SPACE FANATICS TO TALK ABOUT EVERYTHING NASA. SO TODAY WE HAD QUITE A FEW SPECIAL GUESTS. WE’RE TALKING ABOUT HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION WITH GLENN LUTZ, JOHN CONNOLLY, AND THE BAND STYX. GLENN IS THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE EXPLORATION INTEGRATION AND SCIENCE DIRECTOR, OR EISD, HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. JOHN IS THE HEAD OF NASA’S MARS STUDY CAPABILITY TEAM UNDER EISD, AND STYX, WELL, STYX IS A ROCK BAND. WE TALKED TO TOMMY SHAW, WHO DOES GUITAR, VOCALS, AND A LOT OF THE WRITING, AND LAWRENCE GOWAN ON VOCALS AND KEYS AND ALSO DOES SOME OF THE WRITING, TOO. WHY IS A ROCK BAND HERE AT THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER? WELL, WE HAVE A LOT OF AMAZING THINGS TO SHOW OFF AND SOMETIMES PEOPLE COME OVER TO CHECK IT OUT. WE HAD A GREAT DISCUSSION ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS, WHAT HUMAN EXPLORATION MISSIONS WILL LOOK LIKE IN THE FUTURE, AND WHY WE SEND HUMANS TO SPACE IN THE FIRST PLACE. SO, WITH NO FURTHER DELAY, LET’S GO LIGHTSPEED TO OUR TALK WITH MR. GLENN LUTZ AND MR. JOHN CONNOLLY, AS WELL AS MR. TOMMY SHAW AND MR. LAWRENCE GOWAN FROM STYX. ENJOY. [ MUSIC ] >> T MINUS FIVE SECONDS AND COUNTING! MARK! [ INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER ] >> HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST. [ MUSIC ] >> OKAY, SO HOW ARE YOU GUYS LIKING THE TOUR SO FAR? >> DO WE HAVE TO LEAVE? >> YEAH! >> IT’S A MIND BLOWER, IS WHAT IT IS. >> YEAH. >> IT’S A MIND BLOWER AND GETTING TO MEET PEOPLE THAT DO THIS EVERY DAY IS-- THAT’S AN HONOR AND THAT ALONE, AND THEN SEEING THEM WITH THE MACHINERY IS-- I CAN BARELY FORM WORDS TO DESCRIBE HOW OVERWHELMING IT IS. >> WHAT MAKES IT SO OVERWHELMING, THOUGH? IS IT JUST THE HISTORY OR IS IT JUST THE AMOUNT OF STUFF, MAYBE? >> WELL, IT’S KIND OF EVERYTHING, YOU KNOW? >> OKAY. >> JUST FROM BEING A CHILD AND FROM-- I STILL REMEMBER SPUTNIK, AND SO I FOLLOWED IT-- MY FAMILY WOULD ALWAYS FOLLOW EVERYTHING THAT WENT ON. AND UP UNTIL MODERN TIMES NOW, I MEAN, ALL THROUGH OUR LIVES WE’VE WATCHED IT, AND THEN NOW TO DO-- WE DID A LITTLE STORY OURSELVES. >> YEAH! >> --ABOUT IT AND IT INVOLVES SOME-- TRYING TO GET IT RIGHT SO IT WOULD BE FEASIBLE, AND NOW TO SEE THESE-- THE HARDWARE THAT WE WERE JUST SORT OF IMAGINING. >> RIGHT. >> TO SEE THE ORION, THAT WAS AMAZING, TOO. BUT ALSO TO SEE THE CONTROL ROOM THAT WE’D ALL SEEN AS A CHILD. JUST REALLY, IT’S JUST KIND OF OVERWHELMING. >> YEAH! MISSION CONTROL, RIGHT? A LOT OF HISTORY THERE. LIKE, THIS--WE WERE TALKING ABOUT IT ON THE BUS, RIGHT? JUST YOU-- YOU’RE JUST-- YOU’RE SITTING IN A ROOM AND YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT ALL THE GREAT THINGS THAT HAPPENED HERE. YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT LANDING ON THE MOON, YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT LEARNING HOW TO FLY HUMANS IN SPACE, ALL FROM THIS ROOM. >> YEAH, THE COMMAND CENTER, BASICALLY OF THE GREATEST HUMAN HISTORY THAT’S UNFOLDED IN OUR LIFETIME. >> YEAH. >> SO, TO BE AT THE EPICENTER OF THAT AND DRINK IN, AND AS TOMMY JUST POINTED OUT, IT’S SOMETHING WE’VE HAD SINCE WE WERE CHILDREN. >> RIGHT. >> SO, YOU’RE IN TOUCH WITH YOUR ENTIRE-- THIS MIGHT BE OVERLY PHILOSOPHIZING, BUT IT’S-- I CAN’T EVEN SPEAK. >> OVERLY PHILOSOPHICAL. >> OVERLY PHILOSOPHICAL. THANK YOU SO MUCH, GARY. I NEEDED THAT. >> IT’S THAT-- THAT’S WHAT I MEAN. THIS HAS BEEN A LONG DAY. YEAH! >> IT’S THIS WEIGHTLESSNESS CONDITION HERE. IT’S THE-- NO, YOU’RE IN TOUCH WITH ALL OF THAT AND THE FACT THAT YOU’RE SO CLOSE TO THIS-- WHAT IS THE GREATEST HUMAN ENDEAVOR IN OUR LIFETIME AND ALL OF THAT’S ENSUED BECAUSE OF IT. >> ABSOLUTELY. SO, WHAT WAS SO EXCITING, I THINK, FOR US, FROM OUR END, IS TO SHOW YOU NOT ONLY THE HISTORY OF KIND OF WHAT WE’VE BEEN DOING HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER FOR SO LONG, BUT ALSO KIND OF WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO, RIGHT? LIKE YOU SAID, WE’RE SHOWING YOU ORION, WE’RE SHOWING YOU EXPLORATION. WE’RE ALREADY TALKING ABOUT MARS, THE MOON, GOING BEYOND, GOING BEYOND THE LOW EARTH ORBIT, AND WE’RE KIND OF EXCITED TO SHOW YOU THAT. SO, I MEAN, JUST IN TERMS OF HUMAN EXPLORATION, JUST EXPLORING, GOING OUT, SEEING WHAT IS BEYOND. >> YEAH. >> WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THAT DRIVE? WHY DO WE HAVE THIS DRIVE TO EXPLORE THE-- EXPLORE SPACE AS HUMANS? >> IT’S JUST-- IT’S HUMAN CURIOSITY. >> I THINK SO. >> WHAT ELSE IS THERE? WE’VE DONE THIS, YOU KNOW, WHAT’S OUT THERE? >> YEAH. >> AND WE KEEP FINDING OUT A LITTLE BIT MORE AND I’VE REALIZED HOW SERIOUS THE-- THAT QUEST IS HERE. BUT, FOR ALL THOSE QUESTIONS, THERE’S ALL THIS DETAIL AND ALL THIS RESEARCH AND WANTING TO GET IT RIGHT HERE SO THAT IT’S RIGHT WHEN YOU’RE OUT THERE. >> YEAH. >> JUST SEEING ALL THE MANPOWER AND ALL THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IS KIND OF-- IT’S KIND OF MIND BOGGLING. >> IT’S WHAT-- IT’S THE MOST EXTREME EXAMPLE OF HOW HUMAN BEINGS HAVE THIS BUILT INTO OUR DNA, THIS-- WHAT ELSE, IS THE QUESTION. LIKE WHAT ELSE? >> YEAH. >> AND AS I’M WALKING THROUGH THERE, EVEN LOOKING AT THOSE-- ALL THOSE VARIOUS VEHICLES, IT’S LIKE WHAT ELSE COULD YOU DO WITH A VEHICLE THAT WOULD WORK IN A PLACE THAT WE DON’T KNOW ABOUT YET? SO, JUST-- I GUESS THAT’S REALLY ANOTHER THING THAT SEPARATES US FROM ANY OTHER FORM OF LIFE IS THAT WE’RE DRIVEN IN THAT WAY. NOT TO STAY SAFE, BUT TO DO THINGS THAT ARE RISKY AND HARD. I THINK I’M GOING TO START QUOTING JOHN KENNEDY OR CAPTAIN KIRK IN A MINUTE. ANYWAY, IT’S GREAT TO BE CLOSE TO-- >> YOU’RE ALLOWED TO DO THAT. >> ARE YOU? OKAY! >> BUT, I THINK MAYBE IT’S THAT HUMAN ELEMENT. RIGHT? IT’S THAT PASSION THAT REALLY DRIVES US. AND MAYBE IT’S KIND OF BUILT IN OUR DNA TO WANT TO EXPLORE. MAYBE THAT’S WHY WE SEND HUMANS. HUMANS CAN HAVE A STORY WHEN THEY EXPLORE THAT I DON’T THINK ROBOTS CAN. IT’S JUST-- IT’S THAT PERSONAL-- THE HUMAN ELEMENT THAT WE CONNECT WITH. >> WELL, THAT’S IT. WHAT WAS IT LIKE? >> YEAH. >> YOU CAN’T, NO MATTER HOW GREAT YOU’RE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IS, IT CAN NEVER CONVEY EXACTLY WHAT WAS IT LIKE. >> EXACTLY. >> AND SPEAKING TO DAN, ASTRONAUT DAN BURBANK, HE WAS ABLE TO, IN VERY SHORT ORDER, GIVE YOU A SENSE OF WHAT THAT FELT LIKE. >> YEAH! >> YEAH. >> JUST FROM HIS PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. YOU CAN’T GET THAT FROM DATA, FROM A ROBOT OR SOMETHING. YOU FEEL WHAT HE’S FEELING, SORT OF. YOU’RE THERE. >> YEAH. AND WHEN HE DESCRIBES SOME OF WHAT HE HAD TO GO THROUGH TO DO IT, I’M GLAD I DIDN’T HAVE TO GO THROUGH THAT. SO I VICARIOUSLY ENJOY IT. >> WELL, WHAT I THINK WAS FANTASTIC-- SO TALKING ABOUT HUMAN EXPLORATION, THIS IS NOT SOMETHING THAT IS KIND OF BRAND NEW OR JUST THINKING ABOUT IT. WE’VE BEEN THINKING ABOUT IT FOR A LONG TIME. IN FACT, WE HAVE PEOPLE HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER DEDICATED TO THINKING ABOUT EXPLORATION. SO, I WANT TO FORMALLY INTRODUCE TWO FOLKS THAT WE HAVE WITH US TODAY, GLENN LUTZ AND JOHN CONNOLLY. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR BEING HERE. YOU ARE PART OF OUR EXPLORATION GROUP, IN A SENSE. SO, TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT WHAT YOU GUYS DO. >> ALL RIGHT. WELL, WE ARE PUT IN PLACE TO DO JUST THAT-- TAKE US TO THOSE NEXT STEPS. >> MM-HMM. >> SO, JOHN’S IN CHARGE OF PUTTING OUT THE PLAN AND HE’S GOT A GROUP THAT’S MAKING SURE THAT EVERYTHING THAT WE NEED TO GO TO MARS IS THOUGHT ABOUT. >> MM-HMM. >> THERE’S NOT A CVS OR WALGREENS ON THE WAY TO STOP IN TO PICK UP SOMETHING. SO THESE GUYS ARE IN CHARGE OF PUTTING THAT WHOLE PLAN TOGETHER FROM THE NUMBER OF ROCKETS, HOW WE ARE GOING TO LIVE ON MARS. AND WE’VE GOT GUYS IN OUR GROUP THAT ARE WORKING ON TECHNOLOGY GAPS. WHAT WORKS TODAY AND WHAT’S-- WHAT WE NEED AND THERE’S A GAP, SO WE’RE CLOSING THEM, IN TESTING AND ET CETERA. OUR GROUP ALSO HAS THE SCIENTISTS IN IT. AND SO THEY’RE SAYING, “OKAY, WHY? WHY ARE WE GOING?” >> MM-HMM. >> AND WHERE? WHERE ARE WE GOING TO GO? TO THE MIXTURE THAT WE TAKE THE BEST ADVANTAGE OF WHERE WE’RE GOING. >> YEAH. >> SO, TOMMY MENTIONED THAT, YOU KNOW, AS KIDS WE ALL KIND OF WATCHED THE APOLLO PROGRAM, LOOKED UP IN THE SKY, SAW SPUTNIK, AND I THINK THAT’S WHAT GOT PEOPLE LIKE GLENN AND I HERE IN THE FIRST PLACE. YOU KNOW? WE WERE TURNED ON BY THAT AND KIND OF MADE THAT OUR LIFE’S CALLING. AND WE’VE BEEN LOOKING AT HOW WE GET PEOPLE BEYOND LOW EARTH ORBIT, PERHAPS BACK TO THE MOON, PERHAPS ONTO MARS AS SOON AS WE CAN. AND THAT’S BECAUSE WE ALL THINK THAT HUMAN EXPLORATION IS A FUNDAMENTAL-- A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF BEING HUMAN, YOU KNOW, PUSHING OUTWARDS INTO THE STARS. AND SO, WE DO HAVE PLANS TO DO THAT. SO, THAT MISSION CONTROL THAT YOU SAW, WHERE WE DID ALL THOSE GREAT THINGS BACK YEARS AGO, THE BEST IS YET TO COME. ‘ >> SO, I MEAN, TOMMY AND LAWRENCE, JUST FROM YOUR PERSPECTIVE, JUST SEEING WHAT YOU SAW TODAY AND MAYBE THESE-- SOME OF THE FOLKS THAT HAVE BEEN TALKING TO YOU TODAY KIND OF GOT YOUR MIND JOGGING ABOUT MARS. AND YOU’VE THOUGHT ABOUT MARS IN THE PAST JUST FROM YOUR WRITING AND STUFF LIKE THAT. SO, IN TERMS OF MARS, WHAT DO YOU THINK IT IS THAT’S SO INTRIGUING? WHY WOULD WE WANT TO SEND HUMANS THERE? IN YOUR EYES. >> WELL, IT’S BEEN THE SUBJECT OF ALL DIFFERENT KIND OF CREATIVE WRITING, FROM MARTIAN CHRONICLES WHERE IT WAS LITERALLY LITTLE GREEN MEN TO THAT BOOK THAT BECAME THE MOVIE, “THE MARTIAN.” >> RIGHT. >> SO, IT’S REALLY BEEN-- CARTOONS FROM WHEN YOU’RE GROWING UP. THE LITTLE GREEN MEN AND MARS. AND YOU CAN-- AND IT STANDS OUT. IT’S DISTINCTIVE. AND THE NIGHTTIME SKY, IT IS RED. >> YEAH. >> DID GET TO SEE IT A LOT. AND I GUESS IT’S RELATIVELY CLOSE COMPARED TO WHAT ELSE IS OUT THERE. SO, IT’S ALL OF THOSE THINGS-- FROM FICTION TO FANTASY, AND REAL RESEARCH, AND ALL THOSE THINGS. WE’RE JUST FASCINATED BY IT. AND THE ONE THING THAT STRIKES ME IS JUST THE MORE WE SEE OF THINGS, HOW KIND OF SMALL AND INSIGNIFICANT WE ARE COMPARED TO WHAT WE THOUGHT OF WHEN WE WERE CHILDREN. THE WORLD JUST SEEMED SO MAGNIFICENTLY LARGE. AND I USED TO JUST LOOK UP AT THE CLOUDS AND GO, “HOW FAR UP IS THAT?” AND NOW, TO SEE WHAT YOU’RE PLANNING ON DOING HERE, IT’S AWESOME! >> I KNOW A LOT OF THE ASTRONAUTS. I’M NOT SURE IF DAN BURBANK BROUGHT IT UP, KIND OF IN HIS TALK, BUT THEY HAVE SOMETHING CALLED THE OVERVIEW EFFECT. BEING UP 250 MILES, YOU HAVE THIS VIEW OF THE PLANET. YOU SEE THIS THIN LINE THAT’S AROUND THE PLANET THAT’S JUST PROTECTING US, AND THAT’S IT. AND YOU KIND OF HAVE EXACTLY WHAT YOU’RE SAY, THAT EFFECT OF, “WOW! WE ARE SO SMALL! THIS PLANET IS NOT AS BIG AS I THOUGHT!” >> YEAH. >> WE’RE ALL CONNECTED, BUT, YOU KNOW, THERE’S SO MUCH MORE TO THIS UNIVERSE AND TO THE EARTH, I GUESS. >> YEAH. >> AND SOMEONE SAID SOMETHING ABOUT BEING ON MARS AND LOOKING OUT AND NOT BEING ABLE TO FIND EARTH. >> YEAH. >> WHICH ONE OF THOSE IS EARTH? >> RIGHT. >> YEAH. >> IT’LL BE THE BLUE ONE, ACTUALLY. YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO PICK OUT EARTH, JUST LIKE WE COULD PICK OUT MARS IN THE SKY. EARTH WILL BE A LITTLE BRIGHTER, A LITTLE BLUER THAN ALL THE OTHER THINGS OUT THERE. >> SO, JOHN, THERE HAVE BEEN IMAGES FROM THE SURFACE OF MARS. CAN WE SEE THE EARTH? IS IT BLUE? >> YES, WE CAN. >> ALL RIGHT! >> YOU CAN SEE THE EARTH FROM MARS. WITH NOT MUCH HELP, YOU COULD ACTUALLY PICK OUT THE MOON NEXT TO IT. >> OH, WOW! >> SO-- >> WITH THE NAKED EYE? >> YEAH. SO, WHILE YOU’RE-- WELL, IT DEPENDS ON HOW GOOD YOUR EYES ARE. >> WELL, FROM THE-- YEAH. >> INSIDE A SPACESUIT. >> SO, YEAH, WHEN YOU’RE ON MARS, YOU’LL BE ABLE TO LOOK AT IT ALL. >> AMAZING. >> COMFY AND-- >> YEAH. SO, I MEAN, KIND OF BOUNCING OFF OF TOMMY’S POINT OF IT BEING IN OUR MIND TO EXPLORE MARS, FROM A PRACTICAL SENSE, FROM YOUR GUYS’ PERSPECTIVE IN THE EXPLORATION GROUP HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, WHAT ARE WE THINKING ABOUT? WHY MARS? >> WELL, BECAUSE IT’S NEXT. IT’S THE NEXT LOGICAL PLACE TO SEND HUMANS. IT’S THE MOST EARTH-LIKE OF THE PLANETS. IT’S A PLACE THAT HAS INCREDIBLE SCIENTIFIC VALUE. IT MAY HAVE HARBORED LIFE IN THE PAST. IT MAY HARBOR LIFE STILL. THOSE ARE HUGE, HUGE QUESTIONS. THOSE ANSWERS, SOME OF THOSE BIG FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS THAT WE’VE HAD LIKE, ARE WE ALONE IN THE UNIVERSE? >> YEAH. >> AND IT’S ATTAINABLE, I THINK. MAYBE THAT’S THE BIGGEST REASON TO GO THERE IS BECAUSE WE HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY NOW, OR IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS, THAT WE COULD PUT TOGETHER A MISSION AND GO THERE. >> ACTUALLY, JOHN, I HAVE A QUESTION FOR YOU. >> YEAH. >> FROM WHAT WE HAD-- KNOW ABOUT MARS SO FAR, IS THERE ANY FOSSIL RECORD YET THAT-- WHERE THEY’VE GONE DOWN AND CHECKED? “WELL, HERE’S WHAT HAPPENED DURING THIS TIME,” AND HAVE THEY SEEN ANYTHING? >> SO, WE’VE ACTUALLY NOT REALLY EXPLORED THE Z-DIMENSION ON MARS. >> RIGHT. >> OKAY? WE’VE ROVED ACROSS THE SURFACE, AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT’S ON THE SCIENTIST’S PLANS IS TO GET A DRILL TO START DRILLING CORES. >> OH. >> AND LOOK AT THINGS LIKE THAT. PROBABLY THE ONLY FOSSIL WE MAY HAVE SEEN ARE SOME FOSSIL-- WHAT WE THOUGHT AT THE TIME WERE FOSSILIZED BACTERIA. BACK ABOUT 1997, THERE WERE A FEW FOLKS WHO THOUGHT THEY SAW SOME REMNANTS OF BACTERIA, VERY, VERY SMALL STUFF. >> RIGHT. >> BUT, WE HAVEN’T REALLY DRILLED DOWN TO FIND ANY TRILOBITES YET. >> RIGHT. BOY. >> SO, FROM A PLANNING PERSPECTIVE, IF YOU WERE TO PLAN-- THAT’S WHAT YOU’D DO? YOU THINK ABOUT PLANNING A MISSION TO MARS, RIGHT? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KEY ELEMENTS THAT ARE VITAL TO MAKE A SUCCESSFUL MISSION TO GO TO MARS? >> SO, IT’S A PRETTY LONG LIST. SO, YOU NEED A PROPULSION SYSTEM THAT WILL ACCELERATE YOU OUT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL PULL OF EARTH. YOU NEED A HABITAT THAT’S RELIABLE ENOUGH TO TAKE YOU ON A SIX-MONTH TO TWELVE-MONTH TRIP TO MARS. YOU NEED A LANDING SYSTEM THAT WILL TAKE YOU THROUGH THE MARS ATMOSPHERE AND DOWN TO THE SURFACE. >> MM-HMM. >> YOU NEED ALL THE SURFACE EQUIPMENT, LIKE THE ROVERS THAT YOU GUYS WERE JUST IN, AND THE SPACESUITS, AND THE HABITATS, AND EQUIPMENT TO USE MARS RESOURCES. AND THEN YOU’D NEED A RIDE HOME. YOU’D NEED AN ASCENT VEHICLE TO GET YOURSELF BACK OFF THE SURFACE TO THE VEHICLE THAT’S GOING TO BRING YOU HOME AGAIN. AND SO, WHEN YOU PUT ALL THOSE TOGETHER, THERE’S A LOT OF PIECE PARTS THAT IT TAKES TO DO THAT MISSION. >> AMAZING. >> IS THAT TRUE FOR ANYWHERE WE WANT TO GO TO, RIGHT? YOU WOULD NEED SORT OF A SIMILAR PROFILE? >> SIMILAR. >> OKAY. >> THE MOON IS ACTUALLY A LITTLE EASIER THAN MARS TO GET TO. >> OH. >> YOU DON’T HAVE TO DEAL WITH AN ATMOSPHERE. >> OKAY. >> AND IT’S A LOT CLOSER, OF COURSE. >> YEAH. >> RIGHT NOW, THE MOON IS 250,000 MILES AWAY FROM US, MARS-- >> A LOT CLOSER. >> IT’S 250 MILLION MILES AWAY. >> OH, WOW! YEAH. >> IT’S AT ITS FURTHEST POINT FROM US RIGHT NOW. IT’S ACTUALLY HIDDEN BEHIND THE SUN. SO, IF YOU WERE ON MARS RIGHT NOW, WE COULDN’T TALK TO YOU. >> OH. COULDN’T AT ALL? BECAUSE IT GETS THE COMMUNICATION? >> YEAH, FOR A WEEK OR TWO, YOU’RE HIDDEN BEHIND THE SUN AND WE LITERALLY CAN’T TALK TO YOU. >> THAT LONG? A WEEK OR TWO? >> YEAH. >> WOW! SO, WHAT’S-- I’M GUESSING YOU’RE PLANNING FOR THAT, RIGHT? >> OF COURSE. >> SO, WHAT WOULD BE-- IN THE SITUATION WHERE THAT WERE THE CASE, RIGHT? YOU HAVE FOLKS ON MARS AND THEY DON’T HAVE COMMUNICATION WITH FOLKS ON EARTH FOR A WEEK. WHAT ARE THEY DOING? >> LISTENING TO STYX. >> THEY COULD BE LISTENING TO MUSIC. >> WELL, WHAT WAS IT-- IN “THE MARTIAN”, WHAT WAS THE THING? IT WAS-- >> IT WAS “HAPPY DAYS” ON THE MOVIE, BUT IT WAS SOMETHING ELSE IN THE BOOK. >> WE’VE GOT SOMETHING WAY BETTER THAN THAT. >> SO, OUR ROBOTIC MISSIONS THAT ARE THERE NOW, WE PUT THEM KIND OF INTO A SAFE MODE FOR A COUPLE OF WEEKS. >> OH, OKAY. >> WE JUST DON’T HAVE THEM DO VERY MUCH. AND IN ABOUT TWO WEEKS, WE HAVE THEM START BROADCASTING UNTIL WE PICK THEM UP AGAIN. SO, THE CREW WOULD PROBABLY HAVE-- PROBABLY HAVE ABOUT TWO WEEKS OFF, I’D SAY, WHERE THEY DON’T-- WHERE THEY PROBABLY WOULDN’T DO VERY MUCH. >> WOW. >> DO YOU THINK THE ACTUAL SHOT TO GO TO MARS WILL LAUNCH FROM THE MOON OR FROM EARTH? >> SO, ULTIMATELY, EVERYTHING STARTS FROM EARTH. THE QUESTION IS, WHAT’S THE MIDPOINT? >> RIGHT. >> SO, WHERE DO YOU ACTUALLY ASSEMBLE VEHICLES AND THINGS LIKE THAT? >> RIGHT. >> ENERGETICALLY, IT ACTUALLY MAKES MORE SENSE TO ASSEMBLE THINGS IN SPACE RATHER THAN ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. SO, YOU COULD DO THAT IN LUNAR ORBIT. >> RIGHT. >> YOU COULD DO THAT IN A VERY HIGH EARTH ORBIT, BUT IN SPACE MAKES THE MOST SENSE. RIGHT AT THE EDGE OF LEAVING THE EARTH’S SPHERE OF INFLUENCE, THE EARTH’S-- THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF THE EARTH, THEN JUST TAKES A LITTLE KICK FROM THERE TO KICK YOU OUT TO MARS. >> HUH. >> BUT YOU DON’T WANT TO-- YOU DON’T WANT TO GO INTO A GRAVITY FIELD LIKE DOWN TO THE LUNAR SURFACE BECAUSE THEN YOU HAVE TO FIGHT YOUR WAY OUT OF THAT AGAIN. >> OH, RIGHT. >> SO, WHAT WOULD YOU BE BUILDING AROUND THE-- >> WELL, WE’RE CURRENTLY WORKING ON SOME PLANS FOR BUILDING, FOR EXAMPLE, THE TRANSPORT THAT TAKES CREWS FROM THE VICINITY OF THE EARTH TO MARS ORBIT. >> HUH. >> AND SO, THOSE ARE THE KIND OF THINGS YOU CAN’T LAUNCH IN ONE LAUNCH BECAUSE THEY’RE TOO BIG. SO, YOU HAVE TO PUT THEM TOGETHER SOMEWHERE. >> RIGHT. >> AND ANYWHERE IN CISLUNAR SPACE KIND OF MAKES SENSE TO DO THAT. >> OKAY. INTERESTING. >> SO IT SEEMS LIKE A COORDINATED MISSION, A VENTURE WITH LOTS OF ADVANCED THINGS. SO, YOU HAVE ALL THE HARDWARE. >> YEAH, IT’S GOING TO TAKE A LOT OF LAUNCHES TO PUT PIECES TOGETHER AND GET THOSE THINGS SEQUENCED OUT TO MARS IN A WAY THAT HAS WHAT YOU NEED ON MARS WHEN YOU NEED IT. >> AND THAT IT’S UP THERE AND OPERATIONAL BEFORE WE SAY, “OKAY, GUYS, IT’S TIME TO COMMIT CREW TO GO MEET THEM.” >> RIGHT. >> SO, DO YOU THINK THERE WOULD EVER BE A TIME WHERE-- WHEN YOU GET ALL THAT WORKED OUT SO YOU-- IT’S JUST SECOND NATURE, THIS IS HOW YOU DO THAT? TO EXTEND THAT TO MARS SO YOU’RE BUILDING THINGS IN MARS TO GO BEYOND THERE? >> I THINK IF WE FIGURE OUT HOW TO DO IT ON MARS, THAT’LL BE THE NEXT GIANT LEAP, IF YOU WILL. AND THAT’LL TEACH US A LOT ABOUT SURVIVING WITHOUT BEING DEPENDENT ON EARTH. AND I THINK THAT’S THE NEXT BIG STEP. >> IT GOES BACK TO YOUR FIRST COMMENT THAT EVEN AS LITTLE KIDS, YOU SEE THE 2-YEAR-OLD, THE NEXT THING THAT’S JUST OUT OF HIS REACH, SO IF WE GET TO MARS, THAT WOULD BE THE NEXT THING JUST OUT OF OUR REACH. >> SO, TOMMY, KIND OF THINKING ABOUT THE NEXT BIG STEP. IF-- THINKING WAY OUT IN THE FUTURE, IN YOUR MIND, WHAT WOULD KIND OF BE SOME OF THE NEXT PLACES THAT WOULD BE REALLY COOL TO SEE? BEYOND MARS. >> WELL, WE HAVE SORT OF A SELFISH-- >> I KNOW WHERE YOU’RE GOING HERE. >> ON THE AGENDA. >> YES. IT WOULD JUST BE STARTED UPON THE BAND’S NAME OF THE FIFTH MOON OF PLUTO. AND WE’VE ACTUALLY SEEN PICTURES OF IT AND IT’S NOT THE GREATEST LOOKING. IF YOU WERE GOING TO VACATION ANYWHERE IN THE AREA, WE’D GO TO PLUTO, JUST MAYBE TAKE SOME SNAPSHOTS. >> YEAH, TO SEE IF FROM THE SURFACE. >> I DON’T KNOW. I THINK WITH A LITTLE WORK WE COULD BUFF IT UP AND MAKE IT A HOLIDAY DESTINATION. IT’S A FIXER-UPPER, THERE’S NO DOUBT ABOUT IT. >> IT’S A HANDYMAN’S DREAM. >> IT’S ABOUT THE SIZE OF DOWNTOWN CHICAGO, BY THE WAY. >> IS IT? >> YEAH. >> IT’S NOT TOO BIG. >> YEAH, IT’S NOT THAT BIG. >> CHICAGO’S NICE. >> YEAH. YEAH. >> A FROZEN CHICAGO. >> IN AN UNBIASED OPINION. >> I DON’T THINK IT HAS THE WATERFRONT. >> [ INDISTINCT ]. >> YEAH. >> IT’S COME A LONG WAY SINCE THE WORLD’S FAIR. >> YEAH. >> THERE YOU GO. >> ANOTHER THING THAT-- BACK TO WHERE WE WERE STARTING-- >> YEAH? >> THAT BLOWS MY MIND, WHEN I KEEP THINKING THAT, YOU KNOW, THAT ONE OF THE AIRPORTS WE GO THROUGH, I THINK IT’S ST. LOUIS, IS THAT THE ONE THAT’S NEAR KITTY HAWK OR WHERE THE WRIGHT BROTHERS? >> SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS. >> YEAH. >> SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS. >> IS THAT IT? >> MM-HMM. >> OKAY. SO, I’M THINKING HUMAN FLIGHT, IT STILL BOGGLES MY MIND. IT’S JUST OVER A HUNDRED YEARS AGO AND NOW WE’RE TALKING ABOUT ASSEMBLING THINGS IN SPACE THAT CAN REACH, YOU KNOW, THE NEXT PLANET. SO, THAT’S BACK TO ME, KIND OF BEING MIND BLOWING. >> YEAH. I THINK THAT’S MORE OF LIKE THE DOING ASPECT, RIGHT? SO, LIKE, YOU KNOW, I FEEL LIKE WE’VE BEEN DREAMERS FOR SO LONG. >> YEAH. >> AND WE’RE DREAMING ABOUT THE COSMOS, AND BASED ON OUR LIMITED KNOWLEDGE, HAVE COME UP WITH THESE FANTASTICAL REALITIES OF WHAT IT COULD BE, BUT THEN ONCE WE REALIZE THAT, YOU KNOW, WE CAN GO INTO SPACE AND WE HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY TO DO IT, AND YOU ACTUALLY BUILD IT AND DO IT, THAT’S A WHOLE NEW-- >> WELL, THAT’S WHY MEETING GUYS LIKE THIS IS SO-- >> YEAH! >> --AMAZING FOR US. YEAH. >> ALL RIGHT. SO, ALL RIGHT, GOING WAY BACK OUT TO PLUTO. YOU HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF ACTUALLY SEEING NEW HORIZONS, RIGHT? WHEN IT ACTUALLY TOOK PHOTOS OF PLUTO. >> WE WERE INVITED-- WE HAPPENED TO BE IN THE D.C. AREA THE DAY THAT THEY DID THEIR FLY-BY AND WE WERE INVITED OUT AND WE GOT TO MEET THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR, ALAN STERN, AND ALL OF HIS PEOPLE. AND THEY WERE WAITING THERE FOR US. I’LL NEVER FORGET, THEY WERE THERE-- THEY HAD A BANNER AND THEY HAD ALL KIND OF GATHERED IN A ROOM KIND OF LIKE THIS >> YEAH. >> AND THEY WERE WELCOMING US AND WE DIDN’T KNOW WHO THEY ARE. WE’D NEVER MET THEM BEFORE. >> SURE. >> WE KNEW WE WERE AT THEIR MISSION CONTROL, BUT-- SO, LITTLE BY LITTLE, WE STARTED GETTING INTRODUCED. IT’S LIKE GUYS LIKE YOU WITH THESE-- WHO’VE DONE THIS AMAZING THING AND WE REALIZE, THIS IS ALL BACKWARDS. WE NEED TO HAVE A BANNER FOR YOU. >> YEAH, EXACTLY. >> IT WAS LIKE THE WE’RE NOT WORTHY KIND OF THING. >> IT WAS LIKE THERE THEY’D WON THEIR SUPER BOWL AND THE CULMINATION OF A NINE-YEAR MISSION. IT WAS WHEN THEY WERE GET-- AS THESE PICTURES WERE COMING THROUGH, WE WERE AMONG THE FIRST PEOPLE, EARTHLINGS, TO SEE THIS-- TO SEE THIS UNFOLD. ACTUALLY, YOU JUST REMINDED ME OF SOMETHING WEIRD ABOUT THAT DAY THAT I REMEMBERED. I REMEMBER US GETTING LOST ON THE WAY TO GET INTO THE THING. >> WE COULDN’T FIND OUR WAY THERE. >> WE COULDN’T FIND OUR WAY THERE! AND THEY SPENT NINE YEARS GETTING TO PLUTO. >> WE MET THE NAVIGATOR WHO DID THE-- >> WHO ACTUALLY FLEW IT. >> YES. >> YES. >> WOW. SO, HOW DID HE DESCRIBE THAT RIDE? WAS IT LIKE-- I GUESS IT’S A PRETTY INTRICATE RIDE TO GET ALL THE WAY OUT THERE. >> THE ONLY THING I REMEMBER IS THAT HE SAID IT WAS-- THE CRAFT ITSELF WAS ABOUT THE SIZE OF A BABY GRAND PIANO. >> YEAH. >> SO, DIRECTING THAT THROUGH, YOU KNOW, ALL THAT DISTANCE, YOU KNOW? AND IT’S, I GUESS IT’S THE FARTHEST WE’VE GONE, RIGHT? SO, IT WAS THE FARTHEST WE’VE EVER SENT ANYTHING, I SUPPOSE. AM I RIGHT? >> I THINK VOYAGER. >> OH, VOYAGER’S EVEN FURTHER. >> YEAH. >> IT GOT A HEAD START. >> OKAY. >> YEAH. >> BUT IT NEVER TOOK PICTURES OF PLUTO. >> ALL RIGHT! >> YEAH. >> WELL, I DON’T’ WANT TO PUT ANYTHING-- I DON’T WANT TO PUT VOYAGER DOWN IN ANY WAY, BUT TO HAVE ACCOMPLISHED THAT WITH SOMETHING-- OH, I REMEMBER. ONE QUESTION I ASKED THAT DAY WAS, “ISN’T IT LIKELY THAT IT’S GOING TO BE HIT BY SOMETHING OUT THERE?” BECAUSE I’M ALWAYS THINKING ABOUT, YOU KNOW, I WAS ASKING DAN ABOUT THAT, AS WELL. AND ONE OF THE SCIENTISTS THERE EXPLAINED TO ME THAT WE-- IT TAKES A LONG TIME BEFORE THE CONCEPT OF HOW VAST SPACE IS FINALLY SINKS IN, THAT THE LIKELIHOOD OF ACTUALLY COLLIDING WITH SOMETHING IS SO MINISCULE. >> MM-HMM. >> THAT IT’S INCREDIBLY UNLIKELY. AND TO MY MIND, IT SEEMS LIKE, I DON’T KNOW, WOULDN’T THAT BE HAPPENING ALL THE TIME? AND APPARENTLY IT DOESN’T HAPPEN VERY MUCH AT ALL. >> EVEN THE ASTEROID BELT, I THINK, IS A GOOD EXAMPLE, RIGHT? HOW FAR-- HOW CLOSE ARE SOME OF THE CLOSEST THINGS IN THE ASTEROID BELT? >> WELL, NOT AS CLOSE AS THE STAR WARS MOVIES PORTRAY THEM. >> THAT’S WHAT I’M THINKING. I’M THINKING HAN SOLO GOING THROUGH, YEAH. >> SO, PEOPLE THINK OF, YOU KNOW, ASTEROID BELTS AND THE KUIPER BELT AS BEING THIS SORT OF ROCK PILE IN SPACE. >> YES. >> AND IT’S, YOU KNOW, LITERALLY MILLIONS OF MILES BETWEEN LITTLE SPECKS OF THINGS. >> YEAH. SO, IS IT FAIR TO SAY THAT STUFF IN THE KUIPER BELT IS EVEN FARTHER AWAY? LIKE, ARE WE TALKING ABOUT-- >> OH YEAH. SO, THAT’S OUT BEYOND PLUTO. >> YEAH. >> ONE OF THE THINGS I’VE HEARD IS THAT WE COULD LAND ON AN ASTEROID, THOUGH. >> WE WERE WORKING-- WE HAVE THAT TECHNOLOGY TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN. >> IN FACT, THERE’S ONE OF OUR ESA BRETHREN ACROSS THE POND, THEY DID LAND ON A COMET. >> OH, REALLY? >> WHEN WAS THAT? >> JUST RECENTLY. BUT WE’VE-- WE WERE WORKING MISSIONS TO PUT DOWN ON AN ASTEROID AND SEE WHAT’S THERE. WE’VE MADE SOME COURSE DIRECTIONS AND NOW ARE MORE FOCUSED ON MARS. >> ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT A HUMAN MISSION? >> NO, IT WAS A ROBOTIC MISSION TO THE ASTEROID-- >> OKAY. >> --TO BRING BACK THE PIECE SO WE COULD STUDY IT HERE. >> OH, GOT IT. >> AROUND THE MOON. >> OKAY. OKAY. >> YOU COULD LAND ON THE ASTEROID, BUT IT HAS ALMOST NO GRAVITY. >> MORE LIKE RENDEZVOUS. >> YEAH. AND MOST PEOPLE THINK THAT THE MOONS OF MARS ARE CAPTURED ASTEROIDS. SO, PHOBOS AND DEIMOS. YOU COULD GO THERE. VERY LITTLE GRAVITY TO HOLD YOU ON THE SURFACE, THOUGH. >> OH. >> SO, THAT MAKES IT A LITTLE EASIER TO GET TO, SO YOU DON’T HAVE THAT GRAVITY WELD HE WAS TALKING ABOUT TO TRY AND EXTRACT YOURSELF FROM. >> RIGHT. >> OH, OKAY, SO YOU CAN ACTUALLY JUST-- WOULD YOU, IN A SCENARIO IF YOU WERE TO VISIT PHOBOS, RIGHT? IF-- WOULD YOU LAND ON PHOBOS AND THEN LAUNCH OFF AGAIN? OR WOULD YOU DO SORT OF AN ORBITAL THING. >> OR ANCHOR, RIGHT? >> ANCHOR, OKAY. >> YEAH, YOU COULD DO EITHER. YOU WOULD KIND OF DOCK WITH IT. >> YEAH. >> OH! >> YOU KNOW, BECAUSE IT WOULD JUST BE KIND OF ANOTHER THING FLOATING IN SPACE. >> AHH, SO, YOU’D ACTUALLY HAVE TO-- BY LANDING IT’S MORE LIKE GRABBING US. >> MORE LIKE THE BOAT IN THE PIER. >> OH. >> NEXT TO THE TIE-ON. DO WHATEVER EXPLORATION YOU COULD DO, PLANT THE FLAG. >> OKAY. VERY COOL. SO, I KNOW KIND OF GOING BACK, YOU KNOW, THINKING ABOUT JUST EXPLORING JUST DIFFERENT HEAVENLY BODIES, RIGHT? TALK ABOUT PHOBOS OR EVEN IF YOU WERE TO LAND ON STYX, RIGHT? THERE’S SOMETHING THAT WE LIKE TO CALL ISRU. THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS THAT KIND OF WE’RE LOOKING AT. IN-SITU RESOURCE UTILIZATION, RIGHT? >> THERE YOU GO. >> IT’S USING THE STUFF THAT’S THERE TO CREATE MORE STUFF AND, I GUESS, IS THE VERY LAYMAN WAY OF SAYING THAT. >> RIGHT. >> SO, IF IT WAS RESOURCES. >> LIVING OFF THE LAND. >> LIVING OFF THE LAND! >> THAT’S A GOOD LAYMAN WAY OF PUTTING IT. >> THERE YOU GO. VERY COOL. SO, WHERE ARE SOME OF THE BEST PLACES WHERE YOU CAN LIVE OFF THE LAND THAT WE KNOW OF IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM? >> WELL, MARS IS PROBABLY THE EASIEST. MARS HAS AN ATMOSPHERE. >> AH. >> I MEAN, IT’S CARBON DIOXIDE. YOU COULD EASILY CRAFT CARBON DIOXIDE INTO OXYGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE AND USE THE OXYGEN TO BREATHE, OR TO MAKE MOST OF YOUR ROCKET FUEL. >> HMM. >> AND, IN FACT, WE HAVE AN EXPERIMENT FLYING IN 2020 TO MARS THAT’S GOING TO TEST EXACTLY THAT. SO, THAT-- AND IF THAT WORKS, AND IT SHOULD BECAUSE IT’S VERY SIMPLE CHEMISTRY, THAT MEANS THAT WE-- >> KNOCK ON WOOD. >> YOU DON’T NEED TO TAKE EVERYTHING WITH YOU ANYMORE. WHEN WE WENT TO THE MOON ORIGINALLY, WE TOOK EVERYTHING WE NEEDED. EVERY PIECE OF FOOD, EVERY BREATH OF OXYGEN, EVERY OUNCE OF WATER. IF YOU FIND THAT KIND OF STUFF ON PLANETS, THAT REALLY CHANGES THE EQUATION ENTIRELY BECAUSE NOW YOU’RE LIVING OFF THE LAND, YOU’RE LIVING OFF THE RESOURCES OF THOSE PLANETS. >> AND DO YOU THINK IT’S POSSIBLE TO ADD NUTRIENTS AND NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS OR WHATEVER IT TOOK TO PLANT-- >> POTATOES? >> POTATOES. >> PERHAPS. >> OR BEANS, OR CORN, OR WHATEVER. >> YEAH. >> YOU STILL NEED OXYGEN, THOUGH. >> WELL, YEAH, YOU NEED A LOT OF THINGS. SO, MARS’ SOIL HAS SOME OF THE THINGS YOU NEED FOR GROWING THINGS. YOU’D HAVE TO ADD NUTRIENTS AND YOU’D HAVE TO WASH A FEW OF THE OTHER THINGS OUT OF THE SOIL FIRST. >> RIGHT. >> BUT, YEAH, YOU COULD-- YOU COULD, WITH ENOUGH ADDITIVES, GROW STUFF IN MARS SOIL. >> SO, YOU COULD MAKE FUEL AND FOOD. >> YEP. >> 3D PRINTERS. THESE-- I HAVEN’T READ ENOUGH ABOUT THEM, BUT IS THAT PART OF WHAT IT IS? YOU TAKE THE ELEMENTS THAT ARE THERE AND YOU’RE ABLE TO FABRICATE SOMETHING THAT-- WHATEVER IS NECESSARY NEXT? OR IS THAT-- WHERE IS THAT? >> YEAH, I THINK 3D PRINTERS ARE ON THE STATION TODAY, SO, WE CAN BUILD-- IF SOMETHING BREAKS, WE DON’T HAVE TO WAIT TO FLY UP A PART. WE CAN BUILD IT. >> OKAY. >> THE PART. 3D PRINTERS FOR THE FUEL THAT HE WAS TALKING ABOUT, I THINK FUEL IS MORE OF A CHEMICAL ELEMENT THING. >> YEAH. >> SO, WE WOULDN’T REALLY PRINT ANYTHING, BUT WE WOULD CRAFT IT. >> WE ARE LOOKING, ACTUALLY, AT 3D PRINTERS TO TAKE-- LIKE THE SOIL, YOU COULD FIND ON MARS. >> YEAH. >> AND, YOU KNOW, YOU ADD SOME ADDITIVES TO IT AND YOU USE THE SOIL TO BUILD HABITATS AND THINGS LIKE THAT. IT WOULD BE A BIG-SCALE 3D PRINTER. THERE’S SOME NASA TECHNOLOGY GOING ON AT SOME OF OUR CENTERS TO LOOK AT THAT. SO, I THINK 3D PRINTING IS IN ITS INFANCY. AND WE HAVEN’T REALLY EVEN EXPLORED ALL THE COOL THINGS WE COULD DO WITH IT. >> YEAH. >> SO, YOU COULD MAKE A METAL ALLOY KIND OF A THING. >> SURE. THERE ARE ALREADY METAL 3D PRINTERS. >> OR EVEN AN EARTHEN PLACE TO LIVE IN. >> YEAH. >> YEAH. >> OUT OF THE SOIL YOURSELF. >> THAT’S WHAT I MEAN. >> YEAH. >> THAT YOU-- THE ELEMENTS ARE THERE TO BUILD IT. >> RIGHT. >> SO, YOU COULD ACTUALLY, YOU KNOW, CONSTRUCT SOMETHING BY BASICALLY DOING-- IT’S DOING THE MINING AND THE MANUFACTURING. >> AND IT HELPS IN A LOT OF WAYS IN THAT RADIATION IS A BIG PROBLEM FOR THE HUMAN BEING. >> RIGHT. >> AND THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE PROTECTS US. WE’RE LEAVING THAT BEHIND. >> OH, RIGHT. >> TO GO TO THESE OTHER PLACES. >> YEAH. >> SO, IF WE CAN’T BUILD OUT OF EARTH LIKE THEY USED TO DO IN WYOMING, OKLAHOMA, BUILD THE SOD HOUSES, SO TO SPEAK. THAT HELPS FROM THAT PERSPECTIVE AS WELL. >> HMM. >> TO HAVE ADDED PROTECTION THAN JUST THE SPHERICAL DOME THAT WE WOULD TAKE WITH US. >> I LOVE IT. I LOVE IT. >> AND ALL THE TECHNOLOGY IS ALMOST THERE, OR PRETTY MUCH THERE, ISN’T IT? >> FOR BUILDING HOUSES THROUGH 3D PRINTERS? >> WELL, FOR DOING ALL THOSE THINGS. IF YOU GET YOURSELF ON THE SITE. >> IT’S HIS JOB TO MAKE SURE IT IS. >> BUT IT’S-- >> SO, IT DOESN’T SEEM THAT OUTRAGEOUS >> NO, NO, NOT AT ALL. THAT’S WITHIN THE REALM OF TECHNOLOGIES THAT WE COULD HAVE IN THE TIMEFRAMES WE’RE LOOKING AT TO GO TO MARS. >> IS THERE ANY SORT OF “I WISH I HAD’S,” THAT YOU GUYS ARE THINKING OF? >> I WISH I HAD BETTER PROPULSION. >> AHH. >> BECAUSE RIGHT NOW, AS A SPECIES, WE ARE STUCK IN THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM. >> HMM. >> BECAUSE THE BEST WE HAVE IS CHEMICAL PROPULSION. YOU KNOW, WE’VE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY A LITTLE BIT SINCE APOLLO, BUT-- AND WE HAVE THINGS LIKE ELECTRIC PROPULSION NOW, BUT WE NEED SOME SORT OF DIFFERENT PROPULSION SYSTEMS, SOME SORE OF NEW PHYSICS TO REALLY TRAVEL AMONGST THE STARS OR REALLY TO GET OUT OF THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM. >> YEAH. >> SO, THAT’S MY BIG “I WISH I HAD.” >> SO, WITH CHEMICAL PROPULSION, REALISTICALLY, IF YOU-- IF YOU DESIGNED A MISSION TO GO LIKE WAY OUT IN THE EDGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, HOW LONG IS THAT MISSION PROFILE? TO GO OUT TO THE EDGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND BACK. >> OH, MAN. >> OUTSIDE. >> YEAH, IT WOULD BE A MULTI-GENERATIONAL MISSION. >> YEAH. WOW. >> AND THAT’S THE PROBLEM WITH CHEMICAL PROPULSION. IT JUST-- IT’S JUST NOT GOING TO PUSH YOU FAST ENOUGH TO GET WHERE YOU WANT TO GO. BY THE TIME YOU GOT THERE, ANOTHER SPACECRAFT WOULD RACE PAST YOU WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY. >> RIGHT. >> WOULDN’T IT BE NICE WHERE YOU COULD JUST FLIP A SWITCH AND JUST, “I’M GOING LIGHT SPEED,” AND THEN, BAM! >> CAN YOU SPECULATE ON WHAT WOULD EXIST OTHER THAN CHEMICAL PROPULSION THEN? >> WELL, SO IF-- SO RIGHT NOW WE USE, YOU KNOW, WE COMBINE CHEMICALS, WE USE-- WE ACCELERATE IONS TO PUSH OURSELVES AROUND. THAT ALL REQUIRES US TO HAVE A FUEL. OKAY? THAT WE SOMEHOW ACCELERATE OFF-- OUT THE BACK-END OF A ROCKET. THE REAL-- THE NEXT BIG STEP IN PHYSICS WOULD COME IF YOU FIND A WAY WHERE YOU DON’T NEED FUEL, THAT YOU COULD SOMEHOW CREATE FORCE WITHOUT FUEL. >> RIGHT. >> AND THERE ARE SOME TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS AT NASA GOING ON RIGHT NOW THAT ARE LOOKING AT THAT. IF YOU’RE A BIG FAN OF “STAR TREK,” THAT’S KIND OF WHAT WARP DRIVE IS ALL ABOUT. >> YEAH. >> CAN YOU EXPLAIN THAT FOR ME? >> THAT WOULD-- I WOULD LOVE TO GET ANOTHER PODCAST. >> I READ SOMETHING ON AN ASTRONOMY SITE THAT I SOMEHOW LINK TO NOW ON FACEBOOK ABOUT SOME EXPERIMENTAL PROPULSION THING WHERE-- BECAUSE YOU’RE GENERALLY-- YOU’RE PUSHING OFF OF SOMETHING TO GO THE OTHER DIRECTION AND THERE WAS SOMETHING NEW THAT THEY WERE-- I DON’T KNOW IF THESE PLATES OR SOMETHING THAT SOMEHOW CREATED PROPULSION. >> YEAH, AND THAT’S THE NEW PHYSICS I’M TALKING ABOUT. WE NEED SOMETHING LIKE THAT TO GET THAT WORKING. AND WE DO HAVE AN ENGINEER HERE IN HOUSTON WHO’S WORKING ON A PROPULSION SYSTEM LIKE THAT. THEY-- SOME PEOPLE CALL IT THE QUANTUM THRUSTING. >> YES. >> IT PUSHES-- AND THEY DON’T REALLY UNDERSTAND WHY IT WORKS, BUT IT’S BEEN TRIED A COUPLE PLACES AROUND THE COUNTRY AND IT’S AT THE POINT WHERE YOU HAVE TO BE VERY SKEPTICAL ABOUT WHAT’S GOING ON. AND-- BUT IF IT WORKS, IT COULD CHANGE THE WHOLE EQUATION BECAUSE IT DOESN’T NEED FUEL. IT’S USING DIFFERENT FORCES THAT SOMEHOW IS PUSHING AGAINST SOMETHING AND MOVING IT. >> WELL THEN-- >> AGAIN, ANOTHER PODCAST. >> WE HEAR ABOUT GRAVITY ASSIST, RIGHT? >> MM-HMM. >> OKAY, SO, I MEAN, IS IT SOMETHING OF THAT NATURE? WHERE THERE’S SOME MAGNETIC EXCHANGE? >> NO, IT’S A LITTLE DIFFERENT. GRAVITY ASSIST IS-- THAT’S BASICALLY CAPTURING THE ENERGY OF A PLANET LIKE EARTH OR VENUS AND TAKING A LITTLE BIT OF THAT PLANET’S ENERGY AND TURNING IT INTO YOUR ENERGY AS YOU FLY BY. >> YEAH. >> AND WHAT’S GOOD ABOUT ROLLER DERBY AROUND THE EDGE, YOU GET A LITTLE ASSIST AROUND THE EDGE. >> YEAH. >> WHAT’S GOOD ABOUT GRAVITY ASSIST, AND CORRECT ME IF I’M WRONG, BUT IT’S A GOOD BANG FOR YOUR BUCK. YOU DON’T PUT A LOT OF ENERGY INTO IT AND WHAT YOU GET OUT OF THAT GRAVITY ASSIST IS A REALLY BIG BOOST. >> RIGHT. IN FACT, MOST OF THE TIMES YOU DON’T PUT ANY ENERGY INTO IT. >> OH, WOW! >> GET CAPTURED. >> BUT WHAT YOU’RE DOING IS YOU’RE BORROWING A LITTLE BIT OF ENERGY FROM THAT PLANET’S ORBIT. >> THAT’S INCREDIBLE. >> YEAH. >> SO, KIND OF THINKING ABOUT, YOU KNOW, GOING BACK TO MARS FOR A SECOND. SO, BACK TO A MARS MISSION. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT WE HAVE TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT TO PUT HUMANS ON THE SURFACE, TO MAKE IT, I GUESS, FRIENDLY? >> FRIENDLY? >> HUMAN FRIENDLY. WHAT ARE THE THINGS WE’D HAVE TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT? >> WELL, GLENN COULD TALK MAYBE A LITTLE BIT ABOUT SPACE SUITES AND EVA. >> YEAH. >> BUT, FROM MY STANDPOINT, GETTING PEOPLE TO THE SURFACE. SO, IT’S ALL A MATTER OF CHANGING VELOCITIES, FIRST OF ALL, RIGHT? YOU HAVE TO LEAVE EARTH. YOU HAVE TO RIDE A BIG ROCKET. YOU THEN HAVE TO CHANGE YOUR VELOCITY ENOUGH TO THROW YOU OUT TOWARDS MARS. THEN YOU HAVE TO SLOW DOWN ONCE YOU GET TO MARS AND MAKE YOUR WAY THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE AND SLOW DOWN ENOUGH SO THAT BY THE TIME YOU GET TO THE SURFACE, YOUR RELATIVE VELOCITY IS ZERO. SO, ALL THAT-- ALL THOSE MIRACLES OF ROCKET PROPULSION AND ENTRY SYSTEMS THAT HAVE TO HAPPEN KEEP ME UP AT NIGHT. OKAY? THEN ONCE YOU GET TO THE SURFACE, YOU NEED SUPER RELIABLE SYSTEMS, BECAUSE AT MARS, LIKE YOU SAID, YOU DON’T HAVE A 7-ELEVEN NEXT DOOR. YOU DON’T HAVE A HANDYMAN YOU COULD CALL. YOU CAN’T SEND A SOYUZ OR A PROGRESS UP IN A COUPLE OF WEEKS WITH SOME NEW PARTS. SO, EVERYTHING HAS TO WORK FOR THE DURATION OF THE TIME YOU’RE THERE OR YOU HAVE TO BE ABLE TO FIX IT. AND SO, IT’S THAT SUPER HIGH RELIABILITY. >> YEAH. I THINK ANY ENDEAVOR ACROSS CIVILIZATION, THE LOGISTICS, LOGISTICS JUST GETS TO ME. IF THEY TAKE ON THE ALPS, THEY HAVE A TRAIN FULL OF DONKEYS BEHIND THEM TO GET THEM THERE. WE DON’T HAVE THAT LUXURY. SO, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE STUFF THAT DOESN’T BREAK. AND WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE FOLKS THAT INSTEAD OF THE SUPER PILOT, HE’S THE REFRIGERATOR REPAIR GUY. HE CAN TEAR APART AND PUT IT BACK TOGETHER AND TRUST THAT IT WORKS BECAUSE HE’S LIVING OFF OF THAT MACHINE DOING ITS JOB. >> YEAH. >> SO, EVERYTHING THAT YOU HAVE IN THE GROCERY, YOU KNOW, OXYGEN, ET CETERA, YOU HAVE TO TAKE WITH YOU OR BUILD OR SUPPLY WHILE YOU’RE THERE. >> BUT IT TAKES GOOD PEOPLE TO DO THAT, RIGHT? YOU NEED FOLKS THAT HAVE KIND OF A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES THAT CAN ACTUALLY WORK ON THIS. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> SO, TELL ME, LAWRENCE, IN YOUR PERSPECTIVE KIND OF WHAT-- WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KEY FOLKS THAT YOU WOULD NEED TO BRING WITH YOU ON A MISSION OUT TO SPACE? >> WELL, YOU NEED SOMEONE WHO’S-- I WOULD THINK AN ENGINEER TYPE. >> DEFINITELY AN ENGINEER. >> WHO, YOU KNOW, WOULD BE SKEPTICAL AND THEN HAVE SOLUTIONS. AND I THINK YOU NEED SOMEBODY WHO’S GOT A GREAT IMAGINATION, WHO CAN FIGURE OUT HOW TO GET TO THE NEXT-- WHAT THE THING IS THAT YOU’RE TRYING TO GET TO. >> A LEADER. YEAH. IN A WAY, I GUESS. >> AND YOU NEED-- YOU NEED HANDS. YOU NEED HELPERS. AND WHO ARE ALSO-- WHO HAVE SPECIALTIES-- SPECIAL TALENTS OF THEIR OWN BECAUSE OTHERWISE YOU’RE JUST A LONELY, YOU KNOW, YOU’RE DOING IT ALL YOURSELF, YOU KNOW? IT’S KIND OF LIKE-- IT’S A LOT LIKE BEING IN A BAND. WE ALL SUPPORT EACH OTHER, OTHERWISE, OTHERWISE WE WOULD JUST BE ONE PERSON OUT THERE WITH A MICROPHONE. AND NO MATTER HOW GOOD YOU ARE, THERE’S LIMITS TO WHAT YOU CAN DO THERE. >> I THINK STYX WOULD SOUND A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT WITH JUST ONE MEMBER. YEAH. >> YEAH, YEAH. I THINK THE, YOU KNOW, WE TALK ABOUT THE MACHINES THAT ARE NECESSARY TO DO ALL THIS, BUT, AGAIN, TALKING TO ASTRONAUT DAN. >> YEAH. >> I THINK MEDICAL IS A HUGE NECESSITY BECAUSE OUR BODIES MORPH AND HAVE TO ADAPT AND THEY DO ADAPT AND CHANGE IN THEIR-- SO THAT CHANGES THE WHOLE EQUATION OF WHAT MEDICALLY IS REQUIRED, YOU KNOW, AS THE THING CONTINUES ON. SO, I’D SAY-- I’D SAY AN ENGINEER, A REALLY GOOD DOCTOR, AND, YOU KNOW, PROBABLY A GOOD DRUMMER OR BASS PLAYER. >> I WOULD ADD A COMMUNICATOR. >> OH, YEAH. >> SOMEONE WHO COULD TALK BACK TO THE FOLKS ON EARTH AND DESCRIBE, IN TERMS THEY UNDERSTAND, WHAT THEY ARE EXPERIENCING. >> HMM. >> AND THE OTHER THING IS YOU ALMOST HAVE TO HAVE TWO OF EVERYTHING, OR DOUBLE TRAINING. BECAUSE THAT DOCTOR, IF HE’S THE GUY THAT GETS THE PROBLEM-- >> YEAH. >> SOMEBODY ELSE NEEDS TO STEP IN. >> RIGHT. YOU WERE TELLING ME SOMETHING GREAT ABOUT THE-- OR, FRIGHTENING, ACTUALLY, ABOUT THE DUST ON MARS AFFECTING YOUR THYROID. THAT’S PART OF WHY MY BRAIN STARTED MOVING TOWARD THAT. >> YEAH. WE’VE GOT TO MAKE SURE WE SEPARATE THE BAD ACTORS FROM THE HUMAN ASPECT OF THAT. AND SO, ALL THE SYSTEMS WE’RE BUILDING, YOU SAW THE ROVER ITSELF. >> YEAH. >> THE SUIT’S PURPOSELY ON THE BACK SO THE DUST DOESN’T COME IN WITH YOU. IN APOLLO, WE DIDN’T HAVE THAT SEPARATION. >> RIGHT. >> IN THOSE DAYS, THEY USED ZIPPERS TO CLOSE UP THE SUIT AND DUST AND ZIPPERS DON’T LIKE EACH OTHER. >> RIGHT. >> THIS JUST IN. >> MM-HMM. >> AND SO, THE SUIT YOU SAW DIDN’T HAVE ANY ZIPPERS. WE’VE GONE AWAY FROM THAT NOW. >> RIGHT. >> SO, AND EVERYTHING’S ON THE BACK TO SEPARATE. SO, YEAH, THOSE ARE THE LITTLE DETAILS THAT GUYS THAT WORK WITH JOHN’S TEAMS ARE THINKING ABOUT EVERY SYSTEM. >> YEAH. AND IT KIND OF HELPS THAT WE’VE EXPLORED THE MOON, RIGHT? BECAUSE IF WE DIDN’T THINK ABOUT, “YEAH, YOU’RE GOING TO BE WALKING ON THE SURFACE, AND THEN, OH, YEAH, YOU’RE GOING TO TRACK ALL THAT DUST BACK INTO THE COCKPIT,” OR WHEREVER YOU’RE GOING TO BE FLYING FROM. NOW WE’RE DESIGNING, LIKE YOU SAID, YOU MENTIONED, IT’S CALL THE SEV, RIGHT? SPACE EXPLORATION VEHICLE? AND IT’S DESIGNED WHERE THE SUITS GO ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE VEHICLE SO YOU NEVER STEP INSIDE WITH THE SUIT, RIGHT? SO THAT’S THE GENERAL IDEA. AND THERE’S A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT EXAMPLES LIKE THAT, RIGHT? >> YEAH. >> WHERE YOU LEARN SOMETHING AND SOME KIND OF COOL NEW TECHNOLOGY THAT WE NEED TO EXPLORE A DIFFERENT PLANET OR SOMETHING COMES OUT OF IT. IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE THAT COMES-- THAT YOU CAN THINK OF BESIDES THE SUITS MAYBE? >> WELL, WE’LL HAVE ROBOTS TO ASSIST US THERE. ONE OF THE THINGS ABOUT THE HUMAN ASPECT OF THIS FLIGHT IS ROBOTS CAN GO AND DISCOVER THINGS, AND WE’VE GOT ROBOTS ON MARS RIGHT NOW DISCOVERING STUFF. BUT THEY REALLY CAN’T EXPLORE. THEY CAN’T-- THE HUMAN BRAIN TO SEE THINGS AND COMMUNICATE BACK TO EARTH WHAT THEY’RE SEEING OR IF SOMETHING DOESN’T GO EXACTLY THE WAY IT WAS SUPPOSED TO, TO REACT AND DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT. SO, ROBOTS ARE GOING TO BE A BIG PART OF THE MISSION AND HAVE THEM INTERACT WITH THIS. AND YOU GUYS SAW SOME ROBOTS TODAY THAT WILL BE ALONG AS AN ASSIST. >> MM-HMM. >> SO, GOT TO MAKE SURE THEY DO THEIR JOB AS WELL. >> SO, THE ROBOTS WILL BE HELPING LIKE A HUMAN-- SO, FOR A MISSION-- OR, A MISSION TO MARS. RIGHT? HOW MANY CREW MEMBERS WOULD WE PROBABLY-- WOULD PROBABLY BE IDEAL TO TAKE ON A MISSION TO MARS? >> SO, MY NUMBER IS SIX. >> SIX, OKAY. >> OKAY? AND WE’VE DONE WHAT WE CALL CREW SKILL MIX STUDIES OVER THE YEARS. >> OKAY. >> AND IT’S LIKE GLENN SAID, YOU HAVE TO TAKE A DOCTOR BUT YOU ALSO HAVE TO TAKE ANOTHER PERSON WHO’S MEDICALLY TRAINED IN CASE THE DOCTOR GETS SICK. YOU NEED ENGINEERS, YOU NEED GEOLOGISTS, YOU NEED ALL THE TECHNICAL-- IF YOU ADD UP ALL THE TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS, YOU PROBABLY NEED 25 PEOPLE. SO, THEN IT’S A MATTER OF HOW CAN YOU CROSS-TRAIN PEOPLE TO DO-- TO BE A DOCTOR/PILOT/GEOLOGIST. OKAY? >> WOW! >> AND THE BEST I’VE SEEN IS THAT YOU CAN PUT ALL THOSE SPECIALTIES INTO ABOUT SIX PEOPLE. >> WOW! THAT’S AMAZING. I MEAN, SOME OF THE FOLKS FROM THE NEW ASTRONAUT CLASS, RIGHT? I ACTUALLY HAD THE PLEASURE OF TALKING TO SOME OF THEM AND WE WENT THROUGH-- I TALKED WITH ANNE ROEMER ON ONE OF THE EARLIER PODCAST EPISODES AND WE JUST WENT THROUGH ALL OF THE DIFFERENT FOLKS THAT WE BROUGHT ON FOR THE CLASS OF 2017. WE HAVE 12 NEW ASTRONAUTS. EACH OF THEM DOES NOT JUST ONE THING. >> RIGHT. >> THEY DO A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT THINGS. >> YEAH. >> FOR EXAMPLE, WOODY HOBURG IS AN ENGINEER IN FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF-- HE’S LIKE COMPUTER SCIENCE, AND ELECTRICAL, AND AEROSPACE, AND MECHANICAL. LIKE HE’S ALL OF THEM. AND THEN WHEN YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT A DOCTOR PILOT, FRANK RUBIO IS A DOCTOR PILOT. HE FLEW HELICOPTERS, AND THEN HE DID SOME SKYDIVING, BUT THEN ALSO IS A MEDICAL DOCTOR BY TRAINING. IT’S INSANE. SO, THEY’RE FINDING THESE FOLKS THAT HAVE ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT SPECIALITIES, BUT WHEN YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT SCIENTIST/MEDICAL DOCTOR/PILOT AND THEN YOU HAVE ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT FOLKS THAT ARE SLASH, SLASH, SLASH, IT’S AMAZING. I HAVE-- >> AND I WOULD RECOMMEND HAVING-- BEING ABLE TO PLAY AN INSTRUMENT. >> AND MANY ASTRONAUTS KNOW HOW TO. >> RIGHT. >> YEAH. >> WE HAVE GUITARS AND OTHER THINGS UP IN SPACE RIGHT NOW. >> YEAH. >> BECAUSE MUSIC IS REALLY A PART OF LIFE. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> AND IT’S ONE THING TO HAVE PRE-RECORDED MUSIC, BUT TO CREATE MUSIC AND MAKE YOUR OWN MUSIC WOULD BE PART OF IT. BECAUSE YOU NEED JOY. >> YEAH. ABSOLUTELY. >> YOU CAN’T DO-- NOT JUST WORKING ALL THE TIME. YOU NEED TO HAVE THE JOY OF LIFE. >> AND YOU’RE RIGHT, SOME OF THE-- SO, RIGHT, AS WE WERE SAYING, WE HAVE PROGRESSED FROM SHUTTLE FLIGHTS, WHICH WERE A COUPLE OF DAYS, ALL THE WAY UP TO NOW INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FLIGHTS, WHICH ARE SEVERAL MONTHS. >> YEAH. >> SO, THEY’RE UP THERE FOR A LONG TIME AND A LOT OF THEM, LIKE YOU SAY, THEY DO BRING INSTRUMENTS. >> YEAH, CHRIS HADFIELD. >> WE HAVE-- CHRIS HADFIELD HAS HIS GUITAR, RIGHT? >> HE’S GREAT. >> HE’S JAMMIN’. WE’VE HAD FOLKS BRING FLUTES. >> CADY COLEMAN. >> CADY COLEMAN, RIGHT. AND THEN I THINK KJELL LINDGREN BROUGHT BAGPIPES, RIGHT? >> WOW! >> THEY MADE HIM PRACTICE WAY ON THE OTHER SIDE. >> YEAH! >> HE WASN’T INVITED BACK! >> YOU KNOW WHAT, IT’S FUNNY. YEAH, I THINK SIX IS A GOOD NUMBER. THERE’S SIX MEMBERS OF STYX AS WELL, AND WE ARE VERY GOOD AT THE MUSIC PART. >> WE DO HAVE A MECHANICAL ENGINEER. >> WELL, WE DO. WE HAVE ONE. THAT’S RIGHT. J.Y. HAS A DEGREE IN ROCKET SCIENCE. >> REALLY? >> HE DOES, ACTUALLY. >> THERE YOU GO! >> AND, YOU KNOW, JUST LIKE A BAND, A CREW HAS TO BE A VERY COHESIVE GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO GET ALONG AND KNOW HOW TO SOLVE THEIR CONFLICTS WITHOUT LEAVING THE BAND. >> RIGHT. >> BECAUSE THERE’S NO PLACE TO GO UP THERE. >> YEAH. >> BECAUSE THEY ARE CONSTANTLY, THEY ARE ADJUSTING TO THINGS, YOU KNOW? AND YOU’RE-- A LOT OF TIMES YOU’RE WORKING ON NOT ENOUGH SLEEP, THE WEATHER DOESN’T COOPERATE WITH YOU, YOU’RE GOING INTO THESE HABITATS THAT ARE DIFFERENT EVERY DAY, AND DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS OF HOW OUR-- OUR DRESSING ROOM SOMETIMES WE’RE ALL IN ONE ROOM, SOMETIMES WE’RE IN-- WE HAVE INDIVIDUAL ROOMS. SO, YOU HAVE TO BE ADAPTABLE AND FLEXIBLE AND KNOW WHEN YOU ARE FATIGUED AND-- >> MM-HMM. >> YEP. >> AND KNOW YOURSELF. AND BEING IN A BAND IS-- WE’RE VERY FORTUNATE TO HAVE THE GROUP THAT WE HAVE BECAUSE SOMEHOW WE’VE-- WE JUST GET THROUGH IT ALL, DO WHAT WE NEED TO DO, ADAPT, AND THEN AT THE END OF THE NIGHT WE GET TO GO PLAY, AND THAT’S REALLY WHAT IT’S ALL ABOUT. YOU’RE WILLING TO GO THROUGH WHATEVER IT TAKES TO GET THERE AND TO GET THAT 75 OR 90 OR 100 MINUTES. >> YEAH. >> I THINK THAT’S-- THAT IS WHAT BEING A BAND IS SOMEWHAT AKIN TO WHAT YOU’RE SAYING. LIKE, YOU HAVE TO-- YOU HAVE TO KEEP-- THE FOCUS HAS TO REMAIN ON WHAT’S BIGGER THAN ANY ONE INDIVIDUAL. AND TO BE ABLE TO NAVIGATE YOUR WAY THROUGH THE-- HUMAN CONFLICT IS PART OF LIFE, AND IT’S PART OF DISCOVERY, AND IT’S PART OF THE FRICTION THAT BRINGS NEW THINGS ABOUT. BUT, TO DO THAT OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME, AS THESE PEOPLE WOULD BE-- A CREW OF SIX WOULD BE FACED WITH, THEY HAVE TO HAVE THOSE KINDS OF SKILLS IN ADDITION TO ALL THOSE OTHER TALENTS. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> SO, THAT’S HARD. HOW DO YOU? IT’S HARD TO PICK THOSE PEOPLE. >> IT’LL TAKE A WHILE TO GO THROUGH THAT EVALUATION. WE’LL HAVE LOTS OF CANDIDATES TO LINE UP FOR THOSE SIX SPOTS. >> YEAH. >> IT’S GOING TO FUNDAMENTALLY BE A DIFFERENT KIND OF ASTRONAUT THAN WE’VE HAD BEFORE, JUST BECAUSE OF THE LENGTH OF THE MISSION, AND THE SELF-RELIANCE, AND YOU DON’T HAVE-- EVEN COMMUNICATIONS. RIGHT NOW, IF WE WERE TO TALK TO SOMEONE ON MARS, YOU’RE 22 LIGHT MINUTES AWAY, ONE WAY. SO, IF YOU WERE TO ASK THEM, “HEY, CAN YOU GUYS HEAR ME?” YOU ALL CAN’T ANSWER BACK UNTIL 44 MINUTES LATER. AND SO, EVEN THE DYNAMICS OF HOW WE CONTROL A MISSION AND HOW WE CAN HELP THE PEOPLE UP THERE IS GOING TO BE DIFFERENT. SO, IT’S GOING TO BE A MUCH DIFFERENT MISSION THAN ANYTHING WE’VE EVER DONE, EVEN OUT TO THE MOON. >> AND I THINK WHAT’S EVEN-- YOU KNOW, ANOTHER IMPORTANT POINT IS THE FACT THAT THESE GUYS ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE NOT ONLY-- THEY’RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE SO MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXPERTISE, BUT THEY’RE GOING TO BE TOGETHER FOR SUCH A LONG PERIOD OF TIME, SO THEY DEFINITELY HAVE TO GET ALONG PRETTY WELL. AND, YOU KNOW, IN MOMENTS OF CRISIS THEY HAVE TO KIND OF WORK THROUGH DIFFERENT SITUATIONS TOGETHER. AND AT THE DROP OF A HAT, ONE THING YOU’RE PLANNING ONE WAY, AND THEN IT’S GOING TO GO A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT WAY. DO YOU GUYS HAVE ANY EXAMPLES ON STAGE WHERE SOMETHING JUST IS NOT GOING ACCORDING TO PLAN? >> EVERY NIGHT, YEAH. >> EVERY NIGHT! >> ABSOLUTELY. >> BUT I MEAN, YOU JUST HAVE TO PUSH THROUGH, RIGHT? >> YEAH, AS A BAND, YOU JUST-- YOU JUST PAY ATTENTION TO EACH OTHER, AND YOU GET-- IF IT GOES OFF THE RAILS, WHICH IT DOES SOMETIMES, BECAUSE YOU’RE ALL HUMAN-- >> YEAH. >> EVERYBODY JUST FOLLOWS YOU BACK-- OFF THE RAILS AND THEN BACK ON AGAIN. >> YEAH. >> AND YOU DON’T LET ON. >> YEAH, I HEAR YA! >> YEAH. IT’S A TWO-SIDED THING. ONE IS THAT THE MACHINERY HAS TO WORK IN ORDER FOR YOU TO PLAY IT PROPERLY. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, WE’RE ALL FOCUSED ON THE ENTERTAINMENT OF THE AUDIENCE AS TO WHAT WE’RE DOING ON STAGE. SO, THAT’S MORE LIKE THE BIGGER PICTURE IS CONSTANTLY BEING READJUSTED TO. >> YEAH. >> AND THAT HAS TO BE-- SOME OF THAT’S DONE ALMOST-- I MEAN, I WON’T SAY IT’S TELEPATHIC, BUT IT’S JUST A NATURAL REACTION THAT YOU HAVE TO EACH MEMBER OF THE GROUP, BECAUSE YOU REALLY ARE PLAYING TOGETHER. YOU’RE TRYING TO SPEAK AS ONE VOICE. >> YEAH. >> THAT COHESIVENESS IS WHAT WE’VE GOT TO STRIVE FOR IN OUR CREWS. >> YEAH. >> AND WE’LL HAVE INTERNATIONAL CREWS, SO WE’LL BE MIXING CULTURES, AS WELL, BUT THAT COHESIVENESS IS WHAT IS GOING TO MAKE US SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL. >> WELL, THAT WOULD HINDER OUR FLIGHT. >> AND THAT WAS SO EVIDENT TODAY ABOUT HOW THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA HAVE COMBINED, AND WHEN THEY’RE SOMETIMES AT ODDS WITH EACH OTHER IS WHEN FINALLY A BETTER SOLUTION COMES OUT OF A SITUATION. >> AND WE’RE PRACTICING THAT WITH THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION RIGHT NOW. >> YEAH. >> TWELVE, THIRTEEN COUNTRIES ALL PARTICIPATING, MAKING THAT THING A SUCCESS. >> ABSOLUTELY! >> A CANADARM CAME, LIKE-- [ INDISTINCT ] >> SO, YOU KNOW, ONE OF THE THINGS IS WE TRAIN ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ALL THE TIME. AND WE’RE TRAINING FOR MISSIONS BEYOND AND GETTING OURSELVES PREPARED. IF ANYTHING GOES WRONG, WE’LL BE PREPARED FOR IT BECAUSE WE’VE PRACTICED SO MANY TIMES. AND I’M GUESSING IT’S THE SAME FOR YOU GUYS, RIGHT? YOU’VE PRACTICED SO MANY TIMES THAT IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG, AT THE DROP OF A HAT, YOU CAN KIND OF-- YOU KNOW, THAT’S HOW YOU’RE ABLE TO PULL THROUGH ON ALL THESE NIGHTS. >> HOW ABOUT THE NIGHT IN CARMEL EARLIER THIS YEAR WHEN THE POWER COMPLETELY WENT OUT, 100%? YEAH. AND FORTUNATELY, WE WERE IN A THEATER THAT KIND OF HAD A-- IT HAD AN ALMOST STEEPLE-LIKE CHURCH TYPE THING. SO ALTHOUGH THERE WERE A COUPLE OF THOUSAND PEOPLE THERE, YOU COULD ACTUALLY HEAR FROM THE STAGE ACOUSTICALLY. SO, WE BASICALLY-- THIS WAS GREAT. >> WHILE WE WERE PLAYING A SONG! I HAD TO PLAY AN ACOUSTIC. >> OH, RIGHT! MAN IN THE WILDERNESS. >> EVERYTHING STOPPED. >> YEAH. >> BUT THE DRUMS WERE ACOUSTIC AND MY GUITAR WAS ACOUSTIC, SO WE JUST KEPT PLAYING. >> JUST IT TURNED INTO AN ACOUSTICS! OH, WOW! THAT’S AMAZING. >> YEAH. AN UNPLUGGED SET, RIGHT? >> THE WEIRD THING IS THE AUDIENCE, LIKE, THEY GOT TOTALLY INTO IT. AND THEN EVENTUALLY WE FOUND A PIANO ABOUT FOUR FLOORS DOWN, SO PEOPLE ON HAND LOVED THE PIANO. IT WASN’T IN GREAT TUNE OR ANYTHING, BUT WE PLAYED FOR ABOUT ANOTHER HALF HOUR BEFORE THE-- WE WERE OUT OF HYPERGOLIC FUMES. >> THAT’S FLEXIBILITY, ADAPTABILITY. THERE YOU GO! >> NO REFUNDS, WHICH WAS GREAT. >> THOSE ARE THE ONES YOU CAN REMEMBER, TOO, THOUGH. IT’S LIKE WHEN IT RAINS, OR YOU HAVE SOME KIND OF NATURAL THING THAT GETS IN THE WAY OF IT. THOSE ARE THE ONES THAT YOU REMEMBER BECAUSE YOU SEE-- YOU REALLY SEE WHAT THE BAND IS MADE OF, YOU KNOW, AND HOW YOU GET THROUGH THAT. AND YOUR AUDIENCE. THEY’RE WILLING TO-- IF THEY’RE WILLING TO WAIT AND STAY THROUGH THE WEATHER, THEN WE’RE CERTAINLY GOING TO DO IT. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> AND YOU MENTIONED EARLIER KIND OF THE BIG PICTURE OF THE ENTERTAINMENT OF THE AUDIENCE. MARS IS REALLY A DESTINATION, BUT GETTING THERE, WE HAVE TO SOLVE A LOT OF DIFFERENT PROBLEMS THAT WE HOPE TO DRIVE RIGHT BACK INTO LIFE HERE ON EARTH, TO MAKE LIFE ON EARTH EVEN BETTER FOR US AS MANKIND. >> RIGHT. >> BY SOLVING THE PROBLEMS THAT WOULD GO INTO THIS PLACE. SO, MARS IS A GREAT DRAW BECAUSE IT REALLY PUSHES US TO SOLVE SOME PRETTY TOUGH PROBLEMS. WATER RECLAMATION FOR THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES. >> RIGHT. >> WE HAVE TO HAVE PURE WATER FOR THIS TRIP. SO, THOSE KIND OF SPIN-OFFS ARE PART OF WHAT WE DO, AS WELL, IN THE BIG PICTURE. >> YEAH, FOR SURE. >> THOSE ARE KIND OF-- TO YOUR POINT, LAWRENCE, WHERE YOU HAVE ALL THIS TECHNOLOGY AND YOU HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT THAT, BUT THEN ULTIMATELY THE GOAL. THE GOAL FOR US IS MARS. THE GOAL FOR YOU GUYS IS THE ENTERTAINMENT OF THE AUDIENCE. SO, EVERYTHING HAS TO WORK, BUT IF IT DOESN’T, YOU STILL HAVE TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL. >> YEAH. >> AND THAT’S WHERE YOU-- YOU’RE BRINGING A PIANO FROM FOUR FLOORS UNDER TO STILL ACHIEVE THAT GOAL. AND IT’S WORKING. >> YEAH. >> BUT I GUESS FOR SPACE IT’S JUST A TEENY BIT HARDER. >> I THINK SO. >> YEAH, NO EXTRA PIANO. >> NO, EXACTLY. >> THAT’S ONE OF THE HARDEST PARTS FOR US, IS LIKE WHEN YOU-- TO YOUR POINT, JOHN, WHEN YOU WERE SAYING FOR APOLLO MISSIONS, WE BROUGHT EVERYTHING WITH US, RIGHT? NO SPARE PARTS. I THINK A PERFECT EXAMPLE IS APOLLO 13, WHERE THINGS WERE GOING WRONG. WE DIDN’T HAVE SPARE PARTS TO FIX THINGS, BUT WE STILL FIXED THEM WITH THE STUFF WE HAD ON BOARD, RIGHT? YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT ENGINEERS GETTING TOGETHER IN MISSION CONTROL AND JUST LAYING OUT ALL THE STUFF THAT THEY KNEW WAS IN THE CAPSULE AND SAYING, “ALL RIGHT, HOW CAN WE FIX THIS ISSUE?” WE ACTUALLY HAD SOMETHING VERY RECENTLY, TOO, WHERE WE HAD-- WE WERE DOING A SPACE WALK A COUPLE OF MONTHS AGO, RIGHT, AND WE WERE SUPPOSED TO PUT A SHIELD ON THE OUTSIDE OF ONE OF THE MODULES. WELL, THE SHIELD GOT INADVERTENTLY LOST. SO, THERE WERE FOUR SHIELDS, AND WE WERE SUPPOSED TO PUT UP ONE, TWO, THREE, AND THEN THERE’S THIS EXPOSED PART ON ONE SIDE, AND WE NEEDED TO COVER IT UP. WELL, IT JUST SO HAPPENED THAT DURING THE SAME SPACE WALK WE TOOK ANOTHER COVER OFF OF ANOTHER PART OF THE SPACECRAFT. SO, ENGINEERS TOOK THAT COVER AND SAID, “OKAY, HOW CAN WE FIT THIS COVER ONTO THIS PART?” IT WAS LIKE-- IT WAS KIND OF REMINISCENT OF THAT TIME WHERE YOU HAD TO THROW EVERYTHING-- ALL RIGHT, WHAT DO WE HAVE AND WHAT CAN WE DO? AND THEY FIGURED IT OUT. THEY ACTUALLY FIGURED OUT HOW TO LAY THIS COVER OVER THAT EXPOSED PART. INSANE. THAT’S, I GUESS, OUR GRAND PIANO MOMENT, RIGHT? >> THAT’S GOT TO BE A GREAT DAY FOR THE CREW, THOUGH, TO-- >> OH, IT REALLY WAS. >> FOR EVERYBODY. TO SOLVE THAT PROBLEM. >> I THINK WHAT’S EVEN BETTER IS DURING THAT SPACE WALK, I THINK WE GOT EVERYTHING DONE, RIGHT? >> OH, YEAH. >> I THINK ALL THE MISSIONS WERE-- EVEN WITH THAT SETBACK, WE STILL ACCOMPLISHED THE MISSION AND GOT EVERYTHING DONE WE NEEDED TO. IT’S REALLY CRAZY. AND THAT’S THE STUFF WE’VE GOT TO PREPARE FOR. AND THAT’S THE STUFF YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT, RIGHT? AND WHAT HAPPENS-- HOW MANY SITUATIONS, JOHN, ARE YOU THINKING, “OKAY, IF THIS GOES WRONG, THIS IS WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO”? HOW MANY TIMES DO YOU THINK THAT IN A DAY? >> HOW LONG DO YOU GOT? >> SO, WE WILL TAKE SOME SPARES WITH US, OKAY? >> YEAH! >> WE’RE NOT JUST GOING TO HAVE THE BOX OF STUFF WE HAVE. >> YEAH, YEAH. >> BECAUSE WE KNOW THAT OVER TIME SOME THINGS BREAK. AND SO, WHAT WE’RE LOOKING AT IS WHAT THINGS ARE MOST LIKELY TO BREAK, AND WE’LL TAKE SPARES FOR THOSE AND FIGURE OUT WAYS TO FIX THE STUFF THAT GOES WRONG. SO, YEAH, YOU CAN’T ASSUME EVERYTHING IS GOING TO WORK JUST RIGHT. >> MM-HMM. >> SO, A LOT OF THE PLANNING WE DO IS FIGURING OUT WHAT TOOLS, WHAT SPARES, WHAT MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT TO TAKE WITH US TO FIX STUFF THAT’S GOING TO GO WRONG, BECAUSE THAT’S ALL WE GOT, YOU KNOW? NO PIANO IN THE BASEMENT. >> YEAH, HE HAS A TERM CALLED DISSIMILAR REDUNDANCY. SO, ELECTRIC GUITAR AND AN ACOUSTIC GUITAR. >> YEAH. >> THAT’S ON STAGE WITH YOU. AND SO WE HAVE SOMETHING THAT BUILDS OXYGEN AND SOMETHING ELSE THAT BUILDS OXYGEN OVER HERE, IN CASE THIS ONE FAILS. >> AND, YOU KNOW, AT A CERTAIN YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT OF HARDWARE ON MARS. SO, IT STANDS TO REASON THAT YOU COULD DO-- YOU COULD SALVAGE PARTS, AND-- >> OH, SURE, YEAH. >> AND THAT’S WHY IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO USE THE SAME SIZE SCREWS FOR EVERYTHING AND THINGS LIKE THAT. >> YEAH. >> WOW, AMAZING. SO, BEFORE WE WRAP UP, LAWRENCE, TOMMY, DO YOU HAVE ANY SORT OF-- JUST TALKING ABOUT EXPLORING THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND ALL THESE DIFFERENT THINGS, DO YOU HAVE ANY SORT OF FLOATING QUESTIONS THAT, YOU KNOW, JUST SORT OF POPPED UP, JUST BASED ON THE TOUR AND THIS KIND OF CONVERSATION? ANYTHING THAT YOU WERE WONDERING? OR MAYBE SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT STUFF THAT YOU WEREN’T WONDERING BUT HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NOW? >> WELL, WHAT ABOUT, YOU KNOW, YOU ALWAYS SEE SUSPENDED ANIMATION, OR LIKE-- IS THERE ANY REALITY TO THAT CONCEPT? >> IT MAKES FOR GOOD ENTERTAINING. >> YEAH, THAT’S-- I’M AN ENGINEER. THAT’S WAY OUT OF MY EXPERTISE. >> YEAH, THAT-- WE’LL HAVE TO BRING A DOCTOR IN FOR THAT. NO, I DON’T THINK WE’RE DOING MUCH IN THOSE FIELDS, THAT I KNOW OF, ANYWAY. >> THAT IS-- IT’S A GOOD TOOL TO GET YOU PLACES WHEN YOU’RE TELLING A STORY. >> YEP. >> ABSOLUTELY. BUT YOU KNOW, FOR THE MISSIONS THAT YOU GUYS ARE PLANNING FOR, YOU’RE TALKING-- YOU KNOW, HOW WILL THEY GET THROUGH THOSE COUPLE OF MONTHS? BECAUSE WHAT YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT, I THINK THE SHORTEST TIME TO GET TO MARS WILL BE SEVEN MONTHS, RIGHT? MAYBE CLOSER TO NINE. WHAT ARE THEY GOING TO BE DOING IN THAT TIME TO SORT OF FILL IT? >> SO, THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION. SO, THEY’RE GOING TO BE EXERCISING LIKE CRAZY, BECAUSE YOU WANT TO ARRIVE AT MARS AS HEALTHY AS YOU COULD POSSIBLY BE. >> YEAH. >> THEY’RE GOING TO BE KEEPING THE SYSTEMS RUNNING. BUT THEY’RE GOING TO BE DOING AS MUCH SCIENCE AS THEY CAN ON THE WAY, TOO. NOW, MOST OF THE SCIENCE WILL PROBABLY BE SCIENCE ON THEMSELVES, SCIENCE ON THE HUMANS. BECAUSE WE’VE NEVER BEEN IN THAT DEEP SPACE CONDITION FOR THAT LONG BEFORE. THERE’S ALSO-- YOU KNOW, WE’VE ACTUALLY BEEN TALKING ABOUT THEM DOING ASTRONOMY ALONG THE WAY. SO, THERE WILL BE REAL SCIENCE THAT THEY ACCOMPLISH, NOT JUST TRYING TO STAY HEALTHY. >> DO WE HAVE A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF HOW, YOU KNOW, THE SKY, I GUESS, WILL LOOK ON THAT TRANSIT TO MARS? WILL YOU BE ABLE TO SEE A LOT OF DIFFERENT STARS? >> YEAH. IN FACT, THAT’S ALL YOU’LL BE ABLE TO SEE. >> ALL RIGHT, COOL! BECAUSE I GUESS THE VIEWS-- >> BECAUSE THE EARTH IS GOING TO BECOME A LITTLE BLUE DOT VERY QUICKLY. >> YEAH. >> AND MARS WILL STILL BE OUR LITTLE RED DOT OUT THE OTHER WINDOW. >> SUN’S GETTING SMALLER AND SMALLER. >> YEAH, THE SUN IS JUST A KIND OF A BIGGER STAR IN THE SKY, AND EVERYTHING ELSE IS JUST STARS. >> AMAZING. BUT WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT WEIGHT, RIGHT? THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT. HOW MUCH STUFF CAN WE BRING WITH US ON THAT JOURNEY TO MARS? >> JUST ENOUGH. THAT’S HOW MUCH WE CAN BRING. >> SO NOW I’M GUESSING TELESCOPES IS PART OF THAT JUST ENOUGH. >> RIGHT. >> OH, YEAH. >> YEAH. IN SPACE, IN THE HUMAN SPACE TRAVEL, MASS IS ALMOST EQUAL TO COST, RIGHT? >> YEAH. >> SO, YOU KNOW, FOR EVERY BIT OF MASS YOU ADD, YOU’RE ADDING COST, BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO BOOST IT INTO SPACE AND GET IT TO WHERE YOU NEED TO GET IT. SO, EVERYTHING WE DO IS ALL ABOUT SAVING MASS. IN THE APOLLO MISSIONS, THEY ACTUALLY SAWED THE HANDLE OFF OF TOOTHBRUSHES TO SAVE MASS. >> WOW. >> HUH! >> JUST BECAUSE MASS WAS SO PRECIOUS BACK THEN. >> UNBELIEVABLE. >> THEY FIGURE YOU COULD USE A TOOTHBRUSH THAT HAS A LITTLE ONE INCH HANDLE ON IT AS GOOD AS YOU CAN USE A TOOTHBRUSH THAT HAS A SIX INCH HANDLE ON IT. >> WOW. >> WOW, THAT’S AMAZING. THAT’S CHECK-IN LUGGAGE, RIGHT THERE. >> YEAH. A LITTLE BIT STRICTER RESTRICTIONS THAN THE TSA, I THINK, FOR SPACE FLIGHT. >> YEAH, YEAH. >> ANY MORE DYING QUESTIONS BEFORE WE WRAP UP? >> I DON’T HAVE ANYTHING-- I DON’T KNOW IF I HAVE ANYTHING PERTINENT TO EITHER OF YOU GUYS, BECAUSE I THINK THE THING THAT IMPRESSED ME TODAY, AGAIN, WAS WHEN DAN WAS TALKING ABOUT HOW MUCH EXERCISE. LIKE YOU WERE SAYING, YOU HAVE TO ARRIVE THERE HEALTHY. IT JUST GOT ME THINKING A LOT ABOUT HOW MUCH WE-- OUR BODIES CHANGE WHEN WE’RE AWAY FROM THIS PLANET, AND OVER SUCH A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. AND THAT GETS ME THINKING ABOUT, WELL, WHAT WILL HUMANITY LOOK LIKE? HOW WOULD-- WHAT WILL WE BE LIKE ONCE WE’VE SPENT A FEW YEARS SOMEWHERE ELSE? LIKE, IT COULD ACTUALLY PHYSICALLY CHANGE US INCREDIBLY. ONE OF THE GOOD THINGS I HEARD IS APPARENTLY YOUR WRINKLES GO AWAY. >> THAT’S GOOD. >> BUT I MEAN, AS A SPECIES, IT ACTUALLY WILL CHANGE US. >> YEAH, I THINK IF WE-- IF THERE’S PEOPLE WHO ACTUALLY ARE BORN AND LIVE ON MARS, WITHIN A FEW GENERATIONS, YEAH, YOU WILL BE CHANGED BECAUSE YOU’RE LIVING IN A LOWER GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT YOUR ENTIRE LIFE AND-- SURE. >> MIGHT EVEN DEVELOP IMMUNITIES TO SOME OF THE THINGS THAT YOU WERE TALKING ABOUT EARLIER, GLENN, BUT, YOU KNOW, CERTAIN THINGS-- I DON’T KNOW. I’M JUST SPITBALLING HERE. >> YEAH! >> IF I HAD A CHANCE, I’LL TALK TO MY GREAT-GREAT-GREAT-GRANDSON ONE DAY, AND I’LL ASK HIM THE QUESTION. >> YEAH, GOOD! >> YEAH, AWESOME. WELL, GUYS, IT’S BEEN AN ABSOLUTE PLEASURE TO BOTH TALK TO YOU AS A PART OF THIS PODCAST, BUT ALSO HAVE YOU HERE TODAY AND KIND OF SHOW YOU EVERYTHING THAT WE’RE DOING. AND IT’S JUST SO EXCITING TO SEE HOW ENGAGED YOU WERE AND TO-- YOU KNOW, IT’S BEEN A REAL ABSOLUTE PLEASURE. AND, OF COURSE, JOHN AND GLENN, THANKS FOR TALKING ABOUT THE REAL SCIENCE THAT WE’RE DOING HERE AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER. >> THANK YOU FOR HAVING US. >> THANKS FOR ASKING US. >> ABSOLUTELY. >> IT WAS UNFORGETTABLE. [ MUSIC ] [ INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER ] >> NOT BECAUSE THEY ARE EASY, BUT BECAUSE THEY ARE HARD. >> HOUSTON, WELCOME TO SPACE. >> HEY, THANKS FOR STICKING AROUND. SO TODAY WE TALKED WITH GLENN LUTZ, JOHN CONNOLLY, AND SOME OF THE MEMBERS OF STYX, JUST ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS AND HUMAN EXPLORATION. IT WAS A FANTASTIC CONVERSATION, AS YOU PROBABLY KNOW, BECAUSE YOU’VE LISTENED TO THE WHOLE THING AT THIS POINT. BUT IF YOU GO TO NASA.GOV ON THE FRONT PAGE YOU CAN SEE ALL OF THE THINGS THAT WE’RE EXPLORING, ALL THE PLACES WE ARE IN THE UNIVERSE, BOTH ROBOTIC MISSIONS AND HUMAN MISSIONS. IF YOU WANT TO KNOW JUST ABOUT EXPLORING THE COSMOS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN EXPLORATION, GO TO NASA.GOV/JOHNSON. WE ARE THE CENTER FOR HUMAN EXPLORATION WITHIN NASA. SO YOU CAN FIND ALL OF THE HUMAN MISSIONS THERE. ON SOCIAL MEDIA, WE’RE VERY ACTIVE, SO JUST FOLLOW US ON ANY OF THE ACCOUNTS ON FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, SNAPCHAT-- ANY OF THOSE GUYS. LOOK FOR NASA. AND IF YOU’RE LOOKING FOR THE STORY OF HUMAN EXPLORATION, LOOK FOR NASA JOHNSON. YOU CAN ALSO USE THE HASHTAG #ASKNASA ON ANY ONE OF THE PLATFORMS AND SUBMIT A QUESTION OR IDEA FOR AN EPISODE THAT WE SHOULD DO IN THE FUTURE. YOU CAN ALSO USE THE HASHTAG #HWHAP -- H-W-H-A-P FOR “HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PODCAST.” THIS PODCAST WAS RECORDED ON JULY 28th. THANKS TO ALEX PERRYMAN, JOHN STOLL, JENNY KNOTTS, AND JEANIE AQUINO. AND THANKS AGAIN TO MR. GLENN LUTZ AND MR. JOHN CONNOLLY, AS WELL AS MR. TOMMY SHAW AND MR. LAWRENCE GOWEN FROM STYX FOR COMING ON THE SHOW. WE’LL BE BACK NEXT WEEK.

  4. hwhap_Ep30_Infamous Meteorites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-01

    Gary Jordan (Host): Houston, We Have A Podcast. Welcome to the official podcast of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Episode 30, Infamous Meteorites. I'm Gary Jordan, and I'll be your host today. So on this podcast, we bring in the experts, NASA scientists, engineers, astronauts, all to let you know the coolest stuff about what's going on right here at NASA. So today, we're talking about some of the more unique findings that have been discovered in meteorites with David Mittlefehldt, goes by Duck. He's a planetary scientist here at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and we had a great discussion about curious findings in meteorites, and the adventures that are endured to procure them. So, with no further delay, let's go lightspeed and jump right ahead to our talk with Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt. Enjoy! [ Music & Radio Transmissions ] Host: Duck, thanks for coming to the podcast today. I know we've -- we've talked about searching for life and meteorites before, and it's -- it's such a fascinating topic, but I really wanted to dive deeper, just into like the meteorites portion. We really -- we really actually had a great conversation with Dr. Aaron Burton and -- and Dr. Marc Fries, not too long ago, actually, about life, but really just about the meteorites themselves. There's a -- there's a big story there, and you're one of the explorers that are going down and actually finding these meteorites, huh? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, yeah. I've done that on a number of occasions. Host: Yeah. And it's -- is it -- is it mostly in Antarctica, or are you going other places? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, okay, so most of the times I've been searching for meteorites has been in Antarctica, so I've been down there five times, meteorite collecting expeditions, but I -- I've [pause] -- I was on vacation in Israel once, and I met up with a couple of geologists at a coffee house, and one of them had just published a paper where they -- he described, you know, old surfaces in the deserts of southern Israel that are, you know, have been stable for about 2 million years. And I'm thinking, you know, over 2 million years, you can accumulate a lot of meteorites, so, I actually went there the foll -- later that year, and met up with them again, and we searched some of these areas that are -- have very ancient pavements on the desert, and hunting for meteorites. We didn't find any, unfortunately, and, you know, I'm not quite sure why, there -- there should have been some there, but, you know, it was a small team searching large area over short time, so it may well be that they're there, but we just didn't find any, because the ones that, you know, are there are small. The other is there were a number of issues with that particular location. Meteorites, you know, when we find meteorites, they're typically black on the outside, because they've gone through the atmosphere and they're covered with this glassy, fusion crust, which is almost always black. The area we had searched in southern Israel actually had a number of dark rocks in it, as well. So, you know, the meteorites, if they were there, would not have stood out as -- like -- like, you know, the beacons that you see when you're in Antarctica, scooting across the bare ice, so. Host: I guess that -- is that the main reason why Antarctica is such a great place to find meteorites? Is because it's these black rocks against white snow? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, that certainly makes it easy, because [Gary laughing] you -- you can see, you know, a rock, I'm going to use metric units because that's what I'm used to, I'll try and remember to throw in inches and feet as I can, but, so, you know, you can find a -- a black rock, a couple of centimeters across or about an inch across, from a great distance in Antarctica on the ice. And -- and, as you say, it's because you're looking at either pale blue ice or sometimes white snow, most of the meteorites we find are on the pale blue ice. But even so, it's very bright in comparison to rock. So they're easy to find there. The other thing is in Antarctica, we have a convenient concentration mechanism, which is the actual flow and ablation of the ice across the continent, and where we go to find them the meteorites is -- is actually in locations where the ice movement has been stalled, and ablation by the Antarctic winds and -- and warming by the Antarctic sun, allow a lag deposit to develop on the surface. So we're actually collecting meteorites that have been, you know, shoved from a great geographic area and then left behind in a smaller geographic area. So we have, you know, base -- we have both the easy-to-spot and -- and the concentration mechanism working in our favor. Host: Alright! Yeah, they're -- they're plentiful down there. So -- so you made quite a few trips. How many was it? You said five? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, I've been down five times. The first time was in the '97, '98 field season. That was my first Antarctic experience, and I loved it so much I kept volunteering to go back again. Host: You loved Antarctica? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Oh yeah [Gary laughing], I -- I love it, you know, just -- just last week, well, here in Houston, we had temperatures that Houstonians think of, or Texans think of as cold, but, me, I see that as maybe a cold fall day. Because I -- I was born and raised in western New York. Host: Alright. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And at the same time, you know, my hometown was getting temperatures, okay, again, I've got to do some conversion here, about maybe, you know, between 0 and 5 degrees Fahrenheit. And, you know, that was the weather I grew up in winter, and I loved it. Winter was always my favorite season when I was a kid. Alright. So maybe it's a deep love of winter that really -- because I just came from this -- we're just coming back from the holidays now, and it was -- it was negative 2 in Pittsburgh when I -- when I was flying home, and, I mean, I was -- I was born and raised in Pennsylvania, moved around a lot, but I'm not used to it by any means. Like, I like the -- I like the, everyone, you know, saying, oh my gosh, 32 is really cold! And I'm like, [laughing], I'm okay with just that. Host: For me, I -- I loved the deep winter in western New York. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Alright, a lot of snow there too. Host: So when was the last time you were down in Antarctica then? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So I was down last year, 2016, 2017, it was kind of a disappointment for me, personally. Host: Oh. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: I -- I -- because of my experience, I've been down four times before, I -- I left early and was going to go out on a recon sweep with the -- the mountaineer field safety officer for the ANSMET program. ANSMET, by the way, stands for Antarctic Search for Meteorites, and that's the program that goes down to collect the rocks and has been doing so every year, but once, since 1976. Host: Alright! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: But, anyway, because of my experience, I was going to go down on this recon before the main season. We were going to go to one area, check it out for potential systematic work in a future season, and then stay for the first half of the main season, going to a location deep along the Antarctic, transAntarctic mountains. Well, it turns out logistics were badly broken last year. And partly because of weather, partly because of problems with the aircraft and so on, so I got out into the field for a week, in preseason, I got back to McMurdo Station while we were gearing up for the main season, but the logistics just broke and so they were not going to go out where they originally planned. The team ended up going to where I had been out on recon, but it was -- they got such a late start that it made more sense to ship me home early rather than, you know, go out for maybe a week and then come back into McMurdo and go home. Host: Yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So I -- I just spend one week out in the field last year. Host: Ahh... Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Much -- much to my chagrin. Host: [Laughing] So it was just the lack of time that you spent there, that was really the disappointment. Yeah, yeah, it was [inaudible] time, and, you know, in the brief time that John Scott [phonetic] and I, he's the mountaineer, were out on the ice, you know, we -- we'd spend a week in the field, two and a half days we were tent-bound because the weather was so bad, but even so, we found 46 meteorites in the short time we were there. Host: That's amazing! Yeah. Host: Wow. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And -- and remind -- and remember, this was an area that had been heavily harvested back in the 80's, 70's and 80's, we were going to back to see whether there was still great potential for harvesting more meteorites there, and, in fact, I think last year they ended up coming -- picking up a total of 200 and some meteorites, even with, you know, going back to an area that had been searched before, and having a shortened season because the logistics. So, I mean, that -- that kind of shows you the -- the quality of Antarctica as a -- as a site for bringing back space rocks. It's just awesome! Host: Incredible! So is -- is that -- is it because there's just a fresh, I guess you could call it, supply of meteorites that are landing on the surface of Antarctica, or is it things are shifting? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: It's more things are shifting. In part, you know, deflation of the surface continues, as ablation goes on, and so new meteorites are poking through. In part, it's shifting winds blowing snow around, so an area that might have been snow covered earlier season, maybe now has been stripped bare and there's bare ice. And so that allows you to see things. So for a variety of reasons, you can go back to the same place you've searched once, and -- and still find meteorites out there. Host: Incredible. And hundreds of them, a little bit better than Israel, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah [laughter]. Might have been better than my experience trying to find meteorites in the Negev Desert. Host: [Laughing] So -- so you're saying a season. When you're going down to Antarctica, I'm assuming it's the summer there, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, it's austral summer. Host: Yeah. So that means the sun is up 24/7, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Right. Host: So you kind of have to deal with that when you're -- when you're down there, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, you know, I've -- I've become accustomed to that. The first -- I was kind of -- there was a guy who used to work in our building who had been down I think a year or two before me, so I took advice from him, and he said, you know, one of the things is, you know, with the constant sunlight, sometimes sleep can be a problem. So I bought a heavy, black knit hat, and, you know, I just put that on as my sleep hat, and then pulled the brim over my eyes, and so everything was black. So I -- I could sleep fine down there. Host: Oh, nice! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: But the, you know, the main advantage is that because the sun's up 24/7, you're not really bound by the 9 to 5 time sequence. Host: Oh, yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, as I said, when we -- when I was out last year in the -- in the recon site, we were there for a week, you know, we -- we landed, got our gear, and then went, spent a half a day out, then the -- the winds blew in, it was too windy and cold to go out, so the winds broke around noon one day, or a little bit after noon. We decided we would have an early supper and then go out and collect -- harvest meteorites. So that day, we ended up getting out of the tents maybe 5 o'clock in the evening, and we worked about till 30, 2 in the morning. Host: Woah! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: The sun was up, it was perfectly fine, it was just my age and body crapping out at 30 [Gary laughing]. I, you know, I just couldn't pick up another meteorite if -- if they beat me with a stick. You know, I was just so tired. But then, you know, that's -- that's something you can do down there that you can't do here. Host: Yeah, did you know the hours were going by, or did you have no sense of time with the -- with the sun being up? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, you know, you can trace the sun, if you pay attention, you can get a sense of the day, because the sun does a lazy loop in the sky, and... Host: Oh. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt:...and so, you know, once you've located yourself, you know where north, south is, [pause] there is still north and south, even that close to the pole. Host: Yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: But, you know, you know at midnight, the sun is going to be, you know -- you know, at one -- at the one position, so. Host: Right. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And it's kind of at the lowest point far north, and so, you know, you can track it that way, but basically I didn't pay attention. We were just so busy, you know, driving from place to place harvesting meteorites that, you know, it was just constantly moving, doing the next one, taking the data, collecting it, you know, cleanly and safely and getting it in the bag and moving on to the next location. Host: Oh, so are you -- are you not -- you're not stationary then when you -- when you kind of set up camp. Are you -- are you kind of mobile, like with your camp, and you just move it from one meteorite site? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: No, no. Host: Oh, okay. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: The camp is usually -- there are a couple -- there are a couple of ways that it is done. When we do systematic searching, the camp is stationary in one spot, perhaps for the whole field season, and you just go out, day-to-day, to different locations. And that's what we did here. We were on recon, so we -- we plunked the tent down, then we searched within easy skidoo range of the camp. Sometimes, and I've done this before, go down on a recon time, where -- where you go and you put camp down, you might prospect an area for two, three weeks, then you move camp to another area and prospect there for two or three weeks. So, there -- there are -- those -- there are those two types of scenarios, and even in the recon mode, you know, you're -- the tent -- the camp is stationary for two or three weeks, and you're skidooing all around that area to -- to search it, and then you only pick up tents and camp and move to a far distant area to recon that general region. Host: Alright! Alright, well I'm guessing, you know, going down there so many times, you're quite an expert in making sure that, you know, you can survive weeks and weeks and weeks in Antarctica. So, what are the -- some of the stuff that you're taking down there that I guess are unique to the Antarctic environment? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Okay, so, most of the gear you get, you get in Christchurch, so, you know, living in Houston, I don't have a winter coat. Host: Oh! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, at -- at the clothing distribution center in Christchurch, you'll get outkitted -- outfitted with, you know, heavy -- heavy jackets, all the gloves you can want, thermal pants, fleece liners, boots, hats, everything you need to survive, and then in McMurdo Station, you actually get the camping gear, the tents, the cook stoves, the dishes, the food, sleeping bags, that sort of stuff. So all -- all the intrepid Antarctic explorer needs to take down with them are personal items, like I mentioned my knit hat, that -- that was mine, and that was because I knew I wanted something to sleep in. I, you know, I bought extra pairs of thermal underwear, because the first time I went down, you know, they -- they give you two sets, but you're out in the field for six or seven weeks, so you want to change, you know, once in a while. [Gary laughing] Other than that, you know, my glasses are prescription, and so I buy glasses that transition dark and sunlight, so I can just, you know, wear my normal glasses out on the skidoo, I have actually bought glacier glasses, so I have side shields and whatnot to block the light. You want to -- one of the things that really is critical down there is to block all light from your eyeballs, you know, other than what gets filtered through a dark lens, because, otherwise, snow blindness is a problem. Host: Oh, that's right! It's so bright down there, right? Yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So I do that, but, otherwise, you know, most of the gear they give you, they loan it to you for the time that you're out there, and -- and so, you know, you could survive on just what you get from the Antarctic program down in Antarctica. It wouldn't necessarily be entirely comfortable wearing the same clothes, you know, for seven weeks, but you could do it. Host: [Laughing] So -- so your -- this Antarctic program, that -- that's ANSMET, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Right. Host: Okay, so what's the -- what's the relationship between ANSMET and NASA, and how that all works together? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, originally, ANSMET was set up as a three agency agreement. So the -- the -- it was funded -- the actual Antarctic search for meteorites was funded through the National Science Foundation, because they have -- they do the scientific research in Antarctica. NASA funded the curation and allocation of meteorite samples here at NASA Johnson Space Center, and then the Smithsonian Institution did the initial classification and was the long-term repository for the meteorites collected in Antarctica. That, since -- since then, they've changed it, and now NASA actually funds the Antarctic, the ANSMET research component. NSF still supplies the logistics, but NASA pays NSF for those, those logistics, because they -- they are the, I mean, they have all the logistics in Antarctica. And -- and the rocks still go, ultimately, to the Smithsonian, a chip for initial classification, and rocks that are no longer actively being researched by scientists in the world end up being permanently curated at the Smithsonian Institution. So that is -- that is still the way things are run. Host: Alright. So -- so is the ones that people are researching, and actively studying, are all of them housed here at the Johnson Space Center? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yes. With some exceptions. We don't have the necessary facilities to easily deal with metal-rich meteorites. So iron meteorites, stony iron meteorites, automatically go, ah, nope, I'm going to pull that back. Iron meteorites automatically go to the Smithsonian Institution. Because they are equipped for -- to cut metal and -- and make samples available. We do do the stony meteorites here, I forgot about that, because I've gotten some from here. So those that have a significant stony component are still worked on here until they become no longer of scientific interest. But, you know, even though they go to the Smithsonian for permanent curation, they're -- they're not dead to science, so to speak. So I can request samples that have been housed at Johnson Space Center for years, and now transfer -- transformed permanently to the Smithsonian if -- if I find, you know, an interesting project to do on one of these old samples. And I actually have gotten, in the past, some samples from the Smithsonian that were originally from the Antarctic collection. Host: Wow. So back in Antarctica, when you're looking at these meteorites and you're trying to, you know, figure out what they are, are they, you know, more stony, more metal-rich, what are you using to -- to look at them, to find out more about them and say, yes, that's a meteorite that I want to get my hands on? How do you know what's the good stuff? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Uh, decades of experience. Host: There you go [laughing]. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, I, you know, I can look at a rock in Antarctica, and I can already make a preliminary classification. Sometimes I'm wrong, and -- and, you know, the guy who has more experience than anyone is -- is our mountaineer field safety officer, John Scott, and, you know, he -- he can look at a rock, and, in many cases, give a pretty good guess as to what it's going to turn out to be. And, you know, I can do that with a lot of different types of rocks, especially those that I'm interested in, but all in all, there -- there are always those meteorites that come back that either no one has ever seen before, because it's totally new, or it's enough different from the norm for that class that it just doesn't -- doesn't appear to be what you think it is, in hand sample. So, and we don't -- and we don't, you know, in Antarctica, we don't do anymore than a very high-level classification. Yes, this is a stony meteorite, it's probably a chondrite, this is probably a carbonaceous chondrite, this is probably an achondrite, which is a type of meteorite that's been melted. This is probably a stony iron, an iron, and so forth. And, to some extent, we need to do that because certain types of meteorites have more scientific value than others. So -- so, for example, a very primitive carbonaceous chondrite is -- is probably going to get a lot of research attention when it's announced. And so we collect those in a special way to try and minimize contamination by organic compounds. And that's why we need to be able to say, oh, yeah, you know, stand back from this guy, we need to treat him differently than -- than this one over here. Host: Alright. And then, obviously, you know, knowing where to ship it too, right? Because some of the metals one have to go the Smithsonian...? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So that -- no, that's all done here. Everything is shipped here to Johnson Space Center. Host: Oh, everything comes here, okay. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And -- but the difference is when they -- when they open some that are listed in the -- in the notes as probably being iron meteorites, they -- they will warm them up in the dry nitrogen cabinets, look at them, and if they agree, you know, they'll do an external description, you know, this is a brown rock, you know, 10 centimeters in size and weigh so much, and we don't see anything in it, you know, out of the ordinary, from the outside, then the whole thing will -- then that whole rock will get shipped to the Smithsonian at that point, and there, they'll cut it open with a wire saw, if it's, you know, indeed, probably metal, and then make a polished mount and etch it to bring out the texture and so forth. Host: Alright! And then that's what you mean by the facilities, right? They have the -- the proper facilities to do that. So what about here? What kinds of equipment and facilities do we have to make sure that we're handling all of this properly? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, in the meteorite processing lab, we have [pause] -- we use tools of a very limited set of composition. So, typically, stainless steel hammers and chisels, and -- and the reason is, you know, no matter what we do with a rock from space, we're going to contaminate with something from earth. So the object is to, one, minimize that contamination. So we use materials that we know are not going to, you know, just shed particles everywhere, for example, but also if we -- we use always the tools of the same -- of a given composition so that we know that if we see something like this in the rock, oh yeah, that must have come from the tool. And, you know, I've seen this, rocks are hard to break, and so, you know, your -- your choices are to saw them open or to use a hammer and chisel, and I have seen on a rock that I've gotten, a flake from the chisel that rubbed off. Metal, you know, it's soft, even hardened steel will rub off on occasion. So, you know, I can see this, I can pull that contaminant off or isolate it, in the lab, but, you know, I know then I can do a simple test, yes, that's from the chisel, I don't have to worry about that. I've taken care of it, the rest of the sample is fine. So the object is to minimize contamination or to know what the potential contaminants are. And, you know, there's no way you know of getting -- there's -- with modern technology, we can't, you know, we don't have magnetic levitation devices that we then use a laser to slice them open cleanly. You know, we -- we do with what we got. This isn't Star Trek here yet. Host: [Laughing] We'll just stick with the hammer and chisel for now. So, I mean, when you're cutting these open, and you open them up, what -- what are you looking at? Are you looking at just the rock or are you taking even smaller chunks of that? How is that working? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, that all depends on the question that you're trying to answer, and I've done both where I've asked for samples of a, what's called a bulk sample of the rock, so something as representative of the entire rock as possible, and I've looked for individual class in the rock, little fragments that are of a specific type within the rock. All of this is basic 19th century geology, in many respects. You know, in the 19th century, geologists would go out in the field with their hammers, they'd -- they'd beat on a rock and use a hands lens to look at the microscopic, yeah, microscopic texture, mineralogy in it, and, you know, a trained geologist can do the same with a meteorite, and say, yeah, okay, I can see -- I can see what this is, it's a certain type of rock type in there, and that's what I want, I don't want this part over here. So, you know, the traditional geologic methods,but with modern equipment, can be used, and -- and, you know, there's -- there's nothing like the human eye in the brain for sorting out who's who in the zoo. Host: [Laughing] So then how can you -- what -- what are some of the key differences for the -- for the non-geologically-trained eye for whenever you're looking at a rock and you can, you know, you cut it open and you look and you say, that's a meteorite, that's not from earth? Or, this is definitely from earth? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Okay, the -- the first key is -- - is fusion crust. I mentioned this earlier. Host: Oh yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And that -- that's where, going through the atmosphere, friction with the air causes the outer surface to melt, and actually, you know, little bits are flying off all the time, the meteorite we get on the surface is just a small piece of what entered the atmosphere. Most -- sometimes the vast majority of it just ablated away in the atmosphere into little droplets or dust. Host: Wow. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, you know, if you see a fusion crust on the rock, right away, you know it's -- it's a meteorite, you don't have to go any farther than that. In terms of determining what type it is, more primitive meteorites, these are a type that still have textures and mineralogy that were inherited from condensation and accretion in the solar nebula, that's where individual mineral grains formed out of a gas that -- that was the nebula before the planets were around. And -- and then they glomerate together, these mineral grains, and in the -- in the solar nebula, the dust grains banged, you know, got melted into little, tiny objects which we call chondrules. So, these typical textures are plainly evident to the human eye, even without a microscope. But, you know, with a very low-power microscope you can see them quite easily. Most meteorites, especially primitive ones, contain iron metal, it's actually iron nickel metal. You know, you don't find that on earth except when humans have been involved in -- in smelting iron ore. But so iron metal in a -- in a rock is kind of an indicator that it's quite likely from outer space. Very few occurrences on earth of native metal in a rock. And then, as I said, in the dust in the solar nebula, went through periods of melting and formation of these little, round globules of basically melt globules, which we call chondrules, and -- and from that, we get the name chondrite for these primitive rocks. Well, those stand out in, you know, if you break open a rock, depending on -- on the type, you know, you can see those quite easily, and -- and that's a key. Host: And these have never -- they've been in space for all of time, right? They were formed in space and traveling through space, they've never -- they're not like from another planet or another, like, chipped off another...? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, most...no, actually, all meteorites, the only way we get meteorites is for bad things to happen in the asteroid belt. Most meteorites are from asteroids, and when they collide, little fragments get knocked off, and it's -- it's from these fragments that we get meteorites. So they were originally on much larger bodies, I mean, much larger meaning asteroid size, not planet size. Host: Okay. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And they were broken up and then distributed to the earth. You know, one of the, sorry, I'm going to -- I'm going to sort of go back into -- and get into my way back machine and go back to when I was a grad student. Host: Please do! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: When I -- you know, when I first started learning about meteorites, one of the mysteries at the time was there was a group of chondrite meteorites called the L chondrites, L was just the name, you know, the -- the name applied to them. That had ages on the order of 500 million years, and this was really odd, because all meteorites are about four and a half billion years old. Well these, they -- they -- these meteorites were originally about four and a half million -- billion years old, but were somehow affected by an event that reset the ages about 500 million years ago. Host: Woah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And so, you know, this was, you know, just kind of an anomaly. We knew something bad had happened to an asteroid then, about that time, well, fast forward to, I think the 90's, a Swedish geologist started finding in terrestrial sediments fossil meteorites. And, you know, all that's left is a few mineral grains. You -- you can tell, they were found in fine grain limestone, you know, formed on an ocean floor, and all that you could see was this halo of odd stuff, please a few mineral grains that remained from the original meteorite. Well, you know, this guy, and his compadres, studied these mineral grains and they -- they found out they were from the same type of meteorite as these chondrites that were about 500 million years old, and they were in layers in the rock of the earth that were about that age. So, sometime, 500 million years ago, you know, a couple of asteroids collided, and a whole rain of meteorites of this type hit the earth at about, you know, within a few million years when that occurred, and we can find them now. This layer in Sweden that's just chock full of these fossil meteorites. And, you know, to me, that's one of these really neat kind of science stories. Where everything starts tying together. And then to get even further, astronomers looking at what they call asteroid families, so they -- they find an asteroid, they find a whole bunch in orbits similar to it, spectroscopically, they all look to be about the same, and so they -- they figure out, well, these are all, you know, fragments of something that broke apart. Well, they found an asteroid that they figure, you know, based on the spectroscopy, it could be this type of, you know, that formed these L chondrites, and the -- they calculate the age of the family based on dispersion of the fragments, and it's about 500 million years. So, you know, between, you know, meteorite scientists, terrestrial geologists, and astronomers, we -- we've kind of got a neat picture of somehow, you know, about the time of dawn of -- of multicellular life on earth, two asteroids smashed together, and rained down on the earth, and we're still finding fragments coming down to earth now that we can confidently date when this happened in terrestrial laboratories. It's just kind of one of these things that, you know, I find fascinating! Host: [Laughing] I find it -- I mean, a lot of this is over my head, because I don't have the same background as you, but I just find it fascinating that you can look at these rocks and -- and get a story, get a story out of it, you know? Like the story of two asteroids around the time that cellular life was developing coming down to earth and raining down in these locations and telling their story, that's fantastic! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, and multicellular. So this is when... Host: Multicellular. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: This is when, you know, fossils, shortly after the time when fossils started becoming really abundant in the terrestrial record. Host: Wow. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, yeah, it's just a neat story, and, you know, basically I think that's what got me into geology, originally, was, you know, all you've got is -- is a rock on the surface and somehow you can, you know, if you're smart enough and -- and do the right work, you can start to piece together an entire story of what the earth was like at that time, and so, you know, that's kind of what drew me into geology. Host: That's fantastic. I love it! Especially from -- from my background, marketing and journalistic sort of background, the story telling aspect is just fascinating to me. And that's kind of like, that, you know, the title of this episode is going to be, Infamous Meteorites, and that's kind of like what I really wanted to dive into is, you know, we've talked about where you're finding these meteorites, and then what you're doing with then, you're actually cracking them open and studying them, but then what are you finding? What are you finding inside of these meteorites? What stories? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah. Well, exactly! Host: Yeah, so, you know, one of the ones that I know that was brought to my attention was one of them called Allan Hills, and -- I'm going to -- is it 84001, or do you call it by something else? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: No, I call it that. Host: 84001? Okay. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Sometimes it's simply referred to as that rock. Host: [Laughing] Because it's that infamous, huh? Wow! Alright, so what's the story behind -- behind this rock? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Okay, so, this came -- this was found in Antarctica in 1984. And it -- it's [pause] -- it was originally classified as a -- as a type of asteroidal igneous rock that I, at the time, I was studying those -- those types of rocks. You know, my -- my background is heavily-weighted towards an interest in magnetic processes on the earth, the moon, Mars, and asteroids, and -- and so that's why this one was particularly of interest to me. So, I was studying that, along with a bunch of others, that were thought to be basically the same classification of rock, and, unfortunately, Allan Hill's had some puzzling features in it that were -- were a little bit off normal for -- for that rock type. But not so much so that I -- I really stayed up at night worrying about it. Host: [Gary laughing] Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And so I wrote a paper on -- on this group of rocks, finally, and sent it in, and one of the reviewers said, well, you know, you point out that there's this anomaly in this rock, and you really ought to try and chase down why it's -- what's going on there, why it's different. And, you know, being a -- a moderately good scientist, I said, okay. I, you know, he has pointed out, it's a problem, I knew it was a problem, but now I've really got to do something about it. So I started working at it, and, honestly, I -- I could not find out what was wrong with this particular rock. It -- it -- there was one mineral phase in it just did not match what anyone would expect for the class. Quite by chance, I got another sample of that rock for another reason. And but it really wasn't the sample I had asked for. So there was as mixup in the thin section. So a thin section is a very thin slice of a rock, it's about 30 microns thick, doubly polished on both sides, and it's used by people who look through microscopes to look at the minerals and textures in a rock, and then you can put that section into an electron microprobe and actually do analyses of the mineral phases in it. Host: Wow. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And so I was -- that's what I was interested in. And this particular rock, which I thought I had, I was interested in the composition of sulfide phases in the rock. So I put the sample in the electron microprobe without actually looking at it in the microscope first, because I had seen this rock before, I knew what it was like, I knew what to expect, I just went straight to the electron microprobe, which actually probably was good because I may have turned the rock in and asked for a different one otherwise. But I'm getting -- I'm looking at it in the microprobe, looking for the mineral phases I'm looking for, and they just really aren't there in the abundance that I expected. Finally I found a grain and I'm -- I'm banging at it with the electron beam, collecting compositions, and the compositions weren't making sense. I was expecting it to be, so I was looking for sulfide phases, so I was expecting to have iron monosulfide, so one iron, one sulfur atom, and the composition that was coming out just was not right. And I checked the calibration, the calibration was perfect, so what's going on? I was looking at the data, not in atoms, but in mass, so weight percent. So when I converted it to atoms, I realized I had two sulfur atoms for every iron atom instead of one, and that's when it hit me what was wrong with this rock. I then backed off, looked at the -- looked at the texture in more detail in the electron microprobe, and realized I had a sample of Allan Hill's, not the meteorite that I thought I had, and I knew which type of rocks had pyrate, the iron disulfide, instead of the iron monosulfide, and I knew those were martian rocks. And so, you know, it was -- it was probably the most satisfying moment I've ever had in my life, excluding when my children were born, and -- and when I got married [Gary laughing], and if my wife listens to this, I hope she hears that, was, you know, suddenly it dawned on me that this was a martian rock that was totally unlike any other martian rock, except the key minerals were in it, and so, you know, it was just one of these aha moments that -- that you live for. And, you know, it was just so much fun. Host: Amazing. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: I tell you. Host: So what were those -- the key minerals? What -- what story did they tell? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So the key was because it had the iron disulfide pyrate instead of the iron monosulfide troite, I knew it was martian, and it was a rock type not known amongst the martian meteorites. So what it meant was we had a new type of martian rock that was going to tell us even more about the geologic evolution of Mars then we already knew. And, you know, all of this hit me within like a fraction of a second when I realized what it was. Host: Wow! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, I mean, I immediately recognized it, it was an, you know, important meteorite. And that it would tell us big things, and, in fact, you know, it has opened up a whole host of, you know, basically this rock ultimately became a founding member of what you might consider astrobiology, and that came when my colleagues here at Johnson Space Center, Dave McKay, Edward Gibson, and Kathie Thomas and now Simon Clemett is at it, and then there were Simon's dissertation advisors, Stanford was on the paper and several other people, you know, they -- they proposed that a certain both mineralogical and compositional and textural objects in this rock were possibly signs of microscopic life that existed on Mars at one point. Host: Wow. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And, you know, to some extent, then this really allowed the whole discipline of astrobiology to blossom because suddenly we had to figure out, you know, what -- how do we understand, how can we possibly search for life and other objects, other planets, you know, what do we need to look for? Because we're used to looking for life on earth, you know, it's -- it's simple. Just walking over here, I, you know, I had to wait while an opossum walked past me in front of, on the walkway. You know, life is everywhere on earth, whereas on Mars, you know, maybe it's not everywhere, and if it was there, how are we going to tell that it was there? What -- what do we need to do? So I would say the import of Allan Hill's not so much that it was hypothesized that life -- fossils of life are in that rock, but that it caused scientists to really take a much more rigorous look at how they will search for life other places of the universe. Host: Wow. And that's -- that's kind of, you know, like you said, the birth, maybe not the birth, but really the blossoming, and that was the word you used of, of astrobiology, life forming outside of earth. That's just a wild concept. How is that even possible? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, and, you know, the other thing is it did, it was a strong impetus to driving NASA's Mars exploration program, you know, it is -- - a lot of it is geared towards finding evidence for habitability locations on Mars, and, ultimately, you know, from locations where we think there may have been a chance for life, you know, bringing back or -- or studying in situ samples for possible evidence of microbial or -- or larger life on Mars. Host: Yeah, and you said you were, before we started recording, you said you actually were working with Opportunity too, one of the rovers on Mars. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah. I, in 2005, I got attached to the Mars Exploration Rover mission. At the time, we had two rovers going, one Spirit in Gusev Crater, and the other, Opportunity, in Meridiani Planum. Subsequently, Spirit froze to death one winter. Basically, so Spirit lost mobility of one of its wheels, so we were driving backwards, dragging one of the front wheels like a boat anchor through the soil... Host: Oh, man. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And we, you know, the Rover drivers and scientists are very careful. We drove over an area that looked like it was going to be solid, trafficable ground, but it turned out there was a basically a hardpan; layer on top of soil hardpan is kind of an indurated layer that's a little bit stiffer, so it didn't look like it was, you know, loose sand, but it turns out we broke through and got mired in a deep sandpit, basically, and we were unable to extract the rover from the sand, in spite of heroic efforts by the engineers, the Rover drivers at JPL, and the solar panel was tilted at a bad angle for, you know, the oncoming winter sun. So when the sun started getting lower and lower, relative to the tile of the -- of the solar panel, we -- we simply were not getting enough power to keep the rover going and although we tried to contact it again after that winter, we never heard from it again, so it basically just froze to death on Mars. Host: Oh, man, but is Opportunity its twin? Is it the... Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yep, Opportunity is it's twin. Host: And that one's still going, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And that one's still going. We're now so -- we're not -- what day is today? Host: The 8th. Yeah, we're now about two weeks away from the anniversary, the 16the anniversary of landing on Mars for Opportunity. Host: 14 years? Wow! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: It's still going strong, and we are still actively exploring the geology of Meridiani Planum. We don't have all the instruments we had when we landed, but we're still making great scientific discoveries, even with the limited rover ability. Host: How about that? So how is -- how was, you know, working with a rover on Mars different from looking at meteorites? Maybe even martian meteorites, like the Allan Hills, here on earth? How is that different? Well, so, you know, here on earth, I have the luxury of taking a sample into the lab and -- and using state-of-the-art scientific equipment to -- to tease out, tease out its story. On Mars, we have cameras that we can use to image the terrain. So right away, textures, and we have a microscopic camera, so textures allow us to, you know, make inferences about what the rock -- how the rock might have been formed. We have a camera with 13 color filters on it, so we can do some limited spectroscopy of the rock that helps us compare a limited set of mineralogical variations in the rocks, and then we have the alpha particle x-ray spectrometer, which allows us to do bulk compositions of surfaces. So, between them, we -- we can -- we can get a fairly good handle of the mineral -- well, mostly the textures and bulk composition, and, to some extent, neurology of a rock, and that helps us understand what processes might have formed the rock altogether. And, you know, to some extent, where Opportunity is a high-tech version of a 19th century terrestrial geologist. [Gary laughing] But, you know, the, obviously the spectrometer is better than what they had in the 19th century, and the chemical composition is as -- as good as we could do then and actually better for many elements, but we're still not at the cutting edge, as you -- as you could do if you had a, you know, a mobile laboratory up on Mars. Host: Yeah, definitely. And that's kind of your -- your trade-off, right? Is like, here, you know, you can bring into a lab with all the latest equipment and -- and study these meteorites, but, like you said before, like there's a certain amount of contamination that's going on with just the fact that a meteorite has come through the atmosphere and hit the -- hit the -- surface of the earth, you know, you have to deal with that, but then you have limited instruments right there on -- on Mars. So, I guess you just kind of have these tradeoffs [laughing]. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yep. Host: So another one that you mentioned, another infamous meteorite, was one called Orgueil, and that's one -- that one's much earlier than the Allan Hills one, right? Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So Orgueil fell in France in 1864, if I -- if I remember right, and what's key here is it's a -- it's a very primitive type of meteorite. It's a carbonaceous chondrite. The -- the two letter name for it is a CI carbonate -- chondrite. These are amongst the most primitive materials, primitive meteorites that we have for study. They're bulk compositions, basically are identical to what we see for the photosphere of the sun, excluding the most volatile elements like -- like helium, hydrogen, and oxygen and so forth, but if you could take the sun, you know, a cubic kilometer of the sun and condense out all the condensable matter, it would -- the composition would be very much like a carbonaceous, CI carbonaceous chondrite. So, these have always been the touchstone for understanding the chemical evolution of the solar system. They are our -- our basis for seeing who has varied from the original composition. But they're highly-altered, so they are almost completely made up of clays and other low-temperature alteration phases. So the original high-temperature phases have been replaced. So, at some point, these things were altered by water in their parent asteroid to the point where all that's left is -- is basically clay. This makes them [sigh] -- this made Orgueil susceptible to nefarious individual, tempting to prove something, what don't know, because we don't know who that individual was, but, you know, I would call Orgueil the Piltdown Man of meteorites. So Piltdown Man was -- was this fake fossil made in about 1912 I think to look like it had some of the attributes of an ape, but some of the attributes of a modern human, because someone that that's the way human evolution went, and they wanted to show that we had fossils that fit in within that theory. Well, Orgueil, at some point, was broken open, and it turns out, because this is clay, you can -- if you get it good and wet, you can kind of break it open like clay, and then they had stuffed in terrestrial seeds and plant fragments and coal, and then put it back together, and coated the outside with glue to make it look like it still had the fusion crust on it. Host: Oh my gosh! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And then this sample was sealed in a bell jar in a museum from 1864, so apparently it happened very early, we don't know who did it, or why, you know, what were they trying to accomplish by this? Because it was going to be sealed in a bell jar, you know, did they think someone was going to then take it out and look at it, I don't know, but this -- this came to light in 1960's then. Host: Oh! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And so, a well-known meteoriticist, by the name of Ed Anders, very famous, very smart man, he led a study that was published 100 years later, in 1964 in science, where he uncovered, you know, all of this forensic meteoritic work where he showed that, you know, the seeds were, you know, terrestrial seeds, the coal fragments were in there, that glue had been used to put it back together and make it look like it was whole, and -- and all of this, and -- and so that's why, you know, this is an infamous -- infamous meteorite for those who are in the know. Most people won't have heard of it, but, you know, like I said, it's kind of the Piltdown Man of meteoritics. Host: Wow! Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So someone had an agenda, they wanted -- they, for some reason, they wanted to show that life could form on an asteroid or -- or in space, or something, I don't know, but, obviously, they had -- they had some agenda when they did this. Host: Yeah, I know, but seeds and glue are not really a good way to convince people [laughter]. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: No. You know, back in the, you know, mid-19th century, you know, had it been opened up and studied then, maybe it would have caused quite a furor, but, as far as I know, this was only discovered in, you know, a century later. Host: Wow! A hundred years of people thinking this is some kind of like capsule of extraterrestrial life, how about that? So, you know, all of these kind of tell a story and, unfortunately, some of them, this [laughing] -- this particular one is a little bit of a lie, but, you know, we are cracking these open to search for evidence of -- of whatever we can find, right? Maybe -- maybe the formation of a planet, maybe the formation of solar system, maybe the formation of life. So, you know, what, in a perfect world, I guess, what would you like to do -- what would you like to study? What would you like to see and do to really maximize what you can find about learning more about our solar system and about life in the universe Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Well, I mean, that -- that's kind of a difficult question for a scientist to answer, because, you know, truth be told, we're all paid to pursue our hobbies, and so we all have our own hobby horses. So, as I -- as I mentioned, you know, my particular interests are in igneous processes, I, you know, on the earth, moon, Mars, asteroids, I -- I like magmatic rocks, and, you know, I couldn't tell you why, it's just the way I am [Gary laughing]. So, one of the things -- one of the things that's very curious about asteroidal igneous rocks is that asteroids were melted very early in the solar system, probably within a couple million years of the formation of the earliest-known solids in the solar system. So something had to heat up relatively small objects, maybe a few hundred kilometers, you know, 200 miles in -- or in radius, something like that, to the point where they were melted and then cooled down and then they completely shut off after that. So, it was a very, very intense heat source that acted early, died out, and then never came back. You know, we think we know what -- what caused this, but there, you know, and so the -- the leading contender is radioactive heating by a very short-lived isotope of aluminum. It has a half-life of about 730 million years, and so, and aluminum is a -- is a major element in rocks, so, if you -- if you accumulate an asteroid early enough, when there's this aluminum-27 still alive, you've, you know, -- you've then encapsulated a very potent heat source inside that rock. And so that's what we think happened, but, still, you know, we can admit, as scientists, we can imagine this process going on, but geology is always much more complicated than our imaginations. So there are things that I don't understand, things that, as far as I know, no one really understands about how asteroids went from being primitive objects that accumulated from minerals formed in the solar nebula to basically a molten ball that then crystallized out igneous magmatic rocks, similar to what we see on earth. I would desperately like to get, you know, be able to find out more about how -- what was going on, you know, what have we missed, because we, you know, we tend to think of things in -- in the simplest terms, you know, it was heated up, melted, crystallized, that's it, well, we know that -- that's not all the story. Host: Yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And I think all meteoriticists have, in the back of their minds, for their particular hobby horses, just things they don't quite understand. They know the -- the broader picture, but what are the finer details that went into -- to this. We -- we know we've got the basic story, but what are, you know, all the chapter and verse that go into this basic story? Host: Wow. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: So, you know, that's what drives me, and it's all -- it's all a matter of, you know, learning something new that -- that, you know, pushes forth human knowledge. You know, what I do is -- is nowhere near applied science. It's pure basic science. So I can't -- I can't talk to someone and say, you know, tomorrow, you're going to be able to have a better life because of what I do, only if, you know, unless you think a better life means knowing more [Gary laughing]. But you never know, because, in -- in general, a large fraction of basic research ultimately does find an application. Right now, I don't know what that application might be, but I won't say there's never going to be some application for what I do, but, for me, it's -- it's this sense of learning something that -- that drives me. Host: Yeah. Why learn if you don't think it's going to end up, you know, giving you a better life. I mean, honestly, like, you know, learning things kind of helps you understand things, helps things come together, to me, that makes me pretty happy. So I could see that, you know, better understanding, giving me a better life. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, well, I mean, you know, humans have always been curious, and, you know, I suspect the reason we're curious is because it's beneficial for survival, because, you know, when -- when you're out on the savannah hunting lions, or hunting gazelles, if you see something moving the weeds over there, you know, okay, is that a gazelle or is that a lion about to eat me instead? So, you know, humans are geared to being curious about their environment, because it's a survival mechanism. Host: Yeah. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: And, for scientists, we have now transposed that, you know, away from worrying about whether we're going to be eaten to just, you know, a broad knowledge in general. Host: [Laughing] Well, I think last time we sat down with Dr. Burton, he said, he kept talking about this time machine, how easy it would be -- how nice it would be to just kind of hop in a time machine, watch these processes take place, and be like, ah [snapping fingers], that's how -- that's how it takes place. I mean, and then there's whole philosophical idea of, well, is that going to alter the universe if you go back in time and watch these things? So, you know, that was another tangient we could have gone on and we didn't, but [laughter], but it would be nice to, you know, for the, you know, to improve our knowledge a little bit of how all this stuff works and comes together. Alright, so, Duck, I think -- I think that about wraps it up for today. So, thank you so much for coming on the podcast and kind of... Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: It's been a pleasure. I hope I've imparted something that makes sense to the listeners and -- and that they will find interesting. Host: It's actually you know, you know, we're talking about rocks, if you think about it, but it's absolutely fascinating, what you can found and the stories behind these rocks and what they tell you about the universe, and even just your trips to Antarctica are pretty fascinating as well, so, again, thanks so much for coming on and telling the stories of these beautiful rocks and your trips to Antarctica, and, yeah, hopefully we'll -- we'll find some cool evidence of life or, you know, you'll find that key ingredient as to why, you know, the asteroids did what they did. Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt: Yeah, well, I hope so, and thank you very much for the invite! Host: Absolutely. [ Music & Radio Transmissions ] Hey, thanks for sticking around. So, today, we talked with Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt about some of the cooler, infamous meteorites that have been discovered throughout the years, and then some interesting stories about Antarctica and how he's finding them, it's really a cool process, and he works with the ANSMET, it's the Antarctic Search for Meteorites. So if you want to learn more about ANSMET and some of the adventures that are going on in Antarctica, and some of the curious findings in these meteorites, especially some that may or may not be life, it turns out there was some, you know, fake meteorites at the end of there, which is kind of disappointing, but that's okay. You can go to ares.jsc.nasa.gov to get the full scoop on all of these cool meteorites, and -- and you can learn how to get your hands on one of these meteorite samples to study them. If you go to social media on the NASA Johnson Space Center accounts, or if you go to ARES, or astromaterials, NASA astromaterials, we got pages on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram where we like to share these stories, just use the hashtag, ask NASA, on -- on your favorite platform to submit an idea, or if you have a question about meteorites, or if you want to submit a new topic for the show, to make sure to mention it's for, Houston, We Have A Podcast. So this podcast was recorded on January 8th, 2018. Thanks to Alex Perryman, Greg Wiseman, Tracy Calhoun, and Jenny Knots, and thanks again to Dr. Duck Mittlefehldt for coming on the show! We'll be back next week!

  5. Ep31_The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-09

    Production Transcript for Ep31_The James Webb Space Telescope.mp3 [00:00:00] >> Houston! We have a podcast. Welcome to the official podcast of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Episode 31, the James Webb Space Telescope. I'm Gary Jordan, and I'll be your host today. So on this podcast, we bring in the experts, NASA scientists, engineers, astronauts, bring them right here on the show to tell you everything about NASA. So today we are talking about the James Webb Space Telescope with Jonathan Homan. He's the Johnson Space Center Project Manager for Webb's Chamber A testing. Chamber A is the giant vacuum chamber that we have here in Texas. So Jonathan and I had a great discussion about what the James Webb Space Telescope is. Some of the testing that was actually done actually wrapped up two weeks ago here in Houston, but also some of the testing in other centers, as well as what the telescope is destined to find. So with no further delay, let's go light speed and jump right ahead to our talk with Mr. Jonathan Homan. Enjoy. [00:00:53] [ Music ] [00:01:01] >> T minus five seconds and counting... [inaudible]. [00:01:08] >> Houston! We have a podcast. [00:01:12] [ Music ] [00:01:17] >> Jonathan, thanks so much for coming today on the podcast. I know you are a very busy man right now, especially because the James Webb is kind of wrapping up its testing operations here at Johnson, is that right? [00:01:29] >> That is correct. No, I'm glad to be here, and yeah, we wrapped up the testing probably right before Thanksgiving. [00:01:38] >> All right. [00:01:38] >> And now we're in kind of what we're calling like the de-integration phase from how we had to test it to packaging it up so it can get ready for its next step of its project, getting ready for launch. [00:01:50] >> And that's happening soon, right? [00:01:51] >> Oh yeah. No, it's-- we're actually putting it in its shipping container tomorrow and-- [00:01:56] >> Yeah! [00:01:57] >> It will be leaving the Johnson Space Center late Monday night, probably Tuesday morning. [00:02:05] >> Okay. [00:02:05] >> And leaving Ellington on Thursday. [00:02:07] >> Sweet! All right! So that's it! [00:02:09] >> That's it! [00:02:10] >> Go out for a drink after that, celebrate, I am done! [00:02:13] >> Correct [laughs]. [00:02:13] >> And then head off to the next guy. Where's it going next actually? [00:02:17] >> So it's flying to Los Angeles, and will be at the Northup Bremen facility in Redondo Beach, south of LAX, where it gets integrated with the sun shield and the spacecraft bus, so the, you know, the sun shield has been, you know, one of the huge parts of the telescope and one of the most important parts, so it has a series of testing once its fully integrated, mostly deployments and some acoustic testing. [00:02:46] >> All right, well fantastic. That's why I think you're the perfect person to have here, since you've been here working with the James Webb Space Telescope for quite some time now, so you kind of have a good sense of not only the testing, but a little bit more about just what is this telescope and what is it going to do? So I kind of want to just kind of dive into that, just the whole overview of what is the James Webb space telescope? So let's start with that. What is it? [00:03:12] >> Okay so you know James Webb is kind of a general purpose science tool. It is part of the next generation of great observatories NASA is working on, so if you think of like the Hubble, Hubble was probably the biggest known great observatory of its generation, so you think like, you know, you had Chandah, Hubble, Spitzer, and I think a few other ones that were, you know, smaller, but Hubble was the big one. [00:03:38] >> Yeah. [00:03:39] >> And that's kind of NASA's plan for, you know, the science mission and some of their observations and James Webb is that big, big observatory, so it is not a replacement for Hubble, but a successor. [00:03:56] >> Okay. So from what I know about the telescopes, and I'm definitely not a scientist or physicist or anything, so this is kind of, like Hubble can read things in the visual spectrum, and then Chandra is more kind of x-ray, and Spitzer is more infrared. [00:04:12] >> Correct. [00:04:12] >> Or did I mix those up? [00:04:13] >> No, you're absolutely correct, very good yeah. [00:04:15] >> So then Webb would be the visual spectrum then? [00:04:18] >> No, no, Webb is infrared. [00:04:20] >> I see, okay, infrared. [00:04:22] >> So Hubble is known for being a little bit of ultraviolet, visible was kind of its main spectrum, but it also has a deep field, so it did some infrared type imaging, so if you think of the deep field image it took, where you look at a black spot, and all of a sudden, all these galaxies showed up over time-- [00:04:39] >> Yes, it was like if this really small spot in the sky zoomed in super far, and got-- [00:04:44] >> Yes, that's kind of where James Webb is picking up. [00:04:46] >> Okay, I see. [00:04:47] >> So it is definitely looking at the deeper, further, older light of the universe, so... [00:04:53] >> Fantastic. So what is the benefit of infrared over visual light? [00:04:57] >> Well your infrared, because of its mission objectives, you know, it really needs to be in the infrared spectrum. You know, those objectives are the first light of the universe, when, you know-- [00:05:08] >> Okay, pretty good objective [laughter]. [00:05:10] >> Yeah, yeah, where you have stars and galaxies first pulling things together, lighting up, you know, looking for the-- how the evolution of galaxies and star systems, the birth of stars, you think of things like the Eagle Nebula, that you know, Hubble has given us these great images of, but when you see the infrared, you can start seeing through it, and you see stars actually forming, stabilizing, or possibly even lighting up sometimes in there. And James Webb can look right through those types of dust clouds and see, you know, what's going on with young stars, because they haven't cleared their space around them, like our star of course has. Or you've got a clear kind of open area, and it's a little bit older system than a younger area where there's still lots of mass and gravity or mass and elements that can pull stars together that are available. [00:06:04] >> There you go. So it's kind of more like pulling back the curtains and saying okay what is going on, what can't we see with the visual spectrum? [00:06:11] >> That, and also, yeah, as we note, with the universe expanding, you get the red shift, and because infrared is the red shift. That's why it's so cold, that's why we tested it here at Johnson, at these really cold temperatures, because you need the observatory to be as cold or colder than the light you're trying to look at. Because everything, you know, our bodies give off an infrared spectrum, so if you're trying to detect something else, you don't want the observatory itself to be warmer, and that's why it's designed the say it is, why we tested it the way it is, and of course, you know, like I said, you're looking at really old, light, old, old galaxies and stars. [00:06:50] >> Yeah, you're looking at the history of the universe just by going farther and farther out. [00:06:54] >> Yes. [00:06:54] >> Fantastic. So, kind of, I mean, I really want to get into the testing too because that's like, just the kind of testing that we're doing here is phenomenal, and you're the project manager for it, so perfect person to have here, but kind of-- I wanted to, before that, go into a little bit of the history, just, you know, where this all came up, because apparently, like you said, you have Hubble, you have Spitzer, you have Chandra, you have all these great telescopes that are looking out, but this was the next step. So when did this start coming together, the James Webb? [00:07:23] >> So it used to be called the Next Generation Space Telescope. [00:07:26] >> Okay. [00:07:27] >> And it probably started like pulling together ideas, what we could do, how, what kind of requirements we needed, probably in the 90s. [00:07:39] >> Oh right! [00:07:40] >> Yeah, I would say soon after possibly the first Hubble repair mission, I want to say 95, 96 was kind of the first really pulling together of here's an architecture that we think would work for the next great observatory and then I think in 2002, they actually awarded the first big contract, north of Bremen, to be the prime contractor for delivering this telescope to NASA. [00:08:06] >> There you go, to build it. Sweet! [00:08:07] >> Yeah, to build it and of course, you know the telescope portion of it was actually managed a lot through-- by Goddard and NASA, and is being delivered to them. So I mean kind of the high risk instruments and all that was kind of a collaboration of the different contractors, but also really managed tightly by NASA and with a partnership of both ESA and Canada. [00:08:31] >> So I mean, like you said, it came shortly after Hubble, was it kind of the excitement of Hubble? And just like, whoa, these are the images we're seeing? We want more, right now, and that's what kind of sped up the process maybe? [00:08:44] >> I wish I knew the actual answer [laughter], I don't know the actual answer, but I could definitely see that that is probably, you know, a good logical reasoning, and yeah, and definitely Hubble just-- I think people were blown away even when it wasn't totally in focus, with the lens that had the astigmatism that it had. [00:09:01] >> Right. [00:09:01] >> You know, we're-- so just started looking and going hey, you know, we could spread the light out and get some great science off things we didn't know about, and then once you had the repair mission, what a, you know, huge testimony it was to the Johnson Space Center, working with other centers to, you know, go up there and repair, and now we've got a-- probably at the time, and you know, the best telescope there is, because of its location being outside of the atmosphere, and the size that it was at the time so-- [00:09:27] >> Yes! And the James Webb is going to kind of take that a step further, and we can kind of go into like, how this thing looks, because when you think about Hubble, it's like this school bus sized tube, right? That is kind of orbiting outside a little bit higher than the international space station is right now, in terms of an orbit, but James Webb is going to go further out, and it looks very different. So what's like, the make up of how James Webb looks? This is an audio podcast, so kind of describe it? I guess one of the first features that would be prominent are these shiny mirrors, right? [00:10:00] >> Yeah, so if you see the entire space craft when it's fully deployed, it has the three big segments to it. [00:10:04] >> Yes. [00:10:05] >> One they call the spacecraft bus, which is like most satellites, it's got all the communications, the power, the cooling, everything that is requiring a lot of energy, and it is facing the sun and earth, and then of course, you have the separation of that huge sunshield. The sunshield is like the size of a tennis court when it's fully deployed. You know, bigger, it's got five layers of aluminized Kapton, and that separates of course the sun and earth and moon from the last part, which is the telescope element, which we call Otis right now, which stands for OTE and ISIM, OTE being Optical Telescope Element, and ISIM being Integrated Science Instrument Module, and the two of them make OTE, because at NASA just love to take acronyms and turn them into more acronyms. [00:10:50] >> Yeah, why not [laughter]. [00:10:51] >> So that is the portion that actually has the primary mirror. So OTE is the optics. So the primary mirror. That is 18 large hexagonal segments. The secondary mirror, which is a smaller, probably still almost size of Hubble, but you know, a large-- no, not that, sorry about a two foot in diameter, another brilliant mirror that all the light is focused on, and then it goes through the center, and has a tertiary mirror. From there, it goes back and is the-- that tertiary mirror will send it to one of the science instruments. [00:11:27] >> Okay. [00:11:27] >> And so you have five different science instruments, one delivered by the Canadians, the fine guidance system, two delivered by the Europeans, and then two were developed by NASA in the United States, so... [00:11:38] >> All right, so very international kind of collaboration going on, and behind the scenes there, so it goes, tertiary right? So mirror, mirror, mirror, and then it's sending it to all of these great instruments to measure different things. [00:11:51] >> Yeah. So it's a reflective mirror. So all the lights collected on the primary, focused off a secondary and passed back through, versus like the old tube style, where it's strictly just lights coming through and passing from one to the next, and focused on a final source, you know. [00:12:05] >> Okay. So that first set of mirrors is like you said there, that hexagonal shape, they're just a series of gold-looking hexagons all kind of fitted together. [00:12:13] >> Correct. [00:12:13] >> So what was the design logic behind that? Why the hexagons? [00:12:17] >> It looks super cool, but-- when you need a mirror that big, it's really hard to produce a single monolith. [00:12:24] >> Ah. [00:12:25] >> So, even on the ground, there's like if you go to some other observatories that are more modern, that they're segmented, even, you know, ground things out like a Keck observatory in Hawaii, they have large mirrors that they've patched together, and hexagons make nice ability to kind of fit things in a nice shape, and essentially get, not necessarily a circle, but you can get the area you want covered pretty well, and make them in segments that are large, but not so big that they're difficult to manufacture. [00:13:01] >> Okay. [00:13:02] >> And then the other big thing is you know, Hubble is like two and a half meters in diameter, 2.4, or something. [00:13:09] >> Okay. [00:13:09] >> I don't know, it's larger than 2 meters. [00:13:12] >> Yeah. [00:13:13] >> And like James Webb is like six and a half meters in diameter. So it's significantly bigger you know, Hubble was all polished glass. This one is a, you know, lightweight beryllium. They used beryllium because it's really stiff, it has a great thermal performance, so you know, you know it has to get cold, beryllium tends to be very consistent as it cools down or heats up and to go to the right shape, where you think like, an aluminum pan, heating, cooling, it might bend and warp. [00:13:44] >> Yeah. [00:13:45] >> Beryllium, you know, all metals kind of change shape a little bit, but beryllium is very consistent in holding its shape, so we know they're actually perfect mirrors when they're cryogenic, and they're not perfect mirrors right now at room temperature, and that was one of the things we had to do here at Johnson was to test it that way, but-- so you know, that was one of the reasons for using the beryllium, and then of course, the gold coating was put on there, because gold does a great job of reflecting infrared light. So... [00:14:13] >> Okay. [00:14:14] >> Yeah, not absorbing the wavelength they're really looking for. So. [00:14:17] >> All right. So that's an interesting point, the way that they're designed is to be imperfect here, so when you're testing it, they're imperfect because you know once it gets to space where you want it to do all of its work is actually going to form into the mirror that you want it to be. [00:14:33] >> Correct. When it gets down to below, you know, 40 Kelvin it's essentially a perfect mirror, and that was one of the technologies that was developed on that, was you know, they polished them as perfect mirrors. They were tested at Huntsville, at the XRS CF chamber, which is where Chandah was originally tested, which wasn't big enough to test the entire telescope like we had at Johnson, but it was big enough that they could test the mirror segments. [00:15:00] >> Okay. [00:15:00] >> And map them, when they mapped them at cold temperatures, you could see, oh yeah, now it warped and moved, and is imperfect. They took it back. Purposefully polished in the imperfections. Took them back to Huntsville, and tested them again, and showed that once they got to temperature, that imperfection they put into the mirror turned out to be a perfect mirror at the right temperature, if that makes sense. [00:15:23] >> [Laughs] Yeah, no totally makes sense, you've got to design it for, you know, its ultimate destination and right now I'm sure you're looking at it just like, ah, I want you to be perfect, but-- [00:15:31] >> The other, sorry, going back to your first question-- [00:15:33] >> Yeah, sure. [00:15:34] >> About the hexagonal shape, the other big part of that is also, you know, it's launching in a rocket ferring. [00:15:39] >> Yeah. [00:15:39] >> You know, you've got an area in 5, it's a 5 meter ferring, and you've got a primary mirror that is six and a half meters in diameter so it's bigger than the rocket it's going on, and the ferring, so you had to be able to come up with a design where you would fold those wings in, and fold the whole telescope up, so that it would fit in the rocket ferring, and then of course deploy in space, so... [00:16:01] >> That's actually an interesting topic, is just the whole deployment secrets because it's kind of-- it's going to, like you said, fold in on itself, and then you're going to put it in this rocket and launch it, so actually before I go into the unfolding, where is it going to go? [00:16:14] >> So after it leaves Northrup Grumman, part of the European agreement is they're providing the rocket, which is an Arian 5, it's launching out of French Guyana in South America. [00:16:25] >> Okay. [00:16:26] >> So that's its next last destination here on earth. [00:16:30] >> Yeah. [00:16:31] >> And before it starts observing the cosmos. [00:16:34] >> Yeah [laughs], and then go out to is it-- a Lagrange Point? Or... [00:16:37] >> Correct. [00:16:38] >> And which one? [00:16:39] >> So it's an earth sun Lagrange Point 2. [00:16:41] >> Okay. [00:16:42] >> So that is about a million miles, about a million and a half kilometers on the backside of the earth, away from the sun. So it will orbit the sun with the earth. And it has about a half million mile diameter loop that it's doing. I think about 8,000 kilometers around that gravitational point. So it looks like, from the earth, it's doing this small circle, but from the sun, it's kind of doing a small sign wave. [00:17:05] >> Oh, okay. [00:17:06] >> If you see it. And so it does require a little bit of energy, but it's not perfectly staying out at one spot. It's kind of doing this really slow orbit around that Lagrange point. [00:17:18] >> Okay. [00:17:18] >> And it's a great place to be, because one, you're way out there, they're very thermally stable, because your view of the earth and the moon and the sun don't really affect its thermal performance much like you would if you're low earth orbit and once side you're on the sun, and the next time you're pretty well shaded. Basic, you know, this thing is pretty well, the part that is looking at Earth, we know the thermal input that it's going to see, in solar and then we know the backside of that sun shield, so it's also very clean. Much cleaner than, you know, low earth orbit in terms of micro meteoroids and objects like that. [00:17:53] >> Ah, right. [00:17:54] >> And it's very stable, you know, and of course the big thing too is now we're not orbiting the earth and having to protect the optics, you're just looking for as long as you want to look, and so, you know, you have to-- you're going around the sun and have to decide, okay what's my next object I'm going to look at, so-- [00:18:10] >> That's right because that sun shield is just going to be facing, you know, towards the sun the whole time, kind of blocking the light coming straight from the sun, so you've got this nice, clear view, nothing, nothing obstructing your view, and then you can kind of point it wherever you need, as long as it's not, you know, directly at the sun [laughs]. [00:18:25] >> Correct, correct, yeah. [00:18:28] >> So, but that unfolding sequence is going to be kind of cool, right, because if you look at it, it's just like this giant mirror kind of hexagon, gold thing, and it's going to unfold into that shape, and then the pole comes out, the sunshields deploy. That's going to be quite a sequence, right? [00:18:46] >> Yeah, actually the sun shields are some of the early large deployments that happen. [00:18:50] >> Sweet. [00:18:51] >> So yeah, launches, you know, first thing it does is it deploys its solar panels, starts making sure it has got plenty of energy for the rest of the trip and for the rest of the actuations, and then you know, antennas and stuff like that deploy pretty early on as well for communication purposes, and then you know, yeah, you've got that sunshield, that's, like I said, probably the size of a basketball court, tennis court, it's massive when it's fully deployed. All folded up into something that is, you know, probably less than, like I said, three or four meters in diameter, and you're going, you know, so you know, has to unfold, deploy all the sunshields, then because of the temperature difference, we actually have a deployable tower that separates the mirror from the spacecraft bus, and then it helps provide, again, a long length for some thermal isolation there. [00:19:46] >> Oh! [00:19:46] >> And then once all that is done then, you know, the secondary mirror would deploy, and the primary mirror would finish out. And then there's a few more radiators on the actual spacecraft by the science instrument, on the telescope portion that would continue to do some deployments until it's out there. But there's about two weeks of deployments. I think there's 183 actuators that are going off, I mean it's a lot. [00:20:14] >> Yeah. [00:20:15] >> Things happening and a lot of anxiety [laughter] to go out there, it takes about 30 days to actually get from French Guyana to L2. [00:20:24] >> Okay. [00:20:25] >> So it's like 29-- [00:20:26] >> Thirty days to get to L2, and then-- [00:20:29] >> Yeah, about a month. [00:20:30] >> And then you've got another how long until it's fully deployed? [00:20:34] >> So on its way out there it is deploying. [00:20:36] >> Oh, I see. [00:20:36] >> So yeah, it's doing most of its major deployments on its way out there, allowing the mirrors to cool, and-- [00:20:42] >> Okay. [00:20:43] >> And so yeah, you've got about two weeks of hoping everything goes well, and then like I said, another month to make sure it's actually getting into the right orbit, or about a month to make sure it's in the right orbit, and then from there it starts taking images, and then hopefully the scientists will tell us when they think they've seen the first light of the universe and start sending back really cool pictures. [00:21:09] >> Yes, I'm very excited for that for sure, but I'm sure that whole trip is going to be very, very stressful [laughter]. [00:21:15] >> Yeah. [00:21:16] >> A lot going on there. But just the mission itself is just phenomenal, like what it's trying to do, and then the amount of work going into it, just all over the U.S. and is it being tested outside the U.S. too, or is it just being launched from outside the U.S.? [00:21:32] >> It's just being launched from outside the U.S., so like I said, two of the science instruments were delivered by corporations under ESO, so European companies, and so they were-- you know, they had to go through their own certification program, but they were eventually all integrated into the final science package, and that went through its thermal document testing up by Goddard-- [00:21:55] >> Oh, okay. [00:21:55] >> So yeah, they're SES chamber there, and like I said, a lot of the meter development work was done using Hubble, I mean, excuse me, the Chandah facility there, the XRCF at Huntsville. [00:22:06] >> Okay. [00:22:07] >> The mirrors have traveled all over the United States, you know, mirrors, technology was really, I think developed by Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colorado. They did testing there as well. So, I mean the mirrors went from the company that polished them in California and San Francisco to testing at Huntsville, to be back to California to be re-polished, to testing in Huntsville, to be fully integrated with all their actuators to be tested at Huntsville, to be, you know, sent to Goddard, to be integrated as a system, then, you know, down here to Johnson, out to Northrup Grumman, and so I mean, the mirrors have traveled the United States, and you know, quite a bit, and like I said, then like I said the science instruments, some were from Germany, the Netherlands, and Ireland, were all in collaboration as part-- under ESA to deliver stuff, and then the Canadian space agency delivered a fine guidance system. Those parts were tested up in Ottawa, at their CSA facility there, in their chamber, so-- [00:23:12] >> Wow. [00:23:13] >> So a lot of work throughout the United States on this. [00:23:17] >> Yes. [00:23:17] >> KPL is managing the cryocooler that is used for the mirror instrument, and that is the longest wavelength that they're going to be looking at. [00:23:24] >> Okay. [00:23:25] >> And so it's the coldest, so it actually runs about 5, 6, 7 degrees Kelvin. [00:23:30] >> Whew! All right! [00:23:30] >> And yeah, when we were doing our testing we were at 20 degrees, so you know it's like minus 4, 23 Fahrenheit, there, really close to absolute zero. [00:23:38] >> Yeah! [00:23:38] >> So yeah, looking at really long, older wavelengths. And you know, that's stuff that has never been observed before, would be really interesting to see what shows up in that spectra, so. [00:23:48] >> Exactly. It's just amazing what you can find just from some of these telescopes now, I mean, they're discovering planets just by these small dips in light and you can discover, you know, planets now, there's hundreds of exoplanets that have been discovered all over the universe, so looking at the beginning of the universe and things that have not been looked at before, it's just an exciting concept. [00:24:09] >> Yeah, you know, and speaking of that, of course, one of the science objectives of James Webb now is looking at planets. Not necessarily looking for planets, but it would look at planets, be able to-- it's going to look within our solar system for traces of water, and carbon type structures, on the different planets, and how, you know, maybe some type of ring that maybe exists within our solar system, then be able to look for that in other solar systems, and go oh! There's signs of, you know, life-giving properties around the solar system, and then it can also look at planets, and look at the spectra around that, and tell you maybe what an atmosphere is made of, and hopefully, like I said, maybe discover a planet that has water, nitrogen, oxygen, type of you know, things that would show signs of life, you know, carbon dioxide and things like that. [00:24:55] >> Okay that's exciting [laughter]. [00:24:57] >> It's really exciting, yeah, yeah. So yeah, so it's, you know, it's got that kind of the four major science objectives, you know, the first light, the evolution of galaxies, birth of stars, and the existence of possible life on exoplanets, and stuff like that. [00:25:18] >> Wow. Yeah! [00:25:18] >> So science tool, really, hopefully will expand our human knowledge of what our universe is and what's around us and our solar system and galaxy and beyond, so-- [00:25:30] >> Unbelievable. What a resume for the James Webb space telescope [laughter] to say what you're going to accomplish. But you kind of hinted toward some of the testing already, and just all these parts coming, you know, first of all, traveling all over the U.S., but then all coming together. You know, what's the story there? You have all these different places, I'm sure they're manufactured in different places, right? [00:25:52] >> Correct, so yeah, so you know, Goddard is where the program is managed out of, the project office is managed out of. [00:26:01] >> Okay. [00:26:02] >> You know, they're responsible for pulling it all together. Well they, again, this telescope element, they pulled all that together, so you know, all the science instruments and the ISIM package was delivered to Goddard, they tested it. And then all the components that make up the telescope were delivered there, and our [inaudible] facility, which is their huge clean room, they assembled James Webb. So it's got the carbon fiber back plane, all the radiators, all the wiring was done, you know, everything was finally assembled there, and they'd all been tested at component level, but never tested at a system level. So, they did test it at a system level, in terms of just its vibe and acoustic, to make sure it could survive, you know, launch-- [00:26:42] >> Yes. [00:26:43] >> But they could never test a full optical path and everything like that. So that was one of the main reasons of coming to the Johnson Space Center, as here is where you could actually simulate where it's going to be out in orbit, and now that you've tested all these other smaller components, and smaller chambers, you know, you could test a full system in a large thermal vacuum chamber, and still get to the deep space thermal conditions and vacuum conditions, and so-- [00:27:08] >> Yeah, so it got all assembled, all these different components tested, you know, use that other component levels, constructed at Goddard, and then from Goddard it was tested, and then it went to Johnson or did it kind of go around from there? If it's-- so it's right from Goddard to Johnson. [00:27:22] >> So yeah, so this large portion of the telescope went from Goddard to Johnson and from Johnson it's going to Northrup Grumman, so this is its last time it is with NASA when it leaves here. [00:27:33] >> Oh really? [00:27:34] >> Yeah, from there it goes to Northrup Grumman, who is the prime contractor, to be integrated with the rest of it, and like I said, it goes from there to the European space agency's launch facility at French Guyana, but yeah, so it's kind of a mixed feelings, I mean, you know, it has been nice having it here at two different NASA centers for the last few years, but it's-- [00:27:56] >> All right so it did, you said, acoustic testing at Goddard, right? [00:28:00] >> Correct. [00:28:01] >> And just to make sure the launch is going to be okay and everything kind of checked out there, right? So-- [00:28:05] >> Yeah, the vibe and acoustic was a very big deal, you spend lots of money then shake something really hard that you treat with, you know, kid gloves [laughter] for all the rest of the time, and now you're-- you see this test where you're actually just shaking it, and parts are just going all over and then you at least do some type of verification to make sure everything looks like it has survived and ready to go, so-- [00:28:26] >> All right, and they got the thumbs up, and then it came here. [00:28:29] >> Then it came here. [00:28:29] >> All right, so then what the big question, you know, your area of expertise, what was the testing that went on here? How did that, when did it come in and all that kind of stuff? [00:28:38] >> I'm not sure how far back you want to go but [laughter]-- [00:28:41] >> Be here forever. [00:28:42] >> Yeah, so the flight article got here in May of last year. [00:28:46] >> Okay. [00:28:46] >> May 2017, but we had been working with Goddard probably from 2004 in terms of hey this looks like the right chamber to do what we need to do for a thermal vacuum test, you know, but they had really different requirements from what the chamber was originally designed for, which was Apollo. [00:29:06] >> Yeah. [00:29:06] >> They've got contamination, vibration, and the thermal and test duration were way different than what Apollo needed, which was fast, fairly quick, redundant type of testing with human rated, you know, really protecting the crew and the capsule, and doing a thermal simulation of going to the moon and back. And you know, here, they're like, you know, they don't care about the heat. I mean, we did, because we did need to test the sunshield and some of those thermal paths, and we did do that in Chamber A, but for the most part, the telescope all have seen just the cold of space, and that's what we simulated for that. [00:29:45] >> Okay, I should probably ask, what's Chamber A? [00:29:48] >> So, yeah, Chamber A is a large thermal vacuum chamber here at the Johnson Space Center, in Building 32. So there's two chambers in that building, A and B, you know, both were Apollo era chambers, and have continued to serve NASA over the years. Chamber A is ten times the volumetric size of Chamber B, and it's about 65 feet in diameter, about 120 feet from top to bottom. [00:30:15] >> Wow, it's huge! [00:30:16] >> Yeah, it's huge! So James Webb was in a shroud that was about 45 feet in diameter, and about 70 feet tall. That put it in the thermal conditions it needed. Like I said, in there, we made a lot of modifications, both from the Johnson side, and from Harris, which was formerly kind of Kodak was responsible for the optical testing, so we integrated all kinds of optical test equipment into the chamber as we were constructing some of that and testing it through the years, so that we are kind of starting about 14 really commissioning the chamber, and starting to integrate the-- in commissioning the GSC, and then doing a test series we call the pathfinder, from in 15 and 16, that really had a-- the engineering unit of James Webb, with the two primary mirrors, secondary mirror, and a way to kind of at least pick up light where the science instruments were. [00:31:14] >> So we could do a full series of testing to test the system, and verify that we were going to be testing the telescope and not the equipment we designed to test the telescope. [00:31:26] >> Yes! [00:31:27] >> So yeah, it kind of was a shakedown series of tests. We learned a lot from that too. To really kind of reduce risk, change our plans of operations, and just improve our system reliability and stuff like that. [00:31:41] >> Yeah! [00:31:41] >> So it was really helpful! [00:31:43] >> [Laughs] So you kind of put this sort of, I guess "pretend" James Webb inside to see, all right, let's see how this reacts and get it ready for the real James Webb, because like you said, Chamber A was not designed to test James Webb, it was designed for human missions, and they put human vehicles in there, I think the lunar module, and stuff like that, right? They actually tested? [00:32:07] >> In Chamber B, yeah. [00:32:08] >> In Chamber B, they tested? The lunar module? [00:32:10] >> Yeah, Chamber A was the service command module so that's where you had, yeah, but Skylab was in Chamber A as well. [00:32:15] >> Oh, okay. [00:32:15] >> And then of course it has continued its use for just, you know, development of shuttle and space station and stuff like that, in terms of more hardware than human testing, so-- [00:32:26] >> Yeah. [00:32:26] >> So you know, whenever you need a large thermal vacuum chamber, it's one of the very few that exists, so you know, it's a great asset for NASA to have something like that. [00:32:36] >> So you started gearing it up for James Webb testing in 2014 you said or was it before that? [00:32:42] >> So we had to modify the chamber quite a bit. And the big years for that were in 2009, through about 2012. [00:32:48] >> Oh okay. [00:32:48] >> We actually replaced the pumping systems, especially the high vacuum systems, because all of them were, had oil type of system, or oil within them or an oil pumping system. Everything, we couldn't have any type of oils around James Webb. So everything went through like a real clean, newer technologies. Our thermal systems used to only kind of get to about 100 Kelvin, and we needed to be able to get to about 15 Kelvin, and then, of course, we ended up just testing at 20 Kelvin for James Webb, but still we wanted to be able to, you know, kind of exceed that requirement or meet it, so 15 was kind of what we thought we'd need to-- so we had to put a different shroud in, and use helium as the cryogen for cooling it down instead of like the 100 Kelvin that is probably more liquid nitrogen type stuff, but with that, too, you know, the chamber had no vibration isolation, so at the top of the chamber now, we have a series of vibration isolators, everything was suspended in the chamber, so when we were testing James Webb, all its primary optical test equipment was sitting above it that was mapping the mirrors, that was reflecting the light, and then the telescope was hanging below, and then all that was in a single kind of optical bench system that was supported outside the chamber on these vibration isolators, and the nice thing is that sitting down below that, so the mass is well below the vibration isolation, and one of the nice things, still about Houston is we didn't have zero issues with vibration. [00:34:20] We definitely had some issues with vibration, but because we're not on bedrock, we sit on like [chuckling] you know, mud and gumbo. Yeah, you know, we can park a tractor trailer on the backside of the building and take LM2, and we don't tend to see any of those vibrations carrying through to the chamber, so-- [00:34:39] >> Oh! [00:34:40] >> So that was a, you know, a big, kind of deciding factor versus a facility that is built on bedrock, and you can feel things from all over and miles and miles away, and it's really hard to get a quiet environment. We kind of-- there's not a lot of benefits, I think, like I said yeah, swamp, but it worked really good in terms of creating a real quiet atmosphere for testing. [00:35:02] >> Yeah, so that was one of the selling points, then for bringing it to Johnson was, you know the fact that it's not sitting on Bedrock, the fact that it can provide a quieter and less vibrating kind of environment. [00:35:13] >> Yeah, absolutely, I think that you know, the quiet environment, the size of the chamber was this Goldilocks in terms of the focal points, focal length of the primary mirror system, so we were able to design reflective mirrors at the top of the chamber, and have what we call the center of curvature optical assembly, which was the main piece of test hardware in the chamber, that did the mapping using interferometry of the primary mirrors, and make sure that, yeah, like I said, these 18 segments that are-- we started them all in like a launch lock position, they have to release, and they have to kind of move and act as a monolithic mirror, so you got-- that was a big thing we had to test is, hey, will this thing go to its right shape and make sure that it looks like a monolithic mirror, and not a bunch of individual mirrors or ones out of phase, or something like that. Yeah, because then you won't get a clear image, right? [00:36:06] >> Yeah, clear image, or you're losing some of the capacity of like some of the mirrors are not, you know, reacting correctly, so-- [00:36:13] >> So a lot of new technology was developed on those algorithms, and the software to position and tell the mirror like how to behave, so it was, it was very successful. Like I said, it was very successful, but really extremely complex, probably one of the most complex thermal vacuum tests that have ever been carried out. [00:36:33] >> Yeah, like you said, years in the making, you started conversations in 2004, and by 2009, you were already getting this thing ready to go for James Webb, right? [00:36:41] >> Yeah, we were, yeah tons of metal was cut and thrown away and new [laughter] equipment was coming in so... [00:36:47] >> Yeah, and not just the thermal vacuum chamber, right? You were also doing the area outside to be a clean room too. [00:36:56] >> Correct, so that kind of started right after we finished the chamber in 12, kind of the clean room picked up in early 13, and well, that happened pretty fast. I think by sometime in the middle of 14 that was done. And like I said, really has been an exceptional clean room, we were given a certain, you know, budget for how dirty the mirrors could get while they're sitting here, you know the longer something sits around, it's going to just collect, and you know, you're given this budget, and we actually stayed well under that budget. Of course we were able to use this last, probably week and a half to do a final cleaning of the mirrors prior to it being shipped to Northrup Grumman, so it's leaving Johnson cleaner than when it arrived, so that's pretty amazing. [00:37:39] >> That's awesome. [00:37:40] >> Yeah. [00:37:40] >> I'm sure, well, so I'm trying to imagine the environment that you guys are in, so you're testing it, you're in this clean room, everything is like super spotless, probably one of the cleanest places in the known universe [laughter], I don't know but it's super clean. You guys are kind of outfitted with these white garments, right, that are head to toe, make sure no dust or hair or anything is getting on these mirrors. [00:38:02] >> Yeah and usually, you know, human, you know dust, is typically like, you know, some type of human fallout type of thing, so you know, hair, skin cells, and other things like that, are probably the major sources of dust, so yeah, reducing that and monitoring that is a big deal, and of course everything on the spacecraft is real ESD, so everybody is outfitted with, you know, electrostatic type of wristbands when they're working on anything around there. You know, so yeah, it's a full head to toe garment that are [laughter] quite a bit, you know, it takes a good amount of time to get suited up when you go in there. [00:38:45] >> Yeah, I can imagine! Especially because of the requirements, that it has to be, you know, what's the level of, like you said, the level of clean that is acceptable. So and I'm sure that cleaning the mirrors is a whole process in and of itself, right? You're not just going to be spraying it with Windex and kind of wiping it down, right? [00:38:58] >> Not that was, you know, the contamination team led out of Goddard, you know, managed that effort, and it was very arduous task, that they mapped each of the mirrors, and you're mapping probably like a few inches at a time, so-- [00:39:14] >> Oh wow! [00:39:14] >> Yeah, they're cleaning a very small area, black light it, high resolution light it, and look for any type of, you know smudge or any dust particles, and they carefully, like, anytime you could, you know, get a dust particle, try to remove it and with a small brush or something like that, but it was really, I was surprised at how detailed they were and how they handled it, but we're done now, and like I said, all the mirrors are actually quite a bit cleaner now than when it first got here, so. [00:39:46] >> All right. So you said now it's kind of wrapped up and ready to ship off to the next place, right? Or are you still in the process of wrapping it up? [00:39:53] >> No, no, we completed all the-- so you know, we had the big family day [laughter], that was a huge success and-- [00:39:58] >> Yeah. [00:39:59] >> The 20th, then we repeat it on the second. But on the third we really started doing the stowing, you know, the opposite of deployment. So we stowed the mirror wings. Stowed the deployable tower, and really got it ready for shipment soon after that, so when once all those stowing sequences were done, we began the cleaning process so really there is not a lot left to do except for take it off its turnover fixture and get it into a shipping container, and that is planned for tomorrow. [00:40:36] >> Wow, this is exciting! All this kind of [laughter] preparation you know, you said, talking so early, then kind of preparing the chamber, you did it, you tested it, you did it, you know, like you said under budget, and it was successful so, I mean, actually that is a good question, how did the tests go? [00:40:52] >> Oh, the tests went really well [laughter], so the thermal vacuum test, the main part test, we call it, the Otis Cryovac Test. Started in early July and we were under vacuum for about a little over 100 days, so yeah, we had people round the clock. Even before then, but you know, the people operating our chamber from Johnson were probably on shift for about 102, 103 days. Took about 30 days to cool the spacecraft down to its flight like-- took 30 days for the chamber to get down to temperature, it could have gotten much faster, but this provided the profile they needed. [00:41:36] >> Okay. [00:41:36] >> It took about 40 some days for the telescope to really start getting down to its flight like temperatures and start doing, start firing up the science instruments, which were really sensitive to heat, and stuff like that. [00:41:49] >> Yes. [00:41:50] >> Of course once we were down and just get cold, you know, Harvey shows up and-- [00:41:57] >> Oh! That beast! [00:41:58] >> Yeah, so, but it was-- we had a lot of plans in place, and we executed those plans, and got a lot of support from the center to keep things going and a lot of support from Goddard. Everybody kind of pulled together, unfortunately. Some people didn't get to go home for many, many days-- [00:42:15] >> Oh no! [00:42:16] >> Because they couldn't find a path to their home or-- [00:42:20] >> That's right, a lot of the gates were-- [00:42:22] >> Yeah, relief could not leave their homes and get to work, so, but we had a lot of preparations for people to be able to do that, and from the Goddard perspective, you know, their team was here, locally and in hotels, and they were able to get some of the best optical testing done during that time, so-- [00:42:39] >> Wow! [00:42:40] >> Yeah, yeah, so all the optical tests were done, I think they exceeded their requirements on all their stuff as well, so they really feel like the performance of the telescope is great. They're delivering a product now that they really believe is going to do its mission. [00:42:56] >> Fantastic, yeah, you have been kind of through the wringer since it's been here, huh? You had Harvey and just like last week we had that ice storm, so yeah, you've really encountered a couple challenges, but you did it. That's-- that's quite an accomplishment. That's really cool. [00:43:09] >> Thank you. Yeah, it's been a huge-- the team here at Johnson has been very dedicated to the success of the mission and the team that has been down here, the international team, we've had hundreds of people from ESA and stuff supporting this, and everyone is extremely dedicated and really believes in what they're doing, so. [00:43:29] >> All right. That is so awesome, so I kind of wanted to clarify one point is, you know, I think we kind of just sort of skipped over it, but Chamber A is unique in the fact that, or maybe not unique and you can clarify this, it's a thermal vacuum chamber. [00:43:44] >> Correct. [00:43:44] >> So not only does it bring it down to, you know, the pressure of space, but it's also bringing it down like you said 15 Kelvin, but I guess you're testing it at 20 Kelvin. [00:43:52] >> Yeah. [00:43:53] >> Super cold. I don't think people understand how cold that is, 20 Kelvin. [00:43:58] >> Yeah so 20 Kelvin is about -423 Fahrenheit, I mean, it's cold enough that the only molecules that are moving are probably some hydrogen and helium and maybe some neon, and there is not much of that, because we have some pumps that work really well to try to get rid of that, those molecules, so there's not a lot of-- we just tell people like, when we're at room-- sea level pressure, there is about 30,000 pounds of air in that chamber, so you know, you think air doesn't have that much mass, when we're down at test temperatures, there is the mass of about a half staple in the chamber [laughter], that's what the mass of all that air is remining, so to create that space-like environment. And then like I said temperature wise, like I said all the nitrogen, oxygen are normal air you breathe, instantly freezes out when it comes in contact with the surface that cold. [00:44:57] >> Whoa! [00:44:57] >> So it's just really cold [laughter], it's hard to imagine, you know, yeah, there's not much moving around at those temperatures. [00:45:06] >> Yeah, it's just kind of when you say it the way that you say it, it's kind of surprising to think that anything works in that kind of environment, but if you think about it, there is, you know, satellites and probes all over the solar system that we've been sending, and now we are just, this is just, this is another one that is a little bit, you know it's big, and it's got a lot of-- it's got a lot of elements to it, but the fact that it is, you know, you can fire up the instruments and they worked, right? [00:45:29] >> Oh yeah. [00:45:30] >> The instruments-- [00:45:32] >> Yeah, all the instruments worked. [00:45:34] >> Yeah. [00:45:35] >> You know, so a lot of the instruments had been tested, the package was tested at Goddard, like I said, but you know, never tested as a system where, and same with the primary optics, they'd never been fully assembled and tested as a system so it was really a big deal to be able to test the primary mirror, make sure the primary mirror is acting correctly, then the secondary mirror, then actually send light all the way to the science instruments, and you know, oh yeah, you had a simulated star, and it is tracking it correctly, and it is what you simulate and are sending is what is being received, and so now you know all the elements are where they're supposed to be, and in focus, and you know, because you're talking a little, you know, probably...the thickness of a hair was way out of focus for a mirror like this, you know, so everything has got to be really tight alignment, so. [00:46:26] >> Yeah, yeah. Like literally 99% on this test is an F, so yeah [laughter]. [00:46:32] >> Yeah, that's a good way of putting it. [00:46:33] >> Yeah, so that's kind of cool, you simulated it looking at a star, as like you kind of, all right, put it through this pretend environment. Not only are you testing if it can survive the pressure and the cold, but also let's fire everything up and see if this thing can actually see stars. [00:46:50] >> Correct, yeah, yeah. You know, like I said, the first thing we had to do is of course make sure the primary mirrors look like a monolith. [00:46:58] >> Yes. [00:46:58] >> And then once those things we know, yeah, okay that looks right now, the primary mirrors and secondary mirror, are they aligned together, and then the tertiary mirror, then the science instruments, you know, and the thing has got a small amount of movement to be able to correct, you know, that type of stuff, because everything is moving a little bit, and with the temperature, so that's a big difference between this and Hubble. This, all the mirrors have some degrees of freedom to be able to slightly move, so they've got actuators on them, allowing you to adjust their focus, or adjust their position slightly. And so that was part of the testing was being able to make sure that all that does, works, and then some of the more challenging testing is what we, you know, would be like a pass and a half where we actually had like a fiberoptic that would simulate like a star, a point of light, and you would bounce that off the primary mirror or off the secondary mirror, back off the primary mirror, off our test mirrors, at the top of the chamber called auto-collimating flats, and then back through that entire path, then to a science instrument [laughter], so everything had to pass at least the primary optics twice, and some of the, you know, off the science instruments you know, once, and like I said any slight vibration or anything like that disturbs the image, and so you know, you had that-- everything worked really well, like I said, you don't realize hoe a little bit of shaking or something like that can really blur a point of light when you're trying to look at a few photons and stuff like that, that the telescope is supposed to be observing, so. [00:48:31] >> Yeah, that's right, and you got an A on that test right [laughter]. [00:48:34] >> Yeah, I mean, everything-- I'm not an optical guy, but it was kind of fun to come in every day, we had typically every afternoon we had meetings, and we could hear the optical guys, like that's the first time we ever tested this? Yeah! And you're like almost every day was like a party during the test because [laughter] it was the first time they had done system level tests and completed an objective that, you know, they're very excited, like the performance. [00:49:00] >> All right, I should have been hanging out with you guys every day as a party, that's pretty cool [laughter]. Cool. But yeah, just to see the things, like you said, that you've been working on for so long, to come together, and you fire them up and they work, I can see that being like oh my gosh, yes! Yes! This is doing what I wanted it to do! [00:49:15] >> Yeah! And that was like, so on the from the Johnson Space Center standpoint, it's kind of almost a little bit benign, because we had already wrung out our chamber and created-- got rid of a lot of issues we had there, so you know, we were able to create this environment, like when we had the hurricane came, and all the rains and floods, we had some issues with the building, but the telescope never knew anything was going on [laughter] because all the facility systems operated as we wanted them to, and we really never lost anything, so you know, it wasn't the same excitement for us as it was for the telescope, because we had ben doing a series of testing, and got rid of all our bugs, so it's almost like one of those things, like boring testing from creating the environment, and doing all that is a good thing because we don't want to be testing any of our stuff out, or having any issues with our stuff, when we're really trying to test the telescope at this point, so it was great to ring all that out, and see their excitement, as they were able to test the telescope and really get to an understanding to really prove that optically it is working as they expected, and all the little requirements that pass down from some type of science objective, were met. [00:50:23] So-- [00:50:23] >> Yes, and that means that you did your job, right? You provided the environment for these guys. So. [00:50:29] >> Yeah, the team here at Johnson did. [00:50:31] >> Yes, you and your team. Absolutely. Fantastic. Very exciting! So you're wrapping up testing, it's all wrapped up and ready to go off to its next point, so what are the next steps until it is launched? It's going to Northrup Grumman next? [00:50:44] >> Yeah, it goes to Northrup Grumman, and at Northrup Grumman it would be integrated with the sunshield and the spacecraft bus. Once it's integrated, I think it there goes through a series of vibe and acoustic tests, then they have to do a deployment test, one more time, they really want to make sure that after they simulate a launch, you can do the deployments. The sad thing about it is that it probably takes about two months to re-stow everything, you know, it's really, you know, a lot of inspections along the way to make sure that everything is folded back correctly. [00:51:20] >> Yes. [00:51:20] >> And all the actuators are reset correctly and then it should be ready to ship out to the launch pad from there. [00:51:29] >> All right, so one more stop and then it goes off to launch. And when are we ending for again? [00:51:33] >> We are no earlier than March of 19, which would probably be more like summer time I'm thinking and 19 is probably where it's landing. [00:51:42] >> Okay, all right. Very exciting! Yes! [00:51:44] >> It is, it is. [00:51:45] >> Then it's going to go out to L2, and we're going to see the beginnings of the universe, and all those, that awesome resume of cool things [laughter] exoplanets, the formations of galaxies, and you said stars too right? [00:51:56] >> Yeah, I'm expecting to see, like same things you saw from Hubble. [00:52:00] >> Yeah. [00:52:00] >> You're going to start seeing coming from James Webb, and lots of physicists are going to hopefully just see stuff that they didn't even expect to see [laughter] and try to explain it to us, so I'm really excited about what it's going to do, and-- [00:52:14] >> Fantastic. Well, Jonathan thank you so much for coming on, I know this is kind of at the end of your testing cycle, and you just have a couple more days until you can say yes! Done! [Laughter] And hands off! So I really appreciate you coming in while it's still here, and you are kind of, I can see the excitement where you're like yes! We did it! I mean, there's still steps to go, but congratulations to you and your team for the successful testing here, and I just can't wait to see this thing launch, and see the beautiful images come back. [00:52:42] >> Thank you, I'm excited as well. [00:52:44] >> Awesome. [00:52:45] [ Music and Inaudible Speaking ] [00:53:09] >> Hey! Thanks for sticking around. So today we talked about the James Webb space telescope that was here just about two weeks ago at this point, and we just wrapped up testing here in Houston, but it's off to Northrup Grumman, and there's a lot of testing ahead, but eventually it will be launching into space, and sending some beautiful images back to earth. So if you want to see some of the cool testing going on with Webb throughout its journey until its launch next year, you can go to NASA.gov/web. That's a great resource for all the testing and all of the latest checkmarks and milestones that we're crossing as we get toward that launch point. You can also go to wwww.jwst.nasa.gov, that is Goddard Space Flight Center, but like Jonathan said, that is where the project was managed out of, so there is pretty cool stuff in there, and it's actually a pretty interactive site. It's pretty cool. On social media, we are pretty active, too, in the James Webb space telescope as well, on Facebook, it's NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, or at web telescope. On Twitter, it's at NASA web, and on Instagram, it's also at NASA web. [00:54:14] You can find out some of the latest updates there as well, otherwise you can go to the NASA Johnson Space Center sites on any one of those platforms. We see these all the time, guys, you should be following us by now. I know you are, because you love us, and we love you. So here's the hashtag ask NASA on the Johnson Space Center accounts, to submit question or idea for the podcast, and we will make sure to mention it in one of the later episodes. Just make sure to mention it's for Houston We Have a Podcast. So this podcast was recorded on January 25, 2018. Thanks to Alex Perryman, Kelly Humphries, and Jenny Knotts. Thanks again to Mr. Jonathan Homan for coming on the show. We'll be back next week.