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Sample records for aasiaiaa space flight

  1. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4)…

  2. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  4. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  5. NASA - Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  6. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  7. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment.

  8. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  9. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  10. Space Shuttle flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  11. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  12. Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session WA1 includes short reports concerning: (1) Medical and Physiological Studies During 438-Day Space Flights: (2) Human Performance During a 14 Month Space Mission: (3) Homeostasis in Long-Term Microgravity Conditions; (4) Strategy of Preservation of Health of Cosmonauts in Prolonged and Superprolonged Space Flights; (5) Rehabilitation of Cosmonauts Health Following Long-Term Space Missions; and (6) Perfect Cosmonauts: Some Features of Bio-Portrait.

  13. History of Manned Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    U.S. manned space projects from Mercury Redstone 3 through Skylab 4 are briefly described including dates, flight duration, crew, and number of earth/moon orbits. The flight costs of each project are itemized. Highlights in the history of the manned space program from 1957 to February, 1974 are included.

  14. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  15. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  16. "Space flight is utter bilge"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Despite skepticism and ridicule from scientists and the public alike, a small handful of dreamers kept faith in their vision of space flight and planned for the day when humanity would break loose from Earth.

  17. Space Flight Safety - Discussing perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    The present section accumulates selected papers from the Second IAA Space Flight Safety Symposium - the international action consolidating the international efforts on safety of space flights at new scientific and technological level. It was held in St. Petersburg in the period since June 29 till July 3, 2015. Venue - the congress-hall and Proving ground of «Special Materials Corp»- Scientific and production association of special materials (St. Petersburg, Sampsonievsky pr. 28a) (Figs. 1 and 2).

  18. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning

  19. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  20. Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

  1. Man, space flight and medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of experience obtained from space flight to evaluate man's physiological capability to function in space. Results of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs are presented, with emphasis on the latter. The space medicine requirements which were necessary for assuring man's safe journey into and return from space have resulted in hardware and techniques of great value to terrestrial medicine. The need to monitor the physiologic function of crewmen led to the development of miniaturized, nonirritating, and highly reliable sensors.

  2. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  3. Physiological effects of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, Carolyn L.

    1989-01-01

    Data from Skylab and Space Shuttle missions are used as a framework for discussing the physiological effects of space flight. Consideration is given to motion sickness, and changes in body fluids, the cardiovascular system, and red blood cell counts. In addition, changes in muscle mass, bone mass, and the immune system, and neurosensory disturbances are examined.

  4. Challenges of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.

  5. Calbindins decreased after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  6. Space Flight 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews many aspects of spaceflight. There are many pictures of the International Space Station. Some of the topics covered in this review are: Have you ever wondered why we have launch windows? Or why the attitude of the Space Station changes? The half-day seminar answers some of the many questions about why and how we fly in space. Topics in the course were: What's so valuable about micro gravity? How do we get to micro G so close to a huge gravity well like the Earth? How come such a big rocket gets so little payload to space? Why do we have daily launch windows, and why are they so short? What's the beta angle, why does it change so strangely, and why do we care so much about it? Why do we have launch seasons for the Shuttle? Why can't we just launch any old day? Why do we see the station some days, not on others, and at different times and directions? Why do we keep changing the attitude of the Space Station? What are the certified attitudes of the station, and why did we pick these few? Why do we keep changing the altitude of the Space Station among these three? What's the difference between Power Balance, Energy Balance, and Depth-of-Discharge? Where does all the uncertainty come from in our orbit predictions for phasing, collisions, communications coverage, etc? Why do we usually reboost only on days that we do attitude changes? What's F(10.7), what does it do, why do we care, and why does it vary so much? Why do we care about orbital phasing of the ISS? Can't we just do phasing with the arriving vehicles? Why is the Space Station built the way it is? What's Sun Slicer? (or Night Glider, or Dual Angle, or (coming soon!) Mixmaster, or Outrigger, or...) What's a BGA, and what is BGA conditioning all about? What's a Control Moment Gyroscope, and what does it do? What's a desat? Why is it more trouble now than it used to be? How much orbital debris is there, and how dangerous is it? Why aren't we more worried about meteor storms

  7. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geveden, Rex D.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC), including its history and activities. The six enterprises to carry out NASA's mission are: Space Science; Earth Science; Biological and Physical Research; Aerospace Technology; Education (our newest); and Space Flight. These are explained, as well as MSFC's contributions toward these NASA enterprises. The presentation also covers cooperation between MSFC and the Department of Defense (DoD).

  9. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.; Nicgossian, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L + O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L + 2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

  10. Flight simulator with spaced visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor); Thurston, Marlin O. (Inventor); Olson, Karl W. (Inventor); Ventola, Ronald W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulator arrangement wherein a conventional, movable base flight trainer is combined with a visual cue display surface spaced a predetermined distance from an eye position within the trainer. Thus, three degrees of motive freedom (roll, pitch and crab) are provided for a visual proprioceptive, and vestibular cue system by the trainer while the remaining geometric visual cue image alterations are developed by a video system. A geometric approach to computing runway image eliminates a need to electronically compute trigonometric functions, while utilization of a line generator and designated vanishing point at the video system raster permits facile development of the images of the longitudinal edges of the runway.

  11. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  12. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  13. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

  14. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  15. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  16. Space flight and oxidative stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  17. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted after astronauts return to Earth. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  18. Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The short-arm centrifuge subjects an astronaut to conflicting sensory input and study the astronaut's perception of motion. It is one of several instruments used in the Spatial Reorientation Following Space Flight investigation to be conducted on crewmembers. During space flight, the vestibular organs no longer respond in a familiar way. Instead, inputs from the irner ear do not match those coming from the eyes. While on Earth, you can open your eyes to see if you truly are spinning, but astronauts do not have this luxury. Astronauts can see the floor, but have no sense of down; when they bend their heads forward, the otoliths are not stimulated properly. This state, called sensory conflict, must be resolved by the brain to maintain orientation. When they first return to Earth, astronauts are again disoriented because of sensory conflict. They undergo a period of spatial reorientation, as their brains reconcile what their eyes see and what their vestibular system senses. Recovery can take anywhere from hours to days depending on the length of the mission. Principal Investigator: Dr. William Paloski, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  19. Anesthetic Concerns of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are acutely aware of the fact that, although a given surgical procedure may be relatively simple, the required anesthetic care is, in certain cases, extremely complex. This principle is particularly evident when one ponders the difficulties involved in providing even basic anesthetic care in microgravity. In this issue some of these difficulties through the evaluation of airway management techniques during water immersion are confronted, a simulation of the gravito-inertial conditions of space flight. As prelude for this paper, I would like to outline some of the challenges to be overcome before surgical, anesthetic, and critical care can be delivered beyond our home planet.

  20. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  1. Metabolic and Regulatory Systems in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Dynamics of Blood Biochemical Parameters in Cosmonauts During Long-Term Space Flights; Efficiency of Functional Loading Test for Investigations of Metabolic Responses to Weightlessness; Human Cellular Immunity and Space Flight; Cytokine Production and Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest; Plasma and Urine Amino Acids During Human Space Flight; and DNA Fingerprinting, Applications to Space Microbiology.

  2. Space Flight: The First 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history of space flight from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle is told from the perspective of NASA flight programs. Details are given on Mercury missions, Gemini missions, Apollo missions, Skylab missions, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the Space Shuttle missions.

  3. [Aviation and space flight ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Daumann, F J; Draeger, J

    1993-08-01

    So far it has not been possible to adapt man genetically to the specific environmental conditions of flying. A variety of disturbing factors act on the human body and affect its vital as well as sensory functions, vision being considered the most important sense for providing information. The effects of oxygen deficiency caused by increasing altitude, acceleration and centrifugal force affecting visual function, ocular motility, and pupillary reactions are well known. Like visual illusions, vibrations, high accelerative forces, high illuminance and glare at high altitudes impair the visual perception of the environment. In space flight further problems ensue from weightlessness and short-wave radiation. The high medical standards that must be met by the eyes of flying personnel, as will as for air-traffic controllers, result in the enhancement of flight safety. After operations on the cornea or retina or cataract operations in pilote, the retinal findings and DOP must be monitored closely. Special attention must be paid to means of visual aids, corrective lenses, contact lenses, and intraocular lenses. Ophthalmology is a very important element of aviation and aerospace medicine.

  4. Young PHD's in Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Flight, Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise sponsored a summer institute, Young PHD#s (Persons Having Dreams) in Human Space Flight. This 3-day institute used the curriculum of a workshop designed for space professionals, 'Human Space Flight-Analysis and Design: An Integrated, Systematic Approach.' The content was tailored to a high school audience. This institute seeks to stimulate the interest of pre-college students in space flight and motivate them to pursue further experiences in this field. Additionally, this institute will serve as a pilot model for a pre- collegiate training program that can be replicated throughout the country. The institute was complemented with a trip to the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-28

    SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE FLIGHT PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...Space Flight Pressurized Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Corporation report number TR-RS-2014-00005, entitled Design and Test Requirements for Space Flight Pressurized Systems. The major changes in this release are

  6. Physiological adaptation to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Gaiser, Karen K.; Teeter, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    In space, adaptive physiological changes have been observed in virtually all body systems, but how far these changes progress with time is not known. Their time course demonstrates variable patterns; some systems show evidence of gradual and progressive change. Biomedical postflight data have shown that a compensatory period of readaptation to one gravity is required after space flight, with longer intervals required for longer missions. Consistent readaptation trends include orthostatic intolerance and neurovestibular difficulties. For the long-duration missions of the exploration era, it is critical to determine the extent to which deleterious changes (e.g., bone loss and possible immunological changes) can be reversed upon return to earth. Radiation protection is another critical enabling element for missions beyond low earth orbit. Radiation exposure guidelines have not been established for exploration missions. Currently our experience is insufficient to prescribe countermeasures for the stay times associated with a lunar base or a mission to Mars. Artificial gravity may provide a solution, but the level and duration of exposure necessary to prevent deconditioning must be determined. Central issues for medical care in remote settings are preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic care and the minimization of risk.

  7. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.51 Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight......

  8. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.51 Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight......

  9. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.51 Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight......

  10. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.51 Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight......

  11. 14 CFR 460.51 - Space flight participant training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Space flight participant training. 460.51..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.51 Space flight participant training. An operator must train each space flight......

  12. Flight Opportunities: Space Technology Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dijk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Flight Opportunities enables maturation of new space technologies by funding access to commercially available space-relevant test environments. The program also supports capability development in the commercial suborbital and orbital small satellite launcher markets.

  13. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  14. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Space Vehicle's induction into the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.

  15. Skylab rescue space vehicle flight readiness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevitt, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.

  16. Comparing future options for human space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  17. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  18. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  19. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  20. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants... FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency will publicly announce each space flight participant opportunity through appropriate means, including notice...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants... FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency will publicly announce each space flight participant opportunity through appropriate means, including notice...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants... FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency will publicly announce each space flight participant opportunity through appropriate means, including notice...

  3. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency...

  4. Effect of space flight on bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spengler, D. M.; Morey, E. R.; Carter, D. R.; Turner, R. T.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    To test the possibility that spaceflight has a deleterious effect on bone mechanical properties, femur breaking strength by torsional loading in rats that had been flown for 19 days aboard Cosmos 936 was determined. The results showed that femurs from flight rats were less stiff than the flight controls, and failed under torsion at a lower torque and energy of absorption. The defect was corrected following space flight and could be prevented during space flight by centrifuging the rats at 1 x g. Altered bone geometry due to inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface provides the most likely explanation for the decrease in bone strength during spaceflight.

  5. Strategy in space flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Dean; Severns, James

    1991-01-01

    The main topics of the workshop were the evaluation of both the need for flight testing of solar array hardware and the opportunities for such testing. Spacecraft charging effects, array dynamics, cost-effectiveness, and methods of flight planning were also discussed.

  6. Space flight, microgravity, stress, and immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to space flight conditions has resulted in numerous alterations in immunological parameters. Decreases in lymphocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production, and natural killer cell activity have all been reported after space flight. Alterations in leukocyte subset distribution have also been reported after flight of humans and animals in space. The relative contribution of microgravity conditions and stress to the observed results has not been established. Antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic, suspension of rodents and chronic head-down tilt bed-rest of humans have been used to model effects of microgravity on immune responses. After use of these models, some effects of space flight on immune responses, such as decreases in cytokine function, were observed, but others, such as alterations in leukocyte subset distribution, were not observed. These results suggest that stresses that occur during space flight could combine with microgravity conditions in inducing the changes seen in immune responses after space flight. The biological/biomedical significance of space flight induced changes in immune parameters remains to be established.

  7. Space motion sickness during 24 flights of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Vanderploeg, James M.; Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence and the severity of space motion sickness (SMS) during 24 flights of the Space Shuttle, using a standardized questionnaire administered to all crewmembers postflight. It was found that, for 85 crewmembers, the incidence of SMS during a first Shuttle flight was 67 percent, of which 30 percent were mild cases, 24 percent moderate, and 13 percent severe. Crewmembers with a second flight showed a reduction in SMS incidence, but the change was not significant compared with the first flight. It is suggested that variability in crewmember training and flight experience may explain some of the differences observed.

  8. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  9. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  10. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  11. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  12. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  13. Habitability and Behavioral Issues of Space Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, R. A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…

  14. Looking Up: Multimedia about Space and Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1998-01-01

    The best CD-ROMs for young people about space and flight exploit the promise of hypermedia to create informative simulations. This article provides an annotated bibliography of CD-ROMs on astronomy and flight for K-12 students; suggests book and Internet connections; and highlights poetry for astronomers, science fiction, a biography of Charles…

  15. Nutrition in Space Flight: Some Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Space flight causes physiological changes related to microgravity and on which nutrition has a bearing. Examples are: muscle atrophy-protein; bone atrophy-calcium; phosphorus, and vitamin D; space sickness-fat; cardiovascular deconditioning-sodium; water, and potassium. The physiological changes are discussed which relate to living in space.

  16. Research and Technology, 1987, Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerny, Gene (Editor); Moe, Karen (Editor); Paddack, Steven (Editor); Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Sullivan, Walter (Editor); Ballard, Jan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research at Goddard Space Flight Center during 1987 is summarized. Topics addressed include space and earth sciences, technology, flight projects and mission definition studies, and institutional technology.

  17. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, located on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama,commemorates the designation of the Saturn V Rocket as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1980.

  18. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

  19. Historical Sign at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sign, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the designation of the Redstone Test Site as a National Historic Landmark. The site was inducted into the National Register of Historical Places in 1976.

  20. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  1. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  2. Bronchoesophageal and related systems in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.

  3. Effects of Space Flight on Rodent Tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.

    1997-01-01

    As the inevitable expression of mankind's search for knowledge continues into space, the potential acute and long-term effects of space flight on human health must be fully appreciated. Despite its critical role relatively little is known regarding the effects of the space environment on the ocular system. Our proposed studies were aimed at determining whether or not space flight causes discernible disruption of the genomic integrity, cell kinetics, cytoarchitecture and other cytological parameters in the eye. Because of its defined and singular biology our main focus was on the lens and possible changes associated with its primary pathology, cataract. We also hoped to explore the possible effect of space flight on the preferred orientation of dividing cells in the perilimbal region of conjunctiva and cornea.

  4. Space flight effects on bacterial physiology.

    PubMed

    Leys, N M E J; Hendrickx, L; De Boever, P; Baatout, S; Mergeay, M

    2004-01-01

    The study of bacterial behavior under space flight conditions is highly important for the early detection of changes in bacterial communities and bacteria with medical, environmental, or life support consequences for survival of the crew in closed space environments. Although many species of prokaryotes have been studied in ground simulation facilities or have been flown in space flights, at present only few hard research data are available to predict the effects of cosmic radiation, microgravity, vibration and hypervelocity on microbial behavior in space flight. The results that are available tend to be fragmentary and often lack a classical, controlled experimental context to interpret them. Thus, many basic questions concerning the effects of space on microbial behavior have yet to be resolved.

  5. Predictors of immune function in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, William T.; Zhang, Shaojie; Reuben, James M.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Butel, Janet S.

    2007-02-01

    Of all of the environmental conditions of space flight that might have an adverse effect upon human immunity and the incidence of infection, space radiation stands out as the single-most important threat. As important as this would be on humans engaged in long and deep space flight, it obviously is not possible to plan Earth-bound radiation and infection studies in humans. Therefore, we propose to develop a murine model that could predict the adverse effects of space flight radiation and reactivation of latent virus infection for humans. Recent observations on the effects of gamma and latent virus infection demonstrate latent virus reactivation and loss of T cell mediated immune responses in a murine model. We conclude that using this small animal method of quantitating the amounts of radiation and latent virus infection and resulting alterations in immune responses, it may be possible to predict the degree of immunosuppression in interplanetary space travel for humans. Moreover, this model could be extended to include other space flight conditions, such as microgravity, sleep deprivation, and isolation, to obtain a more complete assessment of space flight risks for humans.

  6. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  7. Space Launch Flight Termination System initial development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.

    This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.

  8. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  9. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama commemorates the Neutral Buoyancy Space Simulator as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1986 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  10. Flight experiences on board Space Station Mir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehboeck, Franz

    1992-07-01

    A survey of the training in the cosmonaut center 'Yuri Gagarin' near Moscow (U.S.S.R.) and of the preparation for the joint Soviet-Austrian space flight from 2-10 Oct. 1991 is given. The flight in Soyuz-TM 13 with the most important systems, as well as a short description of the Space Station Mir, the life on board the Station with the basic systems, like energy supply, life support, radio, and television are described. The possibilities of exploitation of the Space Station Mir and an outlook to the future is given.

  11. Visual-Vestibular Responses During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Paloski, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Given the documented disruptions that occur in spatial orientation during space flight and the putative sensory-motor information underlying eye and head spatial coding, the primary purpose of this paper is to examine components of the target acquisition system in subjects free to make head and eye movements in three dimensional space both during and following adaptation to long duration space flight. It is also our intention to suggest a simple model of adaptation that has components in common with cerebellar disorders whose neurobiological substrate has been identified.

  12. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  13. [Psychophysiological aspects of piloted flights to space].

    PubMed

    Kozarenko, O P; Ponomareva, I P

    2008-01-01

    The paper illuminates some issues of the psychophysiological support (PPS) of piloted flights to space discussed with academician O.G. Gazenko. Already in initial space flights monitoring and assessment of the psychic state and mental performance of crew members were the key PPS component that needed all-round investigations and development of associated methods. The poly-effect method of registering the physiological functions (ECG, EEG, GSR) was recognized as a potent tool for gathering information to be used in actual state assessment. Starting from the 96-d flight of Yu. Romanenko and G. Grechko, the enhanced PPS system has been an indispensable component of long-term missions to orbital complexes Salyut, Mir, and the International space station. The practical experience with the PPS system showed its major contribution to maintenance of space crew mental health and performance.

  14. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  15. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license, an applicant proposing to conduct a launch with flight crew or a space flight participant on board...

  16. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license, an applicant proposing to conduct a launch with flight crew or a space flight participant on board...

  17. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license, an applicant proposing to conduct a launch with flight crew or a space flight participant on board...

  18. Space Shuttle Experiments Take Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Robert R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primarily volunteer project that was developed with private industry to contribute to the research on space-grown vegetables and to promote science as a career. Focuses on the effects of microgravity and space travel on the germination and growth of plants. (DDR)

  19. Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to

  20. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...

  1. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...

  2. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...

  3. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...

  4. 14 CFR 435.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 435.8 Section 435.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Human space flight. An applicant for a license to conduct a reentry with flight crew or a space...

  5. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  6. Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowards, Stephanie; Honeycutt, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of conducting multi-system integration testing of space flight elements in lieu of merely shipping and shooting to the launch site and launching. "Ship and shoot" is a philosophy that proposes to transport flight elements directly from the factory to the launch site and begin the mission without further testing. Integration testing, relevant to validation testing in this context, is a risk mitigation effort that builds upon the individual element and system levels of qualification and acceptance tests, greatly improving the confidence of operations in space. The International Space Station Program (ISSP) experience is the focus of most discussions from a historical perspective, while proposed integration testing of the Constellation Program is also discussed. The latter will include Multi-Element Integration Testing (MElT) and Flight Element Integration Testing (FElT).

  7. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  8. Metabolic energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

  9. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  10. Gene Kranz Visits Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On October 19, 2006, former NASA director of Mission Operations Gene Kranz was a keynote speaker at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 2006 Annual Safety Day program. The best selling author of 'Failure Is Not An Option' and past Apollo flight director was featured during a morning session called 'Coffee and Kranz'. Marshall employees hung on his every word as he told the fascinating story of Apollo 13. Kranz was the acting flight director during the Apollo 13 mission, a mission that seemed doomed to fail due to an onboard explosion. Kranz and his flight control team worked around the clock relentlessly, solving problem after problem, until the crew was returned safely to Earth.

  11. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  12. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  13. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  14. Skeletal alterations in rats during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during space flight were a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, a decreased trabecular bone volume, and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  15. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  16. Skeletal Alterations in Rats During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during space flight were a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, a decreased trabecular bone volume, and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  17. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the designation of the Propulsion and Structural Test Facility as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service of the United States Interior. The site was designated as a landmark in 1985.

  19. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1985 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  20. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Dynamic Test Stand as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1985 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  1. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Launch Vehicle as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1984 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  2. Marshall Space Flight Center Small Business Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the small business opportunities that are available with the Marshall Space Flight Center. It includes information on all forms of opportunities available and information sources: subcontracting, websites, contacts and a separate section on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs

  3. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  4. Space Flight Plasma Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method to analyze the plasma data that is reported on board the International Space station (ISS). The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), the role of which is to obtain floating potential and ionosphere plasma measurements for validation of the ISS charging model, assess photo voltaic array variability and interpreting IRI predictions, is composed of four probes: Floating Potential Probe (FPP), Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP) and the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). This gives redundant measurements of each parameter. There are also many 'boxes' that the data must pass through before being captured by the ground station, which leads to telemetry noise. Methods of analysis for the various signals from the different sets are reviewed. There is also a brief discussion of LP analysis of Low Earth Orbit plasma simulation source.

  5. Proposed Space Flight Experiment Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The primary thrust for this plan is to develop design tools and fundamental understanding that are timely and consistent with the goal of the various exploration initiatives. The plan will utilize ISS facilities, such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). A preliminary flow schematic of Two-Phase Flow Facility (T(phi)FFy) which would utilize FIR is shown in Figure 3. MSG can be utilized to use the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and Contact Line Dynamics Experiment (CLiDE) Facility. The T(phi)FFy system would have multiple test sections whereby different configurations of heat exchangers could be used to study boiling and condensation phenomena. The test sections would be instrumented for pressure drop, void fraction, heat fluxes, temperatures, high-speed imaging and other diagnostics. Besides a high-speed data acquisition system with a large data storage capability, telemetry could be used to update control and test parameters and download limited amounts of data. In addition, there would be multiple accumulators that could be used to investigate system stability and fluid management issues. The system could accommodate adiabatic tests through either the space station nitrogen supply or have an experiment-specific compressor to pressurize a sufficient amount of air or other non-condensable gas for reuse as the supply bottle is depleted.

  6. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space flight... crew or a space flight participant on board must demonstrate compliance with §§ 460.5, 460.7,...

  7. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space flight... crew or a space flight participant on board must demonstrate compliance with §§ 460.5, 460.7,...

  8. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space flight... crew or a space flight participant on board must demonstrate compliance with §§ 460.5, 460.7,...

  9. Antimicrobial Medication Stability During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Berens, Kurt; Du, Jianping

    2004-01-01

    The current vision for manned space flight involves lunar and Martian exploration within the next two decades. In order for NASA to achieve these goals, a significant amount of preparation is necessary to assure crew health and safety. A mission critical component of this vision centers around the stability of pharmaceutical preparations contained in the space medicine kits. Evidence suggests that even brief periods of space flight have significant detrimental effects for some pharmaceutical formulations. The effects observed include decreases in physical stability of drug formulations of sufficient magnitude to effect bioavailability. Other formulations exhibit decreases in chemical stability resulting in a loss of potency. Physical or-chemical instability of pharmaceutical formulations i n space medicine kits could render the products ineffective. Of additional concern is the potential for formation of toxic degradation products as a result of the observed product instability. This proposal addresses Question number 11 of Clinical Capabilities in the Critical Path Roadmap. In addition, this proposal will reduce the risks and/or enhance the capabilities of humans exposed to the environments of space flight or an extraterrestrial destination by identifying drugs that may be unstable during spaceflight.

  10. Space flight and the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1993-01-01

    Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. This is despite the fact that weightlessness per se has a strong inhibitory effect on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Although the changes observed never harmed the health of astronauts, immunological changes must be seriously investigated and understood in view of long-duration flight on space stations in an Earth orbit, to other planets such as Mars and to the Moon.

  11. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's activities and purposes. MSFC seeks to build on previous contacts and relationships with Russian rocket institutions, to better understand Russian rocket products and technical capabilities. The US launch vehicle and spacecraft industry are already using many Russian propulsion products and MSFC needs better technical knowledge and understanding of these products as this use increases. Further details are given on MSFC's role in determining and developing the scope of space propulsion, NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan, Earth to Orbit propulsion systems, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, proposed Shuttle safety upgrades, and in-space propulsion systems. MSFC's role in the construction and support of the International Space Station is also described.

  12. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  13. Vectorcardiographic changes during extended space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. F.; Stanton, K.; Stoop, D.; Brown, D.; Janusz, W.; King, P.

    1974-01-01

    To assess the effects of space flight on cardiac electrical properties, vectorcardiograms were taken on the 9 Skylab astronauts during the flights of 28, 59, and 84 days. The Frank lead system was used and observations were made at rest; during 25%, 50% and 75% of maximum exercise; during a short pulse of exercise (150 watts, 2 minutes); and after exercise. Data from 131 in-flight tests were analyzed by computer and compared to preflight and postflight values. Statistically significant increase in QRS vector magnitude (six of nine crewmen); T vector magnitude (five of nine crewmen); and resting PR interval duration (six of nine crewmen) occurred. During exercise the PR interval did not differ from preflight. Exercise heart rates inflight were the same as preflight, but increased in the immediate postflight period. With the exception of the arrhythmias, no deleterious vectorcardiographic changes were observed during the Skylab missions.

  14. Inhibited interferon production after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.

  15. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  16. Rehabilitation After International Space Station Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauvin, S. J.; Shepherd, B. A. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Taddeo, T.

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitating U.S. crew members to preflight status following flights on the Russian Mir Space Station required longer than six months for full functional recovery of some of the seven crew members. Additional exercise hardware has been added on the International Space Station as well as a rehabilitative emphasis on functional fitness/agility and proprioception. The authors will describe and present the results of the rehabilitation program for ISS and evaluate rehabilitative needs for longer missions. Pre- and in-flight programs emphasize strength and aerobic conditioning. One year before launch, crew members are assigned an Astronaut Strength and Conditioning specialist. Crew members are scheduled for 2 hours, 3 days a week, for pre-flight training and 2.5 hours, six days a week, for in-flight training. Crewmembers are tested on functional fitness, agility, isokinetic strength, and submaximal cycle ergometer evaluation before and after flight. The information from these tests is used for exercise prescriptions, comparison, and evaluation of the astronaut and training programs. The rehabilitation program lasts for 45 days and is scheduled for 2 hours during each crew workday. Phase 1 of the rehabilitation program starts on landing day and places emphasis on ambulation, flexibility, and muscle strengthening. Phase 2 adds proprioceptive exercise and cardiovascular conditioning. Phase 3 (the longest phase) focuses on functional development. All programs are tailored specifically for each individual according to their test results, preferred recreational activities, and mission roles and duties. Most crew members reached or exceeded their preflight test values 45 days after flight. Some crew members subjectively indicated the need for a longer rehabilitation period. The current rehabilitation program for returning ISS crew members seems adequate in content but may need to be extended for longer expeditions.

  17. How human sleep in space — investigations during space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, I. M.; Zdravev, T. K.; Yanev, T. K.

    Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods.

  18. How human sleep in space--investigations during space flights.

    PubMed

    Stoilova, I M; Zdravev, T K; Yanev, T K

    2003-01-01

    Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods.

  19. Deep Space Network utilization for flight projects, calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, C. L.; Goto, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    A report on the utilization of the Deep Space Network during calendar year 1981 in support of all flight projects is presented. The network expended 63% of its total capability in support of Space Flight projects.

  20. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. As the SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability of the integrated flight vehicle, it was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight load relief through the use of a nonlinear observer driven by acceleration measurements, and envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  1. Toxicological implications of extended space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Bernard; Utell, Mark; Morrow, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the needs and mechanisms for shielding crewmembers on long-duration space flights from hazards related to chemical toxicants. Specific attention is given to existing data on sources of impaired performance, namely, neurotoxicants, respiratory infections, pulmonary function. The behavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to volatile organic solvents can impair crucial functional parameters of space flight and mission objectives. Respiratory infections contribute to performance decrements of up to 20 percent, and pulmonary function can be impaired by contaminants such as ozone leading to reduced performance. It is concluded that these and other sources of toxicologically induced performance reductions be studied since they impinge on vehicle design and mission objectives.

  2. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-22

    412TW-PA-15264 CURRENT HYPERSONIC AND SPACE VEHICLE FLIGHT TEST AND INSTRUMENTATION John J. Spravka* and Timothy R. Jorris† AIR FORCE TEST...DATES COVERED (From - To) 22 – 26 July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation...utility can be leveraged by a wide range of flight test programs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hypersonic, flight test, instrumentation, space access, space

  3. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  4. Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.

  5. Reactivity of organism in prolonged space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, P. V.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of published data are presented as well as the results of experiments which show that the state of weightlessness and hypodynamia result in a reduced orthostatic and vestibular resistance, increased sensitivity to infections, decreased endurance of accelerations and physical exercises, and altered reactivity of the organism to drugs. Various consequences of weightlessness on the human body, especially weightlessness combined with other factors linked to long space flights are also considered.

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department is a resource for Educator, Students and Lifelong Learners. This paper will highlight the Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department with references to other NASA Education Departments nationwide. The principal focus will be on the responsibilities of the Pre-college Education Team which is responsible for supporting K- 12 teachers highlighting how many of the NASA Pre-college Offices engage teachers and their students in better understanding NASA's inspiring missions, unique facilities, and specialized workforce to carryout these many agency-wide tasks, goals and objectives. Attendee's will learn about the Marshall Educational Alliance Teams, as well, which is responsible for using NASA's unique assets to support all types of learning. All experience and knowledge levels, all grades K-12, and teachers in these specified groupings will gain a true appreciation of what is available for them, through Marshall Space Flight Center's Education Department. An agency-wide blue directory booklet will be distributed to all attendees, for future references and related points of contact.

  7. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  8. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all...

  11. Intersatellite communications optoelectronics research at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of current optoelectronics research and development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters; high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers; pointing, acquisition, and tracking components; and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Program hardware and space flight opportunities are presented.

  12. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human... subcontract level: “FOR USE IN HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT; MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING, AND WORKMANSHIP OF...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human... subcontract level: “FOR USE IN HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT; MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING, AND WORKMANSHIP OF...

  14. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Chidambaram, M.; Heath, J. D.; Mallary, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

  16. Science at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The Sciences and Exploration Directorate of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is the largest Earth and space science research organization in the world. Its scientists advance understanding of the Earth and its life-sustaining environment, the Sun, the solar system, and the wider universe beyond. Researchers in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate work with engineers, computer programmers, technologists, and other team members to develop the cutting-edge technology needed for space-based research. Instruments are also deployed on aircraft, balloons, and Earth's surface. I will give an overview of the current research activities and programs at GSFC including the James Web Space Telescope (JWST), future Earth Observing programs, experiments that are exploring our solar system and studying the interaction of the Sun with the Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Research and technology, 1984: Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorehead, T. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center conducts research programs in space sciences, materials processing in space, and atmospheric sciences, as well as technology programs in such areas as propulsion, materials, processes, and space power. This Marshall Space Flight Center 1984 Annual Report on Research and Technology contains summaries of the more significant scientific and technical results obtained during FY-84.

  18. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...

  19. 14 CFR 415.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 415.8 Section 415.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.8 Human space flight. To obtain a launch license,...

  20. The endocrine system in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Reusable surface insulation flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.; Smith, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The first two flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter have provided the initial data required for operational certification of the Thermal Protection System (TPS). The flight performance characteristics of the TPS reusable surface insulation (RSI) will be discussed. The discussion will be based on post-flight inspections of the RSI and post-flight interpretations of the flight instrumentation data. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and mechanical design requirements for the RSI system were met or exceeded.

  2. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  3. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  4. Results of the First US Manned Orbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The results of the first United States manned orbital space flight conducted on February 20, 1962 are presented. The prelaunch activities, spacecraft description, flight operations, flight data, and postflight analyses presented form a continuation of the information previously published for the two United States manned suborbital space flights conducted on May 5, 1961, and July 21, 1961, respectively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Knowledge representation in space flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.

  6. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  7. Role of Corticosteroids in Bone Loss During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, Thomas J.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Miller, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  8. Space Station Science Supported by Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Smith, Tommy R.

    2003-01-01

    The science program at Marshall Space Flight Center will be reviewed in the context of the overall NASA science program. An overview will be given on how Marshall science supports the International Space Station research program. The Microgravity research capabilities at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall civil service and contractor scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in New Initiative Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. The specific scientific instruments that have been developed for Materials Science and Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station will be discussed.

  9. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  10. Architecting Systems for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wocken, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Human-system interactions have been largely overlooked in the traditional systems engineering process. Awareness of human factors (HF) has increased in the past few years, but the involvement of HF specialists is still often too little and too late. In systems involving long-duration human space flight, it is essential that the human component be properly considered in the initial architectural definition phase, as well as throughout the system design process. HF analysis must include not only the strengths and limitations of humans in general, but the variability between individuals and within an individual over time, and the dynamics of group interactions.

  11. Research & Technology Report Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The main theme of this edition of the annual Research and Technology Report is Mission Operations and Data Systems. Shifting from centralized to distributed mission operations, and from human interactive operations to highly automated operations is reported. The following aspects are addressed: Mission planning and operations; TDRSS, Positioning Systems, and orbit determination; hardware and software associated with Ground System and Networks; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web. Flight projects are described along with the achievements in space sciences and earth sciences. Spacecraft subsystems, cryogenic developments, and new tools and capabilities are also discussed.

  12. Space Flight Operations Center local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Ross V.

    1988-01-01

    The existing Mission Control and Computer Center at JPL will be replaced by the Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC). One part of the SFOC is the LAN-based distribution system. The purpose of the LAN is to distribute the processed data among the various elements of the SFOC. The SFOC LAN will provide a robust subsystem that will support the Magellan launch configuration and future project adaptation. Its capabilities include (1) a proven cable medium as the backbone for the entire network; (2) hardware components that are reliable, varied, and follow OSI standards; (3) accurate and detailed documentation for fault isolation and future expansion; and (4) proven monitoring and maintenance tools.

  13. Human cellular immune responsiveness following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Dardano, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral circulating lymphocytes were separated from astronaut blood samples three times before and two times after the first four US Space Shuttle flights. The ability of the in vitro T lymphocytes to respond to Phytohemagglutinin by blastogenesis was found to be reduced for each crewmember following spaceflight. In addition, the astronauts experienced a postflight increase in neutrophils and a decrease in eosinophils. These postflight changes in leukocytes are shown to increase with subjectively-evaluated increases in the incidence of inflight stress, indicating that stress, and not hypogravity, is likely to be the major effector of these changes.

  14. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in

  15. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  16. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.

  17. Atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto

    A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.

  18. A Space Flight Cultivation Protocol for Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H. G.

    2008-06-01

    A tube-based method is presented for the cultivation and manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana during space flight experimentation. Seeds were germinated on rock-wool plugs and subsequently transferred into modified polypropylene conical tubes (cut to 5 cm lengths) at 7 days after planting. Each tube contained four side-situated slits through which capillary mat strips were woven. An additional capillary mat wick extended from below the tube up through the bottom to the mid-interior portion. The incorporation of Fibrous Ion Exchange Resin Substrate provided nutrients. The tubes were transferred to plant compartments containing a horticulture foam matrix that received water inputs. Vigorous seedling development through to seed production was achieved. Dispersed seeds frequently germinated on top of the foam substrate, yielding a 2nd generation of seedlings. The methods used herein could be applied to other plant species to be flown in space.

  19. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri,Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  20. Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Trela

    2006-01-01

    Being a member of the Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) Staff is a great experience. I joined the FMC staff 2 years ago when I became part of the Kelsey-Seybold team. The FMC staff consists of Flight Surgeons, Family Clinic Physician, Nursing staff, Wellness Coordinator and Support staff. We serve as the Primary Care Physicians for the astronauts and their families and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. We have approximately 800 patients in the FMC. As the Family Clinic Physician, I care for the astronaut spouses and children and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. Since we have a small patient population, we have the opportunity to spend increased personal time with our patients, which I enjoy. We have a pretty healthy patient population, who are very interested in their overall health and preventive care. In preparation for a shuttle launch, our nursing staff assists the flight surgeons with the astronaut physical exams, which occur 10 days prior to launch and again 3 days after their return. We also provide Primary Contact physicals for the families and guests, who will be in close contact with shuttle crew members. During these physicals, we provide education, emphasizing the importance of preventing the spread of communicable diseases to shuttle crew members. Being a part of the Space Medicine Program is an honor. To know that you contribute in some way to our nation s Space Program is very special. (This article was prepared by Dr. Trela Landry, M.D. for inclusion in a Kelsey-Seybold newsletter on 25 OCT 2006.)

  1. Utilizing HDTV as Data for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Lindblom, Walt

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident February 1, 2003, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recognized the need for better video data from launch, on-orbit, and landing to assess the status and safety of the shuttle orbiter fleet. The board called on NASA to improve its imagery assets and update the Agency s methods for analyzing video. This paper will feature details of several projects implemented prior to the return to flight of the Space Shuttle, including an airborne HDTV imaging system called the WB-57 Ascent Video Experiment, use of true 60 Hz progressive scan HDTV for ground and airborne HDTV camera systems, and the decision to utilize a wavelet compression system for recording. This paper will include results of compression testing, imagery from the launch of STS-114, and details of how commercial components were utilized to image the shuttle launch from an aircraft flying at 400 knots at 60,000 feet altitude. The paper will conclude with a review of future plans to expand on the upgrades made prior to return to flight.

  2. The human cardiovascular system during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Fomina, G. A.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose of the work is to analyze and to summarize the data of investigations into human hemodynamics performed over 20 years aboard orbital stations Salyut-7 and Mir with participation of 26 cosmonauts on space flights (SF) from 8 to 438 days in duration. The ultrasonic techniques and occlusive plethysmography demonstrated dynamics of changes in the cardiovascular system during SF of various durations. The parameters of general hemodynamics, the pumping function of the heart and arterial circulation in the brain remained stable in all the space flights; however, there were alterations in peripheral circulation associated with blood redistribution and hypovolemie in microgravity. The anti-gravity distribution of the vascular tone decayed gradually as unneeded. The most considerable changes were observed in leg vessels, equally in arteries (decrease in resistance) and veins (increase in maximum capacity). The lower body negative pressure test (LBNP) revealed deterioration of the gravity-dependent reactions that changed for the worse as SF duration extended. The cardiovascular deconditioning showed itself as loss of descent acceleration tolerance and orthostatic instability in the postflight period.

  3. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  4. Use of Virtual Reality for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational

  5. Lytic Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D. T.

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Cellular immunity, which is decreased during and after space flight, is responsible for controlling EBV replication in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term space flight on latent EBV reactivation.

  6. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  7. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  8. Effects of space flight and IGF-1 on immune function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed by IGF-1. Flight animals had significantly higher corticosterone levels than ground controls but IGF-1 did not impact this stress hormone. Therefore, the reversed granulocytosis did not correlate with serum corticosterone. Space flight and IGF-1 also combined to induce a monocytopenia that was not evident in ground control animals treated with IGF-1 or in animals subjected to space flight but given physiological saline. There was a significant increase in spleen weights in vivarium animals treated with IGF-1, however, this change did not occur in flight animals. We observed reduced agonist-induced lymph node cell proliferation by cells from flight animals compared to ground controls. The reduced proliferation was not augmented by IGF-1 treatment. There was enhanced secretion of TNF, IL-6 and NO by flight-animal peritoneal macrophages compared to vivarium controls, however, O2- secretion was not affected. These data suggest that IGF-1 can ameliorate some of the effects of space flight but that space flight can also impact the normal response to IGF-1.

  9. Electronystagmography and audio potentials in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Biggers, W. P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thomas, W. G.; Thagard, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with the fourth flight of the Space Transport System (STS-4), objective measurements of inner ear function were conducted in near-zero G conditions in earth orbit. The problem of space motion sickness (SMS) was approached much like any disequilibrium problem encountered clinically. However, objective testing techniques had built-in limitations superimposed by the strict parameters inherent in each mission. An attempt was made to objectively characterize SMS, and to first ascertain whether the objective measurements indicated that this disorder was of peripheral or central origin. Electronystagmography and auditory brain stem response recordings were the primary investigative tools. One of the authors (W.E.T.) was a mission specialist on board the orbiter Challenger on the eighth shuttle mission (STS-8) and had the opportunity to make direct and personal observations regarding SMS, an opportunity which has added immeasurably to our understanding of this disorder. Except for two abnormal ENG records, which remain to be explained, the remaining ENG records and all the ABR records made in the weightless environment of space were normal.

  10. Biodosimetry results from space flight Mir-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; George, K.; Johnson, A. S.; Durante, M.; Fedorenko, B. S.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts are classified as radiation workers due to the presence of ionizing radiation in space. For the assessment of health risks, physical dosimetry has been indispensable. However, the change of the location of dosimeters on the crew members, the variation in dose rate with location inside the spacecraft and the unknown biological effects of microgravity can introduce significant uncertainties in estimating exposure. To circumvent such uncertainty, a study on the cytogenetic effects of space radiation in human lymphocytes was proposed and conducted for Mir-18, a 115-day mission. This study used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes to score chromosomal exchanges and the Giemsa staining method to determine the frequency of dicentrics. The growth kinetics of cells and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were examined to ensure that chromosomal aberrations were scored in the first mitosis and were induced primarily by space radiation. Our results showed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in postflight samples compared to samples drawn prior to flight, and that the frequency of SCEs was similar for both pre- and postflight samples. Based on a dose-response curve for preflight samples exposed to gamma rays, the absorbed dose received by crew members during the mission was estimated to be about 14.75 cSv. Because the absorbed dose measured by physical dosimeters is 5.2 cGy for the entire mission, the RBE is about 2.8.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.

  12. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  13. Optimizing Medical Kits for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minard, Charles G.; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Iyengar, M. Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) uses Monte Carlo methodologies to predict the occurrence of medical events, their mitigation, and the resources required during space flight. The model includes two modules that utilize output from a single model simulation to identify an optimized medical kit for a specified mission scenario. This poster describes two flexible optimization routines built into SAS 9.1. The first routine utilizes a systematic process of elimination to maximize (or minimize) outcomes subject to attribute constraints. The second routine uses a search and mutate approach to minimize medical kit attributes given a set of outcome constraints. There are currently 273 unique resources identified that are used to treat at least one of 83 medical conditions currently in the model.

  14. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

    1997-01-01

    Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

  15. Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, William A.; DeWeck, Olivier; Laufer, Deanna; Shull, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration sets out a number of goals, involving both strategic and tactical objectives. These include returning the Space Shuttle to flight, completing the International Space Station, and conducting human expeditions to the Moon by 2020. Each of these goals has profound logistics implications. In the consideration of these objectives,a need for a study on NASA logistics lessons learned was recognized. The study endeavors to identify both needs for space exploration and challenges in the development of past logistics architectures, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately applied as guidance in the development of an integrated logistics architecture for future human missions to the Moon and Mars. This report first summarizes current logistics practices for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) and examines the practices of manifesting, stowage, inventory tracking, waste disposal, and return logistics. The key findings of this examination are that while the current practices do have many positive aspects, there are also several shortcomings. These shortcomings include a high-level of excess complexity, redundancy of information/lack of a common database, and a large human-in-the-loop component. Later sections of this report describe the methodology and results of our work to systematically gather logistics lessons learned from past and current human spaceflight programs as well as validating these lessons through a survey of the opinions of current space logisticians. To consider the perspectives on logistics lessons, we searched several sources within NASA, including organizations with direct and indirect connections with the system flow in mission planning. We utilized crew debriefs, the John Commonsense lessons repository for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, and the Skylab Lessons Learned. Additionally, we searched the public version of the Lessons Learned

  16. Space construction results: The EASE/ACCESS flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    This paper describes NASA ground and flight test activities in the development of in-space construction techniques for the assembly of Space-Station-sized structures. In November 1985, the first experiments on space construction using EVA astronauts were flown aboard the Space Shuttle, with spectacular and highly visible results. The EASE and ACCESS flight experiments are described and the ground and water tank test program and operations in-flight including instrumentation are presented, together with illustrations of assembly and disassembly of both the EASE and ACCESS experiments. The flight test results are presented and learning and productivity curves are discussed, with differences between free EVA vs EVA using foot restraints compared. Two weeks after the flights, the Space Station structural assembly technique was selected to be EVA astronaut assembly of the truss, based on the flight experiment results.

  17. Trusted Autonomy for Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Bonasso, Pete; Ingham, Mitch; Kortenkamp, David; Perix, John

    2005-01-01

    NASA has long supported research on intelligent control technologies that could allow space systems to operate autonomously or with reduced human supervision. Proposed uses range from automated control of entire space vehicles to mobile robots that assist or substitute for astronauts to vehicle systems such as life support that interact with other systems in complex ways and require constant vigilance. The potential for pervasive use of such technology to extend the kinds of missions that are possible in practice is well understood, as is its potential to radically improve the robustness, safety and productivity of diverse mission systems. Despite its acknowledged potential, intelligent control capabilities are rarely used in space flight systems. Perhaps the most famous example of intelligent control on a spacecraft is the Remote Agent system flown on the Deep Space One mission (1998 - 2001). However, even in this case, the role of the intelligent control element, originally intended to have full control of the spacecraft for the duration of the mission, was reduced to having partial control for a two-week non-critical period. Even this level of mission acceptance was exceptional. In most cases, mission managers consider intelligent control systems an unacceptable source of risk and elect not to fly them. Overall, the technology is not trusted. From the standpoint of those who need to decide whether to incorporate this technology, lack of trust is easy to understand. Intelligent high-level control means allowing software io make decisions that are too complex for conventional software. The decision-making behavior of these systems is often hard to understand and inspect, and thus hard to evaluate. Moreover, such software is typically designed and implemented either as a research product or custom-built for a particular mission. In the former case, software quality is unlikely to be adequate for flight qualification and the functionality provided by the system is

  18. Life-sciences research opportunities in commercial suborbital space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Commercial suborbital space flights will reach altitudes above 100 km, with 3-5 min of weightlessness bracketed by high-g launch and landing phases. The proposed frequency of these flights, and the large passenger population, present interesting opportunities for researchers in the life sciences. The characteristics of suborbital flight are between those of parabolic and orbital flights, opening up new scientific possibilities and easing the burden for obtaining access to 0g. There are several areas where these flights might be used for research in the life sciences: (1) operational research: preparation for “real” space flight, such as rehearsal of medical procedures, (2) applied research-to answer questions relevant to long-term space flight; (3) passenger health and safety-effects on passengers, relevant to screening and training; (4) basic research in physiological mechanisms-to address issues of fundamental science. We describe possible projects in each of these categories. One in particular spans several areas. Based on the anticipated suborbital flight profiles, observations from parabolic flight, and the wide range of fitness and experience levels of suborbital passengers, sensorimotor disturbances such as motion sickness and disorientation are major concerns. Protocols for pre-flight adaptation of sensorimotor responses might help to alleviate some of these problems, based on results from research in the initial flights. This would improve the passenger experience and add to the knowledge base relevant to space flight more generally.

  19. Biotelemeters for Space Flights and Fetal Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, Carsten W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Hines, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Pill-shaped biotelemeters originally designed for space flight applications will soon be used for monitoring the health of a fetus during and after in-utero fetal surgery. The authors developed a family of biotelemeters that are not only small enough for rodent studies on board the space shuttle or international space station, but also fit through a 10 mm trocar, a plastic tube that is used in endoscopic fetal surgery to obtain minimally invasive access to the fetus. The first 'pill' measures pressure and temperature, and is currently undergoing long-term leakage and biocompatibility tests. A second pill under development measures pH and temperature. A prototype of the 'pH-pill' has been built and successfully tested and is presently being miniaturized into the same dimensions as the 'pressure pill'. Additional pills measuring heart rate, ECG, other ions such as calcium and potassium, and eventually glucose and blood gases, will follow. All pills are designed for ultra-low power consumption yielding lifetimes of up to 10 months in order to meet the requirements of fetal monitoring, but also to provide the capability of long-term space station experiments. Each pill transmits its pulse-interval-modulated signal on a unique carrier frequency in the frequency range of 174-216MHz. A custom-designed multi-channel receiver demodulates and decodes each pill signal and sends the data to a LabVIEW program that performs real-time data analysis and display. A patent for the pill family and its data analysis system is pending.

  20. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  1. 14 CFR § 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. Â... SPACE FLIGHT Space Flight Participants § 1214.1705 Selection of space flight participants. (a) The agency will publicly announce each space flight participant opportunity through appropriate...

  2. Apollo experience report: Flight planning for manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, J. W.; Cotter, J. B.; Holloway, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    The history of flight planning for manned space missions is outlined, and descriptions and examples of the various evolutionary phases of flight data documents from Project Mercury to the Apollo Program are included. Emphasis is given to the Apollo flight plan. Time line format and content are discussed in relationship to the manner in which they are affected by the types of flight plans and various constraints.

  3. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...

  4. 14 CFR 431.8 - Human space flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human space flight. 431.8 Section 431.8 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 431.8 Human space...

  5. The Goddard Space Flight Center preferred parts list, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, N. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A listing is presented of preferred electronic parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center space systems and ground support equipment.

  6. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  7. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, N. F. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm

  9. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.

  10. Experiment 305: Pathophysiology of Mineral Loss During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Claude D.; Cann, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this SLS-2 experiment was to determine the pathophysiology of mineral loss during space flight. This was to be accomplished by (1) determining the concentrations of blood minerals and of calciotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone-PTH, vitamin D metabolites) before, during, and after a 14 day shuttle flight, and (2) determining, by calcium kinetic analysis (using stable calcium isotopes), the influence of space flight on intestinal calcium absorption .

  11. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sibonga, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

    2011-01-01

    This poster reviews the possibility of using Bisphosphonates to counter the bone loss that is experienced during space flight. The Hypothesis that is tested in this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will attenuate space flight induced loss in bone mass and strength and reduce renal stone risk. The experiment design, the status and the results are described.

  12. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight Director Robert E. Castle uses a laptop computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead Flight Director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  13. Dimpled Ball Grid Array process development for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, S. L.; Mehta, A.

    2000-01-01

    The 472 Dimpled Ball Grid Array (D-BGA) package has not been used in past space flight environments, therefore it is necessary to determine the robustness and reliability of the solder joints. The 472 D-BGA packages passed the above environmental tests within the specifications and are now qualified for use on space flight electronics.

  14. Research and Technology Report. Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Maran, Stephen (Editor); Walter, Lou (Editor); Brown, Mitch (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of Goddard Space Flight Center's annual report highlights the importance of mission operations and data systems covering mission planning and operations; TDRSS, positioning systems, and orbit determination; ground system and networks, hardware and software; data processing and analysis; and World Wide Web use. The report also includes flight projects, space sciences, Earth system science, and engineering and materials.

  15. Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

  16. Sub-orbital flights, a starting point for space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubatz, William A.

    2002-07-01

    While there is a growing awareness and interest by the general public in space travel neither the market nor the infrastructure exist to make a commercial space tourism business an attractive risk venture. In addition there is much to be learned about how the general public will respond to space flights and what physiological and psychological needs must be met to ensure a pleasurable as well as adventurous experience. Sub-orbital flights offer an incremental approach to develop the market and the infrastructure, demonstrate the safety of space flight, obtain real flight information regarding the needs of general public passengers and demonstrate the profitability of space tourism. This paper will summarize some of the system, operations, and financial aspects of creating a sub-orbital space tourism business as a stepping-stone to public space travel. A sample business case will be reviewed and impacts of markets, operations and vehicle costs and lifetimes will be assessed.

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center Telescience Resource Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) is a suite of software applications that can be used to monitor and control assets in space or on the ground. The Telescience Resource Kit was originally developed for the International Space Station program. Since then it has been used to support a variety of NASA programs and projects including the WB-57 Ascent Vehicle Experiment (WAVE) project, the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT) project, and the Constellation Program. The Payloads Operations Center (POC), also known as the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), provides the capability for payload users to operate their payloads at their home sites. In this environment, TReK provides local ground support system services and an interface to utilize remote services provided by the POC. TReK provides ground system services for local and remote payload user sites including International Partner sites, Telescience Support Centers, and U.S. Investigator sites in over 40 locations worldwide. General Capabilities: Support for various data interfaces such as User Datagram Protocol, Transmission Control Protocol, and Serial interfaces. Data Services - retrieve, process, record, playback, forward, and display data (ground based data or telemetry data). Command - create, modify, send, and track commands. Command Management - Configure one TReK system to serve as a command server/filter for other TReK systems. Database - databases are used to store telemetry and command definition information. Application Programming Interface (API) - ANSI C interface compatible with commercial products such as Visual C++, Visual Basic, LabVIEW, Borland C++, etc. The TReK API provides a bridge for users to develop software to access and extend TReK services. Environments - development, test, simulations, training, and flight. Includes standalone training simulators.

  18. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  19. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  20. Effects of space flight on surface marker expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to affect expression of several cell surface markers. These markers play important roles in regulation of immune responses, including CD4 and CD8. The studies have involved flight of experimental animals and humans followed by analysis of tissue samples (blood in humans, rats and monkeys, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and bone marrow in rodents). The degree and direction of the changes induced by space flight have been determined by the conditions of the flight. Also, there may be compartmentalization of the response of surface markers to space flight, with differences in the response of cells isolated from blood and local immune tissue. The same type of compartmentalization was also observed with cell adhesion molecules (integrins). In this case, the expression of integrins from lymph node cells differed from that of splenocytes isolated from rats immediately after space flight. Cell culture studies have indicated that there may be an inhibition in conversion of a precursor cell line to cells exhibiting mature macrophage characteristics after space flight, however, these experiments were limited as a result of technical difficulties. In general, it is clear that space flight results in alterations of cell surface markers. The biological significance of these changes remains to be established.

  1. Proceedings of the Second Manned Space Flight Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The papers presented in this report represent the classified portion of the Second Manned Space Flight Meeting which was held in Dallas, TX, on April 22-24, 1963. The meeting was co-sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The following subjects are discussed in the report: Manned Space Flight Programs, Launch Vehicles, Spacecraft Design, and Guidance and Control.

  2. Modeling Calcium Loss from Bones During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wastney, Meryl E.; Morukov, Boris V.; Larina, Irina M.; Abrams, Steven A.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss from bones during space flight creates a risk for astronauts who travel into space, and may prohibit space flights to other planets. The problem of calcium loss during space flight has been studied using animal models, bed rest (as a ground-based model), and humans in-flight. In-flight studies have typically documented bone loss by comparing bone mass before and after flight. To identify changes in metabolism leading to bone loss, we have performed kinetic studies using stable isotopes of calcium. Oral (Ca-43) and intravenous (Ca-46) tracers were administered to subjects (n=3), three-times before flight, once in-flight (after 110 days), and three times post-flight (on landing day, and 9 days and 3 months after flight). Samples of blood, saliva, urine, and feces were collected for up to 5 days after isotope administration, and were analyzed for tracer enrichment. Tracer data in tissues were analyzed using a compartmental model for calcium metabolism and the WinSAAM software. The model was used to: account for carryover of tracer between studies, fit data for all studies using the minimal number of changes between studies, and calculate calcium absorption, excretion, bone calcium deposition and bone calcium resorption. Results showed that fractional absorption decreased by 50% during flight and that bone resorption and urinary excretion increased by 50%. Results were supported by changes in biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Inflight bone loss of approximately 250 mg Ca/d resulted from decreased calcium absorption combined with increased bone resorption and excretion. Further studies will assess the time course of these changes during flight, and the effectiveness of countermeasures to mitigate flight-induced bone loss. The overall goal is to enable human travel beyond low-Earth orbit, and to allow for better understanding and treatment of bone diseases on Earth.

  3. Effects of the space flight environment on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Space flight conditions have a dramatic effect on a variety of physiologic functions of mammals, including muscle, bone, and neurovestibular function. Among the physiological functions that are affected when humans or animals are exposed to space flight conditions is the immune response. The focus of this review is on the function of the immune system in space flight conditions during actual space flights, as well as in models of space flight conditions on the earth. The experiments were carried out in tissue culture systems, in animal models, and in human subjects. The results indicate that space flight conditions alter cell-mediated immune responses, including lymphocyte proliferation and subset distribution, and cytokine production. The mechanism(s) of space flight-induced alterations in immune system function remain(s) to be established. It is likely, however, that multiple factors, including microgravity, stress, neuroendocrine factors, sleep disruption, and nutritional factors, are involved in altering certain functions of the immune system. Such alterations could lead to compromised defenses against infections and tumors.

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center Autumn 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mike; Clar, Harry E.

    2006-01-01

    The East Test Area at Marshall Space Flight Center has five major test stands, each of which has two or more test positions, not counting the SSME and RD-180 engine test facilities in the West Test Area. These research and development facilities are capable of testing high pressure pumps, both fuel and oxidizer, injectors, chambers and sea-level engine assemblies, as well as simulating deep space environments in the 12, 15 and 20 foot vacuum chambers. Liquid propellant capabilities are high pressure hydrogen (liquid and gas), methane (liquid and gas), and RP-1 and high pressure LOX. Solid propellant capability includes thrust measurement and firing capability up to 1/6 scale Shuttle SRB segment. In the past six months MSFC supported multiple space access and exploration programs in the previous six months. Major programs were Space Exploration, Shuttle External Tank research, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) development, as well as research programs for NASA and other customers. At Test Stand 115 monopropellant ignition testing was conducted on one position. At the second position multiple ignition/variable burn time cycles were conducted on Vacuum Plasma Spatter (VPS) coated injectors. Each injector received fifty cycles; the propellants were LOX Hydrogen and the ignition source was TEA. Following completion of the monopropellant test series the stand was reconfigured to support ignition testing on a LOX Methane injector system. At TS 116 a thrust stand used to test Booster Separation Motors from the Shuttle SRB system was disassembled and moved from Chemical Systems Division s Coyote Canyon plant to MSFC. The stand was reassembled and readied for BSM testing. Also, a series of tests was run on a Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Low Element Density (LED) injector engine. The propellants for this engine are LOX and LH2. At TS 300 the 20 foot vacuum chamber was configured to support hydrogen testing in the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) test article. This testing

  5. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  6. Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

  7. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  8. Calcium Kinetics During Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Wastney, M. E.; Morukov, B. V.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S. A.; Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Oganov, V.; Shackelford, L. C.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss represents one of the most significant effects of space flight on the human body. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this loss is critical for maintaining crew health and safety during and after flight. This investigation documents the changes in bone metabolism and calcium kinetics during and after space flight. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects during and after a 115-d stay on the Russian space station Mir. We report here data on an additional three subjects, whose stays on Mir were approximately 4 (n=l) and 6 (n=2) mos. Previously published data are included for comparison.

  9. Secondary metabolism in simulated microgravity and space flight.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin

    2011-11-01

    Space flight experiments have suggested that microgravity can affect cellular processes in microorganisms. To simulate the microgravity environment on earth, several models have been developed and applied to examine the effect of microgravity on secondary metabolism. In this paper, studies of effects of space flight on secondary metabolism are exemplified and reviewed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the current models used for simulating microgravity. This discussion is both significant and timely to researchers considering the use of simulated microgravity or space flight to explore effects of weightlessness on secondary metabolism.

  10. The effects of space radiation on flight film

    SciTech Connect

    Holly, M.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.

  11. The effects of space radiation on flight film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holly, Mark H.

    1995-01-01

    The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create non-image forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.

  12. Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

  13. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Workmen at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) dock on the Ternessee River unload S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage, from the NASA barge Palaemon. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings in MSFC's S-IB static test stand.

  14. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Workmen at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) dock on the Ternessee River unload S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage, from the NASA barge Palaemon. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings in Marshall's S-IB static test stand.

  15. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  16. Human factors in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study, covering the behavioral, psychological, physiological, and medical factors of long duration manned space flight, is presented. An attempt was made to identify and resolve major obstacles and unknowns associated with such a flight. The costs and maintenance of the spacecraft system are also explored.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  18. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  19. Capabilities and constraints of typical space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koudelka, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Experiments Division is in the business of performing ground based low gravity testing and designing experiment hardware for space flight on the Space Shuttle and in the future, Space Station Freedom. As witnessed in combustion work, the reduction of gravity brings forward previously negligible processes and parameters. In a similar manner, the design of experiments for microgravity operation aboard the Space Shuttle must consider parameters that are often not factors for laboratory hardware.

  20. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  1. Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter William

    2015-01-01

    Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit. PMID:26251622

  2. Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter William

    2015-01-01

    Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit.

  3. ISS Update: Space Flight and the Immune System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and inc...

  4. Columbia's first flight shakes down space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Young, D.; White, T.

    1981-01-01

    The first space shuttle mission is described. Topics include launch preparations, flight profile, trajectory, and landing operations. The spaceflight tracking and data network is discussed and the photography and television schedules are included.

  5. Space-X Launches Falcon 9 on Demonstration Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft launched from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 10:43 a.m. EST on Wednesday, Dec. 8. This is first demonstration flight for NAS...

  6. Workshop on Exercise Prescription for Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A., Jr. (Editor); Stewart, Donald F. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a dedicated history of ensuring human safety and productivity in flight. Working and living in space long term represents the challenge of the future. Our concern is in determining the effects on the human body of living in space. Space flight provides a powerful stimulus for adaptation, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. Extended-duration space flight will influence a great many systems in the human body. We must understand the process by which this adaptation occurs. The NASA is agressively involved in developing programs which will act as a foundation for this new field of space medicine. The hallmark of these programs deals with prevention of deconditioning, currently referred to as countermeasures to zero g. Exercise appears to be most effective in preventing the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal degradation of microgravity.

  7. Scientific involvement in Skylab by the Space Sciences Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The involvement of the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Sciences Laboratory in the Skylab program from the early feasibility studies through the analysis and publication of flight scientific and technical results is described. This includes mission operations support, the Apollo telescope mount, materials science/manufacturing in space, optical contamination, environmental and thermal criteria, and several corollary measurements and experiments.

  8. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  9. Dimpled ball grid array process development for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, S. L.; Mehta, A.

    2000-01-01

    A 472 dimpled ball grid array (D-BGA) package has not been used in past space flight environments, therefore it was necessary to develop a process that would yield robust and reliable solder joints. The process developing assembly, inspection and rework techniques, were verified by conducting environmental tests. Since the 472 D-BGA packages passed the above environmental tests within the specifications, the process was successfully developed for space flight electronics.

  10. Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.

  11. BP and Vascular Function Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.

  12. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  13. Space Shuttle Program Manifest Process & Flight Opportunities for Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swalin, Richard M.; Sweet, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program has, since the early flights, exerted great effort to maximize the cargo complement for each individual mission. Historically, because of the capabilities of the Space Shuttle, there have almost always been opportunities to fly what are termed secondary payloads on every mission. However, with the challenges associated with assembling the International Space Station, accommodations for secondary payloads are significantly limited. In an attempt to deal with this situation, the Space Shuttle Program has developed techniques that will identify and utilize flight opportunities, as well as policies that may create opportunities.

  14. Regulation of erythropoiesis in rats during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Astronauts who have flown in microgravity have experienced a loss in red cell mass. The pathogenesis of the anemia of space flight has not been ascertained, but it is probably multifactorial. In 1978, the laboratory was selected to participate in life sciences studies to be carried out in the space shuttle in an attempt to study the pathogenesis of space anemia. In particular, the original studies were to be made in mice. This was later changed to study erythropoiesis in rats during space flight.

  15. [Biomedical results of the Space Shuttle Orbital Flight Test Program].

    PubMed

    Pool, S L; Nicogossian, A

    1984-01-01

    On July 4, 1982 the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operation support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, the crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment.

  16. Space construction results - The EASE/ACCESS flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.

    1986-01-01

    NASA ground and flight test activities aimed at the development of in-space construction techniques for the assembly of Space-Station-sized structures are described. In particular, attention is given to the EASE and ACCESS flight experiments, the ground and water tank program, and operations in-flight including instrumentations. The baseline experiments demonstrate that erectable structures can be assembled effectively by astronauts in EVA. The average assembly time for a 45-foot truss was 25.5 minutes; the assembly rate was 3.6 struts per minute.

  17. Metabolic Cage for a Space Flight Model in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1994-01-01

    The new cage facilitates the collection of 24-h specimens of separated urine and feces apparently uncontaminated by food, as required for precise nutritional and metabolic studies, while maintaining the large floor area and suspension method of Holton's design (3). Although the cage was evaluated, using 6-month-old rats weighing 408 to 488 g, it can be easily adjusted for smaller rats. It also was successfully used to collect post-flight urine after the recent Spacelab Life Sciences-2 space shuttle flight. With its flexibility and ease of use, this new cage design adds a new tool to study the physiologic effects of simulated space flight and other disuse conditions.

  18. Biomedical results of the Space Shuttle orbital flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A.

    1983-01-01

    On July 4, 1982, the Space Shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA, thus successfully completing the fourth and last in a series of Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) of the Space Transportation System (STS). The primary goal of medical operations support for the OFT was to assure the health and well-being of flight personnel during all phases of the mission. To this end, crew health status was evaluated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Biomedical flight test requirements were completed in the following areas: physiological adaptation to microgravity, cabin acoustical noise, cabin atmospheric evaluation, radiation dosimetry, crew exercise equipment evaluation, and a cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasure assessment.

  19. Inhibition of bone formation during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

  20. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  1. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  2. 14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims..., FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.49 Space flight participant waiver of...

  3. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  4. 14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims..., FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.49 Space flight participant waiver of...

  5. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  6. 14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims..., FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.49 Space flight participant waiver of...

  7. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.45 Operator informing space flight participant of risk....

  8. 14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims..., FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.49 Space flight participant waiver of...

  9. 14 CFR 460.49 - Space flight participant waiver of claims against U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space flight participant waiver of claims..., FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with a Space Flight participant § 460.49 Space flight participant waiver of...

  10. Understanding macrophage differentiation during space flight: The importance of ground-based experiments before space flight.

    PubMed

    Chapes, Stephen K; Ortega, M Teresa

    2013-06-01

    In preparation for a space flight on STS-126, two in vitro culture systems were used to investigate macrophage colony stimulating factor-dependent macrophage differentiation from mouse primary bone marrow cells. The patented Techshot Cell Cult Bioreactor and the BioServe Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) were operated in different orientations to determine their impact on macrophage growth and differentiation. Bone marrow cell parameters were determined after cells were grown in FPAs incubated at 37°C in vertical or horizontal orientations, and macrophage cell recovery was significantly higher from FPAs that were incubated in the horizontal orientation compared to "vertical" FPAs. Similarly, when bone marrow cells were grown in the Techshot bioreactor, there were significant differences in the numbers of macrophages recovered after 7 days, depending on movement and orientation of the bioreactor. Macrophage recovery was highest when the patented bioreactor was rotated in the horizontal, x-axis plane (merry-go-round fashion) compared to static and vertically, y-axis plane rotated (Ferris wheel fashion) bioreactors. In addition, the expression of F4/80 and other differentiation markers varied depending on whether macrophages differentiated in FPAs or in bioreactors. After 7 days, significant differences in size, granularity and molecule expression were seen even when the same primary bone marrow cells were used to seed the cultures. These data show that culture outcomes are highly dependent on the culture device and device orientation. Moreover, the impact of the culture system needs to be understood in order to interpret space flight data.

  11. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  12. The 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of 194 articles addressing research and technology activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is given. Activities are divided into three major areas: advanced studies addressing transportation systems, space systems, and space science activities conducted primarily in the Program Development Directorate; research tasks carried out in the Space Science Laboratory; and technology programs hosted by a wide array of organizations at the Center. The theme for this year's report is 'Building for the Future'.

  13. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

  14. The Space Flight Participant Program - Taking the teacher and classroom into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladwig, A.

    1985-01-01

    NASA established the Space Flight Participant Program as a means to offer periodic opportunities for private citizens to fly on Space Shuttle missions. With the purpose of communicating the mission experience with the general public, it is expected that Space Flight Participants will be included on the crews of two to three Shuttle missions per year. This paper discusses the first flight opportunity - the NASA Teacher in Space Project - provided under this new initiative. Included in the discussion is a review of the events that led to the establishment of the Space Flight Participant Program, a review of the process that led to the selection of Christa McAuliffe as the first Space Flight Participant, a summary of the training activities to prepare a participant for a mission, and an outline of educational activities that will be offered by NASA in conjunction with Shuttle mission 51-L in January 1986 on which Ms. McAuliffe will fly.

  15. Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M Teresa; Lu, Nanyan; Chapes, Stephen K

    2012-05-15

    We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells.

  16. Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, M. Teresa; Lu, Nanyan; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23420085

  17. Increased Renal Solute Excretion in Rats Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moore, A. L.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Following space flight a diuresis, due to an increase in free water clearance, has been suggested in humans. To assess the effects of space flight on renal function, rats were flown in space for 14 days. Rats were divided into three groups; vivarium controls (V;n=6; housed 2/shoe box cage), flight controls (FC;n=6; group housed in a flight cage), and flight animals (F;n=6). Upon landing all animals were placed into individual metabolic cages. Urine was collected daily for 7 days and every other day for 14 days. Urine output was increased (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) following flight for 3 days. On postflight day 1, flow rates were, V=6.8 plus or minus 0.9, FC=8.711.8 and F=16.6 plus or minus 2.7 microliter/min. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate (V=7.9 plus or minus 0.9, FC=6.1 plus or minus 0.7 and F=13.5 plus or minus 0.7 uOsm/min). Creatinine excretion rate was increased over the first two postflight days. In the absence of changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, or K+ (samples obtained immediately post flight from similar rats compared to Day 14), GFR was increased following space flight. The increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and decreased reabsorption. Osmotic clearance was increased (V=28, FC=27 and F=51 microliter/min), while free water clearance was decreased post flight (V=-21,FC=-18 and F=-34 microliter/min). In rats, the postflight diuresis is the result of an increase in solute (osmotic) excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  18. Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A D; Yamauchi, K; Sundaresan, A; Ramesh, G T; Pellis, N R

    2005-06-01

    Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

  19. Countermeasure for space flight effects on immune system: nutritional nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.; Sundaresan, A.; Ramesh, G. T.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity and its environment have adverse effects on the immune system. Abnormal immune responses observed in microgravity may pose serious consequences, especially for the recent directions of NASA for long-term space missions to Moon, Mars and deep Space exploration. The study of space flight immunology is limited due to relative inaccessibility, difficulty of performing experiments in space, and inadequate provisions in this area in the United States and Russian space programs (Taylor 1993). Microgravity and stress experienced during space flights results in immune system aberration (Taylor 1993). In ground-based mouse models for some of the microgravity effects on the human body, hindlimb unloading (HU) has been reported to cause abnormal cell proliferation and cytokine production (Armstrong et al., 1993, Chapes et al. 1993). In this report, we document that a nutritional nucleotide supplementation as studied in ground-based microgravity analogs, has potential to serve as a countermeasure for the immune dysfunction observed in space travel.

  20. Technology Validation of Optical Fiber Cables for Space Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Periodically, commercially available (COTS) optical fiber cable assemblies are characterized for space flight usage under the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP). The purpose of this is to provide a family of optical fiber cable options to a variety of different harsh environments typical to space flight missions. The optical fiber cables under test are evaluated to bring out known failure mechanisms that are expected to occur during a typical mission. The tests used to characterize COTS cables include: (1) vacuum exposure, (2) thermal cycling, and (3) radiation exposure. Presented here are the results of the testing conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on COTS optical fiber cables over this past year. Several optical fiber cables were characterized for their thermal stability both during and after thermal cycling. The results show how much preconditioning is necessary for a variety of available cables to remain thermally stable in a space flight environment. Several optical fibers of dimensions 100/140/172 microns were characterized for their radiation effects at -125 C using the dose rate requirements of International Space Station. One optical fiber cable in particular was tested for outgassing to verify whether an acrylate coated fiber could be used in a space flight optical cable configuration.

  1. The endocrine system in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  2. Stock Footage of Goddard Space Flight Center and Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Produced for Century Teleproductions in Boston, MA this video is a camera master showing various views, with natural sound, of the space flight center during the late spring. This finished footage is used in an interactive laser disc presentation that is used at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center.

  3. Technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer within the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presented to Civil Space Technology Development workshop on technology transfer and effectiveness are provided. Topics covered include: obstacles to technology transfer; technology transfer improvement program at GSFC: communication between technology developers and users; and user feedback to technologists.

  4. Body Fluid Regulation and Hemopoiesis in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Bodymass and Fluid Distribution During Longterm Spaceflight with and without Countermeasures; Plasma Volume, Extracellular Fluid Volume, and Regulatory Hormones During Long-Term Space Flight; Effect of Microgravity and its Ground-Based Models on Fluid Volumes and Hemocirculatory Volumes; Seventeen Weeks of Horizontal Bed Rest, Lower Body Negative Pressure Testing, and the Associated Plasma Volume Response; Evaporative Waterloss in Space Theoretical and Experimental Studies; Erythropoietin Under Real and Simulated Micro-G Conditions in Humans; and Vertebral Bone Marrow Changes Following Space Flight.

  5. Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (p<0.05) and a reduction in isoleucine and valine on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

  6. Neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.

  7. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. NASA Deputy Administrator Tours Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Pictured from the left, in the Saturn I mockup, are: William Brooksbank, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Dr. Wernher von Braun, MSFC director; Colonel Clare F. Farley, executive officer of the Office of the Administrator; and Charles J. Donlan, newly appointed deputy associate administrator for Manned Space Flight, technical. The party examined an ordinary man's shoe (held by Paine) outfitted for use in the Saturn I Workshop. The shoe had a unique fastener built into the sole to allow an astronaut to move about the workshop floor and to remain in one position if he desired. Dr. Paine and his party indulged in a two-day tour at the Marshall Space Flight Center getting acquainted with Marshall personnel and programs. It was Paine's first visit to the center since assuming the NASA post on February 1, 1968.

  9. Nutritional questions relevant to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Schulz, Leslie O.

    1992-01-01

    This historical review of nutritionally related research in the U.S. and Soviet space programs discusses the uses of nutrition as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, with respect to body composition and to exercise. Available information is reviewed from space and ground research in the nutritional requirements for energy, protein, fluids, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals. Past, present, and future systems for nutrient delivery in space are described, and finally, future directions and challenges are presented.

  10. The mechanics of relativistic space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, U. N.

    The relativistic mechanics of an artificial space body with a variable rest mass is presented in a systematic manner. In particular, attention is given to the principles of Lobachevskii geometry, Riemann geometry, and relativity; general Lorentz transformations and relativistic kinematics; the principal theorems of the relativistic mechanics of a space vehicle in spherically symmetric gravitational fields; and the relativistic motion of a space vehicle with jet propulsion. Possible applications of relativistic mechanics are examined.

  11. Space Shuttle stability and control flight test techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A unique approach for obtaining vehicle aerodynamic characteristics during entry has been developed for the Space Shuttle. This is due to the high cost of Shuttle testing, the need to open constraints for operational flights, and the fact that all flight regimes are flown starting with the first flight. Because of uncertainties associated with predicted aerodynamic coefficients, nine flight conditions have been identified at which control problems could occur. A detailed test plan has been developed for testing at these conditions and is presented. Due to limited testing, precise computer initiated maneuvers are implemented. These maneuvers are designed to optimize the vehicle motion for determining aerodynamic coefficients. Special sensors and atmospheric measurements are required to provide stability and control flight data during an entire entry. The techniques employed in data reduction are proven programs developed and used at NASA/DFRC.

  12. SpaceX Readies Operational Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    SpaceX is set to launch the first of a dozen operational missions for NASA to deliver more than 1,000 pounds of supplies to the International Space Station on Oct. 7. Launch time is 8:35 p.m. from ...

  13. Bone Density Following Long Duration Space Flight and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Shreyasee; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Khosla, Sundeep; Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    At approx.12 months, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at most sites in men remained lower than would be predicted, raising concerns for long-term bone health consequences following space flight. Additional analyses based on longer follow-up are being conducted. Although the N is too small for definitive conclusions, women had lower rates of loss at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine immediately post-flight relative to men and smaller differences between observed vs. predicted BMD at most sites, both immediately and 12 months post-flight, relative to men. The role of other exposures/risk factors need to be explored to further understand these possible gender differences in BMD loss and recovery following long-duration space flight.

  14. The biomedical challenges of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Space medicine has evolved considerably through past U.S. missions. It has been proven that humans can live and work in space for long durations and that humans are integral to mission success. The space medicine program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) looks toward future long-duration missions. Its goal is to overcome the biomedical challenges associated with maintaining the safety, health, and optimum performance of astronauts and cosmonauts. This program investigates the health effects of adaptation to microgravity: the nature of their pathologies, the effects of microgravity on pathophysiology, and the alterations in pharmacodynamics and treatment. A critical capability in performing research is the monitoring of the health of all astronauts and of the spacecraft environment. These data support the evidence-based approach to space medicine, incorporating past studies of microgravity-related conditions and their terrestrial counterparts. This comprehensive approach will enable safe and effective exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

  15. The biomedical challenges of space flight.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R

    2003-01-01

    Space medicine has evolved considerably through past U.S. missions. It has been proven that humans can live and work in space for long durations and that humans are integral to mission success. The space medicine program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) looks toward future long-duration missions. Its goal is to overcome the biomedical challenges associated with maintaining the safety, health, and optimum performance of astronauts and cosmonauts. This program investigates the health effects of adaptation to microgravity: the nature of their pathologies, the effects of microgravity on pathophysiology, and the alterations in pharmacodynamics and treatment. A critical capability in performing research is the monitoring of the health of all astronauts and of the spacecraft environment. These data support the evidence-based approach to space medicine, incorporating past studies of microgravity-related conditions and their terrestrial counterparts. This comprehensive approach will enable safe and effective exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

  16. Thermal comfort and thermoregulation in manned space flight.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Fei, Jin-Xue; Yu, Xue-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to thermal environment is one of the main concerns for manned space exploration. By focusing on the works performed on thermoregulation at microgravity or simulated microgravity, we endeavored to review the investigation on space thermal environmental physiology. First of all, the application of medical requirements for the crew module design from normal thermal comfort to accidental thermal emergencies in a space craft will be addressed. Then, alterations in the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation caused by the effect of weightlessness both in space flight and its simulation on the ground are also discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures like exercise training, simulated natural ventilation, encouraged drink, etc., in the protection of thermoregulation during space flight is presented. Finally, the challenge of space thermal environment physiology faced in the future is figured out.

  17. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first (S-IVB) stage, arrives at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) S-IB static test stand. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings. The S-IB, developed by the MSFC and built by the Chrysler Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, utilized eight H-1 engines and each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  18. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first (S-IVB) stage, on its way to Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) west test area. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings. The S-IB, developed by the MSFC and built by the Chrysler Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, utilized eight H-1 engines and each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  19. Metabolic changes in the animals subjected to space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Ladislav; Németh, Štefan; Kvetňanský, Richard; Ficková, Maria; Tigranian, Ruben A.; Serova, Ljubov

    1982-07-01

    The activity of the enzymes involved in aminoacid metabolism (tyrosine aminotransferase, TAT, tryptophan pyrrolase TP, serine dehydratase, SD) with rapid response to glucocorticoids and enzymes requiring for activity increase repeated administration of corticosterone (alanine aminotransferase, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, AST) in liver, the changes of lipolysis in adipose tissue and the plasma corticosterone levels were studied in rats subjected to space flight (F), in animals from synchron model experiments (SM, simulated conditions of space flight in laboratory) and in intact controls (C). The increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and of the activity of rapidly (TAT, TP, SD) and slowly activating enzymes (ALT, AST) was found in F group 6-10 hr after space flight (18.5 days on biosatellite COSMOS 1129). This suggested the presence of acute-stress (associated primarily with the landing) and chronic stress induced hypercorticosteronemia during the flight. After the short 6-day period of recovery the plasma corticosterone concentrations and the activities of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to repeated immobilization stress showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. No changes in basal lipolysis were observed in flight rats in comparison to intact controls, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lover in animals from F and SM groups. This lower response of lipolytic processes to norepinephrine was found in flight animals also after six days period of recovery. These results showed that there are important changes in the regulation of lipolytic processes in adipose tissue of rats after space flight and in the conditions of model experiments.

  20. Radiobiological risk and single event effects during manned space flights.

    PubMed

    Bourrieau, J; Calvet, M C

    1995-01-01

    Radiation hazard during previous manned space flights was not a critical problem as seen from monitoring on board MIR and the SHUTTLE. Future Martian and Lunar missions as well as flights on inclined or high altitude orbits around the Earth can be exposed to a large radiobiological risk and critical reliability losses can be expected, due to Single Event Effects on VLSI devices. The main characteristics of these hazards and some counter-measures to be provided for are given.

  1. The 1977 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The papers presented were derived from transcripts taken at the Tenth Annual Battery Workshop held at the Goddard Space Flight Center, November 15-17, 1977. The Workshop was attended by manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest results of testing, analysis, and development of the sealed nickel cadmium cell system. The purpose of the Workshop was to share flight and test experience, stimulate discussion on problem areas, and to review the latest technology improvements.

  2. An improved waste collection system for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Lofland, William W., Jr.; Whitmore, Henry

    1986-01-01

    Waste collection systems are a critical part of manned space flight. Systems to date have had a number of deficiencies. A new system, which uses a simple mechanical piston compactor and disposable pads allows a clean area for defecation and maximum efficiency of waste collection and storage. The concept has been extensively tested. Flight demonstration units are being built, tested, and scheduled for flight. A prototype operational unit is under construction. This system offers several advantages over existing or planned systems in the areas of crew interface and operation, cost, size, weight, and maintenance and power consumption.

  3. Cosmonauts' haemostasis system status before and after space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzichkin, Dmitry; Markin, Andrey; Morukov, Boris

    Introduction. It is known that cosmonauts expose themselves to psychophysical effort in different phases of space flights as well as in pre- and post-flight period. Stress affects different body systems functioning changes including haemostasis system. It is shown that adrenalin directly activates XII coagulation cascade factor [McKay D. G., Latour I. G., Parrish M. N.,1970], initiating intrinsic clotting pathway and affects fibrinogen concentration increase in plasma [Zubairov D. M., 1978]. A post-flight increase in the fibrinogen concentration was revealed with its drop up to the pre-flight level within rehabilitation period [T. Peter Stein, Margaret D., 2006]. Stress agents influence on haemostasis system is physiologically determined and directed to body preparation before probable blood loss. One can consider this process as a function of intrinsic clotting pathway. But in case of blood loss absence the preliminary permanent coagulation activation can lead to appearance of thrombosis risk. Purpose. The purpose was to study haemostasis system main components functional activity features before and after space flights. Methods. In the citrated plasma of astronauts who performed short-term (10 to 11 days) or long-term (196 to 199 days) the following values were determined: activated partial thrombin time (APTT); prothrombin time; prothrombin index; international normalized ratio; thrombin time (TT); activity of enzymes influencing the function of proteins involved in the formation and lysis of a clot such as antithrombin III, protein C, plasminogen, antiplasmin; content of fibrinogen, as well as intermediate products of formation and degradation of fibrin such as D-dimer, soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC). Sampling of biomaterial was perfomed 30 to 45 days prior to the flight, during the 1st day of the post flight period (all the examined persons), and in the 7th and 14th day (long-term flights member only) Results. In pre-flight period cosmonauts’ APTT

  4. Life Sciences Research and Development Opportunities During Suborbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Suborbital space platforms provide a unique opportunity for Space Life Sciences in the next few years. The opportunities include: physiological characterization of the first few minutes of space flight; evaluation of a wide-variety of medical conditions during periods of hyper and hypo-gravity through physiological monitoring; and evaluation of new biomedical and environmental health technologies under hyper and hypo-gravity conditions

  5. [Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Bone metabolism in space flight and long-duration bed rest].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-12-01

    Bone loss and urolithiasis are inevitable outcome in human space flight and long-duration bet rest. The rate of space flight induced bone loss is 10 times faster than in those with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss at weight bearing bones, elevated urinary calcium excretion, and un-coupling of bone resorption and bone formation are observed during the long-term bed rest study. Improvements of resistive exercise device and vitamin-D supplementation for astronauts in International Space Station can partially maintain bone mass, however, they can not fully supress bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during space flight. JAXA and NASA are performing joint study to validate the mitigration effects on bone resorption and urolithiasis of bisphosphonate supplement in conjunction with excercise.

  6. Implications of Responsive Space on the Flight Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmot, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Responsive Space initiative has several implications for flight software that need to be addressed not only within the run-time element, but the development infrastructure and software life-cycle process elements as well. The runtime element must at a minimum support Plug & Play, while the development and process elements need to incorporate methods to quickly generate the needed documentation, code, tests, and all of the artifacts required of flight quality software. Very rapid response times go even further, and imply little or no new software development, requiring instead, using only predeveloped and certified software modules that can be integrated and tested through automated methods. These elements have typically been addressed individually with significant benefits, but it is when they are combined that they can have the greatest impact to Responsive Space. The Flight Software Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing the runtime, infrastructure and process elements needed for rapid integration with the Core Flight software System (CFS) architecture. The CFS architecture consists of three main components; the core Flight Executive (cFE), the component catalog, and the Integrated Development Environment (DE). This paper will discuss the design of the components, how they facilitate rapid integration, and lessons learned as the architecture is utilized for an upcoming spacecraft.

  7. NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  8. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  10. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  11. Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

  12. Propulsion at the Marshall Space Flight Center - A brief history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.; Fisher, M. F.; Mccool, A. A.; Mccarty, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    The history of propulsion development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is summarized, beginning with the development of the propulsion system for the Redstone missile. This course of propulsion development continues through the Jupiter IRBM, the Saturn family of launch vehicles and the engines that powered them, the Centaur upper stage and RL-10 engine, the Reactor In-Flight Test stage and the NERVA nuclear engine. The Space Shuttle Main Engine and Solid Rocket Boosters are covered, as are spacecraft propulsion systems, including the reaction control systems for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory and the Space Station. The paper includes a description of several technology efforts such as those in high pressure turbomachinery, aerospike engines, and the AS203 cyrogenic fluid management flight experiment. These and other propulsion projects are documented, and the scope of activities in support of these efforts at Marshall delineated.

  13. Issues in the flight qualification of a space power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between US and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year.

  14. Issues in the flight qualification of a space power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polansky, G. F.; Schmidt, G. L.; Voss, S. S.; Reynolds, E. L.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between US and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year.

  15. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  16. Robotic welding at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Clyde S.

    1992-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is developing welding and robotics technologies to improve manufacturing of space hardware. Commercial robots are used for these development programs, but they are teamed with advanced sensors, process controls, and computer simulation to form highly productive manufacturing systems. Application of welding robotics and controls to structural welding for the space shuttle and space station Freedom programs is addressed. Several advanced welding process sensors under development for application to space hardware are discussed, as well as the application of commercial robotic simulation software to provide offline programming.

  17. Interventions to prevent bone loss in astronauts during space flight.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    This paper reviews the interventions to stabilize calcium balance and bone metabolism and prevent bone loss in astronauts during space flight. Weightlessness during space flight results in calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K deficiency, increases urinary calcium excretion, decreases intestinal calcium absorption, and increases serum calcium level, with decreased levels of serum parathyroid hormone and calcitriol. Bone resorption is increased, whereas bone formation is decreased. The loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine, femoral neck and trochanter, and pelvis is 1.0-1.6% per month. High calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation during space flight does not affect bone metabolism, but prevents an elevation of serum calcium level through increased calcitriol level, while vitamin K counteracts the reduction in bone formation. However, there are no data to show the efficacy of pharmaceutical agents for prevention of development of osteoporosis in astronauts during flight, although the preventative effect of bisphosphonates, testosterone, and vitamin K2 on cancellous bone loss in the tibia or BMD loss in the hindlimb was reported in tail-suspended mature rats. It still remains uncertain whether these agents can prevent cortical bone loss caused by weightlessness in tail-suspended rats. Therefore, in addition to calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K supplementation, agents that have both potent anti-resorptive and anabolic effects on cancellous and cortical bone may be needed to stabilize calcium balance and bone metabolism and prevent bone loss in astronauts during space flight.

  18. Effects of space flight on locomotor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Layne, Charles S.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Peters, Brian T.; Huebner, William P.; Reschke, Millard F.; Berthoz, Alain; Glasauer, Stefan; Newman, Dava; Jackson, D. Keoki

    1999-01-01

    In the microgravity environment of spaceflight, the relationship between sensory input and motor output is altered. During prolonged missions, neural adaptive processes come into play to recalibrate central nervous system function, thereby permitting new motor control strategies to emerge in the novel sensory environment of microgravity. However, the adaptive state achieved during spaceflight is inappropriate for a unit gravity environment and leads to motor control alterations upon return to Earth that include disturbances in locomotion. Indeed, gait and postural instabilities following the return to Earth have been reported in both U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts even after short duration (5- to 10-day) flights. After spaceflight, astronauts may: (1) experience the sensation of turning while attempting to walk a straight path, (2) encounter sudden loss of postural stability, especially when rounding corners, (3) perceive exaggerated pitch and rolling head movements during walking, (4) experience sudden loss of orientation in unstructured visual environments, or (5) experience significant oscillopsia during locomotion.

  19. Transient loads analysis for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thampi, S. K.; Vidyasagar, N. S.; Ganesan, N.

    1992-01-01

    A significant part of the flight readiness verification process involves transient analysis of the coupled Shuttle-payload system to determine the low frequency transient loads. This paper describes a methodology for transient loads analysis and its implementation for the Spacelab Life Sciences Mission. The analysis is carried out using two major software tools - NASTRAN and an external FORTRAN code called EZTRAN. This approach is adopted to overcome some of the limitations of NASTRAN's standard transient analysis capabilities. The method uses Data Recovery Matrices (DRM) to improve computational efficiency. The mode acceleration method is fully implemented in the DRM formulation to recover accurate displacements, stresses, and forces. The advantages of the method are demonstrated through a numerical example.

  20. [Protein turnover during and after extended space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Larina, I. M.; Leskiv, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    A 15N-glycine tracer technique was used to study protein turnover in four Russian cosmonauts and two U.S. astronauts who had spent long time aboard the Russian orbital station MIR. As was shown, in space flight protein synthesis falls by 46% on the average, which substantially exceeds estimations made on the basis of data about bed-rested human subjects. Reduction in protein synthesis during space flight is connected with the negative energy balance; therefore, it appears imperative to keep balance between energy intake (foodstuffs) and expenditure by cosmonauts on long-term mission.

  1. Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

  2. The 1991 research and technology report, Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald (Editor); Ottenstein, Howard (Editor); Montgomery, Harry (Editor); Truszkowski, Walter (Editor); Frost, Kenneth (Editor); Sullivan, Walter (Editor); Boyle, Charles (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) earth sciences including upper atmosphere, lower atmosphere, oceans, hydrology, and global studies; (2) space sciences including solar studies, planetary studies, Astro-1, gamma ray investigations, and astrophysics; (3) flight projects; (4) engineering including robotics, mechanical engineering, electronics, imaging and optics, thermal and cryogenic studies, and balloons; and (5) ground systems, networks, and communications including data and networks, TDRSS, mission planning and scheduling, and software development and test.

  3. R and T report: Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald A. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Research and Technology Report for Goddard Space Flight Center is presented. Research covered areas such as (1) flight projects; (2) space sciences including cosmology, high energy, stars and galaxies, and the solar system; (3) earth sciences including process modeling, hydrology/cryology, atmospheres, biosphere, and solid earth; (4) networks, planning, and information systems including support for mission operations, data distribution, advanced software and systems engineering, and planning/scheduling; and (5) engineering and materials including spacecraft systems, material and testing, optics and photonics and robotics.

  4. Implementation and Qualifications Lessons Learned for Space Flight Photonic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process for implementation and qualification of space flight photonic components. It discusses the causes for most common anomalies for the space flight components, design compatibility, a specific failure analysis of optical fiber that occurred in a cable in 1999-2000, and another ExPCA connector anomaly involving pins that broke off. It reviews issues around material selection, quality processes and documentation, and current projects that the Photonics group is involved in. The importance of good documentation is stressed.

  5. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI.

    PubMed

    McPhee, J C; White, R J

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

  6. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-08-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

  7. Physiology, Medicine, Long-Duration Space Flight and the NSBRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. J.; Sutton, J. P.; McPhee, J. C.

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach.

  8. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on humans during space flights: ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Lanzerath, D

    1999-09-09

    Experiments on humans during space flights call for ethical reflection, which is more than a mere assessment of the risks and a concurrent ethical evaluation of manned space flight as such. Although it may be desirable to harmonize ethical standards for international space flights especially against the background of the construction of an International Space Station (ISS) the application of ethical standards for human experiments on earth to the situation in space is not (at all) straight forward. The analysis shows that an ethical evaluation of experiments in space involving humans cannot be made solely on grounds of those principles which apply in comparable cases of terrestrial experiments. The very special conditions in space necessitate further ethical considerations. From this it may of course not be inferred that the current practice of strict ethical evaluation of experiments on humans becomes obsolete once we leave the planet earth. On the contrary, it means that widely accepted principles--like free and informed consent, or data protection and privacy--may need to be amended in order to take proper account of the special conditions in space and the need to achieve a consensus among the different persons involved.

  10. Space data systems: Special purpose flight processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The technical objectives are to develop high-performance, space-qualifiable, onboard computing, storage, and networking technologies. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: justification; approach; program description; state-of-the-art assessment; technology challenges; and relationship to external programs.

  11. The Goddard Space Flight Center ergonomics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Eileen; Unite, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    Since the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Screening Program started in 1984, we have made many changes to accommodate the growing number of participants. As a result of these changes, screening of KSC employees has become more efficient and productive. Various aspects of the program are covered.

  12. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  13. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Cara L; Stowe, Raymond P; St John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F; Mehta, Satish K; Crucian, Brian E; Pierson, Duane L; Komanduri, Krishna V

    2016-08-04

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted.

  14. T2 vertebral bone marrow changes after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Lin, C.; Evans, H.; Shackelford, L.; Martin, C.; Hedrick, T.

    1999-01-01

    Bone biopsies indicate that during immobilization bone marrow adipose tissue increases while the functional cellular fraction decreases. One objective of our Spacelab flight experiment was to determine, using in vivo volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (VLMRS), whether bone marrow composition was altered by space flight. Four crew members of a 17 day Spacelab mission participated in the experiment. The apparent cellular fraction and transverse relaxation time (T2) were determined twice before launch and at several times after flight. Immediately after flight, no significant change in the cellular fraction was found. However, the T2 of the cellular, but not the fat component increased following flight, although to a variable extent, in all crew members with a time course for return to baseline lasting several months. The T2 of seven control subjects showed no significant change. Although these observations may have several explanations, it is speculated that the observed T2 changes might reflect increased marrow osteoblastic activity during recovery from space flight.

  15. Impact of space flight on cardiovascular autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, F.; Verheyden, B.; Morukov, B.; Aubert, Ae

    Introduction: Space flight alters the distribution of blood in the human body, leading to altered cardiovascular neurohumoral regulation with a blunted carotid-cardiac baroreflex. These changes contribute to the occurrence of orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) provide non-invasive means to study the autonomic modulation of the heart. Low frequency (LF) oscillations provide information about sympathetic modulation and baroreflex, while high frequency (HF) modulation is an index of vagal heart rate modulation. Methods: ECG and continuous blood pressure were measured for at least 10 minutes in supine, sitting and standing position 45 days and 10 days (L-45, L-10) before launch; and at 1, 2, 4, 9, 15, 19 and 25 days after return to earth (R+x). In space, ECG and continuous blood pressure were measured at day 5 (FD5) and day 8 (FD8). These measurements were performed in 3. HRV and BPV indices were calculated in time and frequency domain. Results: Measurements in supine position and sitting position did not show as high differences as the measurements in standing position. During space flight heart rate was significantly lower compared to the pre- and post-flight measurements in standing position (RR-values: L-45: 837± 42 ms; FD5: 1004± 40 ms; FD8: 1038± 53 ms; R+1: 587± 21 ms; p<0.05). This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of HF power during space flight and a decrease in LF power. Immediately after space flight both LF and HF modulation of heart rate were extremely depressed compared to the pre-flight conditions (p<0.005). A gradual recovery towards baseline conditions of both indices was observed up to 25 days after return from space (LF: L-45: 3297± 462 ms2; FD5: 1251± 332 ms2; FD8: 1322± 462 ms2; R+1: 547± 188 ms2; R+4: 1958± 709 ms2; R+9: 1220± 148 ms2; R+15: 1704± 497 ms2; R+25: 2644± 573 ms2). However, even 25 days after return, values were below

  16. Effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, A. D.; Balish, E.

    1977-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune response to Listeria monocytogenes was studied in rats subjected to 20 days of flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 7820. Groups of rats were immunized with 1,000,000 formalin-killed Listeria suspended in Freunds Complete Adjuvant, 5 days prior to flight. Immunized rats subjected to the same environmental factors as the flight rats, except flight itself, and immunized and nonimmunized rats held in a normal animal colony served as controls. Following recovery, lymphocyte cultures were harvested from spleens of all rats, cultured in vitro in the presence of L. monocytogenes antigens, Phytohemagglutinin, Conconavlin A, or purified protein derivative (PPD), and measured for their uptake of H-3-thymidine. Although individual rats varied considerably, all flight and immunized control rats gave a blastogenic response to the Listeria antigens and PPD. With several mitogens, the lymphocytes of flight rats showed a significantly increased blastogenic response over the controls. The results of this study do not support a hypothesis of a detrimental effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity. The data suggest a possible suppressive effect of stress and gravity on an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated immunity.

  17. [From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

    2011-01-01

    The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine.

  18. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Chris; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2018. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges related to testability. This presentation will address the SLS challenges for diagnostics and fault isolation, along with the analyses and decisions to mitigate risk.

  19. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2018.SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges related to testability. This presentation will address the SLS challenges for diagnostics and fault isolation, along with the analyses and decisions to mitigate risk..

  20. NASA Space Flight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn; Russo, Dane; Stroud, Ken; Connolly, Jan; Foley, Tico

    2007-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems specifications (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook

  1. Precision Cleaning and Verification Processes Used at Marshall Space Flight Center for Critical Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Cox, Jack A.; McGee, Kathleen A.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discuss the Marshall Space Flight Center Operations and Responsibilities. These are propulsion, microgravity experiments, international space station, space transportation systems, and advance vehicle research.

  2. A new day: Challenger and space flight thereafter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1986-01-01

    On January 28, 1986, at an altitude of 14 kilometers, the Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart by an explosion of the external tank. The effects of the accident are undoubtedly far-reaching; they have broad repercussions that affect NASA's international partner organizations. The effects of the postponed shuttle flights on European space programs are discussed. A review of the German participation in the American space program is presented. The need to continue the future projects such as the space station is examined in light of its importance as a springboard for further exploration.

  3. An automated water iodinating subsystem for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, O. K.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Controlling microbial growth by injecting iodine (l2) into water supplies is a widely acceptable technique, but requires a specialized injection method for space flight. An electrochemical l2 injection method and l2 level monitor are discussed in this paper, which also describe iodination practices previously used in the manned space program and major l2 biocidal characteristics. The development and design of the injector and monitor are described, and results of subsequent experiments are presented. Also presented are expected vehicle penalties for utilizing the l2 injector in certain space missions, especially the Space Shuttle, and possible injector failure modes and their criticality.

  4. Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

  5. Reliability Assessment for COTS Components in Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, G. S.; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Systems built for space flight applications usually demand very high degree of performance and a very high level of accuracy. Hence, the design engineers are often prone to selecting state-of-art technologies for inclusion in their system design. The shrinking budgets also necessitate use of COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components, which are construed as being less expensive. The performance and accuracy requirements for space flight applications are much more stringent than those for the commercial applications. The quantity of systems designed and developed for space applications are much lower in number than those produced for the commercial applications. With a given set of requirements, are these COTS components reliable? This paper presents a model for assessing the reliability of COTS components in space applications and the associated affect on the system reliability. We illustrate the method with a real application.

  6. Space flight printed wiring board measling investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Walter B., III

    1994-05-01

    A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different

  7. Space flight printed wiring board measling investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter B., III

    1994-01-01

    A flight printed wiring board (PWB) for a satellite project was observed to have a high incidence of measling. Other PWB's produced for the program by the same manufacturer did not exhibit the degree of measling as did the 'measle-prone' board. Measling susceptibility during hand soldering and measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were investigated for three production PWB's. Measling resistance was significantly different between the three boards: the 'worst' exhibited five times the number of measles as the 'best' board. 'Severe' measling (that which is likely to affect board reliability) did not exist on the 'best' board, even under extreme soldering conditions (399 degrees C for 12-15 sec.), whereas the 'worst' board showed an average of one 'severe' measle for every two pads under more normal soldering conditions (288-343 degrees C for 2-5 sec.). Both soldering time and temperature affected measling, with time having a slightly greater influence (2 percent versus 12 percent). Measling effects on PWB insulation resistance were inconclusive. These were evaluated by in situ resistance measurements on the same three boards at elevated temperature and humidity. The measured resistance for all three boards decreased for exposures greater than 50 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. The 'measle-prone' board showed a resistance decrease at only 25 degrees C and 50 percent relative humidity. However, no definitive difference was detected between measled and not-measled (control) samples. The boards evaluated were production boards, so the effect of interlayer traces connecting the plated-through holes was not controlled. It is likely the resistance measurements were over different volumes of PWB laminate, which would account for the widely varying resistances measured. Thermomechanical measurements on board laminate materials did not reveal any differences attributed to measling. Differences in glass transition temperature were significantly different

  8. Gravity and space flight: effects on nutritional status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Lane, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    The final decade of the millennium has seen an enormous amount of on-orbit life sciences research, including both short- and long-duration flight research. Life sciences dedicated Space Shuttle flights have made intensive research opportunities available to study on the acute adaptation to weightlessness. The NASA/Mir Science Program combined resources of the USA and Russia to provide the first long-duration flight opportunities for the United States since the Skylab program of the early 1970s. Many of the results of these studies are still being evaluated, and in some cases data are still being collected to assess long-term readaptation to gravity after several months in weightlessness. The surge in life sciences research during this decade serves as a preamble to the opportunities to be provided by the latest addition to the Earth-orbiting structures--the International Space Station.

  9. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.

  10. Evolution of Space Shuttle Range Safety Ascent Flight Envelope Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Joan; Davis, Jerel; Glenn, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    For every space vehicle launch from the Eastern Range in Florida, the range user must provide specific Range Safety (RS) data products to the Air Force's 45th Space Wing in order to obtain flight plan approval. One of these data products is a set of RS ascent flight envelope trajectories that define the normal operating region of the vehicle during powered flight. With the Shuttle Program launching 135 manned missions over a 30-year period, 135 envelope sets were delivered to the range. During this time, the envelope methodology and design process evolved to support mission changes, maintain high data quality, and reduce costs. The purpose of this document is to outline the shuttle envelope design evolution and capture the lessons learned that could apply to future spaceflight endeavors.

  11. Gravity and space flight: effects on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Lane, H W

    1999-07-01

    The final decade of the millennium has seen an enormous amount of on-orbit life sciences research, including both short- and long-duration flight research. Life sciences dedicated Space Shuttle flights have made intensive research opportunities available to study on the acute adaptation to weightlessness. The NASA/Mir Science Program combined resources of the USA and Russia to provide the first long-duration flight opportunities for the United States since the Skylab program of the early 1970s. Many of the results of these studies are still being evaluated, and in some cases data are still being collected to assess long-term readaptation to gravity after several months in weightlessness. The surge in life sciences research during this decade serves as a preamble to the opportunities to be provided by the latest addition to the Earth-orbiting structures--the International Space Station.

  12. Use of telescience for biomedical research during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Schneider, Howard J.; Karamanos, Gayle M.

    1991-01-01

    When the U.S. first embarked on a manned space flight program, NASA's use of medical telescience was focused on crew health monitoring. In recent years, medical telescience use has been expanded to include support of basic research in space medicine. It enables ground support personnel to assist on-board crews in the performance of experiments and improves the quality and quantity of data return. NASA is continuing to develop its telescience capabilities. Future plans include telemedicine that will enable physicians on Earth to support crewmembers during flight and telescience that will enable investigators at their home institutions to support and conduct in-flight medical research. NASA's use of telescience for crew safety and biomedical research from Project Mercury to the present is described and NASA's plans for the future are presented.

  13. Cognitive Assessment During Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.

  14. Characterization of heat transfer in nutrient materials. [space flight feeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The processing and storage of foodstuffs in zero-g environments such as in Skylab and the space shuttle were investigated. Particular attention was given to the efficient heating of foodstuffs. The thermophysical properties of various foods were cataloged and critiqued. The low temperature storage of biological samples as well as foodstuffs during shuttle flights was studied. Research and development requirements related to food preparation and storage on the space station are discussed.

  15. System security in the space flight operations center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  16. Spacecraft Fire Safety: A Human Space Flight Program Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the International Space Station's fire safety program from a human space flight perspective. The topics include: 1) Typical Manned Spacecraft Materials; 2) Typical Flammable Hardware Protection; 3) Materials Flammability; 4) Fire Retardants; 5) Nonflammable Foam Cushion Material; 6) Electrical Wire and Cable; 7) Russian Solid-Fuel Oxygen Generator (SFOG); 8) GOX Ignition Mechanisms; 9) Fire Detection; and 10) Fire Suppression.

  17. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  18. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g deconditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  19. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  20. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1-g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1-g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  1. The effects of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Alterations of the human cardiopulmonary system in space flight are examined, including fluid shifts, orthostatic intolerance, changes in cardiac dynamics and electromechanics, and changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Consideration is given to lower body negative pressure data from Skylab experiments and studies on the Space Shuttle. Also, echocardiography, cardiac dysrhythmias during spaceflight, and the role of neural mechanisms in circulatory control after spaceflight are discussed.

  2. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1- g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1- g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  3. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Carruth, M. R.; Edwards, D. L.; Finchum, A.; Maxwell, G.; Nabors, S.; Smalley, L.; Huston, D.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Barrel-Shaped Asymmetrical Capacitor (NACAP) has been extensively tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center. Trichel pulse emission was first discovered here. The NACAP is a magnetohydrodynamic device for electric propulsion. In air it requires no onboard propellant nor any moving parts. No performance was observed in hard vacuum. The next step shall be optimizing the technology for future applications.

  4. Astronaut adaptation to 1 G following long duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, John; Greenisen, Michael; Cowell, Lynda L.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of studies of changes undergone by several physiological systems (including the cardiovascular system, the fluid and electrolyte characteristics, the red blood cells, the bone and the muscle tissues, and the exercise capacity) due to the exposures to microgravity and to the adaptation to 1 G after a long-duration space flight. Special attention is given to the effects of various training protocols and countermeasures used to attenuate the physiological problems encountered upon return from space.

  5. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  6. NASA's First New Millenium Deep-Space Technology Validation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Rayman, Marc D.

    1996-01-01

    Planned for launch in 1998, the first flight of NASA's New Millenium Program will validate selected breakthrough technologies required for future low-cost, low-mass, space science missions. The principal objective is to validate these advanced technologies thoroughly enough that subsequent users may be confident of their performance, thus reducing the cost and risk of science missions in the 21st century.

  7. Maskmaking facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Routh, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Research and development maskmaking facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Information is provided on the level of cleanliness and the environmental control within the various work areas. The available equipment and its function in the maskmaking process are detailed.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center 1989 annual chronology of events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A chronological listing of the major events for the Marshall Space Flight Center for the calendar year 1989 is provided. The MSFC Historian, Management Operations Office, compiled the chronology from various sources and from supplemental information provided by the major MSFC organizations.

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center 1990 annual chronology of events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A chronological listing is provided of the major events for the Marshall Space Flight Center for the calendar year 1990. The MSFC Historian, Management Operations Office, compiled the chronology from various sources and from supplemental information provided by the major MSFC organizations.

  10. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Range Report - May 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Mission Systems Office (ZP).

  11. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  12. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  13. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Supply Chain Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the working of the Supplier Assessment Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The program supports many GSFC projects to ensure suppliers are aware of and are following the contractual requirements, to provide an independent assessment of the suppliers' processes, and provide suppliers' safety and mission assurance organizations information to make the changes within their organization.

  14. Integrated Crew Health Care System for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Davis' presentation includes a brief overview of space flight and the lessons learned for health care in microgravity. He will describe the development of policy for health care for international crews. He will conclude his remarks with a discussion of an integrated health care system.

  15. Geographic information systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic functions of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and the different ways that a GIS may be implemented are described. It surveys that GIS software packages that are currently in operation at the Goddard Space Flight Center and discusses the types of applications for which they are best suited. Future plans for in-house GIS research and development are outlined.

  16. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Koslovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  17. Initiating Sustainable Operations at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Orrell, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a preliminary sustainability assessment to identify sustainable projects for potential implementation at its facility in Huntsville, Alabama. This presentation will discuss the results of that assessment, highlighting current and future initiatives aimed at integrating sustainability into daily operations.

  18. Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

  19. Mechanisms for vestibular disorders in space flight. Facts and hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsnev, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the vestibular disorders associated with space flight. It is found there is still no complete understanding of the changes occurring in the sensory systems of the body during weightlessness. Results of studies are presented, including results of a ground model.

  20. Walt Disney visited Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Walt Disney toured the West Test Area during his visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center on April 13, 1965. The three in center foreground are Karl Heimburg, Director, Test Division; Dr. von Braun, Director, MSFC; and Walt Disney. The Dynamic Test Stand with the S-1C stage being installed is in the background.

  1. HAL/S programmer's guide. [space shuttle flight software language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a programming language developed to satisfy the flight software requirements for the space shuttle program. The user's guide explains pertinent language operating procedures and described the various HAL/S facilities for manipulating integer, scalar, vector, and matrix data types.

  2. Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous

  3. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, M. E.

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight.

  4. Space Weather Services at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Maddox, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Taktakishvil, A.; Rastaetter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Weather Laboratory (SWL) forms a focal point at GSFC for the generation of space weather tools and information. This information is based on data from space mission and ground observatories, as well as on forefront model calculations conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). CCMC works with the research community to bring to bear the power of communitydeveloped space science models on space weather problems. Data from primarily from NASA missions but also from NOAA and other partner agencies are combined with model results into a fully configurable space weather information display by means of the iSWA system. This information and iSWA form the basis for and SWL-provided service to NASA's robotic mission fleet, which includes forecasts, regular updates, and warnings. This service benefits from a strong partnership with NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group, and with the US Air Force Weather Agency. In this presentation, we provide a summary of space weather capabilities and services and we present an outlook into the future.

  5. Space Science Research and Technology at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the various projects and programs managed in the Space Science Programs and Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Projects in the portfolio include NASA's Chandra X-Ray telescope, Hinode solar physics satellite, various advanced space propulsion technologies, including solar sails and tethers, as well as NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  8. Modification of Otolith Reflex Asymmetries Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Andrew H.; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that changes in otolith-mediated reflexes adapted for microgravity contribute to perceptual, gaze and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. Our goal was to determine pre- versus post-fight differences in unilateral otolith reflexes that reflect these adaptive changes. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times pre-flight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation (UC, +/- 3.5cm at 400deg/s), utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and by video-oculographic measurement of the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll (OOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP). Although data from a few subjects were not obtained early post-flight, a general increase in asymmetry of otolith responses was observed on landing day relative to pre-flight baseline, with a subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in the asymmetry measures appeared strongest for SVV, in a consistent direction for OOR, and in an opposite direction for cVEMP. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that space flight results in adaptive changes in central nervous system processing of otolith input. Adaptation to microgravity may reveal asymmetries in otolith function upon to return to Earth that were not detected prior to the flight due to compensatory mechanisms.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L; Stowe, R P; Phillips, T M; Lugg, D J; Mehta, S K

    2005-05-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  10. Some medical aspects of an 8-month's space flight.

    PubMed

    Atkov OYu

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 a 237-day space flight was performed on board the orbital complex Salyut-7-Soyuz-T with the crew members Leonid D. Kizim (Commander), Vladimnir A. Solovyov (Flight-Engineer), and Oleg Yu. Atkov (Cosmonaut Researcher). The major medical task was to continue the study of the acute stage of adaptation to weightlessness, phenomenology and mechanisms of changes in hemodynamics, metabolism and other functions. During flight, echocardiographic and biochemical measurements, vestibular and sensory studies were conducted extensively. In 1988-1989, the fourth prime crew performed its flight on the Mir orbital station. The crew consisted of: A.A. Volkov (Commander, Cr), S.K. Krikalyov (Flight-Engineer, FE) who were launched together with J.L. Cretien on November 26, 1988 as well as V.V. Polyakov (physician, cosmonaut-researcher, CP) who was in orbit until August 29, 1988 as a member of the third and fourth expeditions. Cr and FE remained in orbit for 151 days and CP for 421 days. Now we have 4 people experiencing 8 months space flight. The countermeasures included regular exercises on a treadmill and bicycle ergometer, use of G-suits and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) training at the final stage. The cosmonauts exercised for a hour twice a day for 3 days on end and then had an "active rest" day. On the recovery day the cosmonauts were recommended to take water-salt supplements according to the following protocol: 2.7 g NaCl in 300 ml liquid during lunch and dinner plus 1.8 g NaCl in 150 ml liquid immediately before they began preparing for the descent (after they donned their space suits). During re-entry the cosmonauts had an anti-G suit on (without bladders).

  11. Physics of Colloids in Space: Flight Hardware Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Bailey, Arthur E.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Lorik, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was launched on Space Shuttle STS-100 in April 2001 and integrated into EXpedite the PRocess of Experiments to Space Station Rack 2 on the International Space Station (ISS). This microgravity fluid physics investigation is being conducted in the ISS U.S. Lab 'Destiny' Module over a period of approximately thirteen months during the ISS assembly period from flight 6A through flight 9A. PCS is gathering data on the basic physical properties of simple colloidal suspensions by studying the structures that form. A colloid is a micron or submicron particle, be it solid, liquid, or gas. A colloidal suspension consists of these fine particles suspended in another medium. Common colloidal suspensions include paints, milk, salad dressings, cosmetics, and aerosols. Though these products are routinely produced and used, we still have much to learn about their behavior as well as the underlying properties of colloids in general. The long-term goal of the PCS investigation is to learn how to steer the growth of colloidal structures to create new materials. This experiment is the first part of a two-stage investigation conceived by Professor David Weitz of Harvard University (the Principal Investigator) along with Professor Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh (the Co-Investigator). This paper describes the flight hardware, experiment operations, and initial science findings of the first fluid physics payload to be conducted on ISS: The Physics of Colloids in Space.

  12. Weight, muscle and bone loss during space flight: another perspective.

    PubMed

    Stein, T P

    2013-09-01

    Space flight is a new experience for humans. Humans adapt if not perfectly, rather well to life without gravity. There is a reductive remodeling of the musculo-skeletal system. Protein is lost from muscles and calcium from bones with anti-gravity functions. The observed biochemical and physiological changes reflect this accommodative process. The two major direct effects of the muscle loss are weakness post-flight and the increased incidence of low back ache pre- and post-flight. The muscle protein losses are compromised by the inability to maintain energy balance inflight. Voluntary dietary intake is reduced during space flight by ~20 %. These adaptations to weightlessness leave astronauts ill-equipped for life with gravity. Exercise, the obvious counter-measure has been repeatedly tried and since the muscle and bone losses persist it is not unreasonable to assume that success has been limited at best. Nevertheless, more than 500 people have now flown in space for up to 1 year and have done remarkably well. This review addresses the question of whether enough is now known about these three problems (negative energy balance, muscle loss and bone loss) for to the risks to be considered either acceptable or correctible enough to meet the requirements for a Mars mission.

  13. Oxygen regimen in the human peripheral tissue during space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, H.; Kovalenko, E. A.; Vacek, A.; Bobrovnickij, M. P.; Jarsumbeck, B.; Semencov, V. N.; Sarol, Z.; Hideg, J.; Zlatarev, K.

    A survey of the results of the experiment "Oxygen," carried out within the scope of the INTERKOSMOS program in members of the permanent crews and of international visiting expeditions to the Soviet orbital station Salyut-6, is given. During the 7-day space flights of the international visiting expeditions a significant decrease in pO 2 ic by 3.28 kPa was observed. Local oxygen utilization reduced significantly by 0.44 kPa. During hyperventilation testing after return to earth a statistically significant decrease in the peak value by 1.39 kPa was noted. In the long-term crews of the orbital station Salyut-6 the highest decrease in pO 2 ic of 3.8 kPa and the absolutely lowest value of 3.4 ± 0.5 kPa during space flight were observed. The decrease in local oxygen utilization during the flight of 0.8 kPa/min was greater than that of the visiting crews. The results indicate the importance of investigating the dynamics of the oxygen regimen for medical control of the crew members both during the space flight and during the readaptation phase after return to earth.

  14. Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

  15. (abstract) The Nest Generation of Space Flight Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalaj, Leon; Panwar, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    To meet new design objectives for drastic reductions in mass, size, and power consumption, the Flight Computer Development Group at JPL is participating in a design study and development of a light-weight, small-sized, low-power 3-D Space Flight Computer. In this paper, we will present a detailed design and tradeoff study of the proposed computer. We will also discuss a complete design of the multichip modules and their size, weight, and power consumption. Prelimimary thermal models will also be discussed.

  16. S-IB-211 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    S-IB-211, the flight version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's (S-IVB) first stage, after installation at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) S-IB static test stand. Between December 1967 and April 1968, the stage would undergo seven static test firings. The S-IB, developed by the MSFC and built by the Chrysler Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, utilized eight H-1 engines and each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  17. Space Shuttle flight crew/computer interface simulation studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callihan, J. C.; Rybarczyk, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to achieving an optimized set of crew/computer interface requirements on the Space Shuttle program is described. It consists of defining the mission phases and crew timelines, developing a functional description of the crew/computer interface displays and controls software, conducting real-time simulations using pilot evaluation of the interface displays and controls, and developing a set of crew/computer functional requirements specifications. The simulator is a two-man crew station which includes three CRTs with keyboards for simulating the crew/computer interface. The programs simulate the mission phases and the flight hardware, including the flight computer and CRT displays.

  18. The 1987 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George (Editor); Yi, Thomas Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20th annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 4-5, 1987. The workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included lithium cell technology and safety improvements, nickel-cadmium electrode technology along with associated modifications, flight experience and life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, and nickel-hydrogen applications and technology.

  19. Cognitive Assessment in Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.

  20. FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA now requires all flight hardware projects to develop and implement a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Prevention Program. With the increasing use of composite and bonded structures, NASA now also requires an Impact Damage Protection Plan for these items. In 2009, Marshall Space Flight Center released an interim directive that required all Center organizations to comply with FOD protocols established by on-site Projects, to include prevention of impact damage. The MSFC Technical Standards Control Board authorized the development of a new MSFC technical standard for FOD Prevention.

  1. Loads Combination Research at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the result of a study conducted by the Structural Dynamics Division of the Marshall Space Flight Center concerning the combination of low- and high-frequency dynamic loads for spacecraft design. Low-frequency transient loads are combined with high frequency acoustically induced loads to arrive at a limit load, for design purposes. Different methods are used for combining the loads which can lead to considerable variation in limit loads, depending on which NASA Center did the calculation. This study investigates several different combination methods and compares the combination methods with Spacelab 1 flight data. In addition, the relative timing of low- and high-frequency loads is examined.

  2. [BEHAVIOURAL AND FUNCTIONAL VESTIBULAR DISTURBANCES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT. 1. MAMMALS].

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V

    2015-01-01

    The review contains data on functional changes in mammals caused by changes in the operation of vestibular system after space flight. These data show that the vestibular system of mammals responds to weightlessness challenge differently at various ontogenetic stages. Orbital space flight conditions have a weak effect on the developing vestibular system during embryonic period. The weightlessness conditions have rather beneficial effect on development of the fetuses. During the early postnatal period, when optimal sensory-motor tactics are created, the prolonged stay under conditions of space flight leads to development of novel, "extraterrestrial" sensory-motor programs that can be fixed in CNS, apparently, for the whole life. In adult individuals after landing essential vestibular changes and disturbances may occur that depend on the spaceflight duration. The adult organism must simultaneously solve two contradicting problems--it should adapt to weightlessness conditions, and should not adapt to them to pass the process of readaptation after returning easier. Thus, individuals must protect themselves against weightlessness influence to keep the intact initial state of health. The protection methods against weightlessness ought to be adjusted according to the duration of space flight. It should be mentioned that not all functional changes registered in adult individuals after landing can be adequately explained. Some of these changes may have chronic or even pathological character. The question of necessity to examine the influence of weightlessness on an aging (senile) organism and on its vestibular system is raised for the first time in this review. In our opinion the development of space gerontology, as a special branch of space biology and medicine, is of undoubted interest, and in the future it may be of practical importance especially taking into account the steadily growing age of cosmonauts (astronauts).

  3. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  4. Qualification and Issues with Space Flight Laser Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. Barry; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2006-01-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 199O's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  5. Qualification and issues with space flight laser systems and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Coyle, D. B.; Canham, John S.; Leidecker, Henning W., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    The art of flight quality solid-state laser development is still relatively young, and much is still unknown regarding the best procedures, components, and packaging required for achieving the maximum possible lifetime and reliability when deployed in the harsh space environment. One of the most important issues is the limited and unstable supply of quality, high power diode arrays with significant technological heritage and market lifetime. Since Spectra Diode Labs Inc. ended their involvement in the pulsed array business in the late 1990's, there has been a flurry of activity from other manufacturers, but little effort focused on flight quality production. This forces NASA, inevitably, to examine the use of commercial parts to enable space flight laser designs. System-level issues such as power cycling, operational derating, duty cycle, and contamination risks to other laser components are some of the more significant unknown, if unquantifiable, parameters that directly effect transmitter reliability. Designs and processes can be formulated for the system and the components (including thorough modeling) to mitigate risk based on the known failures modes as well as lessons learned that GSFC has collected over the past ten years of space flight operation of lasers. In addition, knowledge of the potential failure modes related to the system and the components themselves can allow the qualification testing to be done in an efficient yet, effective manner. Careful test plan development coupled with physics of failure knowledge will enable cost effect qualification of commercial technology. Presented here will be lessons learned from space flight experience, brief synopsis of known potential failure modes, mitigation techniques, and options for testing from the system level to the component level.

  6. Inflight exercise affects stand test responses after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.; Moore, A. D. Jr; Fritsch-Yelle, J. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Schneider, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crew members during short-duration space flights (9-16 d) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 h of landing. METHODS: Thirty crew members performed self-selected inflight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. Two subjects participated in this investigation during two different flights. A 10-min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10-15 d before launch (PRE) and within 4 h of landing (POST). Based upon their inflight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: > or = 3 times/week, HR > or = 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 11), medium (MEDex: > or = 3 times/week, HR < 70% HRmax, > or = 20 min/session, N = 10), or low (LOex: < or = 3 times/week, HR and duration variable, N = 11) exercisers. HR and BP responses to standing were compared between groups (ANOVA, P < or = 0.05). RESULTS: There were no PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared with PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36 +/- 5 bpm) compared with HIex or MEDex groups (25 +/- 1 bpm; 22 +/- 2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after space flight in the MEDex and HIex groups but was significantly greater in the LOex group (PRE: -9 +/- 3; POST: -19 +/- 4 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, moderate to high levels of inflight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after space flight.

  7. [Doctor, may I travel in space? Aeromedical considerations regarding commercial suborbital space flights].

    PubMed

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Simons, Ries; Kuipers, André

    2011-01-01

    Within a few years, the first commercial operators will start flying passengers on suborbital flights to the verge of space. Medical data on the effects of space journeys on humans have mainly been provided by professional astronauts. There is very little research into the aeromedical consequences of suborbital flights for the health of untrained passengers. Low air pressure and oxygen tension can be compensated for by pressurising the spacecraft or pressure suit. Rapid changes in gravitational (G-)force pose ultimate challenges to cardiovascular adaptation mechanisms. Zero-gravity and G-force may cause motion sickness. Vibrations and noise during the flight may disturb communication between passengers and crew. In addition, the psychological impact of a suborbital flight should not be underestimated. There are currently no legal requirements available for medical examinations for commercial suborbital flights, but it seems justifiable to establish conditions for potential passengers' states of health.

  8. Morpheus - Hypometabolic Stasis in Humans for Long term Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayre, M.; Zancanaro, C.; Malatesta, M.

    An overview of the application of hypometabolic stasis (HS) to humans for long-term space flight is presented. In the first section, the paper begins with a discussion of why HS in humans would be, from a resource-driven perspective, desirable during long-term space flight. The second section then reviews mammalian hibernation, covering behavioural, physiological and genetic strategies. The third part presents a general review of the effects on human physiology of the space environment, and the overlapping areas between the likely physiological effects of human-hibernation and the space environment are briefly discussed. In the fourth section, possible hibernation strategies for humans are considered, including pharmacological, genetic and environ- mental tactics. The fifth section briefly discusses the impact of human hibernation at a system level, particularly with regards to life support. The report finishes by concluding that the achievement of the goal of human hibernation on the Earth will probably take decades of research. Hibernation in space, with the concomitant increases in the complexity of the problem caused by the space environment, will be substantially more difficult to achieve. But, if realised, it will be of significant benefit to the extension of human presence in space.

  9. [Blood plasma proteins following long-duration space flight].

    PubMed

    Larina, O N

    2006-01-01

    Protein composition of blood plasma was an object of investigation in 29 Russian cosmonauts flown on the MIR station from 125 to 366 days. Protein fractions were analyzed using acetate cellulose electrophoresis. Concentration of total protein was determined with the help of the biuret reaction on an automated analyzer. On the second day post flight, mean concentration of total protein and percentage of the protein fractions were equal to baseline values. In the interval between days 7 and 14 post flight, total protein was statistically reduced, alphal- N alpha2-globulins increased and y-globulin reduced, whereas albumin and beta-globulins were unchanged in the average. These results may point to development of an acute reaction in the early period of readaptation to the return from long-duration space flight.

  10. Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor no. 1 (FSM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Phil D.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle Flight Support Motor No. 1 (FSM-1) was static test fired on 15 Aug. 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-24. FSM-1 was a full-scale, full-duration static test fire of a redesigned solid rocket motor. FSM-1 was the first of seven flight support motors which will be static test fired. The Flight Support Motor program validates components, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition, FSM-1 was the full-scale motor for qualification of Western Electrochemical Corporation ammonium perchlorate. This motor was subjected to all controls and documentation requirements CTP-0171, Revision A. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the FSM-1 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 87 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature was 82 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the FSM-1 components and test equipment was nominal.

  11. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  12. Detection and Prevention of Cardiac Arrhythmias During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David S.; Liszka, Kathy J.; York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    There have been reports suggesting that long-duration space flight might lead to an increased risk of potentially serious heart rhythm disturbances. If space flight does, in fact, significantly decrease cardiac electrical stability, the effects could be catastrophic, potentially leading to sudden cardiac death. It will be important to determine the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in order to prepare for long-term manned lunar and interplanetary missions and to develop appropriate countermeasures. Our hypothesis is that prolonged exposure to microgravity will alter T wave alternans measurements, decrease heart rate variance, increase QT dispersion, decrease heart rate recovery and alter QT restitution curve. A recently published study has shown that long duration spaceflights prolong cardiac conduction and repolarization. They concluded that long duration flight is associated with QT interval prolongation and may increase arrhythmia susceptibility. We propose using computer technology as a noninvasive clinical tool to detect and study clinically significant TWA during standard exercise testing using electrode systems specifically adapted for the purpose of obtaining and measuring TWA. A population of approximately 15 healthy men and 5 healthy women subjects, representative of the astronaut cohort will be asked to voluntarily participate in this study. Their blood pressure and ECG/TWA will be measured pre-flight and in-flight. Prior to flight, subjects will be asked to participate in an orientation session. Still photos will be taken of the skin where the conductive gel is used for the multi-segment sensors. Photos will be recorded preflight, immediately postflight, and several times during the proceeding week until it has been determined that any skin reaction has disappeared or that no rash is present and will not appear.

  13. Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.

  14. Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

    This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

  15. Space flight manipulator technologies and requirements for the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.

  16. Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  17. Integrated Digital Flight Control System for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the integrated digital flight control system (DFCS) is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the computer complex and is equally insensitive to characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure is described of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure. The input and output, including jet selection are included. Specific estimation and control algorithm are shown for the various mission phases: cruise (including horizontal powered flight), entry, on-orbit, and boost. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are included.

  18. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  19. NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

  20. Models of CNS radiation damage during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopewell, J. W.

    1994-10-01

    The primary structural and functional arrangement of the different cell types within the CNS are reviewed. This was undertaken with a view to providing a better understanding of the complex interrelationships that may contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions in this tissue after exposure to ionizing radiation. The spectrum of possible CNS radiation-induced syndromes are discussed although not all have an immediate relevance to exposure during space flight. The specific characteristics of the lesions observed would appear to be dose related. Very high doses may produce an acute CNS syndrome that can cause death. Of the delayed lesions, selective coagulation necrosis of white matter and a later appearing vascular microangiopathy, have been reported in patients after cancer therapy doses. Lower doses, perhaps very low doses, may produce a delayed generalised CNS atrophy; this effect and the probability of the induction of CNS tumors could potentially have the greatest significance for space flight.

  1. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  2. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  3. Changes in mineral metabolism with immobilization/space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers are still unsure of the accuracy of previous bone density measurements of their significance following a period of weightlessness. Rapid technological advances in the measurement of bone density will enable us now to measure bone density accurately at multiple sites in the skeleton with doses of radiation less than that given by a spine x ray. It may not be possible to obtain this type of information before the next series of space flights take place, although the bed-rest model may provide supporting information. Extensive testing of bone density on every astronaut should be performed before and after the space flight. Prevention and treatment can only be undertaken after gathering sufficient baseline information. The use of exercise in preventing bone loss is still highly speculative, but represents a relatively easy approach to the problem in terms of study.

  4. The influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the purpose of which is to measure specific factors relative to the control of erythrokinetics in man which might be altered during the first seven days of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. It is anticipated that these data will provide information relative to the mechanism by which the red cell mass is reduced during space flight. Specifically, the experiment is designed to establish: (1) if there is a significant change in red cell mass and plasma volume during the initial period of exposure to weightlessness; (2) if the plasma concentration of erythropoietin is reduced; (3) if there is an increase in the plasma concentration of erythropoietin inhibitors; (4) if there is a change in the effectiveness of erythropoiesis; and (5) if the number and age distribution of reticulocytes are altered.

  5. Endocrine responses in long-duration manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Endocrine measurements to assess the physiological cost of the combined stresses of space flight are considered from two aspects. First, fluid and electrolyte balance are correlated with weight loss, changes in the excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin and fluid compartments. The second area involves estimation of the physiological cost of maintaining a given level of performance during space flight by analysis of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. Inter-individual variability is demonstrated for most experimental indices measured. The measured changes are consistent with the hypothesis that a relative increase in thoracic blood volume upon transition to the zero-gravity environment can be interpreted as a true volume expansion resulting in an osmotic diuresis.

  6. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  7. Low extractable wipers for cleaning space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijerina, Veronica; Gross, Frederick C.

    1986-01-01

    There is a need for low extractable wipers for solvent cleaning of space flight hardware. Soxhlet extraction is the method utilized today by most NASA subcontractors, but there may be alternate methods to achieve the same results. The need for low non-volatile residue materials, the history of soxhlet extraction, and proposed alternate methods are discussed, as well as different types of wipers, test methods, and current standards.

  8. The space flight of the Soviet-Indian crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikitin, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the Indian space program, the paper examines the flight of the Soyuz T-11, which included an Indian crew member. Particular attention is given to experiments conducted aboard Soyuz T-11, including the Optokinez vestibular experiment, the Vektor cardiac bioelectricity experiment, the yoga experiment for the counteraction of the negative effects of weightlessness, a supercooling experiment, and the Terra remote sensing experiment.

  9. Satellite laser ranging work at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgunigal, T. E.; Carrion, W. J.; Caudill, L. O.; Grant, C. R.; Johnson, T. S.; Premo, D. A.; Spadin, P. L.; Winston, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the satellite laser ranging system at the Goddard Space Flight Center, its range and accuracy capabilities, and planned improvements for future systems. Major subsystems are described, including the laser, optical/mechanical, receiver, computer/software, timing, and laser data preprocessing subsystems. Operational considerations are examined, with attention given the mobile station layout, manpower requirements, and transportability. System performance is considered, with emphasis on system accuracy (calibration, stability, clock synchronization, atmospheric propagation correction) and range capability.

  10. Responses to graded lower body negative pressure after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Charles, John B.; Wood, Margie; Dussack, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure tests (0 to -60 mm Hg) were administered 2-3 times preflight and 4 times postflight (L0 to L7), to evaluate the effect of space flight on orthostatic responses. This paper presents preliminary findings from the first 4 crew members who have completed this protocol. Overall the results suggest a greater orthostatic strain lasting approximately two days postflight, that may have been due to enhanced pooling of blood in body regions other than the calf.

  11. Detection and Prevention of Arrhythmias During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David; Liszka, Kathy; York, David; Mackin, Michael; Lichter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objectives of this research include:determine if orthogonal lead sets can; determine if orthogonal lead sets can correct artifactual ECG changes caused by correct artifactual ECG changes caused by microgravity- induced alterations in cardiac position; determine if markers of susceptibility to SCD (TWA and QT restitution) can be reliably measured during space flight; determine the effects of continuous microgravity on markers of susceptibility to SCD.

  12. Reliability Practice at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruessner, Paula S.; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes in brief the Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) Programs performed directly by the reliability branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The mission assurance requirements flow down is explained. GSFC practices for PRA, reliability prediction/fault tree analysis/reliability block diagram, FMEA, part stress and derating analysis, worst case analysis, trend analysis, limit life items are presented. Lessons learned are summarized and recommendations on improvement are identified.

  13. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  14. Preloaded joint analysis methodology for space flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of some of the most basic equations governing simple preloaded joint systems and discusses the more common modes of failure associated with such hardware. It is intended to provide the mechanical designer with the tools necessary for designing a basic bolted joint. Although the information presented is intended to aid in the engineering of space flight structures, the fundamentals are equally applicable to other forms of mechanical design.

  15. Status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Participation in SNAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Rauscher will present programatic status and high-level/summary information on the technical status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's participation in the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Goddard's participation falls into four areas, and status in each of these will be covered. These areas are as follows: (I) focal plane array and packaging, (2) Teledyne HAWAII-4RG sensor chip assembly, (3) communications studies, and (4) integration and test studies.

  16. The Galileo Spacecraft: A Telecommunications Legacy for Future Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has implemented a wide range of telecommunication inprovements in response to the loss of its high gain antenna. While necessity dictated the use of these new techniques for Galileo, now that they have been proven in flight, they are available for use on future deep space missions. This telecommunications legacy of Galileo will aid in our ability to conduct a meaningful exploration of the solar system, and beyond, at a reasonable cost.

  17. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements

  18. Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, M. I.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights 1,2Dobynde M.I., 2,3Drozdov A.Y., 2,4Shprits Y.Y.1Skolkovo institute of science and technology, Moscow, Russia 2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA 3Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russia4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USASpace radiation is the main restriction for long-term interplanetary space missions. It induces degradation of external components and propagates inside providing damage to internal environment. Space radiation particles and induced secondary particle showers can lead to variety of damage to astronauts in short- and long- term perspective. Contribution of two main sources of space radiation- Sun and out-of-heliosphere space varies in time in opposite phase due to the solar activity state. Currently the only habituated mission is the international interplanetary station that flights on the low Earth orbit. Besides station shell astronauts are protected with the Earth magnetosphere- a natural shield that prevents significant damage for all humanity. Current progress in space exploration tends to lead humanity out of magnetosphere bounds. With the current study we make estimations of spacecraft parameters and astronauts damage for long-term interplanetary flights. Applying time dependent model of GCR spectra and data on SEP spectra we show the time dependence of the radiation in a human phantom inside the shielding capsule. We pay attention to the shielding capsule design, looking for an optimal geometry parameters and materials. Different types of particles affect differently on the human providing more or less harm to the tissues. Incident particles provide a large amount of secondary particles while propagating through the shielding capsule. We make an attempt to find an optimal combination of shielding capsule parameters, namely material and thickness, that will effectively decrease

  19. Weight and the Future of Space Flight Hardware Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Frank A.

    2003-01-01

    Weight has been used as the primary input variable for cost estimating almost as long as there have been parametric cost models. While there are good reasons for using weight, serious limitations exist. These limitations have been addressed by multi-variable equations and trend analysis in models such as NAFCOM, PRICE, and SEER; however, these models have not be able to address the significant time lags that can occur between the development of similar space flight hardware systems. These time lags make the cost analyst's job difficult because insufficient data exists to perform trend analysis, and the current set of parametric models are not well suited to accommodating process improvements in space flight hardware design, development, build and test. As a result, people of good faith can have serious disagreement over the cost for new systems. To address these shortcomings, new cost modeling approaches are needed. The most promising approach is process based (sometimes called activity) costing. Developing process based models will require a detailed understanding of the functions required to produce space flight hardware combined with innovative approaches to estimating the necessary resources. Particularly challenging will be the lack of data at the process level. One method for developing a model is to combine notional algorithms with a discrete event simulation and model changes to the total cost as perturbations to the program are introduced. Despite these challenges, the potential benefits are such that efforts should be focused on developing process based cost models.

  20. Time-dependent radiation dose simulations during interplanetary space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Li, Ju

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation is one of the main concerns in planning long-term interplanetary human space missions. There are two main types of hazardous radiation - Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). Their intensities and evolution depend on the solar activity. GCR activity is most enhanced during solar minimum, while the most intense SEPs usually occur during the solar maximum. SEPs are better shielded with thick shields, while GCR dose is less behind think shields. Time and thickness dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when radiation intensity and dose of SEP and GCR would be minimized. In this study we combine state-of-the-art space environment models with GEANT4 simulations to determine the optimal shielding, geometry of the spacecraft, and launch time with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. The radiation environment was described by the time-dependent GCR model, and the SEP spectra that were measured during the period from 1990 to 2010. We included gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and 27 fully ionized elements from hydrogen to nickel. We calculated the astronaut's radiation doses during interplanetary flights using the Monte-Carlo code that accounts for the primary and the secondary radiation. We also performed sensitivity simulations for the assumed spacecraft size and thickness to find an optimal shielding. In conclusion, we present the dependences of the radiation dose as a function of launch date from 1990 to 2010, for flight durations of up to 3 years.

  1. Alterations in protein metabolism during space flight and inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, Arny A.; Paddon-Jones, Doug; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight and the accompanying diminished muscular activity lead to a loss of body nitrogen and muscle function. These losses may affect crew capabilities and health in long-duration missions. Space flight alters protein metabolism such that the body is unable to maintain protein synthetic rates. A concomitant hypocaloric intake and altered anabolic/catabolic hormonal profiles may contribute to or exacerbate this problem. The inactivity associated with bedrest also reduces muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. For this reason, bedrest provides a good model for the investigation of potential exercise and nutritional countermeasures to restore muscle protein synthesis. We have demonstrated that minimal resistance exercise preserves muscle protein synthesis throughout bedrest. In addition, ongoing work indicates that an essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplement may ameliorate the loss of lean body mass and muscle strength associated with 28 d of bedrest. The investigation of inactivity-induced alterations in protein metabolism, during space flight or prolonged bedrest, is applicable to clinical populations and, in a more general sense, to the problems associated with the decreased activity that occur with aging.

  2. Foot Reaction Forces during Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.; Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Kuklis, M. M.; Humphreys, B.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Musculoskeletal changes, particularly in the lower extremities, are an established consequence of long-duration space flight despite exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that disuse and reduction in load bearing are key to these physiological changes, but no quantitative data characterizing the on-orbit movement environments currently exist. Here we present data from the Foot Experiment (E318) regarding astronaut activity on the ground and on-orbit during typical days from 4 International Space Station (ISS) crew members who flew during increments 6, 8, 11, and 12.

  3. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  4. Perspectives on NASA flight software development - Apollo, Shuttle, Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garman, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Flight data systems' software development is chronicled for the period encompassing NASA's Apollo, Space Shuttle, and (ongoing) Space Station Freedom programs, with attention to the methodologies and 'development tools' employed in each case and their mutual relationships. A dominant concern in all three programs has been the accommodation of software change; it has also been noted that any such long-term program carries the additional challenge of identifying which elements of its software-related 'institutional memory' are most critical, in order to preclude their loss through the retirement, promotion, or transfer of its 'last expert'.

  5. Preliminary report: Biomedical considerations for future manned space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    The behavioral, psychological, and sociological aspects of space travel, particularly with emphasis on longer duration missions, are discussed along with the biomedical aspects of space flight. These factors may strongly interact with the various psycho-social factors and as such they stand as an immensely important area of concern in and of themselves. A foundation for understanding weightlessness related medical problems through a discussion of the history of symptoms reported specific details on the major areas of concern and approaches to their investigation are presented. Also, discussion is given to the possibility of various countermeasures. Some indication of the effects of various biomedical changes in performance are also covered.

  6. Flight accommodations using a special structure. [space shuttle payloads support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Mcannally, R.

    1982-01-01

    A special payload carrier structure has been developed in order to provide Space Shuttle flight accommodations for an exceptionally heavy instrument package requiring no subsystems support. This Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) will support the OSTA-2 payload for a materials processing mission. The modular design of the MPESS offers a payload support capability at multiple locations within the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The MPESS is also scheduled for use with earth observation instruments to be carried by the OSTA-3 mission in late 1984.

  7. In-Space Manufacturing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Enabling Technologies for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, Quincy; Johnston, Mallory; Ordonez, Erick; Ryan, Rick; Prater, Tracie; Werkeiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing(ISM)activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long duration spaceflight safely and sustainably.

  8. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues after Space Flight and Otolith Assessment during Post-Flight Re-Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation and perceptual illusions following Gtransitions. These studies are designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short duration space flights.

  9. Independent verification and validation for Space Shuttle flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Software was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Flight to determine the need to continue independent verification and validation (IV&V) for Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee found that the current IV&V process is necessary to maintain NASA's stringent safety and quality requirements for man-rated vehicles. Therefore, the Committee does not support NASA's plan to eliminate funding for the IV&V effort in fiscal year 1993. The Committee believes that the Space Shuttle software development process is not adequate without IV&V and that elimination of IV&V as currently practiced will adversely affect the overall quality and safety of the software, both now and in the future. Furthermore, the Committee was told that no organization within NASA has the expertise or the manpower to replace the current IV&V function in a timely fashion, nor will building this expertise elsewhere necessarily reduce cost. Thus, the Committee does not recommend moving IV&V functions to other organizations within NASA unless the current IV&V is maintained for as long as it takes to build comparable expertise in the replacing organization.

  10. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  11. NASA's 3D Flight Computer for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) for Microelectronics Systems was planning to validate a newly developed 3D Flight Computer system on its first deep-space flight, DS1, launched in October 1998. This computer, developed in the 1995-97 time frame, contains many new computer technologies previously never used in deep-space systems. They include: advanced 3D packaging architecture for future low-mass and low-volume avionics systems; high-density 3D packaged chip-stacks for both volatile and non-volatile mass memory: 400 Mbytes of local DRAM memory, and 128 Mbytes of Flash memory; high-bandwidth Peripheral Component Interface (Per) local-bus with a bridge to VME; high-bandwidth (20 Mbps) fiber-optic serial bus; and other attributes, such as standard support for Design for Testability (DFT). Even though this computer system did not complete on time for delivery to the DS1 project, it was an important development along a technology roadmap towards highly integrated and highly miniaturized avionics systems for deep-space applications. This continued technology development is now being performed by NASA's Deep Space System Development Program (also known as X2000) and within JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM).

  12. Destruction of newly released red blood cells in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Udden, M. M.; Huntoon, C. L.; Driscoll, T.

    1996-01-01

    Space flight results in a rapid change in total blood volume, plasma volume, and red blood cell mass because the space to contain blood is decreased. The plasma volume and total blood volume decreases during the first hours in space and remain at a decreased level for the remainder of the flight. During the first several hours following return to earth, plasma volume and total blood volume increase to preflight levels. During the first few days in space recently produced red blood cells disappear from the blood resulting in a decrease in red blood cell mass of 10-15%. Red cells 12 d old or older survive normally and production of new cells continues at near preflight levels. After the first few days in space, the red cell mass is stable at the decreased level. Following return to earth the hemoglobin and red blood cell mass concentrations decrease reflecting the increase in plasma volume. The erythropoietin levels increase responding to "postflight anemia"; red cell production increases, and the red cell mass is restored to preflight levels after several weeks.

  13. Flight Demonstrations of Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program embodies NASA s priority to transport Space Station crews safely, reliably, and affordably, while it empowers the Nation s greater strategies for scientific exploration and space leadership. As early in the development cycle as possible, the OSP will provide crew rescue capability, offering an emergency ride home from the Space Station, while accommodating astronauts who are deconditioned due to long- duration missions, or those that may be ill or injured. As the OSP Program develops a fully integrated system, it will use existing technologies and employ computer modeling and simulation. Select flight demonstrator projects will provide valuable data on launch, orbital, reentry, and landing conditions to validate thermal protection systems, autonomous operations, and other advancements, especially those related to crew safety and survival.

  14. Preliminary characterization of persisting circadian rhythms during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultzman, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the function of the circadian timing system in space, the circadian rhythm of conidiation of the fungus Neurospora crassa was monitored in constant darkness on the STS 9 flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. During the first 7 days of spaceflight many tubes showed a marked reduction in the apparent amplitude of the conidiation rhythm, and some cultures appeared arrhythmic. There was more variability in the growth rate and circadian rhythms of individual cultures in space than is usually seen on earth. The results of this experiment indicate that while the circadian rhythm of Neurospora conidiation can persist outside of the earth's environment, either the timekeeping process or its expression is altered in space.

  15. The Art of Space Flight Exercise Hardware: Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahom M.

    2004-01-01

    The design of space flight exercise hardware depends on experience with crew health maintenance in a microgravity environment, history in development of flight-quality exercise hardware, and a foundation for certifying proper project management and design methodology. Developed over the past 40 years, the expertise in designing exercise countermeasures hardware at the Johnson Space Center stems from these three aspects of design. The medical community has steadily pursued an understanding of physiological changes in humans in a weightless environment and methods of counteracting negative effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system. The effects of weightlessness extend to the pulmonary and neurovestibular system as well with conditions ranging from motion sickness to loss of bone density. Results have shown losses in water weight and muscle mass in antigravity muscle groups. With the support of university-based research groups and partner space agencies, NASA has identified exercise to be the primary countermeasure for long-duration space flight. The history of exercise hardware began during the Apollo Era and leads directly to the present hardware on the International Space Station. Under the classifications of aerobic and resistive exercise, there is a clear line of development from the early devices to the countermeasures hardware used today. In support of all engineering projects, the engineering directorate has created a structured framework for project management. Engineers have identified standards and "best practices" to promote efficient and elegant design of space exercise hardware. The quality of space exercise hardware depends on how well hardware requirements are justified by exercise performance guidelines and crew health indicators. When considering the microgravity environment of the device, designers must consider performance of hardware separately from the combined human-in-hardware system. Astronauts are the caretakers of the hardware

  16. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents and incidents show that high workload-induced stress and poor teamwork skills lead to performance decrements and errors. Research on teamwork shows that effective teams are able to adapt to stressful situations, and to reduce workload by using successful strategies for communication and decision making, and through dynamic redistribution of tasks among team members. Furthermore, superior teams are able to recognize signs and symptoms of workload-induced stress early, and to adapt their coordination and communication strategies to the high workload, or stress conditions. Mission Control Center (MCC) teams often face demanding situations in which they must operate as an effective team to solve problems with crew and vehicle during onorbit operations. To be successful as a team, flight controllers (FCers) must learn effective teamwork strategies. Such strategies are the focus of Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training. SFRM training in MOD has been structured to include some classroom presentations of basic concepts and case studies, with the assumption that skill development happens in mission simulation. Integrated mission simulations do provide excellent opportunities for FCers to practice teamwork, but also require extensive technical knowledge of vehicle systems, mission operations, and crew actions. Such technical knowledge requires lengthy training. When SFRM training is relegated to integrated simulations, FCers can only practice SFRM after they have already mastered the technical knowledge necessary for these simulations. Given the centrality of teamwork to the success of MCC, holding SFRM training till late in the flow is inefficient. But to be able to train SFRM earlier in the flow, the training cannot rely on extensive mission-specific technical knowledge. Hence, the need for a generic SFRM training framework that would allow FCers to develop basic teamwork skills which are mission relevant, but without the required mission knowledge

  17. Space flight and the skeleton: lessons for the earthbound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of bone during extended space flight has long been a concern that could limit the ability of humans to explore the universe. Surprisingly, the available data do not support the concept that weightlessness leads inexorably to a depleted skeleton unable to withstand the stress of a return to a 1-g environment. Nevertheless, some bone loss does occur, especially in those bones most stressed by gravity prior to flight, which provides confirmation of the proposal formulated over a century ago by Julius Wolff that mechanical stress determines the form and function of bone. Although the phenomenon of bone loss with skeletal unloading, whether by space flight or immobilization or just taking a load off your feet (literally) is well established, the mechanisms by which bone senses load and adjusts to it are not so clear. What actually is the stimulus, and what are the sensors? What are the target cells? How do the sensors communicate the message into the cells, and by what pathways do the cells respond? What is the role of endocrine, factors vs. paracrine or autocrine factors in mediating or modulating the response? None of these questions has been answered with certainty, but, as will become apparent in this review, we have some clues directing us to the answers. Although the focus of this review concerns space flight, it seems highly likely that the mechanisms mediating the transmission of mechanical load to changes in bone formation and resorption apply equally well to all forms of disuse osteoporosis and are likely to be the same mechanisms affected by other etiologies of osteoporosis.

  18. Sleep on manned space flights: Zero gravity reduces sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Gonfalone, Alain

    2016-12-01

    The success of a manned space mission depends on the well-being of the crew. Sleep in space has been the concern of researchers from the earliest days of manned space flight. In the new frontier of space exploration one of the great problems to be solved relates to sleep. Although many reports indicate that sleep in space differs only in minor ways from terrestrial sleep, such as being somewhat less comfortable, a consistent finding has been that sleep duration in space is shorter than that on the ground. This review considers the accumulating evidence that the main reason for the shorter duration of sleep in space is the absence of gravity. This evidence shows that, similar to the effect of many other environmental variables like light, sound and cold, gravity has a measurable impact on sleep structure. As opposed to ground, in zero gravity conditions the innate, permanent, and almost unconscious effort to maintain posture and equilibrium is reduced while simultaneously the vigilance against gravity or "the fear of falling" diminishes. These phenomena may potentially explain research findings that REM sleep latency and duration are shorter in space. This assumption also implies that sleep on ground is due in part to the effort to compensate for the presence of gravity and its effects on the posture and motion of the human body: an ignored and unsuspected contribution to sleep.

  19. Research and technology, fiscal year 1986, Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing its vigorous efforts in space-related research and technology. Extensive activities in advanced studies have led to the approval of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle as a new start. Significant progress was made in definition studies of liquid rocket engine systems for future space transportation needs and the conceptualization of advanced laucnch vehicles. The space systems definition studies have brought the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Gravity Probe-B to a high degree of maturity. Both are ready for project implementation. Also discussed include significant advances in low gravity sciences, solar terrestrial physics, high energy astrophysics, atmospheric sciences, propulsion systems, and on the critical element of the Space Shuttle Main Engine in particular. The goals of improving the productivity of high-cost repetitive operations on reusable transportation systems, and extending the useful life of such systems are examined. The research and technology highlighted provides a foundation for progress on the Hubble Space Telescope, the Space Station, all elements of the Space Transportation System, and the many other projects assigned to this Center.

  20. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  1. Circadian rhythms in a long-term duration space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpatov, Alexey M.

    In order to maintain cosmonaut health and performance, it is important for the work-rest schedule to follow human circadian rhythms (CR). What happens with CR in space flight? Investigations of CR in mammals revealed, that the circadian phase in flight is less stable, probably due to a displacement of the range of entrainment, resulting from internal period change (the latter was confirmed on insects). The circadian period may be a gravity-dependent parameter. If so, the basic biological requirement for the day length might be different in weightlessness. On this basis, a higher risk of desynchronosis is expected in a long-duration space flight. As a countermeasure, a non-24-hr day length could be suggested, being close to the internal circadian period (in humans about 25 hr). Taking into account a possible displacement of period in weightlessness, it seems reasonable to establish a flexible work-rest schedule, capable to follow the body temperature CR by means of biofeedback.

  2. [Development of medical monitoring and support in the practice of manned space flight].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The astronaut medical monitoring and support is an important part of space operational medicine. With the rapid development of the cause of China's manned space flight, the astronaut medical monitoring and support work has also made considerable progress since 1990s. Space operational medicine is responsible for the medical monitoring and support during astronaut selection and training as well as during the space flight. It's a severe challenge for mid-long term space flight to assure astronauts in sound body and mind and have good working capability. On the basis of the medical monitoring and support in short-term space flight, we should carry out the research of space operational medicine.

  3. Combined effects of space flight factors and radiation on humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Pecaut, M. J.; Fleshner, M.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The probability that a dose of ionizing radiation kills a cell is about 10,000 times the probability that the cell will be transformed to malignancy. On the other hand, the number of cells killed required to significantly impact health is about 10,000 times the number that must be transformed to cause a late malignancy. If these two risks, cell killing and malignant transformation, are about equal, then the risk that occurs during a mission is more significant than the risk that occurs after a mission. The latent period for acute irradiation effects (cell killing) is about 2-4 weeks; the latent period for malignancy is 10-20 years. If these statements are approximately true, then the impact of cell killing on health in the low-gravity environment of space flight should be examined to establish an estimate of risk. The objective of this study is to synthesize data and conclusions from three areas of space biology and environmental health to arrive at rational risk assessment for radiations received by spacecraft crews: (1) the increased physiological demands of the space flight environment; (2) the effects of the space flight environment on physiological systems; and (3) the effects of radiation on physiological systems. One physiological system has been chosen: the immune response and its components, consisting of myeloid and lymphoid proliferative cell compartments. Best-case and worst-case scenarios are considered. In the worst case, a doubling of immune-function demand, accompanied by a halving of immune capacity, would reduce the endangering dose to a crew member to around 1 Gy.

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center's Impact Testing Facility Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, Andy; Hubbs, Whitney; Evans, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Impact Testing Facility (ITF) serves as an important installation for space and missile related materials science research. The ITF was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960s, then played a major role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As NASA became more interested in launch debris and in-flight impact concerns, the ITF grew to include research in a variety of impact genres. Collaborative partnerships with the DoD led to a wider range of impact capabilities being relocated to MSFC as a result of the closure of Particle Impact Facilities in Santa Barbara, California. The Particle Impact Facility had a 30 year history in providing evaluations of aerospace materials and components during flights through rain, ice, and solid particle environments at subsonic through hypersonic velocities. The facility s unique capabilities were deemed a "National Asset" by the DoD. The ITF now has capabilities including environmental, ballistic, and hypervelocity impact testing utilizing an array of air, powder, and two-stage light gas guns to accommodate a variety of projectile and target types and sizes. Numerous upgrades including new instrumentation, triggering circuitry, high speed photography, and optimized sabot designs have been implemented. Other recent research has included rain drop demise characterization tests to obtain data for inclusion in on-going model development. The current and proposed ITF capabilities range from rain to micrometeoroids allowing the widest test parameter range possible for materials investigations in support of space, atmospheric, and ground environments. These test capabilities including hydrometeor, single/multi-particle, ballistic gas guns, exploding wire gun, and light gas guns combined with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Code (SPHC) simulations represent the widest range of impact test capabilities in the country.

  5. [Diurnal rhythm of body temperature during space flight].

    PubMed

    Lkhagva, L

    1984-01-01

    The axillary temperature of the Mongolian Salyut-6 crewmember was measured in the daytime before, during and after flight. The temperature was recorded immediately after awakening to going to sleep every 2 hours: a month prelaunch in the Cosmonauts' Training Center during 5 days, a week prelaunch at the Baikonur launch site during 3 days, inflight from the middle of mission day 2 to the middle of mission day 7 every day, and postflight at Baikonur during 4 days. It was found that inflight the axillary temperature decreased significantly by 0.44 degrees C as compared to the data obtained in the Cosmonauts' Training Center and by 0.22 degrees C as compared to the data obtained at the launch site. There were also some changes in the pattern of acrophases on the time scale. It is recommended to continue thermal regulation measurements in space flight.

  6. Proprietary Manned Space Flight Proposals, 1973 to 2013, plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Philip

    2016-03-01

    In 1973 a concept for a manned space flight experiment was submitted to NASA as an unsolicited proprietary proposal,*. In 1998*, 2004*, and 2013* proposals successively more details were provided. An abbreviation of the 1998 proposal was published. By 2013 the five technical variables of 1998 had increased to over ten. Some technical and management details of the proposals will be presented and updated. The first flight of two could use some hardware now being developed. The experiment seems superior to any mission publicly advocated by NASA, so this talk's purpose is to encourage NASA to delay landing humans on Mars until the first spacecraft can be developed and activated. *Complete proposals are in the Philip C. Fisher papers, Niels Bohr Library and Archives, American Institute of Physics (available one year after author's death). Work after 1982 supported by successive forms of Ruffner Associates.

  7. Cardiovascular Countermeasures for Exploration-Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut missions to Mars may be many years or even decades in thc future but current and planned efforts can be extrapolated to required treatments and prophylaxis for delerious efforts of prolonged space flight on the cardiovascular system. The literature of candidate countermeasures was considered in combination with unpublished plans for countermeasure implementation. The scope of cardiovascular countermeasures will be guided by assessments of the efficacy of mechanical, physiological and pharmacological approaches in protecting the cardiovascular capacities of interplanetary crewmembers. Plans for countermeasure development, evaluation and validation will exploit synergies among treatment modalities with the goal of maximizing protective effects while minimizing crew time and in-flight resource use. Protection of the cardiovascular capacity of interplanetary crewmembers will become more effective and efficient over the next few decades, but trade-offs between cost and effectiveness of efficiency are always possible if the increased level of risk can be accepted.

  8. Space industrialization. [space flight and environment for commercial/utilitarian purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Space industrialization is defined as the use of space flight and the space environment for commercial or utilitarian purposes in contrast to other uses such as gains in basic scientific knowledge, national defense, or exploration. Some unique attributes of space that make it amenable to industrial use include overview of the earth, the 'zero gravity' effect, potential for near perfect vacuum, unlimited reservoir for disposal of waste products, availability of essentially uninterrupted flow of solar energy, and the 'perpetual motion' characteristic of orbital mechanics. The role of human participation in assembling and maintaining the large sophisticated systems that will be required for future space industrialization needs is considered.

  9. Habitability and performance issues for long duration space flights.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, M; McQuilkin, M L; Woolford, B J

    1998-09-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is threefold: 1) to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload, 2) to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements, and 3) to propose an implementation plan to address these habitability, performance and workload issues.

  10. [Solar cosmic radiation and the radiation hazard of space flight].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, L I

    1983-01-01

    Present-day data on the spectrum of solar radiation in the source and near the Earth are discussed as applied to the radiation safety of crewmembers and electronics onboard manned and unmanned spacecraft. It is shown that the slope of the solar radiation spectrum changes (flattens) in the low energy range. Quantitative information about absolute solar radiation fluxes near the Earth is summarized in relation to the most significant flares of 1956--1978. The time-related evolution of the solar radiation spectrum in the interplanetary space is described in quantitative terms (as illustrated by the solar flare of 28 September 1961). It is indicated that the nonmonotonic energy dependence of the transport path of solar radiation in the interplanetary space should be taken into consideration. It is demonstrated that the diffusion model of propagation can be verified using solar radiation measurements in space flights.

  11. Advanced protein crystal growth flight hardware for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Frederick T.

    1988-01-01

    The operational environment of the Space Station will differ considerably from the previous short term missions such as the Spacelabs. Limited crew availability combined with the near continuous operation of Space Station facilities will require a high degree of facility automation. This paper will discuss current efforts to develop automated flight hardware for advanced protein crystal growth on the Space Station. Particular areas discussed will be the automated monitoring of key growth parameters for vapor diffusion growth and proposed mechanisms for control of these parameters. A history of protein crystal growth efforts will be presented in addition to the rationale and need for improved protein crystals for X-ray diffraction. The facility will be capable of simultaneously processing several hundred protein samples at various temperatures, pH's, concentrations etc., and provide allowances for real time variance of growth parameters.

  12. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  13. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  14. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  15. Using Fuzzy Clustering for Real-time Space Flight Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Charles; Haskell, Richard E.; Hanna, Darrin; Alena, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure space flight safety, it is necessary to monitor myriad sensor readings on the ground and in flight. Since a space shuttle has many sensors, monitoring data and drawing conclusions from information contained within the data in real time is challenging. The nature of the information can be critical to the success of the mission and safety of the crew and therefore, must be processed with minimal data-processing time. Data analysis algorithms could be used to synthesize sensor readings and compare data associated with normal operation with the data obtained that contain fault patterns to draw conclusions. Detecting abnormal operation during early stages in the transition from safe to unsafe operation requires a large amount of historical data that can be categorized into different classes (non-risk, risk). Even though the 40 years of shuttle flight program has accumulated volumes of historical data, these data don t comprehensively represent all possible fault patterns since fault patterns are usually unknown before the fault occurs. This paper presents a method that uses a similarity measure between fuzzy clusters to detect possible faults in real time. A clustering technique based on a fuzzy equivalence relation is used to characterize temporal data. Data collected during an initial time period are separated into clusters. These clusters are characterized by their centroids. Clusters formed during subsequent time periods are either merged with an existing cluster or added to the cluster list. The resulting list of cluster centroids, called a cluster group, characterizes the behavior of a particular set of temporal data. The degree to which new clusters formed in a subsequent time period are similar to the cluster group is characterized by a similarity measure, q. This method is applied to downlink data from Columbia flights. The results show that this technique can detect an unexpected fault that has not been present in the training data set.

  16. Ocular counterrolling induced by centrifugation during orbital space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. T.; Clement, G.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural centripetal accelerations (Gy centrifugation) of 0.5 g and 1 g during rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear out or right-ear out, facing or back to motion. Binocular eye movements were measured in three dimensions using a video technique. On Earth, tangential centrifugation that produces 1 g of interaural linear acceleration combines with gravity to tilt the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA) vector 45 degrees in the roll plane relative to the head vertical, generating a summed vector of 1.4 g. Before flight, this elicited mean ocular counterrolling (OCR) of 5.7 degrees. Due to the relative absence of gravity during flight, there was no linear acceleration along the dorsoventral axis of the head. As a result, during in-flight centrifugation, gravitoinertial acceleration was strictly aligned with the centripetal acceleration along the interaural axis. There was a small but significant decrease (mean 10%) in the magnitude of OCR in space (5.1 degrees). The magnitude of OCR during postflight 1 g centrifugation was not significantly different from preflight OCR (5.9 degrees). Findings were similar for 0.5 g centrifugation, but the OCR magnitude was approximately 60% of that induced by centrifugation at 1 g. OCR during pre- and postflight static tilt was not significantly different and was always less than OCR elicited by centrifugation of Earth for an equivalent interaural linear acceleration. In contrast, there was no difference between the OCR generated by in-flight centrifugation and by static tilt on Earth at equivalent interaural linear accelerations. These data support the following conclusions: (1) OCR is generated predominantly in response to interaural linear acceleration; (2) the increased OCR during centrifugation on Earth is a response to the head dorsoventral 1 g linear acceleration component, which

  17. Detection and Prevention of Cardiac Arrhythmias During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David S.; Liszka, Kathy J.; York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    There have been reports suggesting that long-duration space flight might lead to an increased risk of potentially serious heart rhythm disturbances. If space flight does, in fact, significantly decrease cardiac electrical stability, the effects could be catastrophic, potentially leading to sudden cardiac death. It will be important to determine the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in order to prepare for long-term manned lunar and interplanetary missions and to develop appropriate countermeasures. Electrical alternans affecting the ST segment and T-wave have been demonstrated to be common among patients at increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias. Subtle electrical alternans on the ECG may serve as a noninvasive marker of vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias. We are studying indices of electrical instability in the heart for long term space missions by non-invasively measuring microvolt level T-wave alternans in a reduced gravity environment. In this investigation we are using volunteer subjects on the KC-135 aircraft as an initial study of the effect of electrical adaptation of the heart to microgravity. T-wave alternans will be analyzed for heart rate variability and QT restitution curve plotting will be compared for statistical significance.

  18. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  19. Locomotor head-trunk coordination strategies following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.

  20. Calcium Balance in A Rat Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, M.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of calcium (Ca) metabolism during space flight and the human bed rest model for microgravity is negative Ca balance, attributed, to an increase in urinary Ca excretion and depressed intestinal Ca absorption. No differences or less positive Ca balances are reported after skeletal unloading in similar studies in weaning or juvenile rats. To determine Ca balances and evaluate the Ca endocrine system in mature rats exposed to a space flight model which unloaded the hind limbs by tail suspension, we modified the cage to quantify dietary, fecal and urinary Ca. Five 2-5 d balance periods in 8 loaded (C) and 8 unloaded (S) rats were compared during a 4 week study in 6 month old 490 g male rats. The first period revealed negative balances of -16+/-3 and -14+/-5 mg/d which reflected adaptation to the cages, the change in diet from Purina to AIN 76 and weight loss in both C and S. Average Ca balances in rats fed 0.1% Ca and 0.3% phosphorus (Pi) diets, remained negative in S and were less than C after 6 -10 d (-2.9 vs 0.12 mg/d, p<.05) but not thereafter. In spite of eating 10% more food than C, initial weight loss, restored in C, was never recovered in S. Fecal excretion exceeded dietary intake by -3.7% in S and reflected absorption and retention of 8.4% dietary Ca in C. Urinary Ca was the same fraction of dietary intake in S and C (9.0 vs 8.6%, NS). Serum Ca, Pi, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were the same in both groups after 28 days. In contrast to the human, a major determinant of negative Ca balance in the mature rat exposed to a space flight model appears to be losses from gastrointestinal Ca secretion, rather than urinary Ca excretion.

  1. Telemedicine in extreme environments: analogs for space flight.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R

    2003-01-01

    The integration of telecommunications and information systems into health care delivery in human space flight operations is not new. It has been an integral tool for over 45 years. During these past decades, numerous efforts have been conducted to further develop and promulgate telemedicine. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established a commercial space center in 1997, known as the Medical Informatics and Technology Applications Consortium (MITAC). MITAC has developed and conducted a variety of test beds in several international settings, including Russia, Ecuador and other extreme and remote environments. These test beds have been designed to evaluate and validate technologies and techniques that have application in the delivery and support of health care in unique environments. The characteristics of these test beds are analogous to what might be observed or experienced in low earth orbit or on space-based platform. These include intermittent communications, low bandwidth, level of competency of the front line health worker, etc. These test beds have led to new approaches for the delivery of health care as well as enhanced education. These experiences have been beneficial in the promulgation of telemedicine as an effective tool and have provided new ideals for space exploration as well terrestrial medicine. This paper will highlight MITAC's test beds and their relationship to space exploration.

  2. Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

  3. The 1988 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 1-3, 1988. The Workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included battery testing methodologies and criteria, life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, testing and operation of nickel-hydrogen batteries in low earth orbit, and nickel-hydrogen technology issues and concerns.

  4. Metabolic Cages for a Space Flight Model in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Jennifer S.; Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, Juli; Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of space flight models are available to mimic the physiologic changes seen in the rat during weightlessness. The model reported by Wronski and Morey-Holton has been widely used by many investigators, in musculoskeletal physiologic studies especially, resulting in accumulation of an extensive database that enables scientists to mimic space flight effects in the 1-g environment of Earth. However, information on nutrition or gastrointestinal and renal function in this space flight model is limited by the difficulty in acquiring uncontaminated metabolic specimens for analysis. In the Holton system, a traction tape harness is applied to the tail, and the rat's hindquarters are elevated by attaching the harness to a pulley system. Weight-bearing hind limbs are unloaded, and there is a headward fluid shift. The tail-suspended rats are able to move freely about their cages on their forelimbs and tolerate this procedure with minimal signs of stress. The cage used in Holton's model is basically a clear acrylic box set on a plastic grid floor with the pulley and tail harness system attached to the open top of the cage. Food is available from a square food cup recessed into a corner of the floor. In this system, urine, feces, and spilled food fall through the grid floor onto absorbent paper beneath the cage and cannot be separated and recovered quantitatively for analysis in metabolic balance studies. Commercially available metabolic cages are generally cylindrical and have been used with a centrally located suspension apparatus in other space flight models. The large living area, three times as large as most metabolic cages, and the free range of motion unique to Holton's model, essential for musculoskeletal investigations, were sacrificed. Holton's cages can accommodate animals ranging in weight from 70 to 600 g. Although an alternative construction of Holton's cage has been reported, it does not permit collection of separate urine and fecal samples. We describe

  5. Modifying a silicone potting compound for space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    RTV-615 has been devolatilized by subjecting the uncatalyzed resin to a temperature of between 125 and 150 C for 24 hours in a vacuum of about 10 to the -6th torr. The resultant resin can be catalyzed and after a room temperature cure the outgassing of the resin is sufficiently low when tested according to ASTM E-595 that it is suitable for space flight use. Tests of physical properties of the cured devolatilized resin were compared with those of the as received silicone. The devolatilized silicones are slightly harder, have a higher tear resistance and higher tensile strengths.

  6. Project LASER Volunteer, Marshall Space Flight Center Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Education Department, over 400 MSFC employees have volunteered to support educational program during regular work hours. Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering, and Research) provides support for mentor/tutor requests, education tours, classroom presentations, and curriculum development. This program is available to teachers and students living within commuting distance of the NASA/MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama (approximately 50-miles radius). This image depicts students viewing their reflections in an x-ray mirror with Marshall optic engineer Vince Huegele at the Discovery Laboratory, which is an onsite MSFC laboratory facility that provides hands-on educational workshop sessions for teachers and students learning activities.

  7. Near-space flight of a correlated photon system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Sean, Yau Yong; Cheng, Cliff; Wildfeuer, Christoph; Ling, Alexander

    2014-09-15

    We report the successful test flight of a device for generating and monitoring correlated photon pairs under near-space conditions up to 35.5 km altitude. Data from ground based qualification tests and the high altitude experiment demonstrate that the device continues to operate even under harsh environmental conditions. The design of the rugged, compact and power-efficient photon pair system is presented. This design enables autonomous photon pair systems to be deployed on low-resource platforms such as nanosatellites hosting remote nodes of a quantum key distribution network. These results pave the way for tests of entangled photon technology in low earth orbit.

  8. Crew productivity issues in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, John M.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Ulschak, Francis L.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests the importance of teamwork, coordination, and conflict resolution to the performance and survival of isolated, confined groups in high-technology environments. With the advent of long-duration space flight, group-related issues of crew functioning will take on added significance. This paper discusses the influence of crew roles, status, leadership, and norms on the performance of small, confined groups, and offers guidelines and suggestions regarding organizational design, crew selection, training, and team building for crew productivity and social well-being in long-duration spaceflight.

  9. Near-space flight of a correlated photon system

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Sean, Yau Yong; Cheng, Cliff; Wildfeuer, Christoph; Ling, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful test flight of a device for generating and monitoring correlated photon pairs under near-space conditions up to 35.5 km altitude. Data from ground based qualification tests and the high altitude experiment demonstrate that the device continues to operate even under harsh environmental conditions. The design of the rugged, compact and power-efficient photon pair system is presented. This design enables autonomous photon pair systems to be deployed on low-resource platforms such as nanosatellites hosting remote nodes of a quantum key distribution network. These results pave the way for tests of entangled photon technology in low earth orbit. PMID:25219935

  10. Effect of space flight on interferon production - mechanistic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based models were studied for the effects of space flight on immune responses. Most time was spent on the model for the antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model for rats. Results indicate that suspension is useful for modeling the effects of spaceflight on functional immune responses, such as interferon and interleukin production. It does not appear to be useful for modeling shifts in leukocyte sub-populations. Calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 appear to play a pivitol role in regulating shifts in immune responses due to suspension. The macrophage appears to be an important target cell for the effects of suspension on immune responses.

  11. Human habitat positioning system for NASA's space flight environmental simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.; Keas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Artificial gravity by centrifugation offers an effective countermeasure to the physiologic deconditioning of chronic exposure to microgravity; however, the system requirements of rotational velocity, radius of rotation, and resultant centrifugal acceleration require thorough investigation to ascertain the ideal human-use centrifuge configuration. NASA's Space Flight Environmental Simulator (SFES), a 16-meter (52-foot) diameter, animal-use centrifuge, was recently modified to accommodate human occupancy. This paper describes the SFES Human Habitat Positioning System, the mechanism that facilitates radius of rotation variability and alignment of the centrifuge occupants with the artificial gravity vector.

  12. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  13. Acute and Chronic Exposure to CO2 in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D.; Wu, J.; Barr, Y. R.; Watkins, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft and space stations, similar to other habitable confined spaces such as submarines, need to provide a breathable atmosphere for their inhabitants. The inevitable production of CO2 during respiration necessitates life support systems that "scrub" the atmosphere and lower CO2 levels. Due to operational limitations associated with space flight (limited mass, volume, power, and consumables) CO2 is not scrubbed down to its terrestrial equivalent of 0.03% CO2 (ppCO2 of 0.23 mmHg), but is kept below 0.7% (ppCO2 of 5.3 mmHg), a level established in NASA s 180-day mission Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) to be safe and unlikely to cause symptoms. Reports of space flight crewmembers becoming symptomatic with headaches, fatigue, and malaise at levels below those known to cause such symptoms terrestrially has prompted studies measuring the levels of CO2 on both the space shuttle and the space station. Data from cabin atmosphere sampling were collected on space shuttle missions STS-113, STS-122, STS-123, and International Space Station Expeditions 12-15 and 17, and the measured CO2 levels were then correlated to symptoms reported by the crew. The results indicate that a correlation exists between CO2 levels and symptomatology, however causality cannot be established at this time. While the short-term effects of elevated CO2 exposure are well known terrestrially, less is known regarding potential long-term effects of prolonged exposure to a CO2-rich environment or how the physiological changes caused by microgravity may interact with such exposures. Other challenges include limitations in the CO2 monitors used, lack of convection in the microgravity environment, and formation of localized CO2 pockets. As it is unclear if the unique environment of space increases sensitivity to CO2 or if other confounding factors are present, further research is planned to elucidate these points. At the same time, efforts are underway to update the SMAC to a lower level

  14. Space-Based Telemetry And Range Safety Flight Demonstration #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demspm. Erol; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.; Whiteman, Donald E.; Bundick, Steven N.; Wampler, David; Birr, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The basic ability of STARS to maintain a satellite communications link with TDRSS satellites during dynamic aircraft flights was successfully demonstrated during FD 1. The Range Safety and Range User systems' link margins were measured. The ability to acquire/reacquire and maintain lock between a high-dynamic vehicle and a satellite-based system was demonstrated. The Range Safety system simultaneously received and processed command links from space and ground transmitters and provided near real-time Range Safety telemetry to DFRC, which then sent it in near real time to KSC, GSFC, and WFF for monitoring. The GPS receiver maintained track except during extremely dynamic maneuvers. The Range User system sent data at three different data rates. There were excellent cooperation and support from the different Centers, contractors, and Ranges. A large amount of data was recorded and extensive post-flight analysis was performed. The Range User TDRSS link margin met or exceeded the predicted performance at three different data rates. The Range Safety launch-head link margins generally agreed with the predicted performance. The UPS positions and velocities agreed with those from tracking radar to within about 20 m and a few rn/s. The link margins for the Range Safety TDRSS telemetry link were less than expected. The link margin for one TDRSS command link LPT channel was occasionally much less than the other. Additional post-flight testing has yet to identify the root causes of these results. There were many lessons learned from this first set of test flights. The most important one is that more time and testing are needed for each step to deal with the inevitable problems. It is vital that these lessons be among the primary areas of study that will carry over from FD#1 to FD#2, which is currently scheduled for early FY05 at DFRC and will use a specially designed Ku-band phased array antenna for the Range User system. The next series of flight demonstrations scheduled for

  15. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.; Cintron, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity.

  16. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  17. Fluid/electrolyte and endocrine changes in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, Carolyn Leach

    1989-01-01

    The primary effects of space flight that influence the endocrine system and fluid and electrolyte regulation are the reduction of hydrostatic gradients, reduction in use and gravitational loading of bone and muscle, and stress. Each of these sets into motion a series of responses that culminates in alteration of some homeostatic set points for the environment of space. Set point alterations are believed to include decreases in venous pressure; red blood cell mass; total body water; plasma volume; and serum sodium, chloride, potassium, and osmolality. Serum calcium and phosphate increase. Hormones such as erythropoietin, atrial natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone, and growth hormone are involved in the dynamic processes that bring about the new set points. The inappropriateness of microgravity set points for 1-G conditions contributes to astronaut postflight responses.

  18. Effect of Space Flight on Adrenal Medullary Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity conditions during space flight alter the expression and specific activities of the adrenal medullary CA synthesizing enzymes (CASE). Previously, we examined adrenals from six rats flown for six days aboard STS 54 and reported that microgravity induced a decrease in the expression and specific activity of rat adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of CA synthesis, without affecting the expression of other CASE. In the past, we analyzed some of the > 300 adrenals from two previous Space Shuttle missions (PARE 03 and SLS 2). The preliminary results (a) attest to the good state of tissue preservation, thus proving the feasibility of subsequent large-scale evaluation, and (b) confirm and extend our previous findings. With this grant we will be able to expeditiously analyze all our specimens and to complete our studies in a timely fashion.

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

  20. Brian Dunlap Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    W. Brain Dunlap (left), high school student from Youngstown, Ohio, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Dunlap was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.