Sample records for aasta kogemus eestis

  1. Turbine generator evaluation for the Eesti-Energia Estonia and Baltic power plants. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect



    The report evaluates the feasibility of 200 MW turbines and generators modernization in two Estonian power plants in order to improve performance and/or availability. This is Volume 1 and it includes the following: (1) scope; (2) evaluation approach; (3) summary of major recommendations; (4) performance tests descriptions; (5) current technology -- component description; (6) recommended studies; (7) recommendations; (8) district heating; (9) description of turbine K-200-130; (10) turbine evaluation results; (11) generator; (12) estimation of modernization costs.

  2. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology


    an oil shale exploration agreement with the Jordanian government. Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale...of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the democracy

  3. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. In 2012, the Canadian company, Global Oil Shale Holdings (GOSH...variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the

  4. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. In 2012, the Canadian company, Global Oil Shale Holdings (GOSH...variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the

  5. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology


    exploration agreement with the Jordanian government. Estonia’s Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. See, “Amman Unlocks...Jordan focus on a variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public

  6. Nationality Politics in the Soviet Union: At Last, a Subject of Serious Scholarship in the US

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Arens, Olavi, Book review: Rei , August, The Drama of the Baltic Peoples (Stockholm: Kirjastus Vaba Eesti, 1970), 384pp, Bulletin of Baltic Studies, Vol...1940-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983) EE. Nodel, Emanuel, Estonia: Nation on the Anvil (New York: Bookman Astor , Inc, 1963) FF

  7. Quasi-conformal mapping with genetic algorithms applied to coordinate transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Matesanz, F. J.; Malpica, J. A.


    In this paper, piecewise conformal mapping for the transformation of geodetic coordinates is studied. An algorithm, which is an improved version of a previous algorithm published by Lippus [2004a. On some properties of piecewise conformal mappings. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akademmia Toimetised Füüsika-Matemaakika 53, 92-98; 2004b. Transformation of coordinates using piecewise conformal mapping. Journal of Geodesy 78 (1-2), 40] is presented; the improvement comes from using a genetic algorithm to partition the complex plane into convex polygons, whereas the original one did so manually. As a case study, the method is applied to the transformation of the Spanish datum ED50 and ETRS89, and both its advantages and disadvantages are discussed herein.

  8. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.


    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne


    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.


    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  10. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres


    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  11. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.


    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry


    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  12. Formation (and dating) of small impact craters on Earth as an analogue for Mars (Ilumetsa Craters Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Jõeleht, Argo; Plado, Juri; Szyszka, Mateusz; Wild, Eva Maria; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Belcher, Claire; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Steier, Peter


    Crater-strewn-fields are present on planetary bodies with an atmosphere such as Earth and Mars, but the process of their formation is still not fully understood. For example, a recent discovery of small pieces of impact-produced-charcoal within the ejecta blanket of 100 m in diameter Kaali crater (Losiak et al. 2016) may suggest existence of very local ( 10 cm thick layer in the distance of 10 m from the rim), short lived ( hours) thermal anomalies ( 300°C) in the ejecta blanket of even small craters. Ilumetsa in SE Estonia is an atypical example of crater-strewn-field consisting of only two relatively large, rimmed structures with diameters of 75-80 m (Ilumetsa Large: IL) and 50 m (Ilumetsa Small: IS) with true depths of about 8 and 3.5 m, respectively (Plado 2012 MAPS). Structures were previously dated by the 14C analysis of gyttja from the bottom of IL (Liiva et al. 1979 Eesti Loodus) to be 7170-6660 cal. BP. About 600 years older age (7570-7320 cal. BC: Raukas et al. 2001, MAPS) was proposed based on dated layer of peat in which glassy spherules, interpreted as dissipated melt or condensed vapor (however their chemical composition was not reported). Ilumetsa is listed as a proven meteorite impact in the Earth Impact Database, but neither remnants of the projectile nor other identification criteria (e.g., PDFs) have been found up to this point. The aim of this study was to search for possible impact related charcoals in order to determine the size and extend of thermal anomalies around small impact craters, as well as to determine how this atypical strew field was formed. Additionally, we hoped to determine/confirm the age of those structures. We have found charcoal in a similar geological setting as in Kaali Main crater in both Ilumetsa structures. The calibrated (95,4% probability) time ranges of four dated samples from IL and one sample of IS span the time interval from 7670-6950 cal. BP (consistent with previous dating). One sample from IS is younger (4830

  13. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena


    within the trench (located ~12 meters to the SW from the rim crest of the main crater) and at different depths in respect to the ejecta-till boundary were processed separately. 14C dating was per-formed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator at the University of Vienna (Austria). The calibrated (95,4% probability) time ranges of eight out of ten samples span the time interval from ~1650 BC to ~1400 BC. This age is based on dating charcoal within the ejecta blanket which makes it directly linked with the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. References: Aaloe et al. 1963. Eesti Loodus 6:262-265. Moora et al. 2012. Geochronometria 39: 262-267. Raukas et al. 1995. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci., Geology 44:177-183. Rasmussen et al. 2000. MAPS 35:1067-1071. Saarse et al. 1991. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 63:129-139. Veski et al. 2007. Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Hu-man Society:265-275. Veski et al. 2001. MAPS 36:1367-1376. Veski et al. 2004. Veg Hist Archaeobot 13:197-206. Zanetti et al. 2015. 46th LPSC.