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Sample records for aatsr dual view

  1. Aerosol retrievals over Asian mega cities with the AATSR Dual-View Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundström, Anu-Maija; Kolmonen, Pekka; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith

    2010-05-01

    The increase of anthropogenic pollutants in Asia is evident along with the continuously increasing population and strong economic growth. Several studies have shown, that the mean aerosol mass concentration can be well above national and international standards especially in the Asian mega cities, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and New Delhi. Large emissions of aerosols and precursor gases exported from these areas can have significant impacts on air quality and climate on both regional and global scales. AATSR (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer) on board ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATelite) is used for monitoring various environmental parameters. The parameters include e.g. aerosol optical properties over land (Dual View algorthm (ADV)), and ocean (Single View algorithm (ASV)). The ADV-algorithm exploits the AATSR measurements made in two different viewing angles (nadir and forward) to eliminate the surface contribution from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Hence an additional surface reflectance model is not needed in the retrieval. AATSR reaches global coverage of about five days, while at the mid-latitudes the return time is about three days. In this study the ADV-algorithm is applied for observing aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Asia, focusing especially on the aerosol contents at the largest cities, and the impact of these cities on the air quality at the surrounding areas. Two years of AATSR data (Jan 2008- Dec. 2009) has been retrieved and validated against the collocated groundbased AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements. Good agreement with the AERONET measurements was obtained both in clean (AOD below 0.2 at 555 nm wavelength) and polluted (AOD well above 1.0 at 555 nm wavelength) cases. Results also showed that the AOD was dominated by the anthropogenic submicron particles.

  2. Determination of land surface reflectance using the AATSR dual-view capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, L.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Rodriguez, E.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a method is presented to retrieve the surface reflectance using the radiances measured at the top of the atmosphere for the two views provided by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). In the first step, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) is obtained using the AATSR dual-view algorithm (ADV) by eliminating the effect of the surface on the measured radiances. Hence the AOD is independent of surface properties and can thus be used in the second step to provide the aerosol part of the atmospheric correction which is needed for the surface reflectance retrieval. The method is applied to provide monthly maps of both AOD and surface reflectance at two wavelengths (555 and 659 nm) for the whole year of 2007. The results are validated versus surface reflectance provided by the AERONET-based Surface Reflectance Validation Network (ASRVN). Correlation coefficients are 0.8 and 0.9 for 555 and 659 nm, respectively. The standard deviation is 0.001 for both wavelengths and the absolute error is less than 0.02. Pixel-by-pixel comparison with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) monthly averaged surface reflectances show a good correlation (0.91 and 0.89 for 555 and 659 nm, respectively) with somewhat higher values (up to 0.05) obtained by ADV over bright surfaces. The difference between the ADV- and MODIS-retrieved surface reflectances is smaller than ±0.025 for 68.3% of the collocated pixels at 555 nm and 79.9% of the collocated pixels at 659 nm. An application of the results over Australia illustrates the variation in the surface reflectances for different land cover types. The validation and comparison results suggest that the algorithm can be successfully used for both the AATSR and ATSR-2 (which has characteristics similar to AATSR) missions, which together cover a 17-year period of measurements (1995-2012), as well as a prototype for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) planned to be launched in the fall of 2015

  3. Determination of land surface reflectance using the AATSR dual-view capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, L.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Rodriguez, E.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a method is presented to retrieve the surface reflectance using reflectance measured at the top of the atmosphere for the two views provided by the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). In the first step, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) is obtained using the AATSR dual view algorithm (ADV) by eliminating the effect of the surface on the measured radiances. Hence the AOD is independent of surface properties and can thus be used in the second step to provide the aerosol part of the atmospheric correction which is needed for the surface reflectance retrieval. The method is applied to provide monthly maps of both AOD and surface reflectance at two wavelengths (555 and 659 nm) for the whole year of 2007. The results are validated vs. surface reflectance provided by the AERONET-based Surface Reflectance Validation Network (ASRVN). Correlation coefficients are 0.8 and 0.9 for 555 and 659 nm, respectively. The standard deviation is 0.001 for both wavelengths and the absolute error is less than 0.02. Pixel-by-pixel comparison with MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) monthly averaged surface reflectances show a good correlation (0.91 and 0.89 for 555 and 659 nm, respectively) with some (up to 0.05) overestimation by ADV over bright surfaces. The difference between the ADV and MODIS retrieved surface reflectance is smaller than ±0.025 for 68.3% of the collocated pixels at 555 nm and 79.9% of the collocated pixels at 659 nm. An application of the results over Australia illustrates the variation of the surface reflectances for different land cover types. The validation and comparison results suggest that the algorithm can be successfully used for the both AATSR and ATSR-2 (which has characteristics similar to AATSR) missions, which together cover 17 years period of measurements (1995-2012), as well as a prototype for The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) to be launched in 2015 onboard the Sentinel-3 satellite.

  4. SLSTR/AATSR Viewing Geometry Simulated with MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-12-01

    The AATSR Dual View (ADV) aerosol retrieval algorithm is based on the stereo-viewing capability of AATSR. In our approach the radiances measured in nadir and forward views are used to eliminate the surface reflectance contribution from the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, allowing us to retrieve the aerosol contribution without any prior knowledge of the surface properties. We are preparing to use the dual-view algorithm for aerosol retrieval with the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) nadir and backward view data. In this paper we consider the effects the changing viewing geometry may have on the aerosol retrieval.

  5. Aerosol and cloud retrieval using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Virtanen, Timo; Saponaro, Giulia; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols and clouds play an important role in terrestrial atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, chemistry, and radiative transfer and are key elements of the water and energy cycles. Accurate evaluation of the effects of aerosols and clouds on climate requires global information on aerosol properties. Such global information can only be provided using satellite remote sensing. Among the satellite instruments used for aerosol and cloud retrieval is the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the European Space Agency (ESA) satellite ENVISAT. Many instruments and retrieval techniques have been developed and applied to satellite data to derive cloud data products (Kokhanonsky et al., 2009). However, many problems still remain to be solved. They are mostly related to the usage of homogeneous, single-layered cloud model. Further issues exist for studies of thin clouds, where both cloud inhomogeniety, cloud fraction and the underlying surface bi-directional reflectance must be accounted for in the retrieval process. The aerosol retrieval algorithm (dual-view over land and single-view over ocean) was constructed for ATSR-2 data (e.g. Veefkind et al. 1998). The most recent version of ADV (AATSR Dual View) is described in Kolmenen et al. (2012). The ATSR dual-view allows retrieval without prior information about land surface reflectance. A semi-analytical cloud retrieval algorithm using backscattered radiation in 0.4-2.4 μm spectral region has recently been implemented to ADV for the determination of the optical thickness, the liquid water path, and the effective size of droplets from spectral measurements of the intensity of light reflected from water clouds with large optical thickness. In AacDV (AATSR aerosol and cloud Dual View) aerosol and cloud retrievals are combined. Cloud retrieval starts when cloud tests for aerosol retrieval show the presence of clouds. The algorithm was early introduced in Kokhanovsky et al. (2003). It works well for thick

  6. Aerosol-cloud interaction using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Virtanen, Timo H.; Saponaro, Giulia; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and clouds play an important role in terrestrial atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, chemistry, and radiative transfer and are key elements of the water and energy cycles. The interactions between aerosol particles and cloud drops is critical to identifying how much they reflect solar radiation. Accurate evaluation of the effects of aerosols and clouds on climate requires global information on aerosol properties. Such global information can only be provided using satellite remote sensing. Among the satellite instruments used for aerosol and cloud retrieval is the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the European Space Agency (ESA) satellite ENVISAT. Many instruments and retrieval techniques have been developed and applied to satellite data to derive cloud data products (Kokhanonsky et al., 2009). However, many problems still remain to be solved. They are mostly related to the usage of homogeneous, single-layered cloud model. Further issues exist for studies of thin clouds, where both cloud inhomogeniety, cloud fraction and the underlying surface bi-directional reflectance must be accounted for in the retrieval process. The aerosol retrieval algorithm (dual-view over land and single-view over ocean) was constructed for ATSR-2 data (e.g. Veefkind et al. 1998). The most recent version of ADV (AATSR Dual View) is described in Kolmenen et al. (2013). The ATSR dual-view allows retrieval without prior information about land surface reflectance. A semi-analytical cloud retrieval algorithm using backscattered radiation in 0.4-2.4 μm spectral region has been implemented to ADV for the determination of the optical thickness, the liquid water path, and the effective size of droplets from spectral measurements of the intensity of light reflected from water clouds with large optical thickness. In AacDV (AATSR aerosol and cloud Dual View) aerosol and cloud retrievals are combined. Cloud retrieval starts when cloud tests for aerosol retrieval show

  7. Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the height estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top height estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.

  8. AATSR Based Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's nadir and 55◦ forward views, and thus the corresponding height. AATSR provides an advantage compared to other stereo-view satellite instruments: with AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 μm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. Besides ash plumes, the algorithm can be applied to any elevated feature with sufficient contrast to the background, such as smoke and dust plumes and clouds. The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015.

  9. Directional Effects on Land Surface Temperatures Observed from Dual-View Data of the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Joan M.; Coll, Cesar; Niclos, Raquel; Valor, Enric; Sanchez, Juan Manuel

    2016-08-01

    The thermal radiance emitted by heterogeneous, non- isothermal land surfaces depends on the observation and illumination angles and their individual temperatures and emissivities. Therefore, the analysis of the angular variations in equivalent brightness temperature can be used to infer the thermal state of the sample components. The dual-view capability of the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) can be used to estimate the difference in brightness surface temperature (BST) between the near-simultaneous nadir and forward views in the 11 and 12μm bands. We developed a methodology to obtain the BSTs for the 11 and 12μm bands at nadir and forward views using an accurate single-channel atmospheric correction method on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The methodology was applied to two AATSR scenes over central-east Spain, on August 6, 2005 (daytime and night- time). The average value of the angular BST difference was 3.2K for daytime and 0.8K for night-time in the 11μmband, being similar for the 12μm band.

  10. Validation of the AATSR L2 GSST product with in situ measurements from the M-AERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, E.; Minnett, P.; Remedios, J.; Mannerings, B.; Corlett, G.; Edwards, M.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.

    Precise, in situ, measurements of skin Sea Surface Temperature (SSST) have been obtained over the Eastern Caribbean Sea, using the Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed onboard the Explorer of the Seas cruise ship. These measurements provide a near-continuous SSST dataset and have been used to validate the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) Level 2 operational dual-view Gridded Sea Surface Temperature (GSST) product over the area. The (A)ATSR instrument has a unique design in that it has both a nadir- and forward-view, allowing the Earth's surface to be viewed along two different atmospheric path lengths and enabling an improved atmospheric correction to be made when retrieving measurements of SST. The infrared radiometer also uses an innovative and exceptionally stable on-board calibration system, which, together with actively cooled detectors, gives exceptionally high radiometric sensitivity and precision, enabling SSTs to be retrieved to within ± 0.3 K (1-sigma limit). The unprecedented number of measurements provided by the M-AERI project enables us to validate the AATSR SST products on a scale that has not been possible with its two predecessors, ATSR-1 and ATSR-2. Validation results obtained between September 2002 and September 2003 are presented and indicate that, although the AATSR appears to measure slightly warm (circa + 0.14 K), the GSST product is accurate to within 0.28-0.41 K (Root Mean Square difference) in this geographical region, depending on the validation criteria used. We also present the results of further investigations into a number of validation points that do not fall within the target ± 0.3 K accuracy zone.

  11. Remote sensing of aerosols over snow using infrared AATSR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, L. G.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Schultz, E.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-06-01

    Infrared (IR) retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are challenging because of the low reflectance of aerosol layer at longer wavelengths. In this paper we present a closer analysis of this problem, performed with radiative transfer (RT) simulations for coarse and accumulation mode of four main aerosol components. It shows the strong angular dependence of aerosol IR reflectance at low solar elevations resulting from the significant asymmetry of aerosol phase function at these wavelengths. This results in detectable values of aerosol IR reflectance at certain non-nadir observation angles providing the advantage of multiangle remote sensing instruments for a retrieval of AOT at longer wavelengths. Such retrievals can be of importance e.g. in case of a very strong effect of the surface on the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance in the visible spectral range. In the current work, a new method to retrieve AOT of the coarse and accumulation mode particles over snow has been developed using the measurements of Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the ENVISAT satellite. The algorithm uses AATSR channel at 3.7 μm and utilizes its dual-viewing observation technique, implying the forward view with an observation zenith angle of around 55 degrees and the nadir view. It includes cloud/snow discrimination, extraction of the atmospheric reflectance out of measured brightness temperature (BT) at 3.7 μm, and interpolation of look-up tables (LUTs) for a given aerosol reflectance. The algorithm uses LUTs, separately simulated with RT forward calculations. The resulting AOT at 500 nm is estimated from the value at 3.7 μm using a fixed Angström parameter. The presented method has been validated against ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for 4 high Arctic stations and shows good agreement. A case study has been performed at W-Greenland on 5 July 2008. The day before was characterized by a noticeable dust event. The retrieved AOT maps of

  12. The Fourth (A)ATSR Data Reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Cocevar, Pauline; Done, Fay; Aatsr Quality Working Group

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to inform users of the upcoming Fourth Reprocessing of ATSR-1, ATSR-2 and AATSR data. The main objective of the Fourth Reprocessing is to generate (A)ATSR Level 1B data products in a similar format to SLSTR products from Sentinel-3. In this way, users can easily access the 20-year dataset from the ERS and ENVISAT (A)ATSR missions and carry the analysis forward into the Sentinel era. In addition to the product format change, the dataset will build on the improvements implemented in the Third Reprocessing, and will contain further improvements and enhancements, as described below.

  13. Ash plume top height estimation using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-08-01

    An algorithm is presented for the estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard Envisat. The algorithm is based on matching top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared to other satellite observations and in situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic and can be implemented in operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows efficient simultaneous retrieval of the horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented.

  14. Ash plume top height estimate using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, T. H.; Kolmonen, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-04-01

    An algorithm is presented for estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard ENVISAT. The algorithm is based on matching the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared against other satellite observations and in-situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic, and can be implemented into operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 μm and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash efficiently. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented. The height estimate method results are validated against available satellite and ground based data.

  15. Comparisons of IASI-A and AATSR measurements of top-of-atmosphere radiance over an extended period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Manik; Mittaz, Jonathan P.; Maturi, Eileen; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the trustworthiness of the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI-A), as on-orbit reference instruments that are useful in re-calibrating the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series (Mittaz and Harris, 2011). To do this, a 39-month period (1 January 2008 to 31 March 2011) of AATSR and IASI-A inter-comparisons of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements is examined. Our inter-comparison reveals features of the AATSR and IASI-A bias with respect to scan angle, scene temperature, time and orbital maneuvers, and gives insight into their trustworthiness as an in-orbit reference instruments. The first feature that our study reveals is that the AATSR (nadir view) and IASI-A are both stable (have no perceptible trends in the period of study). The second feature is that IASI-A is perhaps more accurate ( ˜ 0.05 K) than its stated accuracy (0.5 K). In fact the AATSR and IASI-A bias is close to the AATSR pre-launch bias (plus a small offset of +0.07 K) implying that IASI-A can get close to pre-launch levels of accuracy. Third, a very small scan angular dependence of AATSR and IASI-A bias indicates that the IASI-A response vs. scan angle algorithm is robust, while the instrument is in orbit. Inter-comparisons of AATSR with IASI-A further reveal the impact of orbital maneuvers of the ENVISAT, the platform carrying AATSR, done in October 2011 and not anticipated previously. Our study reveals that this maneuver introduced a temperature-dependent bias in the AATSR measurements for low temperatures (< 240 K) in the period following this maneuver (Cocevar et al., 2011). Our study also shows that the known AATSR 12 µm channel offset is in fact temperature dependent, grows up to 0.4 K, varies seasonally and is correlated with instrument temperature and cannot be corrected by shifting the spectral response function (SRF) of AATSR. We also present a set of recommendations to

  16. The WATERMED field experiment: validation of the AATSR LST product with in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, E.; Soria, G.; Sobrino, J.; Remedios, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G.

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ESA's Envisat Satellite, is the third in a series of a precision radiometers designed to measure Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with accuracies of better than ± 0.3 K (within 1-sigma limit). Since its launch in March 2001, a prototype AATSR Land Surface Temperature (LST) product has been produced for validation purposes only, with the product becoming operational from mid-2004. The (A)ATSR instrument design is unique in that it has both a nadir- and a forward-view, allowing the Earth's surface to be viewed along two different atmospheric path lengths, thus enabling an improved atmospheric correction to be made when retrieving surface temperature. It also uses an innovative and exceptionally stable on-board calibration system for its infrared channels, which, together with actively cooled detectors, gives extremely high radiometric sensitivity and precision. In this presentation, results from a comparison of the prototype LST product with ground-based measurements obtained at the WATERMED (WATer use Efficiency in natural vegetation and agricultural areas by Remote sensing in the MEDiterranean basin) field site near Marrakech, Morocco, are presented. The comparison shows that the AATSR has a positive bias of + 1.5 K, with a standard deviation of 0.7 K, indicating that the product is operating within the target specification (± 2.5 K) over the WATERMED field site. However, several anomalous validation points were observed during the analysis and we will discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of these data, including their coincidence with the presence of an Envisat blanking pulse (indicating the presence of a radar pulse at the time of AATSR pixel integration). Further investigation into this matter is required as previous investigations have always indicated that the presence of a payload radar pulse does not have any effect on (A)ATSR data quality.

  17. Technical note: Intercomparison of three AATSR Level 2 (L2) AOD products over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yahui; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Guang, Jie; She, Lu; Guo, Jianping; Hu, Yincui; Xu, Hui; He, Xingwei; Di, Aojie; Fan, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    One of four main focus areas of the PEEX initiative is to establish and sustain long-term, continuous, and comprehensive ground-based, airborne, and seaborne observation infrastructure together with satellite data. The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard ENVISAT is used to observe the Earth in dual view. The AATSR data can be used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) over both land and ocean, which is an important parameter in the characterization of aerosol properties. In recent years, aerosol retrieval algorithms have been developed both over land and ocean, taking advantage of the features of dual view, which can help eliminate the contribution of Earth's surface to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. The Aerosol_cci project, as a part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), provides users with three AOD retrieval algorithms for AATSR data, including the Swansea algorithm (SU), the ATSR-2ATSR dual-view aerosol retrieval algorithm (ADV), and the Oxford-RAL Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud algorithm (ORAC). The validation team of the Aerosol-CCI project has validated AOD (both Level 2 and Level 3 products) and AE (Ångström Exponent) (Level 2 product only) against the AERONET data in a round-robin evaluation using the validation tool of the AeroCOM (Aerosol Comparison between Observations and Models) project. For the purpose of evaluating different performances of these three algorithms in calculating AODs over mainland China, we introduce ground-based data from CARSNET (China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network), which was designed for aerosol observations in China. Because China is vast in territory and has great differences in terms of land surfaces, the combination of the AERONET and CARSNET data can validate the L2 AOD products more comprehensively. The validation results show different performances of these products in 2007, 2008, and 2010. The SU algorithm performs very well over sites with different surface conditions in mainland China

  18. 35. VIEW OF DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHER IN THE GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHER IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Dual-band dual field-of-view TVWS prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, A.; Jerominek, H.; Doucet, M.; Lagacé, F.; Desnoyers, N.; Bernier, S.; Mercier, L.; Boucher, M.-A.; Jacob, M.; Alain, C.; Pope, T. D.; Laou, P.

    2006-05-01

    A dual band thermal/visible weapon sight (TVWS) prototype was developed by INO in collaboration with DRDC Valcartier. The TVWS operates in the 8-12 μm infrared (IR) and 300-900 nm visible wavebands for enhanced vision capabilities in day and night operations. It is equipped with lightweight athermalized coaxial catadioptric objectives, a bolometric IR imager operating in a microscan mode providing an effective resolution of 320 x 240 pixels and a visible image intensifier of 768 x 493 pixels. The TVWS is equipped with a miniature shutter for automatic offset calibration. Real-time imaging at 30 fps is available. Both the visible and IR images can be toggled with a single touch button and displayed on an integrated color micro liquid crystal display (LCD). The TVWS also has a standard video output via a coaxial connector. An integrated wireless analog RF link can be used to send images to a remote command control. The sight has an adjustable electronic crosshair and two manual focuses from 25 m to infinity. On-board processing capabilities were added to introduce specific functionalities such as image polarity inversion (black hot/white hot) and image enhancement. This TVWS model is also very lightweight (~ 1900 grams) and compact (volume of 142 cubic inches). It offers human size target detection at 800 m and recognition at 200 m (Johnson criteria) with the IR waveband while offering the human recognition at up to 800 m with the visible waveband. The TVWS is adapted for weaver or Picatinny rail mounting.

  20. Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption over Ocean using AATSR/MERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipitsch, Florian; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols have a significant influence on the earth climate but are still one of the least understood variables in the earth radiation budget. On average aerosol particles scatter solar radiation back to space which leads to an offset in the global warming process to due greenhouse gases. Some types of atmospheric aerosols like black carbon or dessert dust absorb solar radiation and lead to local atmospheric warming. Even if this warming effect is overwhelmed by the cooling effect is it necessary to improve our knowledge on the global distribution of absorbing aerosols if we want to understand and predict local climate variations. Within the ESA CCI-Aerosol project we developed an innovative retrieval method to quantify aerosol absorption quantified by the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over the ocean in the sun glint contaminated region of a wind roughed sea surface. From satellite measurement commonly retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), which is the vertical integrated aerosol volume extinction, gives no information on the absorbing or scattering quantities of the observed aerosol. To distinct absorption from scattering independent measurements at different viewing geometries are needed. Furthermore the reflection properties of the underlying surface has to be known and therewith distinct absorption from scattering. The dual view sensor Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides such information in regions where either of the two views is sun glint effected the other is not. Hence, the sun glint is used as a lower boundary condition in the presented method an accurate determination of the ocean surface is needed. Therefore we use the 3 thermal channels from to estimate the amount of reflected sunlight to due glint in measured signal at 3.7 micrometer. The determined sun glint at the 3.7 micrometer channel is further used to derive an effective wind speed based on full radiative transfer calculations where optical properties for a wind roughed sea

  1. Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration.

    PubMed

    Katkam, Rajender; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Huang, Chih Yu; Zhu, Xiaoyin; Ocampo, Luis; Kincade, Jerri-Lynn; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a compact dual-view endoscopic probe without field obscuration to address the need of simultaneously observing forward and backward fields of view (FOVs) in the colon. The objective is compact with the forward-view and rear-view optical paths sharing the same optical elements. The compact objective is new in that no FOV is blocked. The illumination for forward-view imaging is provided by the cylindrical light guide and backward illumination is achieved with a reflector. We have designed, prototyped, and tested the endoscope by comparing it to a standard clinical colonoscope. We will discuss the system concept, objective design, fabrication of the freeform lens, and test results.

  2. 40. View of dual projector system located in MWOC facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. View of dual projector system located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102 by Bessler Company. System used to project images in MWOC on backlit screen system with fiber optic electro/mechanical system linked to computer output to indicate information on screen linked with display from projector system. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. Long wavelength infrared dual field-of-view optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tao; Yang, Chang-cheng

    2007-12-01

    For cooled 320×240 staring focal plane array (FPA), a novel long wavelength infrared dual field-of-view optical system is presented in the paper. The optical system is composed of re-imaging part and zooming part. The parameters of the system are 1.96 f/number, 100% cold shield efficiency, 180mm/60mm effective focal length (EFL) and 8-10 μm spectrum region. The optical system is analyzed from two modes of narrow field of view (NFOV) and wide field of view (WFOV). The system can be used in the temperature range from-30°Cand 60°C without significant degradation of optical performance. The final test results prove the designed performance is good..

  4. Dual field-of-view step-zoom metalens.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoxing; Wu, Weibiao; Li, Zile; Zhang, Shuang; Mehmood, Muhammad Qasim; He, Ping'an; Li, Song

    2017-04-01

    A conventional optical zoom system is bulky, expensive, and complicated for real-time adjustment. Recent progress in metasurface research has provided a new solution to achieve innovative compact optical systems. In this Letter, we propose a highly integrated step-zoom lens with dual field of view (FOV) based on double-sided metasurfaces. With silicon nanobrick arrays of spatially varying orientations sitting on both sides of a transparent substrate, this ultrathin step-zoom metalens can be designed to focus an incident circular polarized beam with handedness-dependent FOVs without varying the focal plane, which is important for practical applications. The proposed dual FOV step-zoom metalens, with advantages such as ultracompactness, flexibility, and replicability, can find applications in fields that require ultracompact zoom imaging and beam focusing.

  5. Athermalization for infrared dual field-of-view optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changcheng; Li, Shenghui

    2008-03-01

    With the principle of mechanical passive athermalization, a method of making the dual field-of-view (DFOV) switching zoom system for passive athermalization is presented. The long effective focal length (EFL) and short EFL have the same focus shift values of temperature by optical material combination of switching groups. So the long EFL and short EFL of this system achieve the best temperature compensation simultaneously by moving the compensated lens with the same distance, and the system has the best images and parfocality in a large working temperature. A DFOV switching zoom system is designed. It has a relative aperture of f/4.0, 100% cold shield efficiency, the EFL of 180mm/60mm at 3.7-4.8μm. The movement of compensated lens can be achieved with four layers of aluminum/titanium materials. Compared with the MTF of a normal switching zoom system without athermalization, this system needn't move the compensated lens repeatedly to obtain the best images from -30°C to 70°C and enhances the performance of target tracking and recognition.

  6. A dual-view digital tomosynthesis imaging technique for improved chest imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) has been shown to be useful for reducing the overlapping of abnormalities with anatomical structures at various depth levels along the posterior–anterior (PA) direction in chest radiography. However, DTS provides crude three-dimensional (3D) images that have poor resolution in the lateral view and can only be displayed with reasonable quality in the PA view. Furthermore, the spillover of high-contrast objects from off-fulcrum planes generates artifacts that may impede the diagnostic use of the DTS images. In this paper, the authors describe and demonstrate the use of a dual-view DTS technique to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed volume image data for more accurate rendition of the anatomy and slice images with improved resolution and reduced artifacts, thus allowing the 3D image data to be viewed in views other than the PA view. Methods: With the dual-view DTS technique, limited angle scans are performed and projection images are acquired in two orthogonal views: PA and lateral. The dual-view projection data are used together to reconstruct 3D images using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization iterative algorithm. In this study, projection images were simulated or experimentally acquired over 360° using the scanning geometry for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). While all projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images, selected projections were extracted and used to reconstruct single- and dual-view DTS images for comparison with the CBCT images. For realistic demonstration and comparison, a digital chest phantom derived from clinical CT images was used for the simulation study. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged for the experimental study. The resultant dual-view DTS images were visually compared with the single-view DTS images and CBCT images for the presence of image artifacts and accuracy of CT numbers and anatomy and quantitatively compared with root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) values

  7. Projection-type dual-view three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Chang-Kun; Hong, Keehoon; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2014-09-20

    A dual-view display system provides two different images in different directions. Most of them only present two-dimensional images for observers. In this paper, we propose a projection-type dual-view three-dimensional (3D) display system based on integral imaging. To assign directivities to the images, a projection-type display and dual-view screen with lenticular lenses are implemented. The lenticular lenses split the collimated image from the projection device into two different directions. The separated images are integrated by a single lens array in front of the screen, and full-parallax 3D images are observed in two different viewing regions. The visibility of the reconstructed 3D images can be improved by using high-density lenticular lenses and a high numerical aperture lens array. We explain the principle of the proposed method and verify the feasibility of the proposed system with simulations and experimental results.

  8. Crosstalk-free dual-view liquid crystal display using patterned E-type polarizer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao Ping; Wu, Yishi; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Keyu; Zhang, Zhonglin; Jhun, Chul Gyu

    2017-01-20

    We present a dual-view liquid crystal display that allows two faces of the display to be viewed in opposite directions to show different image/video content simultaneously. This device is characterized by a two-domain twisted nematic liquid crystal and a patterned E-type polarizer. Its key optical performance, including the voltage-luminance curve, crosstalk, and viewing angle, has been investigated. When observed at the best viewing angle, the crosstalk between the right and left views is less than 0.07% for all grayscales. In addition, this type of crosstalk can be immune to the misalignment between the polarizers and the liquid crystal layer. For each right/left view, the range of the viewing angle spans roughly 50°.

  9. Towards a protocol for validating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature: Application to AATSR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Darren; Schneider, Philipp; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieval accuracy can be challenging as a result of emissivity variability and atmospheric effects. Surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land; a problem which is amplified in regions of high topographic variance or for larger viewing angles. Atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. Combined, atmospheric effects and emissivity variability can result in retrieval errors of several degrees. If though these are appropriately handled satellite-derived LST products can be used to improve our ability to monitor and to understand land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. Here we present validation of an improved LST data record from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and illustrate the improvements in accuracy and precision compared with the standard ESA LST product. Validation is a critical part of developing any satellite product, although over the land heterogeneity ensures this is a challenging undertaking. A substantial amount of previous effort has gone into the area of structuring and standardizing calibration and validation approaches within the field of Earth Observation. However, no unified approach for accomplishing this for LST has yet to be practised by the LST community. Recent work has attempted to address this situation with the development of a protocol for validating LST (Schneider et al., 2012) under the auspices of ESA and the support of the wider LST community. We report here on a first application of this protocol to satellite LST data. The approach can briefly be summarised thus: in situ validation is performed where ground-based observations are available - being predominantly homogeneous sites; heterogeneous pixels are validated by way of established radiometric-based techniques (Wan and Li

  10. An Exploration of Elementary Teachers' Views of Informal Reading Inventories in Dual Language Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how elementary teachers (grades three through five) in dual-language, bilingual programs (Spanish/English) view informal reading inventories (IRIs) to support their students' reading growth. The research, conducted in an urban district in the Northeastern United States, draws on interviews with 20 teachers in these programs.…

  11. Bayesian cloud detection for MERIS, AATSR, and their combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, A.; Fischer, J.; Carbajal Henken, C.; Preusker, R.

    2015-04-01

    A broad range of different of Bayesian cloud detection schemes is applied to measurements from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and their combination. The cloud detection schemes were designed to be numerically efficient and suited for the processing of large numbers of data. Results from the classical and naive approach to Bayesian cloud masking are discussed for MERIS and AATSR as well as for their combination. A sensitivity study on the resolution of multidimensional histograms, which were post-processed by Gaussian smoothing, shows how theoretically insufficient numbers of truth data can be used to set up accurate classical Bayesian cloud masks. Sets of exploited features from single and derived channels are numerically optimized and results for naive and classical Bayesian cloud masks are presented. The application of the Bayesian approach is discussed in terms of reproducing existing algorithms, enhancing existing algorithms, increasing the robustness of existing algorithms, and on setting up new classification schemes based on manually classified scenes.

  12. Bayesian cloud detection for MERIS, AATSR, and their combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, A.; Fischer, J.; Carbajal Henken, C.; Preusker, R.

    2014-11-01

    A broad range of different of Bayesian cloud detection schemes is applied to measurements from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and their combination. The cloud masks were designed to be numerically efficient and suited for the processing of large amounts of data. Results from the classical and naive approach to Bayesian cloud masking are discussed for MERIS and AATSR as well as for their combination. A sensitivity study on the resolution of multidimensional histograms, which were post-processed by Gaussian smoothing, shows how theoretically insufficient amounts of truth data can be used to set up accurate classical Bayesian cloud masks. Sets of exploited features from single and derived channels are numerically optimized and results for naive and classical Bayesian cloud masks are presented. The application of the Bayesian approach is discussed in terms of reproducing existing algorithms, enhancing existing algorithms, increasing the robustness of existing algorithms, and on setting up new classification schemes based on manually classified scenes.

  13. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display by using orthogonal polarizer array and polarization switcher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Ji, Chao-Chao; Li, Lei; Deng, Huan

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, a dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional (3D) display consisting of a display panel, two orthogonal polarizer arrays, a polarization switcher, and a micro-lens array is proposed. Two elemental image arrays for two different 3D images are presented by the display panel alternately, and the polarization switcher controls the polarization direction of the light rays synchronously. The two elemental image arrays are modulated by their corresponding and neighboring micro-lenses of the micro-lens array, and reconstruct two different 3D images in viewing zones 1 and 2, respectively. A prototype of the dual-view II 3D display is developed, and it has good performances.

  14. SLSTR: a high accuracy dual scan temperature radiometer for sea and land surface monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppo, P.; Ricciarelli, B.; Brandani, F.; Delderfield, J.; Ferlet, M.; Mutlow, C.; Munro, G.; Nightingale, T.; Smith, D.; Bianchi, S.; Nicol, P.; Kirschstein, S.; Hennig, T.; Engel, W.; Frerick, J.; Nieke, J.

    2010-10-01

    SLSTR is a high accuracy infrared radiometer which will be embarked in the Earth low-orbit Sentinel 3 operational GMES mission. SLSTR is an improved version of the previous AATSR and ATSR-1/2 instruments which have flown respectively on Envisat and ERS-1/2 ESA missions. SLSTR will provide data continuity with respect to these previous missions but with a substantial improvement due to its higher swaths (750 km in dual view and 1400 km in single view) which should permit global coverage of SST and LST measurements (at 1 km of spatial resolution in IR channels) with daily revisit time, useful for climatological and meteorological applications. Two more SWIR channels and a higher spatial resolution in the VIS/SWIR channels (0.5 km) are also implemented for a better clouds/aerosols screening. Two further additional channels for global scale fire monitoring are present at the same time as the other nominal channels.

  15. Aerosol Optical Depth over Africa retrieved from AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriques, Edith

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols produced over the African continent have important consequences for climate. In particular, large amounts of desert dust are produced over the Sahara and transported across the North Atlantic where desert dust deposition influences the eco system by iron fertilization, and further North over Europe with outbreaks as far as Scandinavia. Biomass burning occurs in most of the African continent south of the Sahara and causes a net positive radiating forcing resulting in local warming of the atmosphere layers. These effects have been studied during large field campaigns. Satellites can systematically provide information on aerosols over a large area such as Africa and beyond. To this end, we retrieved the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at three wavelengths (555nm, 670nm, and 1600nm) over Africa from the reflectance measured at the top of the atmosphere by the AATSR (Advances Along Track Scanning Radiometer) flying on ENVISAT, for one year (1 May 2008 to 30 April 2009) to obtain information on the seasonal and spatial behaviour of the AOD, episodes of high AOD events and connect the retrieved AOD with the ground-based aerosol measurements. The AOD retrieval algorithm, which is applied to cloud-free pixels over land, is based on the comparison of the measured and modeled reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The algorithm uses look-up-tables (LUTs) to compute the modeled TOA reflectance. For AOD retrieval, an aerosol in the atmosphere is assumed to be an external mixture of fine and coarse mode particles. The two aerosol types are mixed such that the spectral behavior of the reflectance due to aerosol best fits the measurements. Comparison with AERONET (Aerosol Roboric NETwork), which is a network of ground-based sun photometers which measure atmospheric aerosol properties, shows good agreement but with some overestimation of the AATSR retrieved AOD. Different aerosol models have been used to improve the comparison. The lack of AERONET stations in Africa

  16. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Luo, Cheng-Gao; Li, Da-Hai; Deng, Huan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers (PPBs). The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a microlens array, and two PPBs. The elemental images (EIs) displayed on the left and right half of the display panel are captured from two different 3D scenes, respectively. The lights emitted from two kinds of EIs are modulated by the left and right half of the microlens array to present two different 3D images, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed, and the experimental results agree well with the theory.

  17. Design of stereoscopic viewing system based on a compact mirror and dual monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsien-Huang P.; Chang, Shih-Hsin

    2010-02-01

    Stereoscopic technologies continue to accelerate the adoption of 3-D in both professional and consumer applications. Stereo 3-D displays have the potential to benefit geospatial intelligence, complex visualization, pharmaceutical development, petroleum exploration, medicine, entertainment, architecture, simulation, and other difficult tasks. A single-mirror dual monitor stereoscope system that can offer the full resolution of the current LCD display for 3-D viewing is proposed. This new approach utilizes an isosceles trapezoid mirror and two monitors to provide a cost-effective approach for stereoscopic viewing. Mathematical formulas for the design of the compact mirror were derived based on a novel scheme, and an implementation of the system was conducted to verify the practicability of the proposed method. We believe its compactness, low cost, and high image quality can become a very competitive choice among various display techniques currently available.

  18. Spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging with dual-view plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Wawrzusin, Peter; Senseney, Justin; Fischer, Robert S; Christensen, Ryan; Santella, Anthony; York, Andrew G; Winter, Peter W; Waterman, Clare M; Bao, Zhirong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; McAuliffe, Matthew; Shroff, Hari

    2014-01-01

    Optimal four-dimensional imaging requires high spatial resolution in all dimensions, high speed and minimal photobleaching and damage. We developed a dual-view, plane illumination microscope with improved spatiotemporal resolution by switching illumination and detection between two perpendicular objectives in an alternating duty cycle. Computationally fusing the resulting volumetric views provides an isotropic resolution of 330 nm. As the sample is stationary and only two views are required, we achieve an imaging speed of 200 images/s (i.e., 0.5 s for a 50-plane volume). Unlike spinning-disk confocal or Bessel beam methods, which illuminate the sample outside the focal plane, we maintain high spatiotemporal resolution over hundreds of volumes with negligible photobleaching. To illustrate the ability of our method to study biological systems that require high-speed volumetric visualization and/or low photobleaching, we describe microtubule tracking in live cells, nuclear imaging over 14 h during nematode embryogenesis and imaging of neural wiring during Caenorhabditis elegans brain development over 5 h. PMID:24108093

  19. Design of a mid-wavelength infrared dual field of view zoom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jing; Li, Gang; Jiang, Kai; Liu, Kai; Yan, Peipei; Shan, Qiusha

    2016-10-01

    In order to effectively improve the target detection and recognition ability of IR imagers, based on a 320×256 cooled staring focal plane array(FPA) detector, pixel size 30μm×30μm, a mid-wavelength infrared dual field of view zoom system was designed. In this paper, the working wavelength is 3μm~5μm, the temperature range is -40°C +50°C, this system can realize 200mm and 400mm dual focal length, the F-number is 2, the full field of view of short focal length is 3.44° and long focal length is 1.72° respectively, satisfy 100% cold shield efficiency. A re-imaging refractive system was adopted in this designed optical system consists of main optics and projection components. First of all, the structural selection and the initial parameter calculation were introduced in detail. Secondly, on the basis of variety of the distance and temperature, a focusing lens was presented in this system to adjust to produce a clear image. Last but not the least, to improve image quality and environment adaptability, the analysis of temperature change and narcissus effect were described particularly. The design results prove that at the spatial frequency of 17 lp/mm, the MTF of the optical system is greater than 0.5(the axis MTF of the optical is greater than 0.6), the system can offer a high resolution and excellent images in whole range of the focal length, and it has the advantages of good adaptability, compact structure, high optical transmission and small size.

  20. Simple approach for 2D-DIC with dual field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, L. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    A simple and cost-effective optical layout based on the dual field of view for the 2D digital image correlation (DIC) method is used to simultaneously measure in-plane displacement fields of large and small portions of a specimen. This optical configuration was composed of two high-resolution cameras with two different lenses and a beam splitter. The surface of a specimen was acquired simultaneously using both cameras with narrow and wide fields of view. One of the two cameras was placed directly in front of a specimen, whereas the other camera acquired the image of the same specimen reflected from the beam splitter. All stored images were appropriately processed using a digital image correlation algorithm to extract displacement and strain fields. To show the applicability and usefulness of this configuration, two tests were performed: (i) lower and upper adherends deflections of an adhesive-bonded single lap joint specimen were obtained, and shear strain in the adhesive layer at the edge of the overlap was also attained; and (ii) relatively large displacements of a cracked cantilever beam were evaluated, and maps of small deformation near crack tip were assessed. The results were obtained considering different speckle patterns and distinct subset sizes.

  1. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Henken, C. K.; Lindstrot, R.; Preusker, R.; Fischer, J.

    2014-05-01

    A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud) is presented. Synergistic observations from AATSR and MERIS, both mounted on the polar orbiting satellite ENVISAT, are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a micro-physical cloud property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two independent cloud top height products are retrieved. For cloud top temperature AATSR brightness temperatures are used, while for cloud top pressure the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel is used. Results from the micro-physical retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method with uncertainty estimates, which also provides for uncertainty estimated of the retrieved property on a pixel-basis, is presented. Within the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative project first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007-2009. For this time period verification efforts are presented comparing FAME-C cloud micro-physical properties to MODIS-TERRA derived cloud micro-physical properties for four selected regions on the globe. The results show reasonable accuracies between the cloud micro-physical retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds; -0.28, 0.41μm and -0.18 g m-2 for cloud optical thickness, effective radius and cloud water path, respectively. This is also true for the root mean square error. Also, both cloud top height products are compared to cloud top heights derived from ground-based cloud radars located at several ARM sites. FAME-C mostly shows an underestimation of cloud top heights when compared to

  2. Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Chandris, Panagiotis; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; McAuliffe, Matthew; Rondeau, Gary; Shroff, Hari

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a compact dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscope (diSPIM) for time-lapse volumetric (4D) imaging of living samples at subcellular resolution. Our protocol enables a biologist with some prior microscopy experience to assemble a diSPIM from commercially available parts, to align optics and test system performance, to prepare samples, and to control hardware and data processing with our software. Unlike existing light sheet microscopy protocols, our method does not require the sample to be embedded in agarose; instead, samples are prepared conventionally on glass coverslips. Tissue culture cells and Caenorhabditis elegans embryos are used as examples in this protocol; successful implementation of the protocol results in isotropic resolution and acquisition speeds up to several volumes per s on these samples. Assembling and verifying diSPIM performance takes ~6 d, sample preparation and data acquisition take up to 5 d and postprocessing takes 3–8 h, depending on the size of the data. PMID:25299154

  3. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Henken, C. K.; Lindstrot, R.; Preusker, R.; Fischer, J.

    2014-11-01

    A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm, FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud), is presented. Synergistic observations from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), both mounted on the polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (Envisat), are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two cloud top height products are retrieved based on independent techniques. For cloud top temperature, measurements in the AATSR infrared channels are used, while for cloud top pressure, measurements in the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel are used. Results from the cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced here are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method, which provides uncertainty estimates of the retrieved property on a pixel basis, is presented. Within the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project, the first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007-2009. For this time period, verification efforts are presented, comparing, for four selected regions around the globe, FAME-C cloud optical and microphysical properties to cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from measurements of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite. The results show a reasonable agreement between the cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds: -0.28, 0.41 μm and -0.18 g m-2 for

  4. The retrieval of cloud-top pressure of multilayer clouds using combined measurements of MERIS and AATSR onboard ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrot, R.; Preusker, R.; Fischer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) within the oxygen A band at 762nm are operationally used for the retrieval of cloud-top pressure. A validation with airborne LIDAR measurements revealed a high accuracy (~25hPa) of the cloud-top pressure product in case of low, single-layer clouds. However, problems arise in presence of multilayered clouds, as the single channel within the oxygen A band does not allow the identification of multiple cloud layers. The retrieved cloud height thus represents the effective single layer height, located in-between the true cloud layers. This problem can be resolved by combining MERIS observations with measurements in the thermal infrared spectral range. Since clouds are strongly absorbing at infrared wavelengths, the cloud-top temperature of even optically thin clouds can be determined and related to cloud-top pressure using the respective temperature profile. The Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ENVISAT provides radiance measurements in the thermal infrared region that can easily be combined with MERIS observations, as both are nadir viewing, imaging instruments with a similar spatial resolution of ~1km. The synergetic measurements can be used for the retrieval of the height of two cloud layers in case the upper layer is optically thin (? ? 5). The retrieval algorithm is based on the Optimal Estimation technique using radiative transfer simulations of the Matrix Operator Model (MOMO).

  5. Developing first time-series of land surface temperature from AATSR with uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Earth Observation satellites provide the opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST approximately every 3 days or less. One such source of satellite retrieved LST has been the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR); with LST retrieval being implemented in the AATSR Instrument Processing Facility in March 2004. Here we present first regional and global time-series of LST data from AATSR with estimates of uncertainty. Mean changes in temperature over the last decade will be discussed along with regional patterns. Although time-series across all three ATSR missions have previously been constructed (Kogler et al., 2012), the use of low resolution auxiliary data in the retrieval algorithm and non-optimal cloud masking resulted in time-series artefacts. As such, considerable ESA supported development has been carried out on the AATSR data to address these concerns. This includes the integration of high resolution auxiliary data into the retrieval algorithm and subsequent generation of coefficients and tuning parameters, plus the development of an improved cloud mask based on the simulation of clear sky conditions from radiance transfer modelling (Ghent et al., in prep.). Any inference on this LST record is though of limited value without the accompaniment of an uncertainty estimate; wherein the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology quote an uncertainty as "a parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand that is the value of the particular quantity to be measured". Furthermore, pixel level uncertainty fields are a mandatory requirement in the on-going preparation of the LST product for the upcoming Sea and Land Surface Temperature (SLSTR) instrument on-board Sentinel-3

  6. Dual-view microscopy with a single camera: real-time imaging of molecular orientations and calcium

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    A new microscope technique, termed "W" (double view video) microscopy, enables simultaneous observation of two different images of an object through a single video camera or by eye. The image pair may, for example, be transmission and fluorescence, fluorescence at different wavelengths, or mutually perpendicular components of polarized fluorescence. Any video microscope can be converted into a dual imager by simple insertion of a small optical device. The continuous appearance of the dual image assures the best time resolution in existing and future video microscopes. As an application, orientations of actin protomers in individual, moving actin filaments have been imaged at the video rate. Asymmetric calcium influxes into a cell exposed to an intense electric pulse have also been visualized. PMID:1918140

  7. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  8. Ensembles of satellite aerosol retrievals based on three AATSR algorithms within aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmale, Miriam; Popp, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Ensemble techniques are widely used in the modelling community, combining different modelling results in order to reduce uncertainties. This approach could be also adapted to satellite measurements. Aerosol_cci is an ESA funded project, where most of the European aerosol retrieval groups work together. The different algorithms are homogenized as far as it makes sense, but remain essentially different. Datasets are compared with ground based measurements and between each other. Three AATSR algorithms (Swansea university aerosol retrieval, ADV aerosol retrieval by FMI and Oxford aerosol retrieval ORAC) provide within this project 17 year global aerosol records. Each of these algorithms provides also uncertainty information on pixel level. Within the presented work, an ensembles of the three AATSR algorithms is performed. The advantage over each single algorithm is the higher spatial coverage due to more measurement pixels per gridbox. A validation to ground based AERONET measurements shows still a good correlation of the ensemble, compared to the single algorithms. Annual mean maps show the global aerosol distribution, based on a combination of the three aerosol algorithms. In addition, pixel level uncertainties of each algorithm are used for weighting the contributions, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the ensemble. Results of different versions of the ensembles for aerosol optical depth will be presented and discussed. The results are validated against ground based AERONET measurements. A higher spatial coverage on daily basis allows better results in annual mean maps. The benefit of using pixel level uncertainties is analysed.

  9. Design of optoelectronic imaging system with high resolution and large field-of-view based on dual CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hanglin; Hao, Qun; Hu, Yao; Cao, Jie; Wang, Shaopu; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    With the advantages of high resolution, large field of view and compacted size, optoelectronic imaging sensors are widely used in many fields, such as robot's navigation, industrial measurement and remote sensing. Many researchers pay more attention to improve the comprehensive performances of imaging sensors, including large field of view (FOV), high resolution, compact size and high imaging efficiency, etc. One challenge is the tradeoff between high resolution and large field of view simultaneously considering compacted size. In this paper, we propose an optoelectronic imaging system combining the lenses of short focal length and long focal length based on dual CMOS to simulate the characters of human eyes which observe object within large FOV in high resolution. We design and optimize the two lens, the lens of short focal length is used to search object in a wide field and the long one is responsible for high resolution imaging of the target area. Based on a micro-CMOS imaging sensor with low voltage differential transmission technology-MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface), we design the corresponding circuits to realize collecting optical information with high speed. The advantage of the interface is to help decreasing power consumption, improving transmission efficiency and achieving compacted size of imaging sensor. Meanwhile, we carried out simulations and experiments to testify the optoelectronic imaging system. The results show that the proposed method is helpful to improve the comprehensive performances of optoelectronic imaging sensors.

  10. Land Surface Temperature estimation using ENVISAT AATSR Data -A study over tropical deciduous forest region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvs, Badarinath

    Seasonal vegetation characteristics and other related phenological parameters can be better studies by Combined analysis of reflective and thermal data recorded by coarse resolution and high repetitive satellites. ENVISAT Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) data for different seasons from January 04 to April 04 has been analyzed to derive the Normal-ized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Surface Temperature (ST) images for the forest regions of Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (NSTR), India. Temporal variation of NDVI and ST reflected the phenology of the forest area. A negative relationship was observed be-tween the NDVI and ST over all the vegetation types and the proportion of vegetation cover seemed to has bearing on the ST. Scatter plots for NDVI and ST drawn for winter season showed a good separability of land use/land cover types of the study area. AATSR operates in channels with band centers at 0.555, 0.659, 0.858,1.61,3.70,10.85 and 12m. NDVI estimated from AATSR has been taken as a parameter for estimating surface emissivity and algorithm based on nadir and forward scans of brightness temperature in 12m has been used for esti-mating surface temperature. The surface temperature(ST) showed an inverse relation with a maximum for less vegetated areas and minimum from high vegetated areas. NDVI and surface temperature are inversely related and different land use / land cover categories can be segre-gated depending on the date of satellite pass in the TS vs. NDVI relation. Combination of spectral vegetation indices and thermal infrared measurements forms a useful tool in studying the land-atmospheric interactions. The proportion of vegetation cover at pixel level plays an important role in observing surface temperature variations over forest regions. The relation between NDVI and ST depends on vegetation phenology and thus on the availability of mois-ture in forest regions. The study area comprises mostly of deciduous type of forest

  11. Dual energy CT with one full scan and a second sparse-view scan using structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei

    2016-09-21

    Conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstruction requires two full-size projection datasets with two different energy spectra. In this study, we propose an iterative algorithm to enable a new data acquisition scheme which requires one full scan and a second sparse-view scan for potential reduction in imaging dose and engineering cost of DECT. A bilateral filter is calculated as a similarity matrix from the first full-scan CT image to quantify the similarity between any two pixels, which is assumed unchanged on a second CT image since DECT scans are performed on the same object. The second CT image from reduced projections is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which updates the image by minimizing the total variation of the difference between the image and its filtered image by the similarity matrix under data fidelity constraint. As the redundant structural information of the two CT images is contained in the similarity matrix for CT reconstruction, we refer to the algorithm as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR). The proposed method is evaluated on both digital and physical phantoms, and is compared with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) method, the conventional total-variation-regularization-based algorithm (TVR) and prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing (PICCS). SPIR with a second 10-view scan reduces the image noise STD by a factor of one order of magnitude with same spatial resolution as full-view FBP image. SPIR substantially improves over TVR on the reconstruction accuracy of a 10-view scan by decreasing the reconstruction error from 6.18% to 1.33%, and outperforms TVR at 50 and 20-view scans on spatial resolution with a higher frequency at the modulation transfer function value of 10% by an average factor of 4. Compared with the 20-view scan PICCS result, the SPIR image has 7 times lower noise STD with similar spatial resolution. The electron density map obtained from the SPIR-based DECT images with a second 10-view scan has an

  12. Dual energy CT with one full scan and a second sparse-view scan using structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstruction requires two full-size projection datasets with two different energy spectra. In this study, we propose an iterative algorithm to enable a new data acquisition scheme which requires one full scan and a second sparse-view scan for potential reduction in imaging dose and engineering cost of DECT. A bilateral filter is calculated as a similarity matrix from the first full-scan CT image to quantify the similarity between any two pixels, which is assumed unchanged on a second CT image since DECT scans are performed on the same object. The second CT image from reduced projections is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which updates the image by minimizing the total variation of the difference between the image and its filtered image by the similarity matrix under data fidelity constraint. As the redundant structural information of the two CT images is contained in the similarity matrix for CT reconstruction, we refer to the algorithm as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR). The proposed method is evaluated on both digital and physical phantoms, and is compared with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) method, the conventional total-variation-regularization-based algorithm (TVR) and prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing (PICCS). SPIR with a second 10-view scan reduces the image noise STD by a factor of one order of magnitude with same spatial resolution as full-view FBP image. SPIR substantially improves over TVR on the reconstruction accuracy of a 10-view scan by decreasing the reconstruction error from 6.18% to 1.33%, and outperforms TVR at 50 and 20-view scans on spatial resolution with a higher frequency at the modulation transfer function value of 10% by an average factor of 4. Compared with the 20-view scan PICCS result, the SPIR image has 7 times lower noise STD with similar spatial resolution. The electron density map obtained from the SPIR-based DECT images with a second 10-view scan has an

  13. Cortical thickness estimation of the proximal femur from multi-view dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaousis, N.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.; Poole, K. E. S.

    2013-02-01

    Hip fracture is the leading cause of acute orthopaedic hospital admission amongst the elderly, with around a third of patients not surviving one year post-fracture. Although various preventative therapies are available, patient selection is difficult. The current state-of-the-art risk assessment tool (FRAX) ignores focal structural defects, such as cortical bone thinning, a critical component in characterizing hip fragility. Cortical thickness can be measured using CT, but this is expensive and involves a significant radiation dose. Instead, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the preferred imaging modality for assessing hip fracture risk and is used routinely in clinical practice. Our ambition is to develop a tool to measure cortical thickness using multi-view DXA instead of CT. In this initial study, we work with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) derived from CT data as a surrogate for DXA scans: this enables us to compare directly the thickness estimates with the gold standard CT results. Our approach involves a model-based femoral shape reconstruction followed by a data-driven algorithm to extract numerous cortical thickness point estimates. In a series of experiments on the shaft and trochanteric regions of 48 proximal femurs, we validated our algorithm and established its performance limits using 20 views in the range 0°-171°: estimation errors were 0:19 +/- 0:53mm (mean +/- one standard deviation). In a more clinically viable protocol using four views in the range 0°-51°, where no other bony structures obstruct the projection of the femur, measurement errors were -0:07 +/- 0:79 mm.

  14. Driver/passenger discrimination for the interaction with the dual-view touch screen integrated to the automobile centre console

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to further develop and evaluate the optical recognition systems for distinguishing between driver and frontseat passenger during their interactions with dual-view touch screen integrated to the automobile centre console, this work focuses on the enhancement of both image processing algorithms and experimental environment. In addition to the motion based forearm and hand segmentation and the texture based arm direction analysis, the adaptive boosting classifiers with Haar-like features have been engaged for the learning of driver's and passenger's hand patterns. The user discrimination system was completely reproduced in a laboratory, including passenger compartment with genuine dashboard, touch screen, camera and near-infrared lamps, so that different illumination conditions could be modeled. The new acquisition system allows automatic and unambiguous registration of all touch screen interactions and their synchronization with the video stream. This results in credible evaluation of the image processing routines. The adjustment of the camera position and the active infrared illumination made it possible to reduce the recognition error rates and to achieve superior discrimination performance compared to previous works.

  15. Bridging the Gap Between AATSR and SLTR Observations Using AVHRR and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamalis, Christoforos; Saunders, Roger

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to find a candidate instrument that can bridge the gap between AATSR and SLSTR climate quality IR observations. Due to restrictions relating to the orbit of ENVISAT and Sentinel-3 only MODIS on TERRA and AVHRR on MetOp-A could potentially provide observations for a period that will overlap significantly with SLSTR. Here, the use of AVHRR is explored due to its collocation on the same platform with IASI, which is the reference instrument for calibration studies in the infrared spectrum. Previous studies have examined the calibration accuracy of the two longwave AVHRR channels using IASI, and so this study focuses mainly on the possible temporal trends, including the SWIR channel at 3.7?. There is a spatial correlation of the IASI-AVHRR differences with the water vapour geographical distribution, while the high noise of the shortwave IASI channels makes the comparison at low temperatures (i.e. at high latitudes) problematic. Temporal trends are found in the differences between IASI and AVHRR channels being less or equal to 10 mK/yr.

  16. Retrieval of aerosol absorption properties using the AATSR satellite instrument: a case study of wildfires over Russia 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, E.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2014-09-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from satellite data is based on the optimized fit of simulated and measured radiances at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The simulations are made using a radiative transfer model with a variety of representative aerosol properties.The optimum fit is obtained for a certain combination of aerosol components, which are externally mixed to provide the aerosol model which in turn is used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD). However, other aerosol properties could be provided. In the aerosol retrieval algorithm (ADV) applied to data from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), four aerosol components are used, each of which is defined by their (lognormal) size distribution and a complex refractive index. The fine mode fraction is a continuous mixture of weakly and strongly absorbing components which allows for the definition of any absorbing aerosol model within the specified limits. Hence, assuming that the correct aerosol model is selected during the retrieval process, also the single scattering albedo (SSA) should correctly be retrieved. In this paper we present the SSA retrieval using the ADV algorithm by application to wildfires over Russia in the summer of 2010. Together with the AOD, the SSA provides the aerosol absorbing optical depth (AAOD). The results are compared with AERONET data, i.e. AOD level 2.0 and SSA and AAOD inversion products. The RMSE is 0.03 for SSA and 0.02 for AAOD. The SSA is further evaluated by comparison with the SSA retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The SSA retrieved from both instruments show similar features, but the AATSR-retrieved SSA values over areas affected by wildfires are lower.

  17. WE-EF-207-07: Dual Energy CT with One Full Scan and a Second Sparse-View Scan Using Structure Preserving Iterative Reconstruction (SPIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T; Zhu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Conventional dual energy CT (DECT) reconstructs CT and basis material images from two full-size projection datasets with different energy spectra. To relax the data requirement, we propose an iterative DECT reconstruction algorithm using one full scan and a second sparse-view scan by utilizing redundant structural information of the same object acquired at two different energies. Methods: We first reconstruct a full-scan CT image using filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The material similarities of each pixel with other pixels are calculated by an exponential function about pixel value differences. We assume that the material similarities of pixels remains in the second CT scan, although pixel values may vary. An iterative method is designed to reconstruct the second CT image from reduced projections. Under the data fidelity constraint, the algorithm minimizes the L2 norm of the difference between pixel value and its estimation, which is the average of other pixel values weighted by their similarities. The proposed algorithm, referred to as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR), is evaluated on physical phantoms. Results: On the Catphan600 phantom, SPIR-based DECT method with a second 10-view scan reduces the noise standard deviation of a full-scan FBP CT reconstruction by a factor of 4 with well-maintained spatial resolution, while iterative reconstruction using total-variation regularization (TVR) degrades the spatial resolution at the same noise level. The proposed method achieves less than 1% measurement difference on electron density map compared with the conventional two-full-scan DECT. On an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom, our method successfully reconstructs the complicated vertebra structures and decomposes bone and soft tissue. Conclusion: We develop an effective method to reduce the number of views and therefore data acquisition in DECT. We show that SPIR-based DECT using one full scan and a second 10-view scan can

  18. A multi-view time-domain non-contact diffuse optical tomography scanner with dual wavelength detection for intrinsic and fluorescence small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Eric; Pichette, Julien; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves

    2012-06-01

    We present a non-contact diffuse optical tomography (DOT) scanner with multi-view detection (over 360°) for localizing fluorescent markers in scattering and absorbing media, in particular small animals. It relies on time-domain detection after short pulse laser excitation. Ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting and photomultiplier tubes are used for time-domain measurements. For light collection, seven free-space optics non-contact dual wavelength detection channels comprising 14 detectors overall are placed around the subject, allowing the measurement of time point-spread functions at both excitation and fluorescence wavelengths. The scanner is endowed with a stereo camera pair for measuring the outer shape of the subject in 3D. Surface and DOT measurements are acquired simultaneously with the same laser beam. The hardware and software architecture of the scanner are discussed. Phantoms are used to validate the instrument. Results on the localization of fluorescent point-like inclusions immersed in a scattering and absorbing object are presented. The localization algorithm relies on distance ranging based on the measurement of early photons arrival times at different positions around the subject. This requires exquisite timing accuracy from the scanner. Further exploiting this capability, we show results on the effect of a scattering hetereogenity on the arrival time of early photons. These results demonstrate that our scanner provides all that is necessary for reconstructing images of small animals using full tomographic reconstruction algorithms, which will be the next step. Through its free-space optics design and the short pulse laser used, our scanner shows unprecedented timing resolution compared to other multi-view time-domain scanners.

  19. Indirect estimation of absorption properties for fine aerosol particles using AATSR observations: a case study of wildfires in Russia in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundstrom, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-08-01

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the ENVISAT satellite is used to study aerosol properties. The retrieval of aerosol properties from satellite data is based on the optimized fit of simulated and measured reflectances at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The simulations are made using a radiative transfer model with a variety of representative aerosol properties. The retrieval process utilizes a combination of four aerosol components, each of which is defined by their (lognormal) size distribution and a complex refractive index: a weakly and a strongly absorbing fine-mode component, coarse mode sea salt aerosol and coarse mode desert dust aerosol). These components are externally mixed to provide the aerosol model which in turn is used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the AATSR aerosol retrieval algorithm, the mixing of these components is decided by minimizing the error function given by the sum of the differences between measured and calculated path radiances at 3-4 wavelengths, where the path radiances are varied by varying the aerosol component mixing ratios. The continuous variation of the fine-mode components allows for the continuous variation of the fine-mode aerosol absorption. Assuming that the correct aerosol model (i.e. the correct mixing fractions of the four components) is selected during the retrieval process, also other aerosol properties could be computed such as the single scattering albedo (SSA). Implications of this assumption regarding the ratio of the weakly/strongly absorbing fine-mode fraction are investigated in this paper by evaluating the validity of the SSA thus obtained. The SSA is indirectly estimated for aerosol plumes with moderate-to-high AOD resulting from wildfires in Russia in the summer of 2010. Together with the AOD, the SSA provides the aerosol absorbing optical depth (AAOD). The results are compared with AERONET data, i.e. AOD level 2.0 and SSA and AAOD inversion products. The RMSE

  20. Analysis of Rosetta/VIRTIS spectra of earth using observations from ENVISAT/AATSR, TERRA/MODIS and ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY, and radiative-transfer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M.; Oliva, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Smith, A.; Filacchione, G.; Tosi, F.; Thomas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Rosetta, the Solar System cornerstone mission of ESA's Horizon 2000 programme, consists of an orbiter and a lander, and is due to arrive at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in May 2014. Following its 2004 launch, Rosetta carried out a series of planetary fly-bys and gravitational assists. On these close fly-bys of the Earth, measurements were taken by the Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS). Analysis of these spectra and comparison with spectra acquired by Earth-observing satellites can support the verification of the inflight calibration of Rosetta/VIRTIS. In this paper, measurements taken by VIRTIS in November 2009 are compared with suitable coincident data from Earth-observing instruments (ESA-ENVISAT/AATSR and SCIAMACHY, and EOS-TERRA/MODIS). Radiative transfer simulations using NEMESIS (Irwin et al., 2008) are fit to the fly-by data taken by VIRTIS, using representative atmospheric and surface parameters. VIRTIS measurements correlate 90% with AATSR's, 85-94% with MODIS, and 82-88% with SCIAMACHYs. The VIRTIS spectra are reproducible in the 1-5 μm region, except in the 1.4 μm deep water vapour spectral absorption band in the near-infrared in cases in which the radiance is very low (cloud-free topographies), where VIRTIS consistently registers more radiance than do MODIS and SCIAMACHY. Over these cloud-free regions, VIRTIS registers radiances a factor of 3-10 larger than SCIAMACHY and of 3-8 greater than MODIS. It is speculated that this discrepancy could be due to a spectral light leak originating from reflections from the order-sorting filters above the detector around 1.4 μm.

  1. Assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions in the ECHAM6-HAM GCM and the Aerosol_cci/Cloud_cci (A)ATSR dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Christensen, Matthew; Poulsen, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) are uncertain and the estimates of the ACI effective radiative forcing magnitude show a large variability. Studies using present day variability in satellite data to infer ACI, or that constrain model parameterizations to better agree with satellite observations find a less negative ACI radiative forcing than purely model based studies. Next to the problematic use of present day variability as a substitute for anthropogenic change, the scale at which the analysis of the responses of cloud properties to changes in aerosol is done could be a reason for the discrepancy in forcing estimates if the analysis/observational scales differ substantially from the process scale. The projects of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme of ESA aim at producing long time series of satellite data of essential climate variables and give the opportunity to produce products for susceptibilities of aerosol properties from Aerosol_cci and cloud properties from Cloud_cci from high resolution datasets. Within the Aerosol_cci project these susceptibilities derived from high resolution (A)ATSR datasets with a nearest neighbour approach are compared to susceptibilities from the global aerosol climate model ECHAM6-HAM. Next to the new satellite products a relatively fine analysis scale is used and the clouds are separated in different environmental regimes to reduce smoothing or spurious effects by aggregation of data. Susceptibilities and forcing estimates differ between the (A)ATSR datasets and ECHAM6-HAM with the model showing stronger susceptibilities and ACI radiative forcing in agreement with previous estimates in the literature. There is a large difference in susceptibilities between precipitating and non-precipitating clouds in the satellite as well as the model data but there is no decrease in liquid water path with increasing aerosol index as has been reported in the literature for A-train satellite data. The liquid water path susceptibility of

  2. Contrails and Climate Change: An Investigation of the Role of Aviation-Induced-Cloudiness on the Ireland Climate Using AATSR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Gillian M.; Cawkwell, Fiona; Mannstein, Hermann; Minnis, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Contrails, or 'condensation trails', produced in the wake of jet aircraft have been found to have a small but significant global net climate-warming effect [1]. When atmospheric conditions are favorable (i.e. when ambient atmospheric humidity is high and temperature is below a threshold value of typically less than -40oC), contrails can persist for several hours, grow to become several kilometers long and can also trigger additional cirrus- cloud formation as they spread - which can further impact climate! Due to Ireland's proximity to the North Atlantic Flight Corridor, large volumes of high-altitude overflights cross Ireland daily. Contrails are essentially artificial-linear-ice-clouds at a lower temperature than the surrounding atmosphere and so are visible in 1 Km satellite imagery at the 11 and 12 μm wavelengths; but are better detected in the temperature difference image between these two thermal channels. An automated Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA) is applied to AATSR thermal imagery over Ireland, and the percentage contrail-coverage of each scene determined. Preliminary results, based on 2008 morning and evening AATSR overpasses show a similar annual average contrail-coverage when present of 0.25% and 0.19% respectively, even though air-traffic density is typically several times higher during the morning overpasses. Cases of excessive contrail-coverage, of up to 2.06% have been observed in combination with extensive cirrus-coverage over Ireland. Results from meteorological data indicate more highly favorable atmospheric conditions for contrail formation and persistence in 00h00 and 06h00 radiosonde ascents; which corresponds to a night-time peak in high-altitude flights over Ireland. Furthermore, exceptionally thick contrail-susceptible-atmospheric layers are found in conjunction with cases of excessive satellite-derived- contrail-coverage.

  3. The validation and analysis of novel stereo-derived smoke plume products from AATSR and their application to fire events from the 2008 Russian fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D.; Muller, J.-P.; Yershov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning events in Boreal forests generate significant amounts of important greenhouse gases; including CO2, CO, NOx [1,2]. When the injection height is above the boundary layer (BL), the lifespan of these chemicals is greatly extended, as is their spatial distribution [2]. Typically, in chemical transport models (CTMs), BL injection heights are simplified and assumed to be constant. This is in part due to poor data availability. This leads to a reduction in the accuracy of the distribution outputs from such models. To generate better smoke-plume injection height (SPIH) inputs into CTMs, measurements need to be made of smoke plume heights, which can be used as a proxy for aerosol injection height into the atmosphere. One method of measuring SPIH is through stereo-photogrammetry [5], originally applied to optically thick clouds [3,4]. Here, we present validation and analysis of the M6 stereo matching method [5] for the determination of SPIHs applied to AATSR. It is referred to as M6 due to a shared heritage with the other M-series matchers [3,4]. M6 utilizes novel normalization and matching techniques to generate improved results, in terms of coverage and accuracy, over these afore-referenced matchers of similar type. Validation is carried out against independent, coincident and higher resolution SPIH measurements obtained from both the CALIOP instrument carried onboard the NASA-CNES CALIPSO satellite and also against measurements from the MISR Smoke Plume Product obtained by manual measurements using the MINX system (http://www.openchannelsoftware.com/projects/MINX) with the MISR instrument onboard the NASA satellite Terra. The results of this inter-comparison show an excellent agreement between AATSR and the CALIOP and MISR measurements. Further an inter-comparison between a heritage M-series matcher, M4 [3], also against MISR data demonstrates the significant improvement in SPIH generated by M6. [1] Crutzen, P. J., L. E. Heidt, et al. (1979). "Biomass

  4. Optical design of athermalised dual field of view zoom lens in long wave infrared (8μm - 12μm) spectral band using benefits of paraxial optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a methodology for designing an athermalised dual field of view zoom lens in long wave infrared (8μm - 12μm) spectral band by using the benefits of paraxial optics. By using this design methodology the optical designer can develop many types of complex optical systems in a straightforward way. The key feature of this design methodology relies on utilization of paraxial optics for defining the initial positions of the optical elements. The optical design is based on moving a single lens for changing the optical system's FOV thereby reducing the number of moving parts and simplifying the assembly procedure of the system. The optical design begins with optimization process using paraxial optics. Then the optical design using paraxial optics is used as a template for designing the final optical system by lens material selection for compensating the shift in system's focus due to thermal effects and lens thickness tuning.

  5. Dual-Frequency VLBI Study of Centaurus A on Sub-Parsec Scales: The Highest-Resolution View of an Extragalactic Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Wilms, J.; Boeck, M.; Edwards, P.; Fromm, C. M.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Ploetz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Richers, S.; Ros, E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Taylor, G. B.; Tingay, S. J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Centaurus A is the closest active galactic nucleus. High resolution imaging using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) enables us to study the spectral and kinematic behavior of the radio jet-<:ounterjet system on sub-parsec scales, providing essential information for jet emission and formation models. Aims. Our aim is to study the structure and spectral shape of the emission from the central-parsec region of Cen A. Methods. As a target of the Southern Hemisphere VLBI monitoring program TANAMI (Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Millliarcsecond Interferometry), VLBI observations of Cen A are made regularly at 8.4 and 22.3 GHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and associated telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, and South Africa. Results. The first dual-frequency images of this source are presented along with the resulting spectral index map. An angular resolution of 0.4 mas x 0.7 mas is achieved at 8.4 GHz, corresponding to a linear scale of less than 0.013 pc. Hence, we obtain the highest resolution VLBI image of Cen A, comparable to previous space-VLBI observations. By combining with the 22.3 GHz image, we present the corresponding dual-frequency spectral index distribution along the sub-parsec scale jet revealing the putative emission regions for recently detected y-rays from the core region by Fermi/LAT. Conclusions. We resolve the innermost structure of the milliarcsecond scale jet and counter jet system of Cen A into discrete components. The simultaneous observations at two frequencies provide the highest resolved spectral index map of an AGN jet allowing us to identify up to four possible sites as the origin of the high energy emission. Key words. galaxies: active galaxies: individual (Centaurus A, NGC 5128) - galaxies: jets - techniques: high angular resolution

  6. What Makes Dual-Career Marriages Tick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    A dual-career family is a family in which both spouses are committed to occupational work and to a family life together and support each other's desires to combine roles that traditionally were viewed as incompatible. Male socialization in the areas of entitlement, dependency, and nurturance can cause problems for men in dual-career marriages. In…

  7. Strategic use of dual regimens of boosted protease inhibitors plus maraviroc in poorly adherent subjects in view of long-acting drugs

    PubMed Central

    Capetti, Amedeo Ferdinando; Micale, Mariangela; Carenzi, Laura; Niero, Fosca; Landonio, Simona; Vimercati, Stefania; Dedivitiis, Gianfranco; Rizzardini, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In view of the forthcoming long-acting antiretrovirals, measures should be taken to prevent the selection of HIV drug resistance mutations. All subjects who had been switched to boosted protease inhibitors plus maraviroc (bPIs/MVC) with baseline HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL between June, 2014, and April, 2015, were retrospectively evaluated. HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T-cells, serum glucose, creatinine, ALT, and adverse events were controlled every 3 to 4 months. We retrospectively analyzed 44 patients: 18 were taking darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) and 26 atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) once daily, plus MVC 300 mg once daily. Seven subjects were in CDC stage C. All had a follow-up of at least 24 weeks, 28 exceeded 48 weeks, and 21 exceeded 72 weeks. All had experienced at least 1 viral failure and had selected at least 1 resistance-associated mutation (RAM). At baseline, 38 had plasma HIV-1 RNA 50-499 copies/mL and 6 had ≥500. At week 24, none had viremia >500 and 30 (68.2%) had suppressed HIV-1 RNA below 50 copies/mL. Of the subgroup with 48 weeks’ follow-up, 23 had HIV-1 RNA 50-499 copies/mL, 5 had ≥500, and 20/28 suppressed to <50 copies/mL. Of the longest observed subgroup (72 weeks), 17 had HIV-1 RNA 50-499 copies/mL, and 4 had ≥500 copies/mL and 15/21 (71.4%) suppressed to <50 copies/mL. This combination allowed fair suppression of viral replication, with minor genotypic evolution in 6 subjects, and seems to be a feasible strategy to prevent damaging future options. PMID:28207500

  8. The Impact of Dual Enrollment on the Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnick, Katherine N.

    2012-01-01

    Proving the value of dual enrollment to the institution has become particularly important in recent years as the recession has squeezed state budgets for higher education. Programs that are not viewed as offering benefits to the institution become vulnerable in tough economic times. In addition, to operate effectively, all dual enrollment programs…

  9. Dual Wavelength Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual wavelength lasers are discussed, covering fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics of these systems. Results on Tm:Ho:Er:YAG dual wavelength laser action (Ho at 2.1 m and Er at 2.9 m) as well as Nd:YAG (1.06 and 1.3 m) are presented as examples of such dual wavelength systems. Dual wavelength lasers are not common, but there are criteria that govern their behavior. Based on experimental studies demonstrating simultaneous dual wavelength lasing, some general conclusions regarding the successful operation of multi-wavelength lasers can be made.

  10. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  11. Dual methods and approximation concepts in structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Approximation concepts and dual method algorithms are combined to create a method for minimum weight design of structural systems. Approximation concepts convert the basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem into a sequence of explicit primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to nonnegativity constraints on the dual variables. It is shown that the joining together of approximation concepts and dual methods can be viewed as a generalized optimality criteria approach. The dual method is successfully extended to deal with pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable problems. The power of the method presented is illustrated with numerical results for example problems, including a metallic swept wing and a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.

  12. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  13. Bifocal dual reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A bifocal dual reflector antenna is similar to and has better scan capability than classical cassegrain reflector antenna. The method used in determining the reflector surfaces is a modification of a design method for the dielectric bifocal lens. The three dimensional dual reflector is obtained by first designing an exact (in geometrical optics sense) two-point corrected two dimensional reflector and then rotating it around its axis of symmetry. A point by point technique is used in computing the reflector surfaces. Computed radiation characteristics of the dual reflector are compared with those of a cassegrain reflector. The results confirm that the bifocal antenna has superior performance.

  14. Next generation along track scanning radiometer - SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerick, J.; Nieke, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Cosi, M.; Engel, W.; Bianchi, S.; Smith, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Since 1991, along track scanning radiometers (A)ATSR have been flown on a series of satellite platforms. These instruments use an along-track scanning design that provides two views of the same earth target through different atmospheric paths. Dual-view multispectral measurements can be used to derive an accurate atmospheric correction when retrieving geophysical parameters such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST). In addition, the (A)ATSR family of instruments use actively cooled detector systems and two precision calibration blackbody targets to maintain and manage on-board calibration. Visible channel calibration is implemented using a solar diffuser viewed once per orbit. As a consequence of these design features, resulting data derived from (A)ATSR instruments is both accurate and well characterized. After 10 years of Service the ENVISAT platform was lost in early 2012 asnd AATSR operations stopped. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 "Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer" (SLSTR) instrument is the successor to the AATSR family of instruments and is expected to launch in April 2014. The challenge for SLSTR is to develop and deliver a new instrument with identical or improved performance to that of the (A)ATSR family. The SLSTR design builds on the heritage features of the (A)ATSR with important extensions to address GMES requirements. SLSTR maintains the main instrument principles (along-track scanning, a two point infrared on-board radiometric calibration, actively cooled detectors, solar diffuser). The design also includes more spectral channels including additional bands at 1.3 and 2.2 μm providing enhanced cloud detection, dedicated fire channels, an increase of dual view swath from 500 to 740 km, an increase in the nadir swath of 1400 km. The increase in swath has led to, a new optical front-end design incorporating two rotating scan mirrors (with encoders to provide pointing knowledge) and an innovative flip mechanism to

  15. Faculty Members' Perceptions of Rigor in Dual Enrollment, Accelerated Programs, and Standard Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Colin; Baker, Pete; Burnett, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study that investigated faculty members' views on the level of academic rigor in three settings at one community college: dual enrollment, accelerated programs, and standard community college courses.

  16. Different but Equal? Assessing European Dual HE Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    In higher education dual systems, graduates are qualified to apply for jobs in same professional fields along two separated educational routes. The research problem is whether the rival applicants for professional positions are treated equally in the labour market despite their different qualifications. From the graduates point of view, to be…

  17. Conflict Monitoring in Dual Process Theories of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neys, Wim; Glumicic, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Popular dual process theories have characterized human thinking as an interplay between an intuitive-heuristic and demanding-analytic reasoning process. Although monitoring the output of the two systems for conflict is crucial to avoid decision making errors there are some widely different views on the efficiency of the process. Kahneman…

  18. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  19. Dual approximations in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Ianculescu, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    A dual approximation for the solution to an optimal control problem is analyzed. The differential equation is handled with a Lagrange multiplier while other constraints are treated explicitly. An algorithm for solving the dual problem is presented.

  20. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-07

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  1. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  2. Dual beam optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A dual beam interferometer device is disclosed that enables moving an optics module in a direction, which changes the path lengths of two beams of light. The two beams reflect off a surface of an object and generate different speckle patterns detected by an element, such as a camera. The camera detects a characteristic of the surface.

  3. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  4. Dual view on sliding phases in U (1 ) symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayl, S.; Kuklov, A. B.; Oganesyan, V.

    2017-03-01

    The proposal of sliding phases (SP) is revisited from the perspective of duality. A generic argument is formulated as essentially a no-go theorem for SP in translationally invariant nonfrustrated systems with short-range interactions—classical or quantum. Its validity is demonstrated on an asymmetric bilayer and its multilayer variation models where the duality allows obtaining asymptotically exact analytical solution. This solution is in drastic contrast with the perturbative renormalization group prediction and is strongly supported by Monte Carlo simulations. An alternative path toward finding SP is suggested. Its key ingredient is a long-range gauge-type interaction suppressing the interlayer Josephson coupling.

  5. Zograscopic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance. PMID:23799196

  6. Dual-Schemata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  7. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  8. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  9. Dual modification of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Antoine; Richards, Daniel A; Chudasama, Vijay

    2016-07-14

    With the advent of novel bioorthogonal reactions and "click" chemistry, an increasing number of strategies for the single labelling of proteins and oligonucleotides have emerged. Whilst several methods exist for the site-selective introduction of a single chemical moiety, site-selective and bioorthogonal dual modification of biomolecules remains a challenge. The introduction of multiple modules enables a plethora of permutations and combinations and can generate a variety of bioconjuguates with many potential applications. From de novo approaches on oligomers to the post-translational functionalisation of proteins, this review will highlight the main strategies to dually modify biomolecules.

  10. Dual mode warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Obrsky, J.; Alexander, A.A.; Griffen, O.H.; Foster, J.S.; Shamblen, M.

    1980-12-31

    A dual mode warhead is provided for use against both soft and hard targets and capable of sensing which type of target has been struck comprising a casing made of a ductile material containing an explosive charge and a fuze assembly. The ductile warhead casing will mushroom and later split upon striking a hard target while still confining the explosive. Proper ductility and confinement are necessary for fuze sensing. The fuze assembly contains a pair of parallel firing trains, one initiated only by high and one by low impact deceleration. The firing train actuated by low impact deceleration contains a pyrotechnic delay to allow penetration of soft targets.

  11. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  12. Benefits of Dual Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallstrum, Kiara

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper examines how dual language education (DLE) programs are valuable. The literature shows that children do much more than just thrive in a dual language environment. According to research, children who are bilingual are cognitively, academically, intellectually, socially and verbally more advantaged than their monolingual…

  13. The dilemma of dual use biological research: Polish perspective.

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2010-03-01

    Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and/or national security is termed dual use. In Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting such threats are required, and the national system of biosecurity should enable early, reliable, and complete identification of this type of research. Scientists should have a fundamental role in this process, their duty being to immediately, upon identification, report research with dual use potential. An important entity in the identification system of dual use research should also be the Central Register of Biological and Biomedical Research, which gathers information about all biological and biomedical research being conducted in a given country. Publishers, editors, and review committees of journals and other scientific publications should be involved in evaluating results of clinical trials. The National Council of Biosecurity should be the governmental institution responsible for developing a system of dual use research threat prevention. Its role would be to develop codes of conduct, form counsel of expertise, and monitor the problem at national level, while the Dual Use Research Committee would be responsible for individual cases. In Poland, current actions aiming to provide biological safety were based on developing and passing an act about genetically modified organisms (GMO's) and creating a GMO Committee. Considering experiences of other nations, one should view these actions as fragmentary, and thus insufficient protection against dual use research threats.

  14. IR-dual-band-camera demonstrator: experimental assessment, practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, U.; Ebert, R.

    2007-10-01

    The IR-Dual-Band-Camera demonstrator collects simultaneously infrared data in the 3-5 μm (mid-wave infrared, MWIR) and 8-12 μm (long-wave infrared, LWIR) atmospheric windows. The demonstrator is based on a two-layer QWIP focal plane array with 384 x 288 x 2 detector elements. Images are typically acquired with a frame rate of 100 Hz at 6.8 ms integration time and are stored as 14-bit digital data. Two different IR-Dual-Band-Optics were designed and developed: first an 86 mm and 390 mm focal length, F/2 dual field of view optics based on refractive and reflective components and second a pure refractive 100 mm focal length, F/1.5 optics. We present the performance of this IR-Dual- Band-Camera and demonstrate fusion techniques to the pixel-registered dual-band images which show in laboratory tests and field trials promising results with respect to image improvement.

  15. Dual-modality imaging of function and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Iwata, Koji; Wong, Kenneth H.; Wu, Max C.; Da Silva, Angela; Tang, Hamilton R.; Barber, William C.; Hwang, Andrew B.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-04-01

    Dual-modality imaging is a technique where computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is combined with positron emission tomography or single-photon computed tomography to acquire structural and functional images with an integrated system. The data are acquired during a single procedure with the patient on a table viewed by both detectors to facilitate correlation between the structural and function images. The resulting data can be useful for localization for more specific diagnosis of disease. In addition, the anatomical information can be used to compensate the correlated radionuclide data for physical perturbations such as photon attenuation, scatter radiation, and partial volume errors. Thus, dual-modality imaging provides a priori information that can be used to improve both the visual quality and the quantitative accuracy of the radionuclide images. Dual-modality imaging systems also are being developed for biological research that involves small animals. The small-animal dual-modality systems offer advantages for measurements that currently are performed invasively using autoradiography and tissue sampling. By acquiring the required data noninvasively, dual-modality imaging has the potential to allow serial studies in a single animal, to perform measurements with fewer animals, and to improve the statistical quality of the data.

  16. Computation of the Dual Frame: Forward and Backward Greville Formulas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT We study the computation of the dual frame for oversampled filter banks (OFBs) by exploiting Greville’s formula, which was derived in 1960 to...lost. Index Terms— Error resilience, Frames, Greville formula, Lapla- cian pyramid, Oversampled filter banks . 1. INTRODUCTION Over the past few years...the references therein). From a signal-processing point of view, frames in l2(Z) correspond to per- fect reconstruction (PR) oversampled filter banks

  17. Dual side transparent OLED 3D display using Gabor super-lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestak, Sergey; Kim, Dae-Sik; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2015-03-01

    We devised dual side transparent 3D display using transparent OLED panel and two lenticular arrays. The OLED panel is sandwiched between two parallel confocal lenticular arrays, forming Gabor super-lens. The display provides dual side stereoscopic 3D imaging and floating image of the object, placed behind it. The floating image can be superimposed with the displayed 3D image. The displayed autostereoscopic 3D images are composed of 4 views, each with resolution 64x90 pix.

  18. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  19. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  20. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, Robert M.; Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  1. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  2. Integrated Dual Imaging Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

  3. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  4. View of north tower base panel and portion of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north tower base panel and portion of concrete abutment. Note riveted construction and dual-wire rope connections from counterweight to lift span on both sides. Lift wire ropes have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  5. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOEpatents

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  6. Dual-Phase Nozzle Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Two-phase 20. A T RACT (0.31lmm 401 teV9 i 01 000* u...in #CMIdR@0fr &V WNHI& WARNeJ A revieW or the dual-phase -ower system was made. This study ...pr-et5 ._ lnering Dean of Science and Engineering J* ABSTRACT A review of the dual-phase power system was made. This study focused on the multi...be studied in detail, but first a review of the dual-phase cycle will be carried out from information obtained from References 1 and 2. Reference 1

  7. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  8. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  9. Unattended Dual Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Parker, Robert F.; Jones, David C.

    2016-08-11

    The Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) is an ideal solution for current measurement needs such as ion chamber gamma measurements. The UDCM has two independent inputs and each input detects currents in two user selectable ranges, -0.2nA to -20nA or -20nA to -2uA. Measurement results can be retrieved via an Ethernet connection or by monitoring the TTL output pulses with a simple counter. Measurement data is also stored on a user accessible micro-SD card and automatically downloaded to a USB flash drive. A programmable negative High Voltage (HV) power supply provides detector bias voltages from 0 to -1,000V. The UDCM is fully compatible with the IAEA Multi Instrument Collect (MIC) software and responds to the existing MiniGRAND commands. The Ethernet port provides an IAEA RAINSTORM compliant data transfer and data security interface. The UDCM produces TTL pulses at a rate proportional to the input current, 100cps/nA. The UDCM can simplify instrumentation needs by enabling the use of a simple pulse counter for both neutron and gamma measurements. The UDCM is a simple instrument, inexpensive to manufacturer and designed for reliability.

  10. Fast dual tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  11. Neuroretinitis with dual infections

    PubMed Central

    Kiu, Kwong-Han; Hanizasurana, Hashim; Zunaina, Embong

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old Malay female presented with left eye floaters for 2 weeks, associated with temporal visual field defect and metamorphopsia for 3 days. She has a guinea pig and a hedgehog at home, but denied being bitten or scratched by them. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/12 on the left eye and 6/6 on the right eye. Her left eye relative afferent pupillary defect was barely positive with mild anterior chamber reaction. Fundus examination of the left eye showed mild vitritis, swollen optic disc with macular star, crops of active choroidal lesions at superonasal retina with a linear arrangement in the form of migratory track nasally. However, there were no nematodes seen on fundus examination. Investigations showed normal full blood count with no eosinophilia and positive serology test for Bartonella henselae. She was diagnosed to have dual infection – diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN), based on the presence of crops of choroidal lesions with migratory track, and cat scratch disease (CSD) based on a positive serological test. She was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg 12 hourly for 6 weeks for DUSN and oral doxycycline 100 mg 12 hourly for 4 weeks for CSD. Focal laser had been applied to the area of migratory track in the left eye. Her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 1 month after treatment, with resolution of neuroretinitis. PMID:26527902

  12. Dual porphyrias revisited.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Gutiérrez, Pamela; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Wiederholt, Tonio; Merk, Hans F; Frank, Jorge

    2006-09-01

    The porphyrias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous metabolic diseases, which predominantly result from a hereditary dysfunction in the pathway of haeme biosynthesis. Currently, at least eight different forms of porphyrias can be differentiated, all of them characterized by a specific enzyme deficiency that is either inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion, autosomal recessively or, in the case of porphyria cutanea tarda, might also be acquired. All genes encoding these enzymes have been cloned and several mutations underlying the different types of porphyrias have been reported. Traditionally, the diagnosis of porphyria is made on the basis of clinical symptoms, characteristic biochemical findings and enzyme assays. In some porphyria patients and families, however, these diagnostic tools can reveal simultaneous findings compatible with two different forms of porphyria, a phenomenon referred to as dual porphyria. Here, we give an overview on what is currently known about these peculiar variants of porphyria and suggest that, whenever feasible, molecular genetic analysis should complement the analytical techniques used to characterize patients and families in which a double enzymatic deficiency within the haeme biosynthetic pathway is assumed.

  13. Building a framework for a dual task taxonomy.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, Tara L; Lamberg, Eric M; Muratori, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    The study of dual task interference has gained increasing attention in the literature for the past 35 years, with six MEDLINE citations in 1979 growing to 351 citations indexed in 2014 and a peak of 454 cited papers in 2013. Increasingly, researchers are examining dual task cost in individuals with pathology, including those with neurodegenerative diseases. While the influence of these papers has extended from the laboratory to the clinic, the field has evolved without clear definitions of commonly used terms and with extreme variations in experimental procedures. As a result, it is difficult to examine the interference literature as a single body of work. In this paper we present a new taxonomy for classifying cognitive-motor and motor-motor interference within the study of dual task behaviors that connects traditional concepts of learning and principles of motor control with current issues of multitasking analysis. As a first step in the process we provide an operational definition of dual task, distinguishing it from a complex single task. We present this new taxonomy, inclusive of both cognitive and motor modalities, as a working model; one that we hope will generate discussion and create a framework from which one can view previous studies and develop questions of interest.

  14. Global aerosol retrieval by synergistic use of ESA ENVISAT instruments and potential for long-term aerosol records from Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, P. R.; Bevan, S. L.; Brockmann, C.; Fischer, J.; Gomez-Chova, L.; Grey, W.; Heckel, A.; Moreno, J. F.; Munoz Mari, J.; Preusker, R.; Regner, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present research on for improved global aerosol retrieval by synergistic use of optical sensors on the European Space Agency ENVISAT satellite, MERIS and AATSR. Previously aerosol retrievals have been developed in isolation for these instruments, using spectral and mult-angular approaches respectively. These sensors will be succeeded with improved specification on the Sentinel-3 mission (2012-2030) with the aim to offer data suitable for long-term climate records. The research aims to use combined multi-angular and spectral approaches to constrain the inverse problem. The MERIS and AATSR instruments onboard ENVISAT provide similar resolution and swath but complementary information, encompassing different spectral domains and viewing geometries. Substantial success has been obtained previously by a number of researchers in using the instruments independently; for example MERIS aerosol retrieval using spectral methods over known targets, and AATSR approaches using the dual-view capability. The research explores the gain by using information from both instruments simultaneously to constrain atmospheric profile, characterise cloud, and provide improved atmospheric correction to surface reflectance. Results suggest improved estimation of aerosol properties compared to single-instrument retrievals, when compared with AERONET. A sensitivity study is performed to evaluate potential of Sentinel-3 for aerosol retreval, to be launched in 2012, which will give continuity with enhanced instrument specifications for the successor instruments OLCI and SLSTR.

  15. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  16. Dual mode millimeter wave/IR seeker for endoatmospheric interceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, Stacie; Moody, Henry L.; Graves, Craig M.; Elsherbiny, Moniem; Trolinger, James

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes a dual mode seeker that may be considered for an endoatmospheric interceptor. The seeker consists of a 35 GHz active, broadband-conformal antenna array and an optical window with an infrared Holographic Optical Element (HOE). The antenna consists of high Q, broadband, dual polarized antenna elements in a conformal array. The microwave beam is electronically steered over the desired field-of-view. The antenna elements are packaged in the wall of a high modulus honeycomb structure. The IR system entails a sapphire window with a HOE applied to its inside surface to focus incident target energy onto a detector array. The use of a HOE over conventional optics (consisting of lens-mirror systems) reduces weight and allows greater flexibility in internal packaging. The millimeter wave array and optical window(s) are actively cooled and packaged in a high strength-stiff metal structure to minimize the effects of high heating-high aeroloads on seeker performance.

  17. Attitudinal Perspectives: A Factor to Implementation of a Dual Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitacre, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The central focus of this study was to determine the overall perceptions of school administrators, and the district bilingual coordinator on transferring theory to classroom practice, implementation, as viewed by those involved in the implementation process of the Gómez and Gómez Model of Dual Language Education. Responses were solicited from…

  18. Self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons solitons from a Lorentz-violating model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Sourrouille, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Self-dual abelian Higgs system, involving both the Maxwell and Chern-Simons terms are obtained from Carroll-Field-Jackiw theory by dimensional reduction. Bogomol'nyi-type equations are studied from theoretical and numerical point of view. In particular, we show that the solutions of these equations are Nielsen-Olesen vortices with electric charge.

  19. Animations Need Narrations: An Experimental Test of a Dual-Coding Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Anderson, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    In two experiments, 102 mechanically naive college students viewed an animation on bicycle tire pump operation with a verbal description before or during the animation or without description. Improved performance of those receiving description during the animation supports a dual-coding hypothesis of connections between visual and verbal stimuli.…

  20. Peptides with Dual Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Felício, Mário R.; Silva, Osmar N.; Gonçalves, Sônia; Santos, Nuno C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number of people suffering from cancer and multi-resistant infections has increased, such that both diseases are already seen as current and future major causes of death. Moreover, chronic infections are one of the main causes of cancer, due to the instability in the immune system that allows cancer cells to proliferate. Likewise, the physical debility associated with cancer or with anticancer therapy itself often paves the way for opportunistic infections. It is urgent to develop new therapeutic methods, with higher efficiency and lower side effects. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in the innate immune system of a wide range of organisms. Identified as the most promising alternative to conventional molecules used nowadays against infections, some of them have been shown to have dual activity, both as antimicrobial and anticancer peptides (ACPs). Highly cationic and amphipathic, they have demonstrated efficacy against both conditions, with the number of nature-driven or synthetically designed peptides increasing year by year. With similar properties, AMPs that can also act as ACPs are viewed as future chemotherapeutic drugs, with the advantage of low propensity to resistance, which started this paradigm in the pharmaceutical market. These peptides have already been described as molecules presenting killing mechanisms at the membrane level, but also acting toward intracellular targets, which increases their success compartively to one-target specific drugs. This review will approach the desirable characteristics of small peptides that demonstrated dual activity against microbial infections and cancer, as well as the peptides engaged in clinical trials. PMID:28271058

  1. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E; Pratt, Garth C; Haugen, Peter C; Zumstein, James M; Vigars, Mark L; Romero, Carlos E

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  2. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  3. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  4. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  5. Dual Enrollment in Spanish: One Working Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…

  6. 7 CFR 247.19 - Dual participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual participation. 247.19 Section 247.19 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.19 Dual participation. (a) What must State and local agencies do to prevent and detect dual participation? The State agency must work...

  7. 7 CFR 247.19 - Dual participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dual participation. 247.19 Section 247.19 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.19 Dual participation. (a) What must State and local agencies do to prevent and detect dual participation? The State agency must work...

  8. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  9. Dual characterizations of optimal systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.

    1972-01-01

    The complementary variational principle developed in a Hilbert space setting provides a duality principle in the calculus of variations with dynamic constraints. This concept is adopted in this paper to investigate dual characterizations of optimal control systems. Systems under consideration include those with dynamics governed by linear ordinary differential equations, linear partial differential equations and non-linear ordinary differential equations.

  10. Dual-Laser-Pulse Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A dual-pulse laser (DPL) technique has been demonstrated for generating laser-induced sparks (LIS) to ignite fuels. The technique was originally intended to be applied to the ignition of rocket propellants, but may also be applicable to ignition in terrestrial settings in which electric igniters may not be suitable.

  11. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  12. Dual redundant core memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

  13. Dual x-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2011-04-01

    Dual x-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. We discuss the physics of the method and exhibit its limitations and show it is related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the x-ray absorption coefficients of materials.

  14. Dual channel electrostimulation in pain.

    PubMed

    Devulder, J; De Laat, M; Rolly, G

    1998-06-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is an accepted treatment for neuropathic pain. Technical advances in electrode design and better patient selection have led to better and sustained pain control by these devices. Multilead electrical stimulation is the latest innovation in implantable electrostimulation (Mattrix, Medtronic Minneapolis, USA). Two combined multipolar leads connected to a radiofrequency--coupled system can deliver electrical pulses of various amplitudes and pulse widths at different dermatome levels. Single stimulation is applied with different electrode configurations using both electrodes with identical stimulation parameters. In dual stimulation, the amplitude and the pulse width can vary between the electrode configurations. Dual channel stimulation helps steering stimulation paresthesias. Three patients illustrate the technical advantages of dual channel electrostimulation in the pain relief at multiple sites. Two patients with failed back surgery syndrome obtained more easily stimulation-induced paresthesias in the back and the legs. Dual channel stimulation is cost saving in patients implanted with two electrodes. This is presented in a third patient with an electrode in the thalamus--as pain treatment for cervicobrachialgia and a second in the epidural space--as treatment for the failed back surgery syndrome. These electrodes were connected to the Mattrix stimulator.

  15. Self-Dual Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajski, Maciej; Tod, Paul

    2014-10-01

    We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a Riemannian four-dimensional manifold ( M, g) with anti-self-dual Weyl tensor to be locally conformal to a Ricci-flat manifold. These conditions are expressed as the vanishing of scalar and tensor conformal invariants. The invariants obstruct the existence of parallel sections of a certain connection on a complex rank-four vector bundle over M. They provide a natural generalisation of the Bach tensor which vanishes identically for anti-self-dual conformal structures. We use the obstructions to demonstrate that LeBrun's anti-self-dual metrics on connected sums of s are not conformally Ricci-flat on any open set. We analyze both Riemannian and neutral signature metrics. In the latter case we find all anti-self-dual metrics with a parallel real spinor which are locally conformal to Einstein metrics with non-zero cosmological constant. These metrics admit a hyper-surface orthogonal null Killing vector and thus give rise to projective structures on the space of β-surfaces.

  16. Dual function conducting polymer diodes

    DOEpatents

    Heeger, Alan J.; Yu, Gang

    1996-01-01

    Dual function diodes based on conjugated organic polymer active layers are disclosed. When positively biased the diodes function as light emitters. When negatively biased they are highly efficient photodiodes. Methods of preparation and use of these diodes in displays and input/output devices are also disclosed.

  17. Caustic Singularities Of High-Gain, Dual-Shaped Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Victor; Veruttipong, Thavath W.; Imbriale, William A.; Rengarajan, Sambiam

    1991-01-01

    Report presents study of some sources of error in analysis, by geometric theory of diffraction (GTD), of performance of high-gain, dual-shaped antenna reflector. Study probes into underlying analytic causes of singularity, with view toward devising and testing practical methods to avoid problems caused by singularity. Hybrid physical optics (PO) approach used to study near-field spillover or noise-temperature characteristics of high-gain relector antenna efficiently and accurately. Report illustrates this approach and underlying principles by presenting numerical results, for both offset and symmetrical reflector systems, computed by GTD, PO, and PO/GO methods.

  18. Excretory urography using dual-energy scanned projection radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Soomer, F.G.; Brody, W.R.; Gross, D.; Macovski, A.; Hall, A.; Pelc, N.

    1981-11-01

    Excretory urograms of 10 patients were obtained using a GE 8800 CT scanner with Scout View which had been modified for dual-kVp scanned projection radiography. Using this system, it is possible to combine images obtained simultaneously at 85 and 135 kVp to create subtraction images from which substances of desired mean atomic number have been removed. This permits improved visualization of the genitourinary system on urograms by (a) eliminating obscuring bowel gas shadows and (b) enhancement of both iodinated contrast media and retroperitoneal fat planes.

  19. Dual-Telescope Multi-Channel Thermal-Infrared Radiometer for Outer Planet Fly-By Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; Jennings, Donald E.; Lakew, Brook; Loeffler, Mark; Nicoletti, Anthony; Nixon, Conor A.; Quilligan, Gerard; West, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 microns, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual- telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field- of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  20. Dual-telescope multi-channel thermal-infrared radiometer for outer planet fly-by missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; Irwin, Patrick; Jennings, Donald E.; Kessler, Ernst; Lakew, Brook; Loeffler, Mark; Mellon, Michael; Nicoletti, Anthony; Nixon, Conor A.; Putzig, Nathaniel; Quilligan, Gerard; Rathbun, Julie; Segura, Marcia; Spencer, John; Spitale, Joseph; West, Garrett

    2016-11-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 μm, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual-telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field-of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  1. A Prototype Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Sentinel-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Jimenez-Munoz, Juan C.; Soria, Guillem; Brockmann, Carsten; Ruescas, Ana; Danne, Olaf; North, Peter; Phillipe, Pierre; Berger, Michel; Merchant, Chris; Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present a prototype algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature (LST) from OLCI and SLSTR instruments on board Sentinel-3 platform, which was developed in the framework of the SEN4LST project. For this purpose, data acquired with the ENVISAT MERIS and AATSR instruments are used as a benchmark. The objective is to improve the LST standard product (level 2) currently derived from the single AATSR instrument taking advantages of the improved characteristics of the future OLCI and SLSTR instruments. Hence, the high spectral resolution of OLCI instrument and the dual-view and thermal bands available in the SLSTR instruments have the potential to improve the characterization of the atmosphere and therefore to improve the atmospheric correction and cloud mask. Bands in the solar domain available in both instruments allow the retrieval of the surface emissivity, being a key input to the LST algorithm. Pairs of MERIS/AATSR are processed over different sites and validated with in situ measurements using the LST processor included in the BEAM software. Results showed that the proposed LST algorithm improves LST retrievals of the standard level-2 product.

  2. Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.

  3. Three-dimensional display based on dual parallax barriers with uniform resolution.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guo-Jiao; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2013-08-20

    The 3D display based on a parallax barrier is a low-cost autostereoscopic display. However, the vertical and horizontal resolution of the 3D images displayed on it will be seriously nonuniform as this display has a large number of views. It will worsen the display quality; therefore, a 3D display that consists of a 2D display panel and dual parallax barriers is proposed. With a 2D display panel, the proposed 3D display provides the synthetic images with square pixel units in which the arrangement of pixels can make the 3D image have uniform resolution. With the dual parallax barriers, the proposed 3D display shows the pixels in square pixel units for different horizontal views. Therefore, this display has uniform resolution of 3D images. A four-view prototype of the proposed 3D display is developed, and it provides uniform 3D resolution in the vertical and horizontal directions.

  4. 9. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE NEW CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS THE PICTURE AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, EMPTYING INTO THE FOREBAY AND DESILTING BASIN CENTER. THE DUAL PENSTOCKS ARE SEEN AS THE STRAIGHT LINE RUNNING TOWARD THE HYDRO PLANTS ACROSS VAN BUREN STREET. top. THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND CANAL IS VISIBLE, CURVING TO THE RIGHT BEYOND THE RAILROAD TRACKS Photographer unknown, no date - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 44. Building 102, view from mezzanine looking down to first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Building 102, view from mezzanine looking down to first floor showing Klystron tube equipment vaults with dual waveguides leaving top of vaults through bifurcation combiner system at start of waveguides; note tops of capacitor vaults along photograph to left. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Dual leadership in a hospital practice.

    PubMed

    Thude, Bettina Ravnborg; Thomsen, Svend Erik; Stenager, Egon; Hollnagel, Erik

    2017-02-06

    Purpose Despite the practice of dual leadership in many organizations, there is relatively little research on the topic. Dual leadership means two leaders share the leadership task and are held jointly accountable for the results of the unit. To better understand how dual leadership works, this study aims to analyse three different dual leadership pairs at a Danish hospital. Furthermore, this study develops a tool to characterize dual leadership teams from each other. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Six leaders were interviewed to clarify how dual leadership works in a hospital context. All interviews were transcribed and coded. During coding, focus was on the nine principles found in the literature and another principle was found by looking at the themes that were generic for all six interviews. Findings Results indicate that power balance, personal relations and decision processes are important factors for creating efficient dual leaderships. The study develops a categorizing tool to use for further research or for organizations, to describe and analyse dual leaderships. Originality/value The study describes dual leadership in the hospital context and develops a categorizing tool for being able to distinguish dual leadership teams from each other. It is important to reveal if there are any indicators that can be used for optimising dual leadership teams in the health-care sector and in other organisations.

  7. Offset dual-shaped reflectors for dual chamber compact ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo-Israel, Victor; Imbriale, William A.; Rengarajan, Sembiam R.; Mittra, Raj

    1991-01-01

    The application of the theory of the synthesis of offset dual-shaped reflectors to the design of compact ranges is examined. The object of the compact range is to provide a uniform plane wave with minimum amplitude and phase ripple over as large a volume as possible for a given size reflector. Ripple can be lowered by reducing the edge diffraction from the reflector producing the plane wave. This has been done either by serrating or rolling the edge. An alternative approach is to use dual offset-shaped reflector synthesis techniques to produce a reflector aperture distribution that is uniform over most of the aperture, but with a Gaussian taper near the edge. This approach can be used together with rolling and/or serration if desirable. The amount of phase and amplitude ripple obtained with two different dual-shaped reflector designs is studied as a function of position in the plane wave zone and reflector size in wavelengths. The amount of both transverse and longitudinal (z-component) cross polarization is studied.

  8. 2000-fold parallelized dual-color STED fluorescence nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergermann, Fabian; Alber, Lucas; Sahl, Steffen J; Engelhardt, Johann; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-01-12

    Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy enables multi-color fluorescence imaging at the nanometer scale. Its typical single-point scanning implementation can lead to long acquisition times. In order to unleash the full spatiotemporal resolution potential of STED nanoscopy, parallelized scanning is mandatory. Here we present a dual-color STED nanoscope utilizing two orthogonally crossed standing light waves as a fluorescence switch-off pattern, and providing a resolving power down to 30 nm. We demonstrate the imaging capabilities in a biological context for immunostained vimentin fibers in a circular field of view of 20 µm diameter at 2000-fold parallelization (i.e. 2000 "intensity minima"). The technical feasibility of massively parallelizing STED without significant compromises in resolution heralds video-rate STED nanoscopy of large fields of view, pending the availability of suitable high-speed detectors.

  9. Facial Rejuvenation with Fillers: The Dual Plane Technique

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Giovanni; Rauso, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy “dual plane”. A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects. PMID:26644734

  10. Validation and Comparison of AATRS AOD L2 Products over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yahui; Xue, Yong; Guang, Jie; Guo, Jianping; Li, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard on ENVISAT has been used to observe the Earth for more than 10 years since than 2002. One of main applications of AATSR instrument is to observe atmospheric aerosol, especially in retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD), taking advantage of its dual-view that helps to separate the contribution of aerosol from top of atmosphere reflectance (A. A. Kokhanovsky and de Leeuw, 2009). The project of Aerosol_CCI, as part of European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), has released new AATSR aerosol AOD products by the of 2015, including the SU v4.21 product from Swansea algorithm, ADV v2.3 product from the ATSR-2/AATSR dual view aerosol retrieval algorithm (ADV) and ORAC v03.04 product from the Oxford-RAL Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud algorithm. The previous versions of these three AOD level 2 (L2) products in 2008 have been validated over mainland China (Che and Xue, 2015). In this paper, we validated these AATSR AOD products with latest versions in mainland China in 2007, 2008 and 2010 by the means of comparison with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET). The combination of AERONET and CARSNET helps to make up for the disadvantages of small number and uneven distribution of AEROENT cites. The validation results show different performance of these AOD products over China. The performances of SU and ADV products seem to be the same with close correlation coefficient (CC) about 08~0.9 and root mean square (RMS) within 0.15 in all three years, and sensitive to high AOD values (AOD >1): more AODs and more underestimated. However, these two products do exist difference, which is that the SU algorithm retrieves more high AODs, leading to more space-time validation matches with ground-based data. The ORAC algorithm is different from the others, it can be not only used to retrieve low AODs but also high AODs over different landcover types. Even though

  11. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  12. HELIOS dual swept frequency radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The HELIOS dual swept frequency radiometer, used in conjunction with a dipole antenna, was designed to measure electromagnetic radiation in space. An engineering prototype was fabricated and tested on the HELIOS spacecraft. Two prototypes and two flight units were fabricated and three of the four units were integrated into the HELIOS spacecraft. Two sets of ground support equipment were provided for checkout of the radiometer.

  13. VIEW in Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Don; Ellis, Sherrlyn

    Under the Vocational Education Amendments (1968) to the Vocational Education Act of 1963, innovative state-level projects entitled Vital Information for Education and Work (VIEW) have been implemented. VIEW was designed as a supplementary aid for counselors, teachers, and administrators to assist students in making occupational and career choices.…

  14. Taking the Long View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Legal studies faculty need to take the long view in their academic and professional lives. Taking the long view would seem to be a cliched piece of advice, but too frequently legal studies faculty, like their students, get focused on meeting the next short-term hurdle--getting through the next class, grading the next stack of papers, making it…

  15. Multimodal Magnetic Resonance and Near-Infrared-Fluorescent Imaging of Intraperitoneal Ovarian Cancer Using a Dual-Mode-Dual-Gadolinium Liposomal Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Ravoori, M. K.; Singh, S.; Bhavane, R.; Sood, A. K.; Anvari, B.; Bankson, J.; Annapragada, A.; Kundra, V.

    2016-01-01

    The degree of tumor removal at surgery is a major factor in predicting outcome for ovarian cancer. A single multimodality agent that can be used with magnetic resonance (MR) for staging and pre-surgical planning, and with optical imaging to aid surgical removal of tumors, would present a new paradigm for ovarian cancer. We assessed whether a dual-mode, dual-Gadolinium (DM-Dual-Gd-ICG) contrast agent can be used to visualize ovarian tumors in the peritoneal cavity by multimodal MR and near infra-red imaging (NIR). Intraperitoneal ovarian tumors (Hey-A8 or OVCAR3) in mice enhanced on MR two days after intravenous DM-Dual Gd-ICG injection compared to controls (SNR, CNR, p < 0.05, n = 6). As seen on open abdomen and excised tumors views and confirmed by optical radiant efficiency measurement, Hey-A8 or OVCAR3 tumors from animals injected with DM-Dual Gd-ICG had increased fluorescence (p < 0.05, n = 6). This suggests clinical potential to localize ovarian tumors by MR for staging and surgical planning, and, by NIR at surgery for resection. PMID:28004770

  16. A dual-axis approach to understanding neuroendocrine development

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Dismukes, Andrew R.; Marceau, Kristine P.; Ruttle, Paula; Simmons, Julian; Han, Georges

    2015-01-01

    This paper on ‘a dual-axis approach to understanding neuroendocrine development’ sets out to introduce a series of paper about a novel perspective regarding stress and sex hormones, or what the authors within this special issue term ‘coupling’ of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and –gonadal axes. This view postulates that these axes do not necessarily operate in opposition, but can operate together as evidenced empirically as a positive within-person association between stress hormones like cortisol or sex hormones like testosterone. A wealth of papers within the special issue demonstrate positive coupling across acute, diurnal, basal, and longitudinal timeframes and across several different types of contexts. Reviews were meant to challenge whether this was physiologically plausible. Consistently, sophisticated statistical models were utilized in order to show a template for how to model positive coupling and to ensure that coupling was a within-person phenomenon. We cautiously considered positive coupling until the consistency of observing positive coupling was robust enough for us to consider challenging the prevailing oppositional view of these axes. We do so to acknowledge that there are contexts, moments and stages in which the function of these axes should work together: for example when contexts are both stressful and challenging or at developmental stages (like adolescence) in which the youth must grow up despite the storm and stress of youth. We hope that by putting forward a functional dual-axis approach, the field will be able to consider when and how a dual-axis approach is useful. PMID:26220016

  17. Viewing angle changeable display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jinbi; Huang, Ziqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaoxi

    2010-10-01

    Viewing angle changeable display can change the display viewing angle as needed: In the public place the display could have a narrow viewing angle for privacy, while in the private place the displays could have a wide viewing angle for the convenience of the operation and better viewing experience. This article propose a novel adjustable optical transmission device to realize the viewing angle changes for LCD by using the principle of guest- host effect of liquid crystal. The major technology is to insert a special equipment between the backlight and the LCD, through which the backlight will display either parallel or scattered features to get an either narrow or wide viewing angle. The equipment is an adjustable transmission cell (ATC) which is actually a black G-H LC cell. This ATC is the main focus of our invention. The ATC consists of a polarizer sheet and a special guest-host liquid crystal device filled with the two-phase dye (called as GH-LC in this report), to achieve the viewing angle change in the LCD. When an electrical field charges to the ATC, only the so-called near-axis lights can pass through the ATC within a relatively small angle, while the other scattered lights are absorbed sequentially by GH-LC and the polarizer sheet. On the other hand, when there is no electrical charge to the ATC, the cell behaves like a normal polarizer; and the scattered light can pass through the cell and polarizer in a normal way. This paper describes the principle and structure of the device, applies the electric field on the sample to observe the electro-optical properties, combine the theoretical and experimental research, getting the viewing angle effects of the display.

  18. A tunable dual frequency dye laser - dual frequency oscillator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abury, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The pulsed dye laser offers a tunable oscillator, followed by three amplifiers. It is pumped by a dual frequency Nd:YAG laser. Tuning and spectral width are controlled by a holographic network connected to a high power telescope. The modified two wavelength dye laser allows for absorption lidar techniques for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Line switching is achieved by electrooptical commutation. A feasibility experiment was performed with the original oscillator. A model was then built, and tested with different dyes. After a few modifications were made to improve the conversion efficiency, this oscillator was inserted in the laser to check whether the amplifier stages were correctly adjusted.

  19. Dual Hurricanes in the Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the Atlantic on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...

  20. NASA Dual Precipitation Radar Arrives at Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory arrived on Friday, Marc...

  1. Kepler Field of View

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Kepler mission will be looking continuously at over 100,000 stars in one region of the sky, in the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The field of view is extremely large for an astronomical teles...

  2. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  3. TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM STATE STREET, WITH THE NATIONAL REGISTER-LISTED OREGON STATE FORESTER'S OFFICE BUILDING TO THE LEFT OF VIEW. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  4. 33. VIEW LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST AT THE DENNIS HOTEL (PARTIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST AT THE DENNIS HOTEL (PARTIAL VIEW OF THE BLENHEIM HOTEL) - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  5. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  6. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  7. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1984-04-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  8. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  9. Dual intercalating molten electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, R.T.; Long, H.C. De; Fuller, J.; Lauderdale, W.J.; Naughton, T.; Trulove, P.C.; Bahn, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Dual Intercalating Molten Electrolyte (DIME) electrodes and cells have been examined using a number of low-melting and room-temperature molten salts. A cell with a chloroaluminate melt achieved a cycling efficiency of 85% with a discharge voltage of 2.92 V. Coke-elastomer composite electrodes underwent cation reductive intercalation without experiencing the exfoliation and degradation seen for graphite rods. Theoretical studies for an imidazolium-graphite intercalate predicted the graphite layer spacing expands between 5.18 and 8.01 {angstrom} upon insertion of the imidazolium molecule into the graphite lattice.

  10. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  11. 4. DETAILED VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON SOUTHWEST FRONT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAILED VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON SOUTHWEST FRONT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Farley & Loetscher Manufacturing Company, Factory II, 750 White Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  12. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW TOWARD CARPENTER'S HALL - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  14. The Effect of Dual-Language Immersion on Student Achievement in Math, Science, and English Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert; Li, Jennifer; Zamarro, Gema; Miller, Trey

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with many challenges to improving the quality of U.S. public K-12 education, many policymakers have viewed the study of a second language as a useful but nonessential ingredient of a world-class education system. However, others point out that dual-language education can be a powerful intervention for closing the achievement gap for…

  15. The dual-use problem, scientific isolationism and the division of moral labour.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The dual-use problem is an ethical quandary sometimes faced by scientists and others in a position to influence the creation or dissemination of scientific knowledge. It arises when (i) an agent is considering whether to pursue some project likely to result in the creation or dissemination of scientific knowledge, (ii) that knowledge could be used in both morally desirable and morally undesirable ways, and (iii) the risk of undesirable use is sufficiently high that it is not clear that the agent may permissibly pursue the project or policy. Agents said to be faced with dual-use problems have frequently responded by appealing to a view that I call scientific isolationism. This is, roughly, the view that scientific decisions may be made without morally appraising the likely uses of the scientific knowledge whose production or dissemination is at stake. I consider whether scientific isolationism can be justified in a form that would indeed provide a way out of dual-use problems. I first argue for a presumption against a strong form of isolationism, and then examine four arguments that might be thought to override this presumption. The most promising of these arguments appeals to the idea of a division of moral labour, but I argue that even this argument can sustain at most a highly attenuated form of scientific isolationism and that this variant of isolationism has little practical import for discussions of the dual-use problem.

  16. Dual laser gyro test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Malcolm E.; Moore, Kim Eric

    This paper addresses the results of a comparative test evaluation of two similar-sized but otherwise dissimilar ring laser gyroscopes (RLG's). Both units were tested side by side, with the input axes (IA's) parallel, on the same test table. This report describes the rationale and design factors considered important to the test objectives. Emphasis was placed upon the evaluation of the scale factor (SF) linearity, drift rate stability (short term and long term), and derived rate. Conclusions drawn were (1) that dual operation had an observable but insignificant effect on the test results, (2) that the benefits of dual operation outweighed the additional design and analysis efforts required at the outset of the program, and (3) that the performance characteristics of the two test articles were significantly different. The differences between the two test articles (1) led to suggestions which could direct one vendor toward obtaining improved performance and (2) resulted in the creation of a conceptually new method (DELTA TIME-COUNT histogram) for quickly assessing the quality of laser gyros (or any digital sensor device for that matter).

  17. Close up view of the center console on the flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the center console on the flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery showing the console's instrumentation and controls. The commanders station is located to the left in this view and the pilot's station is to the right in the view. The handle and lever located on the right side of the center console and towards its front is one of a pair, the commander has one on the left of his seat in his station, of Speed Brake/Thrust Controllers. These are dual purpose controllers. During ascent the controller can be use to throttle the main engines and during entry the controllers can be used to control aerodynamic drag by opening or closing the orbiter's speed brake. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Support Networks of Dual Career Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Sally A.; And Others

    Although social networks play an important role in supporting families under stress, there is some evidence that families living a stressful dual career life style may have limited network resources. To describe support networks of dual career couples and to examine the relationship between the supportiveness of the network and satisfaction with…

  19. Dual mode nuclear rocket system applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretz, J. E.; Bell, J. M.; Plebuch, R. K.; Priest, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mission areas where the dual-mode nuclear rocket system is superior to nondual-mode systems are demonstrated. It is shown that the dual-mode system is competitive with the nondual-mode system even for those specific missions and particular payload configurations where it does not have a clear-cut advantage.

  20. 7 CFR 247.19 - Dual participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dual participation. 247.19 Section 247.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.19 Dual participation. (a) What...

  1. 7 CFR 247.19 - Dual participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dual participation. 247.19 Section 247.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.19 Dual participation. (a) What...

  2. 7 CFR 247.19 - Dual participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dual participation. 247.19 Section 247.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.19 Dual participation. (a) What...

  3. Dual Learning Processes in Interactive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Wai-Tat; Anderson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Acquisition of interactive skills involves the use of internal and external cues. Experiment 1 showed that when actions were interdependent, learning was effective with and without external cues in the single-task condition but was effective only with the presence of external cues in the dual-task condition. In the dual-task condition, actions…

  4. Learning from the Past: Dual Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Nicole; Justice, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study involved identifying, categorizing, and comparing critical incidents related to qualifying dual credit high school students' decisions to enroll or not to enroll in dual credit coursework in either a traditional or early college high school. The purpose of the study was (a) to identify the reasons qualifying students decide to enroll in…

  5. A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, L. H.; Farr, E. G.; Lawry, D. I.

    Dual polarity Impulse Radiating Antennas (IRA's) may be useful in a variety of applications. The dual-polarity IRA described here has an impendence mismatch for each polarity at the focus of the reflector. In spite of this mismatch the antenna characteristics are quite good up to 10 GHz for applications where reflections within the system are not of great importance.

  6. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  7. 7 CFR 7.17 - Dual office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual office. 7.17 Section 7.17 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.17 Dual office. (a) County committee membership. A member...

  8. Departmental Issues in Dual-Academic Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Anita P.; Cunningham, Michael R.

    This paper discusses issues pertaining to the recruitment and hiring of dual-career academic couples by universities and psychology departments. Studies have shown that both husbands and wives in dual psychologist couples are more productive in number of publications, paper presentations, and grants awarded than their single counterparts, yet many…

  9. College Course Grades for Dual Enrollment Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Jill D.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study compared college course grade outcomes, both during and after high school, of dual-enrollment students to those of traditional students. The study was based on a large, multiyear sample of Iowa high school and community college students. The results showed that while in high school, dual-enrollment students consistently outperformed…

  10. Dual Career Couples: New Perspectives in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz-Loike, Marian

    This book, written for counselors and other mental health professionals, outlines the stresses and challenges dual career couples face, as well as plans for helping dual career couples learn negotiation, communicaiton, and conflict resolution skills. The book's 12 chapters are organized in 3 parts. Part 1 (chapters 1 to 4), reviews the literature…

  11. Dual Protection and Dual Methods in Women Living with HIV: The Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Regina María; Pinho, Adriana de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of HIV and unintended pregnancy has prompted a body of work on dual protection, the simultaneous protection against HIV and unintended pregnancy. This study examines dual protection and dual methods as a risk-reduction strategy for women living with HIV. Data are from a cross-sectional sample of HIV-positive women attended in Specialized STI/AIDS Public Health Service Clinics in 13 municipalities from all five regions of Brazil 2003-2004 (N = 834). Descriptive techniques and logistic regression were used to examine dual protection among women living with HIV. We expand the definition of dual protection to include consistent condom use and reversible/irreversible contraceptive methods, we test the dual methods hypothesis that women who use dual methods will use condoms less consistently than women who use only condoms, and we identify predictors of dual protection. Dual protection is common in our sample. Women who use dual methods have lower odds of consistent condom use than women who only use condoms. Among dual method users, we find that women who use an irreversible method use condoms more consistently than women who use a reversible method. Women on ART and with an HIV-serodiscordant partner have greater odds of consistent condom use than their counterparts. PMID:26316959

  12. 49. U.S. Router 460 grade separation structure. he dual elliptical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. U.S. Router 460 grade separation structure. he dual elliptical spandrel arches are the only set of arches to pass over the parkway and one of the few opportunities for parkway visitors to see the stone work of a bridge without getting off of the parkway. A unique feature of these spans is the undressed concrete on the interior facades. The view is looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. Real view thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienkowski, L.; Homma, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for enhancing active thermography for nondestructive testing. In order to make the evaluation of the data more intuitive a Real View setup is presented that uses a projection technique to let the inspector view and interact with the measurement results directly on the part in a very intuitive way. Moreover we present an analysis approach using a Sobel filter of the pulse-phase result data in order to investigate the detectability of flaws by induction thermography. By projecting this information we give a visual feedback to the operator for optimizing the probability of detection.

  14. Self-dual MacDowell-Mansouri gravity coupled to self-dual Yang-Mills fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, G. Y.

    2000-09-01

    A unified action for self-dual MacDowell-Mansouri gravity and Yang-Mills fields is proposed. The dual operation acting on the curvature and the self-dual and anti-self-dual decomposition are performed with respect to spacetime indices rather than internal indices, which makes the action simpler than the one given by Nieto and Socorro. In the new action the (anti-)self-dual Yang-Mills curvature couples only to the (anti-)self-dual curvature of the spacetime and then the self-dual and the anti-self-dual parts of the action are separated completely.

  15. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  16. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Rawlinson, K. Scott

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  17. Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. This drawing depicts a cross-section of a set of Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus (DMDA) specimen wells, one of which can include a reverse osmosis membrane to dewater a protein solution and thus cause crystallization. Depending on individual needs, two or three wells may be used, the membrane may be absent, or other proprietary enhancements may be present. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  18. Shock sensing dual mode warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Shamblen, M.; Walchak, M.T.; Richmond, L.

    1980-12-31

    A shock sensing dual mode warhead is provided for use against both soft and hard targets and is capable of sensing which type of target has been struck. The warhead comprises a casing made of a ductile material containing an explosive charge and a fuze assembly. The ductile warhead casing will mushroom upon striking a hard target while still confining the explosive. Proper ductility and confinement are necessary for fuze shock sensing. The fuze assembly contains a pair of parallel firing trains, one initiated only by dynamic pressure caused high impact deceleration and one initiated by low impact deceleration. The firing train actuated by high impact deceleration senses dynamic pressure transmitted, during deformation of the warhead, through the explosive filler which is employed as a fuzing signature. The firing train actuated by low impact deceleration contains a pyrotechnic delay to allow penetration of soft targets.

  19. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  20. The View from Somewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja

    2008-01-01

    Wilson asserts that the quest for absolute objectivity in scoring student writing--including the use of rubrics--creates harmful distance between reader and writer and ignores the unique, transactional characteristics of writing. She puts forth the view of Rosenblatt and other literacy theorists that meaning and value of texts are not rigidly…

  1. Neutron radiographic viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leysath, W.; Brown, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Neutron radiographic viewing system consisting of camera head and control processor is developed for use in nondestructive testing applications. Camera head consists of neutron-sensitive image intensifier system, power supply, and SEC vidicon camera head. Both systems, with their optics, are housed on test mount.

  2. Competing views on cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Despite intense research efforts that have provided enormous insight, cancer continues to be a poorly understood disease. There has been much debate over whether the cancerous state can be said to originate in a single cell or whether it is a reflection of aberrant behaviour on the part of a ‘society of cells’. This article presents, in the form of a debate conducted among the authors, three views of how the problem might be addressed. We do not claim that the views exhaust all possibilities. These views are (a) the tissue organization field theory (TOFT) that is based on a breakdown of tissue organization involving many cells from different embryological layers, (b) the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis that focuses on genetic and epigenetic changes that take place within single cells, and (c) the proposition that rewiring of the cell’s protein interaction networks mediated by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) drives the tumorigenic process. The views are based on different philosophical approaches. In detail, they differ on some points and agree on others. It is left to the reader to decide whether one approach to understanding cancer appears more promising than the other. PMID:24736160

  3. The Viewer Viewed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svennevig, Michael

    Collection of detailed data on normative overall patterns of television viewer behavior has been an ongoing effort of the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board (BARB) in the United Kingdom. While their measurement system--self-completion viewing diaries in conjunction with electronic meters recording television set use--may register that an…

  4. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  5. Contrasting Views on Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Arthur R., Jr.

    This paper asserts that public demands for book censorship are but one aspect of a deep public dissatisfaction with the educational establishment, and develops the thesis that the cause of this dissatisfaction is the contrast in world views and religions of those in the educational establishment and the censors. The educational establishment…

  6. MISR Views Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Florida acquired on April 9, 2000 during Terra orbit 1650. The image at the top is a color view acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. It has been reoriented so that the flight path is from left to right, to facilitate comparison with the lower image, a stereo 'anaglyph' generated using 275-m resolution red band data from the cameras viewing 45.6 degrees and 70.5 degrees aft of nadir. The anaglyph provides a three-dimensional effect when viewed using red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over the left eye. This stereoscopic 'depth perception' and the variation in brightness as a function of view angle enables scientists to assess the climate impact of different types of cloud fields. The plume from a large brush fire that burned about 15,000 acres is visible at the western edge of the Big Cypress Swamp in southern Florida. East is toward the top.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  7. The Director's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP) from the director's point of view, including the origins and basic structure of the program which ran for six years. The collaboration of teachers, advisers, and trainers is emphasized, research and evaluation procedures are discussed, and learning processes, computer studies, and distribution…

  8. Viewing Files | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML webpages, our website contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers. Documents  Adobe Acrobat Reader (.pdf)

  9. Dual multispectral and 3D structured light laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Lin, Jianyu; Arya, Shobhit; Hanna, George B.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative feedback on tissue function, such as blood volume and oxygenation would be useful to the surgeon in cases where current clinical practice relies on subjective measures, such as identification of ischaemic bowel or tissue viability during anastomosis formation. Also, tissue surface profiling may be used to detect and identify certain pathologies, as well as diagnosing aspects of tissue health such as gut motility. In this paper a dual modality laparoscopic system is presented that combines multispectral reflectance and 3D surface imaging. White light illumination from a xenon source is detected by a laparoscope-mounted fast filter wheel camera to assemble a multispectral image (MSI) cube. Surface shape is then calculated using a spectrally-encoded structured light (SL) pattern detected by the same camera and triangulated using an active stereo technique. Images of porcine small bowel were acquired during open surgery. Tissue reflectance spectra were acquired and blood volume was calculated at each spatial pixel across the bowel wall and mesentery. SL features were segmented and identified using a `normalised cut' algoritm and the colour vector of each spot. Using the 3D geometry defined by the camera coordinate system the multispectral data could be overlaid onto the surface mesh. Dual MSI and SL imaging has the potential to provide augmented views to the surgeon supplying diagnostic information related to blood supply health and organ function. Future work on this system will include filter optimisation to reduce noise in tissue optical property measurement, and minimise spot identification errors in the SL pattern.

  10. Shot H3837: Darht's First Dual-Axis Explosive Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Jacob; McNeil, Wendy Vogan; Harsh, James; Hull, Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Test H3837 was the first explosive shot performed in front of both flash x-ray axes at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility. Executed in November 2009, the shot was an explosively-driven metal flyer plate in a series of experiments designed to explore equation-of-state properties of shocked materials. Imaging the initial shock wave traveling through the flyer plate, DARHT Axis II captured the range of motion from the shock front emergence in the flyer to breakout at the free surface; the Axis I pulse provided a perpendicular perspective of the shot at a time coinciding with the third pulse of Axis II. Since the days of the Manhattan Project, penetrating radiography with multiple frames from different viewing angles has remained a high-profile goal at the Laboratory. H3837 is merely the beginning of a bright future for two-axis penetrating radiography.

  11. Holographic Duals for Five-Dimensional Superconformal Quantum Field Theories.

    PubMed

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Uhlemann, Christoph F

    2017-03-10

    We construct global solutions to type IIB supergravity with 16 residual supersymmetries whose space-time is AdS_{6}×S^{2} warped over a Riemann surface. Families of solutions are labeled by an arbitrary number L≥3 of asymptotic regions, in each of which the supergravity fields match those of a (p,q) five-brane, and may therefore be viewed as near-horizon limits of fully localized intersections of five-branes in type IIB string theory. These solutions provide compelling candidates for holographic duals to a large class of five-dimensional superconformal quantum field theories which arise as nontrivial UV fixed points of perturbatively nonrenormalizable Yang-Mills theories, thereby making them more directly accessible to quantitative analysis.

  12. Fostering radical conceptual change through dual-situated learning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2004-02-01

    This article examines how the Dual-Situated Learning Model (DSLM) facilitates a radical change of concepts that involve the understanding of matter, process, and hierarchical attributes. The DSLM requires knowledge of students' prior beliefs of science concepts and the nature of these concepts. In addition, DSLM also serves two functions: it creates dissonance with students' prior knowledge by challenging their epistemological and ontological beliefs about science concepts, and it provides essential mental sets for students to reconstruct a more scientific view of the concepts. In this study, the concept heat transfer: heat conduction and convection, which requires an understanding of matter, process, and hierarchical attributes, was chosen to examine how DSLM can facilitate radical conceptual change among students. Results show that DSLM has great potential to foster a radical conceptual change process in learning heat transfer. Radical conceptual change can definitely be achieved and does not necessarily involve a slow or gradual process.

  13. Dual-polarization radar observations of Mars - Tharsis and environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, J. K.; Campbell, D. B.; Ostro, S. J.

    1982-10-01

    Results are presented of dual-polarization CW radar observations of Mars made at Arecibo during the 1980 opposition. The observations are approximately centered on the Tharsis Ridge. It is noted that a large proportion of the echo from this region is in the form of diffuse-depolarized scatter. The strongest depolarization is seen as coming from the Tharsis Ridge, although detectable power is observed in both polarizations out to each limb. The peak of the depolarization enhancement is found to coincide with the longitudes of the major Tharsis volcanoes. Whereas it is clear that the depolarization cannot be confined solely to these volcanic shields, it is thought likely that most of the enhanced depolarization derives from extreme decimeter-scale roughness of volcanic origin. The existence of extensive lava flows over the Tharsis plains is seen as supporting this view.

  14. Holographic Duals for Five-Dimensional Superconformal Quantum Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2017-03-01

    We construct global solutions to type IIB supergravity with 16 residual supersymmetries whose space-time is AdS6×S2 warped over a Riemann surface. Families of solutions are labeled by an arbitrary number L ≥3 of asymptotic regions, in each of which the supergravity fields match those of a (p ,q ) five-brane, and may therefore be viewed as near-horizon limits of fully localized intersections of five-branes in type IIB string theory. These solutions provide compelling candidates for holographic duals to a large class of five-dimensional superconformal quantum field theories which arise as nontrivial UV fixed points of perturbatively nonrenormalizable Yang-Mills theories, thereby making them more directly accessible to quantitative analysis.

  15. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  16. Revisiting impressions using dual-arch trays.

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Making routine perfect impressions is the goal of any restorative dentist. Using dual-arch trays is an easy, repeatable way to accomplish that goal, as long as each step is done before the next and each step is performed perfectly. This column reviewed several articles that support the metal dual-arch concept and provided some clinical tips that might help restorative dentists. The dual-arch technique does have its limits and is meant for one or two teeth in a quadrant when there are other teeth to occlude with. Also, if the case involves anterior guidance, a full-arch impression maybe advisable.

  17. Dual-Use Review and the IRB.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing threat of the misuse of biomedical research by terrorists or others, institutional review boards (IRBs) are likely to encounter research protocols that raise dual-use issues. While IRBs should be informed about these issues and should be prepared to address them, they should not be burdened with the responsibility of conducting their own dual-use review. A dual-use committee (DUC), institutional biosafety committee (IBC), or other committee should handle this task and convey its findings and recommendations to institutional officials.

  18. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  19. MISR Views Hurricane Carlotta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With winds reaching 155 mph, this year's Hurricane Carlotta became the second strongest eastern Pacific June hurricane on record. These images from MISR show the hurricane on June 21, the day of its peak intensity. The pictures are oriented so that the spacecraft's flight path is from left to right; north is at the left.

    The top image is a color view from MISR's vertical (nadir) camera, showing Carlotta's location in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 500 km south of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

    The middle image is a stereoscopic 'anaglyph' created using MISR's nadir camera plus one of its aftward-viewing cameras, and shows a closer view of the area around the hurricane. Viewing with red/blue glasses (red filter over the left eye) is required to obtain a 3-D stereo effect.

    Near the center of the storm, the eye is about 25 km in diameter and partially obscured by a thin cloud. About 50 km to the left of the eye, the sharp drop-off from high-level to low-level cloud gives a sense of the vertical extent of the hidden eye wall. The low-level cloud is spiraling counterclockwise into the center of the cyclone. It then rises in the vicinity of the eye wall and emerges with a clockwise rotation at high altitude. Maximum surface winds are found near the eye wall.

    The bottom stereo image is a zoomed-in view of convective clouds in the hurricane's spiral arms. The arms are breeding grounds for severe thunderstorms, with associated heavy rain and flooding, frequent lightning, and tornadoes. Thunderstorms rise in dramatic fashion to about the same altitude as the high cloud near the hurricane's center, and are made up of individual cells that are typically less than 20 km in diameter. This image shows a number of these cells, some fairly isolated, and others connected together. Their three-dimensional structure is clearly apparent in this stereo view.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science

  20. Dose optimization for dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography based on an energy-resolved photon-counting detector: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjin; Lee, Seungwan; Kang, Sooncheol; Eom, Jisoo

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) has been used to decompose breast images and improve diagnostic accuracy for tumor detection. However, this technique causes an increase of radiation dose and an inaccuracy in material decomposition due to the limitations of conventional X-ray detectors. In this study, we simulated the dual-energy CEDM with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector (ERPCD) for reducing radiation dose and improving the quantitative accuracy of material decomposition images. The ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM was compared to the conventional dual-energy CEDM in terms of radiation dose and quantitative accuracy. The correlation between radiation dose and image quality was also evaluated for optimizing the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM technique. The results showed that the material decomposition errors of the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM were 0.56-0.67 times lower than those of the conventional dual-energy CEDM. The imaging performance of the proposed technique was optimized at the radiation dose of 1.09 mGy, which is a half of the MGD for a single view mammogram. It can be concluded that the ERPCD-based dual-energy CEDM with an optimal exposure level is able to improve the quality of material decomposition images as well as reduce radiation dose.

  1. Low-Profile, Dual-Wavelength, Dual-Polarized Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A single-aperture, low-profile antenna design has been developed that supports dual-polarization and simultaneous operation at two wavelengths. It realizes multiple beams in the elevation plane, and supports radiometric, radar, and conical scanning applications. This antenna consists of multiple azimuth sticks, with each stick being a multilayer, hybrid design. Each stick forms the h-plane pattern of the C and Ku-band vertically and horizontally polarized antenna beams. By combining several azimuth sticks together, the elevation beam is formed. With a separate transceiver for each stick, the transmit phase and amplitude of each stick can be controlled to synthesize a beam at a specific incidence angle and to realize a particular side-lobe pattern. By changing the transmit phase distribution through the transceivers, the transmit antenna beam can be steered to different incidence angles. By controlling the amplitude distribution, different side lobe patterns and efficiencies can be realized. The receive beams are formed using digital beam synthesis techniques, resulting in very little loss in the receive path, thus enabling a very-low loss receive antenna to support passive measurements.

  2. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage generator is installed on an OSV— (a) The neutral of the dual-voltage system must be solidly grounded at...

  3. 46 CFR 120.324 - Dual voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual voltage generators. 120.324 Section 120.324... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.324 Dual voltage generators. (a) A dual voltage generator installed on a vessel shall be of the grounded type, where: (1) The neutral of a dual...

  4. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage generator is installed on an OSV— (a) The neutral of the dual-voltage system must be solidly grounded at...

  5. 46 CFR 120.324 - Dual voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual voltage generators. 120.324 Section 120.324... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.324 Dual voltage generators. (a) A dual voltage generator installed on a vessel shall be of the grounded type, where: (1) The neutral of a dual...

  6. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage generator is installed on an OSV— (a) The neutral of the dual-voltage system must be solidly grounded at...

  7. 46 CFR 120.324 - Dual voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual voltage generators. 120.324 Section 120.324... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.324 Dual voltage generators. (a) A dual voltage generator installed on a vessel shall be of the grounded type, where: (1) The neutral of a dual...

  8. 46 CFR 120.324 - Dual voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual voltage generators. 120.324 Section 120.324... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.324 Dual voltage generators. (a) A dual voltage generator installed on a vessel shall be of the grounded type, where: (1) The neutral of a dual...

  9. 46 CFR 120.324 - Dual voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual voltage generators. 120.324 Section 120.324... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.324 Dual voltage generators. (a) A dual voltage generator installed on a vessel shall be of the grounded type, where: (1) The neutral of a dual...

  10. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage generator is installed on an OSV— (a) The neutral of the dual-voltage system must be solidly grounded at...

  11. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage generator is installed on an OSV— (a) The neutral of the dual-voltage system must be solidly grounded at...

  12. Hot section viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the development and testing of a prototype combustor viewing system. The system allows one to see and record images from the inside of an operating gas turbine combustor. The program proceeded through planned phases of conceptual design, preliminary testing to resolve problem areas, prototype design and fabrication, and rig testing. Successful tests were completed with the viewing system in the laboratory, in a high pressure combustor rig, and on a Pratt and Whitney PW20307 jet engine. Both film and video recordings were made during the tests. Digital image analysis techniques were used to enhance images and bring out special effects. The use of pulsed laser illumination was also demonstrated as a means for observing liner surfaces in the presence of luminous flame.

  13. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOEpatents

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  14. REACTOR VIEWING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Monk, G.S.

    1959-01-13

    An optical system is presented that is suitable for viewing objects in a region of relatively high radioactivity, or high neutron activity, such as a neutronic reactor. This optical system will absorb neutrons and gamma rays thereby protecting personnel fronm the harmful biological effects of such penetrating radiations. The optical system is comprised of a viewing tube having a lens at one end, a transparent solid member at the other end and a transparent aqueous liquid completely filling the tube between the ends. The lens is made of a polymerized organic material and the transparent solid member is made of a radiation absorbent material. A shield surrounds the tube betwcen the flanges and is made of a gamma ray absorbing material.

  15. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOEpatents

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  16. JSC Aerial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This North-looking view shows some of the Johnson Space Center's central buildings and facilities neighboring its Project Management Facility (Building 1) from which this scene was photographed. The Houston-based Mission Control Center is in the center of the frame. Visible buildings surrounding the mall area include the Flight Operations Facility, Crew Systems Laboratory, Photographic Technology Laboratory, Technical Services shop, branch cafeteria, Mission Control Center office wing and the Central Data Office.

  17. Assassination: A Military View.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    States and examine our national policy . National Policy The United States recognizes the stipulations of the 1907 hague Con- vention IV which, in...legal view is briefly conducted. The impact of assassination upon the United States is also reviewed. The conclusion provides some hope that by...nation upon the United States Is also reviewed. The conclusion provides some hope that by knowing better what assassination is, and collaterally

  18. View factor computer program (program view) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of program VIEW is to compute view factors between specified surfaces and to be compatible with level 15.5 of the NASTRAN structural analysis program. Program VIEW is a modification of a (finite element) view factor computation program called RAVFAC. VIEW is designed to run on an IBM System/360 operating under OS (operating system), with a minimum region size of 110 K bytes. The actual computation of view factors is still performed exactly as it was in the original version of RAVFAC. In developing VIEW, RAVFAC was modified to satisfy the following compatibility requirements: (1) accept finite element input which can also be used as input to NASTRAN, (2) produce output (view factors) in a format which can be used as input to NASTRAN, and (3) follow NASTRAN program design so that in the future VIEW can be incorporated into NASTRAN as a subroutine. The VIEW program permits computation of the view factors between surfaces, taking into account the presence of any intermediate surfaces. VIEW also computes these view factors either by contour integration or by finite difference (double summation) methods.

  19. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable.

  20. Tensor-based Multi-view Feature Selection with Applications to Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bokai; He, Lifang; Kong, Xiangnan; Yu, Philip S.; Hao, Zhifeng; Ragin, Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    In the era of big data, we can easily access information from multiple views which may be obtained from different sources or feature subsets. Generally, different views provide complementary information for learning tasks. Thus, multi-view learning can facilitate the learning process and is prevalent in a wide range of application domains. For example, in medical science, measurements from a series of medical examinations are documented for each subject, including clinical, imaging, immunologic, serologic and cognitive measures which are obtained from multiple sources. Specifically, for brain diagnosis, we can have different quantitative analysis which can be seen as different feature subsets of a subject. It is desirable to combine all these features in an effective way for disease diagnosis. However, some measurements from less relevant medical examinations can introduce irrelevant information which can even be exaggerated after view combinations. Feature selection should therefore be incorporated in the process of multi-view learning. In this paper, we explore tensor product to bring different views together in a joint space, and present a dual method of tensor-based multi-view feature selection (dual-Tmfs) based on the idea of support vector machine recursive feature elimination. Experiments conducted on datasets derived from neurological disorder demonstrate the features selected by our proposed method yield better classification performance and are relevant to disease diagnosis. PMID:25937823

  1. Fringe Formation in Dual-Hologram Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    A first order geometrical optics treatment of holograms combined with the generation of interference fringes by two point sources is used to describe reference fringe formation in non-diffuse dual-hologram interferometry.

  2. Dual current readout for precision plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Bistable amplifier prevents damage in the low range circuitry of a dual scale ammeter. It senses the current and switches automatically to the high range circuitry as the current rises above a preset level.

  3. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Schizophrenia Related Conditions Anosognosia Dual Diagnosis Psychosis Self-harm Sleep Disorders Suicide About Us Where We Stand on Public Policy ...

  4. Dual control vibration tests of flight hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    A vibration retest of a spacecraft flight instrument, the Mars Observer Camera (MOC), was conducted using extremal dual control to automatically limit the shaker force and notch the shaker acceleration at resonances. This was the first application of extremal dual control with flight hardware at JPL. The retest was successful in that the environment was representative of flight plus some margin, the instrument survived without any structural or performance degradation, and the force limiting worked very well. The test set-up, force limiting procedure, and test results are described herein. It is concluded that dual control should be utilized when there is a concern about overtesting in hard-base-drive tests and the instrumentation for force measurement and control is available. Recommendations for improving the implementation of dual control are provided as a result of this first experience.

  5. Dual Enrollment Participation from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanny, M. Allison

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.

  6. Dual photochemical replenisher system reduces chemical losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolber, J. M.

    1967-01-01

    Dual replenisher system reduces chemical losses and maintains optimum solution concentration during long nonprocessing cycles of photo processing machines. Using a single 3-position switch and solenoid control valves, the system provides instantaneous flow control to each processing tank.

  7. Fringe formation in dual-hologram interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W.

    Reference-fringe formation in nondiffuse dual-hologram interferometry is described by combining a first-order geometrical hologram treatment with interference fringes generated by two point sources. The first-order imaging relationships can be used to describe reference-fringe patterns for the geometry of the dual-hologram interferometry. The process can be completed without adjusting the two holograms when the reconstructing wavelength is less than the exposing wavelength, and the process is found to facilitate basic intereferometer adjustments.

  8. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  9. On the manipulability of dual cooperative robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.

  10. 14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  11. 12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  13. General perspective view of the Whiteson Bridge, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Whiteson Bridge, view looking north - Whiteson Bridge, Spanning South Yamhill River at Milepoint 42 on Pacific Highway West (Oregon Route 99W), Whiteson, Yamhill County, OR

  14. Interior view, detail view of southeast elevation to show niche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view of southeast elevation to show niche four tiers down from the east/one up from the south corner; bust is of Mendelssohn - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  15. Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche two tiers down from the west corner (niche also shown in MD-1109-F-8) - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  16. Interior view, close view of the northwest elevation to show ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of the northwest elevation to show niche four tiers down from the west corner/one from the north - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of northwest elevation to show niche one tier down from the west corner; here the bust is of Beethoven - National Park Seminary, Ballroom, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  18. 70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the snake or worm fences used to reinforce the roadway alignment. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. 14. View north of Tropic wind tunnel and frontal view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View north of Tropic wind tunnel and frontal view of main fan (typical). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 8. Interior view of first floor kitchen. View to northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of first floor kitchen. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  1. 10. Interior view of typical first floor bedroom. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of typical first floor bedroom. View to southeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  2. 9. Interior view of first floor porch. View to southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of first floor porch. View to southeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  3. 7. Interior view of first floor living room. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of first floor living room. View to west. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  4. 18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN LADDER, AT APPROXIMATELY BRIDGE DECK LEVEL, SHOWING PORTION OF GEAR TRAIN AT TURNTABLE. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  5. 9. General view inside machine shop section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view inside machine shop section of roundhouse. View to north. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  6. 19. General view inside engine house section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. General view inside engine house section of roundhouse. View to northeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  7. 21. General view inside boiler shop section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General view inside boiler shop section of roundhouse. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  8. 20. General view inside blacksmith shop section of roundhouse. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. General view inside blacksmith shop section of roundhouse. View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  9. 2. VIEW TOWARD EAST, WEST FACADE Subsequent views identified by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TOWARD EAST, WEST FACADE Subsequent views identified by bay. Four bays numbered sequentially one to four from north. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  10. 12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD OF MIDSHIP AREA WITH MASTS AND FIVE PORT OIL TANK HATCHES SEEN AT LEFT. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 1. CLUBHOUSE. CONTEXT VIEW OF FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CLUBHOUSE. CONTEXT VIEW OF FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. 38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  13. Interior view, law library closer view to show painted details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, law library closer view to show painted details on the groin vaults - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Interior view, close view of stairwell and entrance to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, close view of stairwell and entrance to the great hall - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 5. Headon view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Head-on view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  1. View southeast, general view, barn at left Woods Homestead, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, general view, barn at left - Woods Homestead, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  2. 3. VIEW OF EAST SOUTHEAST, GROUND LEVEL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EAST - SOUTHEAST, GROUND LEVEL VIEW OF APPROACH SPANS, NORTH END OF BRIDGE, MAIN SPANS IN BACKGROUND - Buffalo River Bridge, Spanning Buffalo River on U.S. Highway 65, Marshall, Searcy County, AR

  3. 12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  4. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  5. 10. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 24. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH RETAINING WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH RETAINING WALL AND PARKING STRUCTURE BELOW REA LOADING DOCK (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 12. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING AND ADJOINING TRACK SHED (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 8. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 3. General view from above, view to southeast showing deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view from above, view to southeast showing deck and crib relationship with bilge and keel blocks. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 6. Closer view of ruins of brick engine house; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Closer view of ruins of brick engine house; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  11. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN CENTER, RAILWAY RIVER TRUSS ON LEFT, HIGHWAY TRUSSES IN BACKGROUND - White Rock Bridge, Spanning Pawcatuck River & White Rock Canal, Westerly, Washington County, RI

  12. VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. DORR THICKENER & ORE BRIDGE AT LEFT, HOT BLAST STOVES & DUST CATCHER CENTER, CAST HOUSE AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN CONTROL STATION, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN CONTROL STATION, VIEW TOWARDS WEST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Control Station, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  14. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. 8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR VIEW, WIND TUNNEL 139 Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR VIEW, WIND TUNNEL 139 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  16. 6. VIEW NORTH, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, SUPERSONIC WIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTH, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Interior view, detail view in first floor drawing room to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in first floor drawing room to show whale oil chandelier and ceiling medallion (duplicate of HABS No. MS-61-A-32) - Melrose, Main House, 1 Melrose-Montebello Parkway, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  18. General view. View to southwest Offutt Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view. View to southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. OVERALL view OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL view OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. view TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. OVERALL VIEW OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  1. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BLACKSTONE RIVER FLOODPLAIN. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  2. 42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  3. 43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  4. 41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, July 12, 1980. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  5. 44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 15, 1977. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  6. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  7. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  8. General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking east along Five Rivers Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  9. General topographic view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General topographic view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking northwest from Crab Creek Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  10. General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking southwest from Five Rivers Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  11. 2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  12. View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See HABS No. CA 2774-B) in background. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  13. 33. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF A VIEWING WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF A VIEWING WINDOW IN ROOM 108, THE OPERATIONS AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  15. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  16. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  17. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  18. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  19. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  20. Detail view of substructure, view looking at the south abutments ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of substructure, view looking at the south abutments and the pedestrian promenade - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  1. 3. General perspective view of Sellwood Bridge, view from west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General perspective view of Sellwood Bridge, view from west looking east across the Willamette River, north side of structure. - Sellwood Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at Southeast Tacoma Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW OF THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW OF THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM STATE STREET, WITH THE K.O.G BUILDING (KEEP OREGON GREEN) IN THE FOREGROUND. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  3. Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking northwest to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking northwest to show board & batten door opened to reveal original planks, with scale; note; nursery beyond door to west - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  4. Interior view of the entry to the sail loft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the entry to the sail loft. View facing west southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Shipfitter's Shop, Seventh Street near Avenue C, Adjacent to Repair Basins, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  6. Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  7. Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear and south east sides, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  8. Oblique view of front and southeast sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and southeast sides, view towards the north, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  9. Planar view of front (west) side, view towards the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of front (west) side, view towards the east northeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4414, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  10. Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the northeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  11. Oblique view of front and south sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and south sides, view towards the northeast without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4414, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  12. Planar view of front (southwest) side, view towards the northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of front (southwest) side, view towards the northeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  13. Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of rear (northeast) side, view towards the southwest, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  14. Interior view of wall detail of southeast wall, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of wall detail of southeast wall, view towards the southeast, without scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4408, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  15. Interior planar view of south wall, view towards the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior planar view of south wall, view towards the south southeast with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  16. Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of front and northwest sides, view towards the northeast, with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4409, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  17. Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  18. Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  19. Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view facing south - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 8. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, BASEMENT, FULLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, BASEMENT, FULLER VACUUM PUMPS - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. VIEW OF RETAINING WALL BEHIND FACILITY 532. VIEW FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RETAINING WALL BEHIND FACILITY 532. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEND IN BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEND IN BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #2 ON CEDAR DRIVE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #2 ON CEDAR DRIVE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW OF TERRACING BEHIND UNIT 608 CEDAR DRIVE. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TERRACING BEHIND UNIT 608 CEDAR DRIVE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW OF OPEN GRASSY AREA BEHIND PLAYGROUND #1. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF OPEN GRASSY AREA BEHIND PLAYGROUND #1. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH FACILITY 708 ON LEFT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH FACILITY 708 ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH DATE DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH DATE DRIVE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Oblique view of east end and south side, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east end and south side, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Temporary Storehouse & Gas Cylinder Storage, Avenue D, adjacent to east side of Facility No. 29, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Interior view showing north and east access doors, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing north and east access doors, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Temporary Storehouse & Gas Cylinder Storage, Avenue D, adjacent to east side of Facility No. 29, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  15. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING, THE MOTORPOOL, AND THE AUTOMOTIVE SHOP (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  16. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTORPOOL, AUTOMOTIVE SHOP AND FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  17. 15. Span 1, view across at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Span 1, view across at traffic level; view to west. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  18. 1. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to west. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  19. 3. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to east. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  20. 1. VIEW EAST, GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE WITHIN SETTING, WILLIMANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST, GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE WITHIN SETTING, WILLIMANTIC LINEN COMPANY MILL NO. 1 ON LEFT, RIVER IMPOUNDED BY MILL DAM IN FOREGROUND - Windham Road Bridge, Windham Road, spanning Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ENTRY STAIRWAY ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ENTRY STAIRWAY ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Interior view, room 1103, view looking from the southeast to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, room 1103, view looking from the southeast to fireplace and mantel and inglenook, with scale - National Park Seminary, Music Hall, Linden Lane at western edge of campus, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  5. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS SHOWING CALCIUM CARBIDE IN COOLING CARS ON THE FLOOR. DECEMBER 26, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. View northeast toward west side of building 68. View partially ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast toward west side of building 68. View partially obscured by automobiles and storage structures. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  7. 2. VIEW EAST, GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE WITHIN SETTING, APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE WITHIN SETTING, APPROACH SPANS ON RIGHT, PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE FOR HIKING TRAIL ON LEFT - Bridge No. 1132, Route 80, spanning Hammonasset River, Madison, New Haven County, CT

  8. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Perspective view of timberpile bridge with steel stringers, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of timber-pile bridge with steel stringers, view looking northeast - Stafford Avenue Bridge, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, east end of Stafford Avenue, Manahawkin, Ocean County, NJ

  10. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  11. ISIFC - dual Biomedical Engineering School.

    PubMed

    Butterlin, Nadia; Soto-Romero, Georges; Duffaud, Jacques; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The Superior Institute for Biomedical Engineering (ISIFC), created in 2001, is part of the Franche-Comté University and is accredited by the French Ministry of National Education. Its originality lies in its innovative course of studies, which trains engineers in the scientific and medical fields to get both competencies. The Institute therefore collaborates with the University Hospital Centre of Besançon (CHU), biomedical companies and National Research Centres (CNRS and INSERM). The dual expertise trainees will have acquired at the end of their 3 years course covers medical and biological skills, scientific and Technical expertises. ISIFC engineers answer to manufacturer needs for skilled scientific and technical staff in instrumentation and techniques adapted to diagnosis, therapeutics and medical control, as well as the needs of potential users for biomedical devices, whether they are doctors, hospital staff, patients, laboratories, etc... Both the skills and the knowledge acquired by an ISIFC engineer will enable him/her to fulfil functions of study, research and development in the industrial sector.

  12. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  13. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  14. Dual-surface dielectric depth detector for holographic millimeter-wave security scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Keller, Paul E.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is presently deploying millimeter-wave whole body scanners at over 20 airports in the United States. Threats that may be concealed on a person are displayed to the security operator of this scanner. "Passenger privacy is ensured through the anonymity of the image. The officer attending the passenger cannot view the image, and the officer viewing the image is remotely located and cannot see the passenger. Additionally, the image cannot be stored, transmitted or printed and is deleted immediately after being viewed. Finally, the facial area of the image has been blurred to further ensure privacy." Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) originated research into this novel security technology which has been independently commercialized by L-3 Communications, SafeView, Inc. PNNL continues to perform fundamental research into improved software techniques which are applicable to the field of holographic security screening technology. This includes performing significant research to remove human features from the imagery. Both physical and software imaging techniques have been employed. The physical imaging techniques include polarization diversity illumination and reception, dual frequency implementation, and high frequency imaging at 100 GHz. This paper will focus on a software privacy technique using a dual surface dielectric depth detector method.

  15. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. Grain tripper straddles belt conveyor at mid-view. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  17. A dual cone-beam CT system for image guided radiotherapy: Initial performance characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hao; Bowsher, James; Yin Fangfang; Giles, William

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a recently developed benchtop dual cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system with two orthogonally placed tube/detector sets. Methods: The benchtop dual CBCT system consists of two orthogonally placed 40 Multiplication-Sign 30 cm flat-panel detectors and two conventional x-ray tubes with two individual high-voltage generators sharing the same rotational axis. The x-ray source to detector distance is 150 cm and x-ray source to rotational axis distance is 100 cm for both subsystems. The objects are scanned through 200 Degree-Sign of rotation. The dual CBCT system utilized 110 Degree-Sign of projection data from one detector and 90 Degree-Sign from the other while the two individual single CBCTs utilized 200 Degree-Sign data from each detector. The system performance was characterized in terms of uniformity, contrast, spatial resolution, noise power spectrum, and CT number linearity. The uniformities, within the axial slice and along the longitudinal direction, and noise power spectrum were assessed by scanning a water bucket; the contrast and CT number linearity were measured using the Catphan phantom; and the spatial resolution was evaluated using a tungsten wire phantom. A skull phantom and a ham were also scanned to provide qualitative evaluation of high- and low-contrast resolution. Each measurement was compared between dual and single CBCT systems. Results: Compared to single CBCT, the dual CBCT presented: (1) a decrease in uniformity by 1.9% in axial view and 1.1% in the longitudinal view, as averaged for four energies (80, 100, 125, and 150 kVp); (2) comparable or slightly better contrast (0{approx}25 HU) for low-contrast objects and comparable contrast for high-contrast objects; (3) comparable spatial resolution; (4) comparable CT number linearity with R{sup 2}{>=} 0.99 for all four tested energies; (5) lower noise power spectrum in magnitude. Dual CBCT images of the skull phantom and the

  18. Dual Treatments as Starting Point for Integrative Perceptions in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kërënxhi, Svjetllana; Gjoci, Pranvera

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we recommend mathematical teaching through dual treatments. The dual treatments notion, classified in dual interpretations, dual analyses, dual solutions, and dual formulations, is explained through concrete examples taken from mathematical textbooks of elementary education. Dual treatments provide opportunities for creating…

  19. Sitting and Television Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. METHODS: The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and “high risk” for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk. PMID:25633255

  20. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. A Pediatrician's View.

    PubMed

    Frader, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of individuals with intersex conditions include considerable abuse at the hands of medical personnel. Despite changes in expert opinion about full disclosure of the nature of each patient's condition and recommendations to defer cosmetic surgical interventions, we do not know how much actual practice has changed over several decades. Moreover, discrepancies continue between the views of who have these conditions and medical practitioners, especially about preventing cancer and retaining gonads for the purpose of providing "natural" hormone production. We have insufficient data to resolve these different perspectives.

  2. Mixed views of biotech

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.

    1987-06-05

    Public Perceptions of Biotechnology is the second of a series of reports entitled New Developments in Biotechnology. This latest study is based on interviews with 1273 American adults and has a margin of error of 2 to 3%. Participants were queried on their attitudes toward science and the environment, as well as on matters directly related to biotechnology. Whereas public interest in science has eroded slightly, there is increased optimism about the benefits to be derived from science. Some 62% of the sample thought the benefits will outweigh the risks, whereas in 1980 a Harris survey indicated that only 58% of the country held this view.

  3. Parallel Debugging Using Graphical Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Voyeur , a prototype system for creating graphical views of parallel programs, provid(s a cost-effective way to construct such views for any parallel...programming system. We illustrate Voyeur by discussing four views created for debugging Poker programs. One is a vteneral trace facility for any Poker...Graphical views are essential for debugging parallel programs because of the large quan- tity of state information contained in parallel programs. Voyeur

  4. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  5. Dual-energy contrast enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis: concept, method, and evaluation on phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puong, Sylvie; Patoureaux, Fanny; Iordache, Razvan; Bouchevreau, Xavier; Muller, Serge

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the development of dual-energy Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (CEDBT). A method to produce background clutter-free slices from a set of low and high-energy projections is introduced, along with a scheme for the determination of the optimal low and high-energy techniques. Our approach consists of a dual-energy recombination of the projections, with an algorithm that has proven its performance in Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography1 (CEDM), followed by an iterative volume reconstruction. The aim is to eliminate the anatomical background clutter and to reconstruct slices where the gray level is proportional to the local iodine volumetric concentration. Optimization of the low and high-energy techniques is performed by minimizing the total glandular dose to reach a target iodine Signal Difference to Noise Ratio (SDNR) in the slices. In this study, we proved that this optimization could be done on the projections, by consideration of the SDNR in the projections instead of the SDNR in the slices, and verified this with phantom measurements. We also discuss some limitations of dual-energy CEDBT, due to the restricted angular range for the projection views, and to the presence of scattered radiation. Experiments on textured phantoms with iodine inserts were conducted to assess the performance of dual-energy CEDBT. Texture contrast was nearly completely removed and the iodine signal was enhanced in the slices.

  6. Characterization of Suomi-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands dual gain anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Oudrari, Hassan

    2012-09-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) contains six dual gain bands in the reflective solar spectrum. The dual gain bands are designed to switch gain mode at pre-defined thresholds to achieve high resolution at low radiances while maintaining the required dynamic range for science. During pre-launch testing, an anomaly in the electronic response before transitioning from high to low gain was discovered and was characterized. This anomaly has been confirmed using MODIS data collected during Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNOs). The analysis of the Earth scene data shows that this dual gain anomaly can be characterized using sensor earth-view observations. To help understand this dual gain artifact, the anomaly region and electronic offsets were tracked during the first 8 months of VIIRS operation. The temporal analysis shows the anomaly region can drift ~20 DN and is impacted by a detector's DC Restore. The estimated anomaly flagging regions cover ~2.5 % of the high gain dynamic range and are consistent with prelaunch analysis and the on-orbit flagging LookUp Table. The prelaunch results had a smaller anomaly range, likely due to more stable electronics over a shorter data collection time. Finally, this study suggests future calibration efforts to focus on the anomaly's impact on science products and a possible correction method to reduce uncertainties.

  7. Subjective quality and depth assessment in stereoscopic viewing of volume-rendered medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousson, Johanna; Couturou, Jeanne; Vetsuypens, Arnout; Platisa, Ljiljana; Kumcu, Asli; Kimpe, Tom; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    No study to-date explored the relationship between perceived image quality (IQ) and perceived depth (DP) in stereoscopic medical images. However, this is crucial to design objective quality metrics suitable for stereoscopic medical images. This study examined this relationship using volume-rendered stereoscopic medical images for both dual- and single-view distortions. The reference image was modified to simulate common alterations occurring during the image acquisition stage or at the display side: added white Gaussian noise, Gaussian filtering, changes in luminance, brightness and contrast. We followed a double stimulus five-point quality scale methodology to conduct subjective tests with eight non-expert human observers. The results suggested that DP was very robust to luminance, contrast and brightness alterations and insensitive to noise distortions until standard deviation σ=20 and crosstalk rates of 7%. In contrast, IQ seemed sensitive to all distortions. Finally, for both DP and IQ, the Friedman test indicated that the quality scores for dual-view distortions were significantly worse than scores for single-view distortions for multiple blur levels and crosstalk impairments. No differences were found for most levels of brightness, contrast and noise distortions. So, DP and IQ didn't react equivalently to identical impairments, and both depended whether dual- or single-view distortions were applied.

  8. Getting Ahead with Dual Credit: Dual-Credit Participation, Outcomes, and Opportunities in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holten, Brandi; Pierson, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of dual-credit participation rates and trends between the 2011-12 and 2014-15 school years. Dual-credit participation by demographic characteristics such as race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status is explored throughout each of the five briefs contained within this report. Each report brief also includes…

  9. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  10. Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, T. W.; Picqué, N.

    2010-06-01

    The advent of laser frequency combs a decade ago has already revolutionized optical frequency metrology and precision spectroscopy. Extensions of laser combs from the THz region to the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray frequencies are now under exploration. Such laser combs have become enabling tools for a growing tree of applications, from optical atomic clocks to attosecond science. Recently, the millions of precisely controlled laser comb lines that can be produced with a train of ultrashort laser pulses have been harnessed for highly multiplexed molecular spectroscopy. Fourier multi-heterodyne spectroscopy, dual comb spectroscopy, or asynchronous optical sampling spectroscopy with frequency combs are emerging as powerful new spectroscopic tools. Even the first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. Longer recording times allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. The spectral structure of sharp lines of a laser comb can be very useful even in the recording of broadband spectra without sharp features, as they are e.g. encountered for molecular gases or in the liquid phase. A second frequency comb of different line spacing permits the generation of a comb of radio frequency beat notes, which effectively map the optical spectrum into the radio frequency regime, so that it can be recorded with a single fast photodetector, followed by digital signal analysis. In the time domain, a pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser excites some molecular medium at regular time intervals. A second pulse train of different repetition

  11. Dual adaptation of apparent concomitant motion contingent on head rotation frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, R. B.; Welch, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    Perceived movement of a stationary visual stimulus during head motion was measured before and after adaptation intervals during which participants performed voluntary head oscillations while viewing a moving spot. During these intervals, participants viewed the spot stimulus moving alternately in the same direction as the head was moving during either .25- or 2.0-Hz oscillations, and then in the opposite direction as the head at the other of the two frequencies. Postadaptation measures indicated that the visual stimuli were perceived as stationary only if traveling in the same direction as that viewed during adaptation at the same frequency of head motion. Thus, opposite directions of spot motion were perceived as stationary following adaptation depending on head movement frequency. The results provide an example of the ability to establish dual (or "context-specific") adaptations to altered visual-vestibular feedback.

  12. Detecting Dual AGN at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in most, if not all, galaxies, along with observations of galaxy mergers, suggests that pairs of SMBHs should exist for some time in the merger remnant. Observational evidence for these systems at kpc-scale separations (i.e. dual AGN) has dramatically increased recently through a combination of spectral and morphological selections. I discuss observations of CXOXBJ142607.6+353351 (CXOJ1426+35), a candidate dual AGN at z=1.175, and put its properties, including significant obscuration, within the context of other candidate/confirmed dual AGN at lower redshifts. Though dual AGN are expected to be more common at higher redshifts, they are more difficult to detect. Furthermore, adding to the difficulties of detection are a number of other physical mechanisms which can mimic the spectroscopic signature of two Type 2 AGN. In particular, I will discuss the possibility of strong outflows from an AGN. These outflow phenomena can be an important feedback mechanism in galaxies and are apparently common in AGN, making them a viable alternative to the dual AGN scenario. Based on our candidate's luminosity and emission line intensities, we find that an outflow is a possibility. If this is the case, such an outflow would be especially strong and has implications for AGN feedback in galaxies. However, the dual AGN scenario cannot be ruled out, and at z=1.175, the two putative AGN could potentially be resolved with Chandra. Other candidate dual AGN at similar redshifts and with significant obscuration could also be confirmed this way. This research was sponsored by the Strategic University Research Partnership Program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Arkansas NASA EPSCoR program.

  13. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Duijkers, Judith C. L. M.; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.

    2016-01-01

    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other’s expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one’s behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one’s self-regulative abilities. PMID:27445939

  14. Data Sharing and Dual-Use Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The concept of dual-use encapsulates the potential for well-intentioned, beneficial scientific research to also be misused by a third party for malicious ends. The concept of dual-use challenges scientists to look beyond the immediate outcomes of their research and to develop an awareness of possible future (mis)uses of scientific research. Since 2001 much attention has been paid to the possible need to regulate the dual-use potential of the life sciences. Regulation initiatives fall under two broad categories—those that develop the ethical education of scientists and foster an awareness and responsibility of dual-use issues, and those which assess the regulation of information being generated by current research. Both types of initiatives are premised on a cautious, risk-adverse philosophy which advocates careful examination of all future endpoints of research endeavors. This caution advocated within initiatives such as pre-publication review of journal articles contrasts to the obligation to share underpinning data sharing discussions. As the dual-use debate has yet to make a significant impact on data sharing discussions (and vice versa) it is possible that these two areas of knowledge control may present areas of ethical conflict for scientists, and thus need to be more closely examined. This paper examines the tension between the obligation to share exemplified by data sharing principles and the concerns raised by the risk-cautious culture of the dual-use debates. The paper concludes by reflecting on the issues of responsibility as raised by dual-use as relating to data sharing, such as the chain of custody for shared data. PMID:21805213

  15. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  16. Commissioning the dual etalon Fabry-Perot modes of the Robert Stobie spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Browne, K.; Makananise, T.; Koeslag, A.; Hettlage, C.; Wiid, E.; Simon, E.; Smith, M. P.; Pietraszewski, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) includes a Fabry-Pérot system that provides spectroscopic imaging over the 8 arcmin diameter science field of view, covering the wavelength range 430-860 nm with spectral resolutions ranging from 300 to10000 in four resolution modes. The higher resolution modes require the simultaneous use of two etalons. We discuss the complications encountered in implementing the dual etalon modes, the mechanical and operational solutions that have been devised, and the first science verification results. We also describe an efficient method for adjusting the parallelism of etalons in situ, and the use of the dual etalon system to determine the transmission of the individual etalons. The new dual etalon system was commissioned in late 2015 and is now producing useful scientific observations.

  17. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  18. Dual adaptive control: Design principles and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookerjee, Purusottam

    1988-01-01

    The design of an actively adaptive dual controller based on an approximation of the stochastic dynamic programming equation for a multi-step horizon is presented. A dual controller that can enhance identification of the system while controlling it at the same time is derived for multi-dimensional problems. This dual controller uses sensitivity functions of the expected future cost with respect to the parameter uncertainties. A passively adaptive cautious controller and the actively adaptive dual controller are examined. In many instances, the cautious controller is seen to turn off while the latter avoids the turn-off of the control and the slow convergence of the parameter estimates, characteristic of the cautious controller. The algorithms have been applied to a multi-variable static model which represents a simplified linear version of the relationship between the vibration output and the higher harmonic control input for a helicopter. Monte Carlo comparisons based on parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis indicate the superiority of the dual controller over the baseline controller.

  19. View generated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, James G.

    1992-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.

  20. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  1. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  2. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  3. Voltage and Calcium Dual Channel Optical Mapping of Cultured HL-1 Atrial Myocyte Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weiwei; Fast, Vladimir G.; Ye, Tong; Ai, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Optical mapping has proven to be a valuable technique to detect cardiac electrical activity on both intact ex vivo hearts and in cultured myocyte monolayers. HL-1 cells have been widely used as a 2-Dimensional cellular model for studying diverse aspects of cardiac physiology. However, it has been a great challenge to optically map calcium (Ca) transients and action potentials simultaneously from the same field of view in a cultured HL-1 atrial cell monolayer. This is because special handling and care is required to prepare healthy cells that can be electrically captured and optically mapped. Therefore, we have developed an optimal working protocol for dual channel optical mapping. In this manuscript, we have described in detail how to perform the dual channel optical mapping experiment. This protocol is a useful tool to enhance the understanding of action potential propagation and Ca kinetics in arrhythmia development. PMID:25867896

  4. Share or compete? Load-dependent recruitment of prefrontal cortex during dual-task performance

    PubMed Central

    Low, Kathy A.; Leaver, Echo E.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Dual-task performance requires flexible attention allocation to two or more streams of information. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is considered important for executive function and recent modeling work proposes that attention control may arise from selective activation and inhibition of different processing units within this region. Here we used a tone discrimination task and a visual letter memory task to examine whether this type of competition could be measurable using a neuroimaging technique, the event-related optical signal, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Left and right DLPFC structures were differentially affected by task priority and load, with the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being preferentially recruited by the visual memory task, whereas the two tasks competed for recruitment, in a spatially segregated manner, in right MFG. The data provide support for a competition view of dual-task processing. PMID:19572909

  5. Dual energy CT via fast kVp switching spectrum estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dan; Langan, David A.; Wu, Xiaoye; Pack, Jed D.; Benson, Thomas M.; Tkaczky, J. Eric; Schmitz, Andrea M.

    2009-02-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in dual energy CT imaging with several acquisition methods being actively pursued. Here we investigate fast kVp switching where the kVp alternates between low and high kVp every view. Fast kVp switching enables fine temporal registration, helical and axial acquisitions, and full field of view. It also presents several processing challenges. The rise and fall of the kVp, which occurs during the view integration period, is not instantaneous and complicates the measurement of the effective spectrum for low and high kVp views. Further, if the detector digital acquisition system (DAS) and generator clocks are not fully synchronous, jitter is introduced in the kVp waveform relative to the view period. In this paper we develop a method for estimation of the resulting spectrum for low and high kVp views. The method utilizes static kVp acquisitions of air with a small bowtie filter as a basis set. A fast kVp acquisition of air with a small bowtie filter is performed and the effective kVp is estimated as a linear combination of the basis vectors. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated through the reconstruction of a water phantom acquired with a fast kVp acquisition. The impact of jitter due to the generator and detector DAS clocks is explored via simulation. The error is measured relative to spectrum variation and material decomposition accuracy.

  6. The Grassmannian origin of dual superconformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Cheung, Clifford

    2010-03-01

    A dual formulation of the S Matrix for mathcal {N} = 4 SYM has recently been presented, where all leading singularities of n-particle N k-2MHV amplitudes are given as an integral over the Grassmannian G( k, n), with cyclic symmetry, parity and superconformal invariance manifest. In this short note we show that the dual superconformal invariance of this object is also manifest. The geometry naturally suggests a partial integration and simple change of variable to an integral over G( k - 2, n). This change of variable precisely corresponds to the mapping between usual momentum variables and the “momentum twistors” introduced by Hodges, and yields an elementary derivation of the momentumtwistor space formula very recently presented by Mason and Skinner, which is manifestly dual superconformal invariant. Thus the G( k, n) Grassmannian formulation allows a direct understanding of all the important symmetries of mathcal {N} = 4 SYM scattering amplitudes.

  7. Public Television Viewing in a Dual Channel Market: Some Big Surprises! Info. Packets No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David; LeRoy, Judith

    In a recent study of the Tampa (Florida) market, TRAC Media Services acquired some interesting information about the market's response to its two public television stations. WEDU is a VHF-signal community station that reaches about 745,000 households in a week, and WUSF is a university-licensed UHF station that reaches about 547,000. Month-long…

  8. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  9. Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

  10. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  11. A dual-threshold radar detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, K. J.

    It is known that the beam agility of a phased-array radar can be utilized to enhance target detection capability as compared to a radar which has the same power but which radiates its energy uniformly over the solid angle being surveilled. A dual-threshold approach for realizing this enhancement is examined. Quantitative results are presented parametrically for four signal fluctuation models. The study also identifies the optimum combination of dual-threshold design parameters for each target model under a wide range of imposed system constraints such as the allowed number of false alarms per beam position. It is shown that under certain imposed constraints, no enhancement is possible.

  12. Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.

  13. Dual diagnosis among physicians: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Lusilla, Pilar; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Nasillo, Viviana; Díaz, Albert; Valero, Sergi; Padrós, Jaume; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence of mental disorders and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) among doctors is a cause of serious concern due to its negative personal, professional, and social consequences. This work provides an overview of the prevalence of dual diagnosis among physicians, suggests a clinical etiological model to explain the development of dual diagnosis in doctors, and recommends some treatment strategies specifically for doctors. The most common presentation of dual diagnosis among doctors is the combination of alcohol use disorders and affective disorders. There are also high rates of self-medication with benzodiazepines, legal opiates, and amphetamines compared to the general population, and cannabis use disorders are increasing, mainly in young doctors. The prevalence of nicotine dependence varies from one country to another depending on the nature of public health policies. Emergency medicine physicians, psychiatrists, and anaesthesiologists are at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder compared with other doctors, perhaps because of their knowledge of and access to certain legal drugs. Two main pathways may lead doctors toward dual diagnosis: (a) the use of substances (often alcohol or self-prescribed drugs) as an unhealthy strategy to cope with their emotional or mental distress and (b) the use of substances for recreational or other purposes. In both cases, doctors tend to delay seeking help once a problem has been established, often for many years. Denial, minimization, and rationalization are common defense mechanisms, maybe because of the social stigma associated with mental or substance use disorders, the risk of losing employment/medical license, and a professional culture of perfectionism and denial of emotional needs or failures. Personal vulnerability interacts with these factors to increase the risk of a dual diagnosis developing in some individuals. When doctors with substance use disorders accept treatment in programs

  14. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography.

    PubMed

    Travieso Aja, M M; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Alayón Hernández, S; Vega Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2014-01-01

    The degree of vascularization in breast lesions is related to their malignancy. For this reason, functional diagnostic imaging techniques have become important in recent years. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is a new, apparently promising technique in breast cancer that provides information about the degree of vascularization of the lesion in addition to the morphological information provided by conventional mammography. This article describes the state of the art for dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography. Based on 15 months' clinical experience, we illustrate this review with clinical cases that allow us to discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique.

  15. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  16. How self-dual is QCD?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum characteristics quantifying dynamical tendency toward self-duality in gauge theories could be used to judge the relevance of classical solutions or the viability of classically motivated vacuum models. Here we decompose the field strength of equilibrium gauge configurations into self-dual and anti-self-dual parts, and apply absolute X-distribution method to the resulting polarization dynamics in order to construct such characteristics. Using lattice regularization and focusing on pure-glue SU(3) gauge theory at zero temperature, we find evidence for positive but very small dynamical tendency for self-duality of vacuum in the continuum limit.

  17. Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewke, Kevin; Camarillo, David; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Breeden, David; Salisbury, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in using confocal microscopy to observe tissue structure and function for in vivo pathology. Although confocal microscopy can provide image resolution that is comparable to histopathology, it can be limited by a small field-of-view as well as a low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we show that image mosaicing can enhance confocal microscopy by stitching multiple images together to widen the field-of-view and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Specifically, we present a real-time image mosaicing system for imaging human skin with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope. Our system allows the user to "paint" an image mosaic in real-time and aids navigation by localizing the current view with respect to the larger image map. We first discuss image calibration, then describe an efficient algorithm for real-time image mosaicing, and finally present experimental results obtained in vivo with a dual-axes confocal microscope.

  18. Views from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.

  19. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  20. Primal-Dual Interior Methods for Quadratic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustrova, Anna

    Interior methods are a class of computational methods for solving a con- strained optimization problem. Interior methods follow a continuous path to the solution that passes through the interior of the feasible region (i.e., the set of points that satisfy the constraints). Interior-point methods may also be viewed as methods that replace the constrained problem by a sequence of unconstrained problems in which the objective function is augmented by a weighted "barrier" term that is infinite at the boundary of the feasible region. Convergence to a solution of the constrained problem is achieved by solving a sequence of unconstrained problems in which the weight on the barrier term is steadily reduced to zero. This thesis concerns the formulation and analysis of interior methods for the solution of a quadratic programming (QP) problem, which is an optimization problem with a quadratic objective function and linear constraints. The linear constraints may include an arbitrary mixture of equality and inequality constraints, where the inequality constraints may be subject to lower and/or upper bounds. QP problems arise in a wide variety of applications. An important application is in sequential quadratic programming methods for nonlinear optimization, which involve minimizing a sequence of QP subproblems based on a quadratic approximation of the nonlinear objective function and a set of linearized nonlinear constraints. Two new interior methods for QP are proposed. Each is based on the properties of a barrier function defined in terms of both the primal and dual variables. The first method is suitable for a QP with all inequality constraints. At each iteration, the Newton equations for minimizing a quadratic model of the primal-dual barrier function are reformulated in terms of a symmetric indefinite system of equations that is solved using an inertia controlling factorization. This factorization provides an effective method for the detection and convexification of

  1. A dual extremum principle for a population equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, W. L.; Leininger, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    A dual extremum principle for the Verhulst-Pearl population equation is constructed using a complementary variational technique. The dual formulation utilizes a minimum principle recently developed by Leitmann to convert the functional optimization problem into a parameter optimization problem.

  2. SkyView Virtual Telescope:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas A.; McDonald, Laura M.; Scollick, Keith A.

    2015-11-01

    The SkyView Virtual telescope provides access to survey datasets ranging from radio through the gamma-ray regimes. Over 100 survey datasets are currently available. The SkyView library referenced here is used as the basis for the SkyView web site (at http://skvyiew.gsfc.nasa.gov) but is designed for individual use by researchers as well. SkyView's approach to access surveys is distinct from most other toolkits. Rather than providing links to the original data, SkyView attempts to immediately re-render the source data in the user-requested reference frame, projection, scaling, orientation, etc. The library includes a set of geometry transformation and mosaicking tools that may be integrated into other applications independent of SkyView.

  3. Maturing Defense Support of Civil Authorities and the Dual Status Commander Arrangement Through the Lens of Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Dual Status Commander Arrangement Through the Lens of Process Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...ARRANGEMENT THROUGH THE LENS OF PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Ryan Burke Sue McNeil April 2015 The views expressed in this report are those of the authors...the DSC- led response to Hurricane Sandy in New York. Using the data collected during the Sandy case study as a basis for analysis, the monograph

  4. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  5. The OhioView Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio View Consortium is a group of universities, colleges, K-12 schools, libraries, and local and State government agencies in the State of Ohio working with the USGS and NASA to provide affordable, integrated access to and delivery of U.S. Government satellite and geospatial data. The Ohio View Project is a pilot project that combines the USGS activities in providing an integrated information access and delivery capability with the activities of the Ohio View Consortium 

  6. MODIS Views North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image over the North Pole was acquired by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard the Terra spacecraft, on May 5, 2000. The scene was received and processed by Norway's MODIS Direct Broadcast data receiving station, located in Svalbard, within seconds of photons hitting the sensor's detectors. (Click for more details about MODIS Direct Broadcast data.) In this image, the sea ice appears white and areas of open water, or recently refrozen sea surface, appear black. The irregular whitish shapes toward the bottom of the image are clouds, which are often difficult to distinguish from the white Arctic surface. Notice the considerable number of cracks, or 'leads,' in the ice that appear as dark networks of lines. Throughout the region within the Arctic Circle leads are continually opening and closing due to the direction and intensity of shifting wind and ocean currents. Leads are particularly common during the summer, when temperatures are higher and the ice is thinner. In this image, each pixel is one square kilometer. Such true-color views of the North Pole are quite rare, as most of the time much of the region within the Arctic Circle is cloaked in clouds. Image by Allen Lunsford, NASA GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory; Data courtesy Tromso receiving station, Svalbard, Norway

  7. FWCW: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Li, A S

    1995-12-01

    The personal experiences at the Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum were described by a Chinese American veterinarian. The author became aware that women were primarily the persons living in poverty in the world. Business and government appeared more concerned with economic growth. As a consequence, developed countries with 20% of world population consume 80% of the world's resources. The privilege of money secures a position of power in the world, power to buy up the resources of the world. This process is unsustainable and inequitable. Women are viewed as key players in shifting the balance in favor of a higher quality of life. The NGO workshops on Women in Livestock Development (WILD) was run by women veterinarians, who worked at the local level with women in poor areas. WILD operates out of offices in Arkansas in the USA. WILD women work in Sichuan, China, among the Han and Tibetans in increasing family income through heifer and livestock production. Conference participants from WILD programs talked about their experiences with increased income and loans to other women. The World Women's Veterinary Association members, who attended the conference, visited a small animal clinic in Beijing run by the Agriculture Ministry, and Beijing Agricultural University and its Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Demonstrations were given of small animal acupuncture. The author found the conference to be a success and found that press reports misrepresented the energy generated by the meeting.

  8. New Paranal Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Last year saw very good progress at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The third and fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, MELIPAL and YEPUN had "First Light" (cf. PR 01/00 and PR 18/00 ), while the first two, ANTU and KUEYEN , were busy collecting first-class data for hundreds of astronomers. Meanwhile, work continued towards the next phase of the VLT project, the combination of the telescopes into the VLT Interferometer. The test instrument, VINCI (cf. PR 22/00 ) is now being installed in the VLTI Laboratory at the centre of the observing platform on the top of Paranal. Below is a new collection of video sequences and photos that illustrate the latest developments at the Paranal Observatory. The were obtained by the EPR Video Team in December 2000. The photos are available in different formats, including "high-resolution" that is suitable for reproduction purposes. A related ESO Video News Reel for professional broadcasters will soon become available and will be announced via the usual channels. Overview Paranal Observatory (Dec. 2000) Video Clip 02a/01 [MPEG - 4.5Mb] ESO PR Video Clip 02a/01 "Paranal Observatory (December 2000)" (4875 frames/3:15 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 4.5Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 13.5 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 02a/01 shows some of the construction activities at the Paranal Observatory in December 2000, beginning with a general view of the site. Then follow views of the Residencia , a building that has been designed by Architects Auer and Weber in Munich - it integrates very well into the desert, creating a welcome recreational site for staff and visitors in this harsh environment. The next scenes focus on the "stations" for the auxiliary telescopes for the VLTI and the installation of two delay lines in the 140-m long underground tunnel. The following part of the video clip shows the start-up of the excavation work for the 2.6-m VLT Survey

  9. 13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking northwest showing a typical arrangement of lease space offices, with glass door, lavatory and clothes closets. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  10. Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrines, Off Avenue C, at Repair Basins B13, B15-B18 & B20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the creek, Henry Clay village right of creek, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge in middleground, and Hagley area beyond the bridge - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  12. 56. Photocopy of newspaper illustration. MAIN VIEW: EAST, INSET VIEW: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of newspaper illustration. MAIN VIEW: EAST, INSET VIEW: NORTHWEST. (From Illustrirte Zeitung, 'Die Neuen Docks der 'Hamburg-Amerikanischen Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft' in Hoboken, New Jersey,' June 9, 1883, p. 495. Artist unknown) - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel for load-out belt conveyor system located below tanks. Square, numbered spouts gravity-feed grain from overhead bins onto belt. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  14. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST VIEW OF EAST PORTAL SHOWING SKEW AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST- VIEW OF EAST PORTAL SHOWING SKEW AND PORTAL BRACING. - National Docks Branch Bridge N.D.2F, Spans former Central Railroad of New Jersey , west of New Jersey Turnpike, north of Communipaw Avenue near Johnson Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ACROSS CANAL PRISM, FROM ROUTE 146 EMBANKMENT. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  17. FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW WITH STREET ON RIGHT HAND SIDE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW WITH STREET ON RIGHT HAND SIDE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 170. GENERAL VIEW DOWN WASP STREET. VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST DOWN WASP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. GENERAL VIEW DOWN WASP STREET. VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST DOWN WASP ST. FROM 4TH AVE. SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING D-180, 60 (AIR REWORK FACILITY), 458, 419, 418, 416, AND 19-20. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  19. 5. Oblique view, west end and south side, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view, west end and south side, view to northeast. Shed-roofed entries on south side of lean-to will be replaced in this project to provide handicap access. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 34. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE, LOOKING ALONG CENTERLINE OF GIANELLA BRIDGE, WITH HAMILTON CITY, GLENN COUNTY, IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  1. 30. VIEW TO WEST. DETAIL VIEW OF ORIGINAL LATTICE RAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW TO WEST. DETAIL VIEW OF ORIGINAL LATTICE RAILING, LADDER TO CONTROL CABIN, DRIVE SHAFT FOR SWING SPAN AT RIGHT, NEXT TO LACED VERTICAL COMPRESSION MEMBER Photographer unknown, November 17, 1952 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  2. 11. Axial view of west bay, view to east. Transverse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Axial view of west bay, view to east. Transverse wall at end of space was installed after cessation of railway use. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from downstream, view to south from edge of bluff east of Rawson Road. Bridge visible among trees at left center. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. 18. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW OF PAD A WITH MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN SERVICE POSITION, 02 December 1981. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. 33. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW OF PAD B WITH MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN STOWED POSITION, 02 December 1981. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 249. Smart View Recreation Area. View of parkway curve with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    249. Smart View Recreation Area. View of parkway curve with the stone drain on the left and the snake fence on the right reinforcing the roadway alignment. Facing south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. 248. Smart view Recreation Area. View of one of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    248. Smart view Recreation Area. View of one of the parkway curves with a snake fence on the left and a stone drain on the right reinforcing the roadway alignment. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE AND PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, SEEN FROM THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF COTTAGE 231 BEDROOM #3 WITH VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF COTTAGE 231 BEDROOM #3 WITH VIEW OF ROOF'S BUNGALOW-STYLE RAFTER TAILS. HILLSIDE BEHIND HOUSE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. NOTE TWO MODELS OF SWAN FALLS-MADE SPACE HEATERS. - Swan Falls Village, Superintendent's Cottage, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTH. THIS VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTH. THIS VIEW SHOWS THE PRIVACY FENCE AND AMOUNT OF COMMON AREA BETWEEN THE HOUSES - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September 8, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4229, 9/6/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July 5, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #3988, 7/5/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 5, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4930, 5/5/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March 9, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4801, 3/9/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 29, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5049, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 28, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5046, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View to southeast, June 2, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5054, 6/7/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE C. 1907 BENTON COUNTY BANK, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE C. 1907 BENTON COUNTY BANK, VIEW LOOKING NORTH ALONG SECOND STREET, SHOWING EXISTING CONDITIONS OF THE STREETSCAPE IN THE VICINITY OF MADISON AVENUE SW AND SECOND STREET. - Corvallis Downtown Historic District, Bounded by First & Sixth Streets, Van Buren & Western Avenues, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  19. 57. VIEW DOWN TENSION RUNS FROM CATWALK OVER WINDERS: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW DOWN TENSION RUNS FROM CATWALK OVER WINDERS: View towards northwest looking down the tension runs for the cables. Photograph taken from atop the catwalk over the winding machinery. The California Street cable is on the left and the Hyde Street cable on the right. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FRONT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FRONT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A NORTHEAST CORNER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A NORTHEAST CORNER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Interior view, detail view of the burnished aluminum and goldleaf ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view of the burnished aluminum and gold-leaf bracket lamps mounted on the limestone walls of the auditorium; the lamps were designed by Arthur Brown - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. INTERIOR VIEW, HALL TO CENTER REAR OF HOUSE, CONSTRUCTION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, HALL TO CENTER REAR OF HOUSE, CONSTRUCTION VIEW WITH FLOOR REMOVED (TO ADD I-BEAMS) REVEALS THE TOP OF THE VAULTED BRICK WINE CELLAR IN THE BASEMENT (CRUCIFORM PLAN) - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  9. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 71. Close up view of downstream view of four large ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Close up view of downstream view of four large taintor gates and section for sector gate (now removed). Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 6. Oblique view, south side and east end, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view, south side and east end, view to northwest. Note original bi-fold doors in left and right bays, replacement door in center bay. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 28. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. VIEW OVER TOP OF TRUSS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. VIEW OVER TOP OF TRUSS FROM CONTROL CABIN DECK. Photographer unknown, August 1947 (Note that frame for electrical power cables is still in place, though the bridge was converted to hand operation almost ten years earlier.) - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  13. 34. TIOGA ROAD, VIEW EAST OF OLMSTEAD POINT. SAME VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. TIOGA ROAD, VIEW EAST OF OLMSTEAD POINT. SAME VIEW AS CA-149-18. LOOKING NNW. GIS: N-37 48 46.8 / W-119 28 58.4 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. General perspective view of Vale Commercial Historic District, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Vale Commercial Historic District, view looking north on Main Street at intersection of Main and B Streets - Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  15. 38. Historic view of the Museum of Art, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic view of the Museum of Art, view looking north toward the south facade and the exterior wall of the P.L. Campbell Memorial Courtyard (date unknown) - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  16. Interior view, detail view of the balustrade; the balustrade is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view of the balustrade; the balustrade is cast bronze and consists of two ribbed posts alternating with a single post decorated with twisted serpents - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 1. General view from upper floor of Building 131. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view from upper floor of Building 131. View to north, showing Building 277 and Building 203 in context, with scrap storage bins in foreground; Tobin Bridge and Little Mystic Channel in background. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 8. Historic view, Incinerator (Building 203). View to southeast, c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic view, Incinerator (Building 203). View to southeast, c. 1950's Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 9. Historic view, Pier 10. View to east, 1932. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic view, Pier 10. View to east, 1932. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8777, USN # 271-32, 5/9/32 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 10. Historic view, Pier 10. Aerial view to east, 1943. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic view, Pier 10. Aerial view to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8685, USN #SQA466, 8/17/43 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 1. General view from upper window of Building 131, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view from upper window of Building 131, view to southeast showing Dry Dock 5 between Pier 11 and Pier 10, with Pier 9 in distance. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Interior view of loading dock, main floor, looking east. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of loading dock, main floor, looking east. View shows roof truss system, elevated dock floor, and metal roll-up doors with metal casement windows above them - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. Interior view, view looking up through the center of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, view looking up through the center of the seven-story spiral staircase; in the center of the spiral is a chandelier with exposed bulbs at each floor level. It culminates in a chrome and brass globe. - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  15. Who Chooses Dual Language Education for Their Children and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 724 families of dual language enrichment students in the South-west USA explored what kinds of families had chosen dual language education for their children and why. Of those parents who chose dual language for their children, 45.4% speak primarily English with their child, while 54.6% speak primarily Spanish. English-dominant parents…

  16. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  17. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  18. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...