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Sample records for aatsr dual view

  1. AATSR - Precise Sea-Surface Temperature for Climate Monitoring and for Operational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Corlett, Gary; Donlon, Craig; Stark, John

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is an imaging radiometer specifi- cally designed to measure Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) to the demanding levels of accuracy and stability required for climate research. AATSR, which has been operating continuously on ESA's Envisat Satellite since its launch in 2002, achieves the required levels of accuracy on account of its unique dual view, whereby each terrestrial scene is viewed twice, once at nadir and then through an inclined path which uses a different atmospheric path-length, thereby providing a direct observation of atmospheric effects, leading to an exceptionally accurate atmospheric correction. This feature is accompanied by an advanced calibration system combined with excellent optical and thermal designs. Recent rigorous and extensive comparisons with in situ data have shown that, for most of the global oceans, AATSR can achieve and accuracy of around 0.2o C with high stability, which has qualified them for use in climate analysis schemes. Because AATSR is the third sensor in a near-continuous series which started with the launch of ATSR-1 on ERS-1 satellite in 1991, there is a time-series of 16+ years of climate standard SSTs which have recently been re-processed and are now becoming available to the World-wide user community from data centres in Europe. SST data from AATSR have been included in the suite of operational SST products generated by the GODAE/GHRSST Pilot Project, on a timescale needed by operational users and in a format which allows easy ingestion and error estimates for data from AATSR and most of the other sensors currently providing SST measurements from space. Within the GODAE/GHRSST data-products, AATSR SST data are generally regarded as the benchmark for accuracy and are used to provide bias corrections for data from the other sensors, which often have superior coverage, thus exploiting synergistically the complementary qualities if the different data-sets. The UK Met Office

  2. AATSR Based Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's nadir and 55◦ forward views, and thus the corresponding height. AATSR provides an advantage compared to other stereo-view satellite instruments: with AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 μm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. Besides ash plumes, the algorithm can be applied to any elevated feature with sufficient contrast to the background, such as smoke and dust plumes and clouds. The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015.

  3. Validation of the AATSR L2 GSST product with in situ measurements from the M-AERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, E.; Minnett, P.; Remedios, J.; Mannerings, B.; Corlett, G.; Edwards, M.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.

    Precise, in situ, measurements of skin Sea Surface Temperature (SSST) have been obtained over the Eastern Caribbean Sea, using the Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed onboard the Explorer of the Seas cruise ship. These measurements provide a near-continuous SSST dataset and have been used to validate the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) Level 2 operational dual-view Gridded Sea Surface Temperature (GSST) product over the area. The (A)ATSR instrument has a unique design in that it has both a nadir- and forward-view, allowing the Earth's surface to be viewed along two different atmospheric path lengths and enabling an improved atmospheric correction to be made when retrieving measurements of SST. The infrared radiometer also uses an innovative and exceptionally stable on-board calibration system, which, together with actively cooled detectors, gives exceptionally high radiometric sensitivity and precision, enabling SSTs to be retrieved to within ± 0.3 K (1-sigma limit). The unprecedented number of measurements provided by the M-AERI project enables us to validate the AATSR SST products on a scale that has not been possible with its two predecessors, ATSR-1 and ATSR-2. Validation results obtained between September 2002 and September 2003 are presented and indicate that, although the AATSR appears to measure slightly warm (circa + 0.14 K), the GSST product is accurate to within 0.28-0.41 K (Root Mean Square difference) in this geographical region, depending on the validation criteria used. We also present the results of further investigations into a number of validation points that do not fall within the target ± 0.3 K accuracy zone.

  4. A sea surface reflectance model for (A)ATSR, and application to aerosol retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Thomas, G. E.; Grainger, R. G.

    2010-07-01

    A model of the sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is presented for the visible and near-IR channels (over the spectral range 550 nm to 1.6 μm) of the dual-viewing Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs). The intended application is as part of the Oxford-RAL Aerosols and Clouds (ORAC) retrieval scheme. The model accounts for contributions to the observed reflectance from whitecaps, sun-glint and underlight. Uncertainties in the parametrisations used in the BRDF model are propagated through into the forward model and retrieved state. The new BRDF model offers improved coverage over previous methods, as retrievals are possible into the sun-glint region, through the ATSR dual-viewing system. The new model has been applied in the ORAC aerosol retrieval algorithm to process Advanced ATSR (AATSR) data from September 2004 over the south-eastern Pacific. The assumed error budget is shown to be generally appropriate, meaning the retrieved states are consistent with the measurements and a priori assumptions. The resulting field of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is compared with colocated MODIS-Terra observations, AERONET observations at Tahiti, and cruises over the oceanic region. MODIS and AATSR show similar spatial distributions of AOD, although MODIS reports values which are larger and more variable. It is suggested that assumptions in the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm may lead to a positive bias in MODIS AOD of order 0.01 at 550 nm over ocean regions where the wind speed is high.

  5. A sea surface reflectance model for (A)ATSR, and application to aerosol retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Thomas, G. E.; Grainger, R. G.

    2010-03-01

    A model of the sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is presented for the visible and near-IR channels (over the spectral range 550 nm to 1.6 μm) of the dual-viewing Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs). The intended application is as part of the Oxford-RAL Aerosols and Clouds (ORAC) retrieval scheme. The model accounts for contributions to the observed reflectance from whitecaps, sun-glint and underlight. Uncertainties in the parametrisations used in the BRDF model are propagated through into the forward model and retrieved state. The new BRDF model offers improved coverage over previous methods, as retrievals are possible into the sun-glint region, through the ATSR dual-viewing system. The new model has been applied in the ORAC aerosol retrieval algorithm to process Advanced ATSR (AATSR) data from September 2004 over the south-eastern Pacific. The assumed error budget is shown to be generally appropriate, meaning the retrieved states are consistent with the measurements and a priori assumptions. The resulting field of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is compared with colocated MODIS-Terra observations, AERONET observations at Tahiti, and cruises over the oceanic region. MODIS and AATSR show similar spatial distributions of AOD, although MODIS reports values which are larger and more variable. It is suggested that assumptions in the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm may lead to a positive bias in MODIS AOD of order 0.01 at 550 nm over ocean regions where the wind speed is high.

  6. The WATERMED field experiment: validation of the AATSR LST product with in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, E.; Soria, G.; Sobrino, J.; Remedios, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G.

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ESA's Envisat Satellite, is the third in a series of a precision radiometers designed to measure Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with accuracies of better than ± 0.3 K (within 1-sigma limit). Since its launch in March 2001, a prototype AATSR Land Surface Temperature (LST) product has been produced for validation purposes only, with the product becoming operational from mid-2004. The (A)ATSR instrument design is unique in that it has both a nadir- and a forward-view, allowing the Earth's surface to be viewed along two different atmospheric path lengths, thus enabling an improved atmospheric correction to be made when retrieving surface temperature. It also uses an innovative and exceptionally stable on-board calibration system for its infrared channels, which, together with actively cooled detectors, gives extremely high radiometric sensitivity and precision. In this presentation, results from a comparison of the prototype LST product with ground-based measurements obtained at the WATERMED (WATer use Efficiency in natural vegetation and agricultural areas by Remote sensing in the MEDiterranean basin) field site near Marrakech, Morocco, are presented. The comparison shows that the AATSR has a positive bias of + 1.5 K, with a standard deviation of 0.7 K, indicating that the product is operating within the target specification (± 2.5 K) over the WATERMED field site. However, several anomalous validation points were observed during the analysis and we will discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of these data, including their coincidence with the presence of an Envisat blanking pulse (indicating the presence of a radar pulse at the time of AATSR pixel integration). Further investigation into this matter is required as previous investigations have always indicated that the presence of a payload radar pulse does not have any effect on (A)ATSR data quality.

  7. Technical note: Intercomparison of three AATSR Level 2 (L2) AOD products over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yahui; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Guang, Jie; She, Lu; Guo, Jianping; Hu, Yincui; Xu, Hui; He, Xingwei; Di, Aojie; Fan, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    One of four main focus areas of the PEEX initiative is to establish and sustain long-term, continuous, and comprehensive ground-based, airborne, and seaborne observation infrastructure together with satellite data. The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard ENVISAT is used to observe the Earth in dual view. The AATSR data can be used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) over both land and ocean, which is an important parameter in the characterization of aerosol properties. In recent years, aerosol retrieval algorithms have been developed both over land and ocean, taking advantage of the features of dual view, which can help eliminate the contribution of Earth's surface to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. The Aerosol_cci project, as a part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), provides users with three AOD retrieval algorithms for AATSR data, including the Swansea algorithm (SU), the ATSR-2ATSR dual-view aerosol retrieval algorithm (ADV), and the Oxford-RAL Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud algorithm (ORAC). The validation team of the Aerosol-CCI project has validated AOD (both Level 2 and Level 3 products) and AE (Ångström Exponent) (Level 2 product only) against the AERONET data in a round-robin evaluation using the validation tool of the AeroCOM (Aerosol Comparison between Observations and Models) project. For the purpose of evaluating different performances of these three algorithms in calculating AODs over mainland China, we introduce ground-based data from CARSNET (China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network), which was designed for aerosol observations in China. Because China is vast in territory and has great differences in terms of land surfaces, the combination of the AERONET and CARSNET data can validate the L2 AOD products more comprehensively. The validation results show different performances of these products in 2007, 2008, and 2010. The SU algorithm performs very well over sites with different surface conditions in mainland China

  8. 35. VIEW OF DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHER IN THE GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHER IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. A Dual Coding View of Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical perspective on acquiring sight vocabulary and developing meaningful vocabulary is presented. Dual Coding Theory assumes that cognition occurs in two independent but connected codes: a verbal code for language and a nonverbal code for mental imagery. The mixed research literature on using pictures in teaching sight vocabulary is…

  10. Dual view FIDA measurements on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, C. A.; Conway, N.; Crowley, B.; Jones, O.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Pinches, S.; Braeken, E.; Akers, R.; Challis, C.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Patel, A.; Muir, D.; Gaffka, R.; Bailey, S.

    2013-09-01

    A fast-ion deuterium alpha (FIDA) spectrometer was installed on MAST to measure radially resolved information about the fast-ion density and its distribution in energy and pitch angle. Toroidally and vertically directed collection lenses are employed, to detect both passing and trapped particle dynamics, and reference views are installed to subtract the background. This background is found to contain a substantial amount of passive FIDA emission driven by edge neutrals, and to depend delicately on viewing geometry. Results are compared with theoretical expectations based on the codes NUBEAM (for fast-ion distributions) and FIDASIM. Calibrating via the measured beam emission peaks, the toroidal FIDA signal profile agrees with classical simulations in magnetohydrodynamic quiescent discharges where the neutron rate is also classical. Long-lived modes (LLMs) and chirping modes decrease the core FIDA signal significantly, and the profile can be matched closely to simulations using anomalous diffusive transport; a spatially uniform diffusion coefficient is sufficient for chirping modes, while a core localized diffusion is better for a LLM. Analysis of a discharge with chirping mode activity shows a dramatic drop in the core FIDA signal and rapid increase in the edge passive signal at the onset of the burst indicating a very rapid redistribution towards the edge. Vertical-viewing measurements show a discrepancy with simulations at higher Doppler shifts when the neutron rate is classical, which, combined with the fact that the toroidal signals agree, means that the difference must be occurring for pitch angles near the trapped-passing boundary, although uncertainties in the background subtraction, which are difficult to assess, may contribute to this. Further evidence of an anomalous transport mechanism for these particles is provided by the fact that an increase of beam power does not increase the higher energy vertical FIDA signals, while the toroidal signals do increase.

  11. 40. View of dual projector system located in MWOC facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. View of dual projector system located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102 by Bessler Company. System used to project images in MWOC on backlit screen system with fiber optic electro/mechanical system linked to computer output to indicate information on screen linked with display from projector system. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. The Improved Dual-view Field Goniometer System FIGOS.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Jürg; Dangel, Stefan; Kneubühler, Mathias; Itten, Klaus I

    2008-08-28

    In spectrodirectional Remote Sensing (RS) the Earth's surface reflectance characteristics are studied by means of their angular dimensions. Almost all natural surfaces exhibit an individual anisotropic reflectance behaviour due to the contrast between the optical properties of surface elements and background and the geometric surface properties of the observed scene. The underlying concept, which describes the reflectance characteristic of a specific surface area, is called the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). BRDF knowledge is essential for both correction of directional effects in RS data and quantitative retrieval of surface parameters. Ground-based spectrodirectional measurements are usually performed with goniometer systems. An accurate retrieval of the bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) from field goniometer measurements requires hyperspectral knowledge of the angular distribution of the reflected and the incident radiation. However, prior to the study at hand, no operational goniometer system was able to fulfill this requirement. This study presents the first dual-view field goniometer system, which is able to simultaneously collect both the reflected and the incident radiation at high angular and spectral resolution and, thus, providing the necessary spectrodirectional datasets to accurately retrieve the surface specific BRF. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the incoming diffuse radiation is characterized for various atmospheric conditions and the BRF retrieval is performed for an artificial target and compared to laboratory spectrodirectional measurement results obtained with the same goniometer system. Suggestions for further improving goniometer systems are given and the need for intercalibration of various goniometers as well as for standardizing spectrodirectional measurements is expressed.

  13. The Improved Dual-view Field Goniometer System FIGOS

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Jürg; Dangel, Stefan; Kneubühler, Mathias; Itten, Klaus I.

    2008-01-01

    In spectrodirectional Remote Sensing (RS) the Earth's surface reflectance characteristics are studied by means of their angular dimensions. Almost all natural surfaces exhibit an individual anisotropic reflectance behaviour due to the contrast between the optical properties of surface elements and background and the geometric surface properties of the observed scene. The underlying concept, which describes the reflectance characteristic of a specific surface area, is called the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). BRDF knowledge is essential for both correction of directional effects in RS data and quantitative retrieval of surface parameters. Ground-based spectrodirectional measurements are usually performed with goniometer systems. An accurate retrieval of the bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) from field goniometer measurements requires hyperspectral knowledge of the angular distribution of the reflected and the incident radiation. However, prior to the study at hand, no operational goniometer system was able to fulfill this requirement. This study presents the first dual-view field goniometer system, which is able to simultaneously collect both the reflected and the incident radiation at high angular and spectral resolution and, thus, providing the necessary spectrodirectional datasets to accurately retrieve the surface specific BRF. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the incoming diffuse radiation is characterized for various atmospheric conditions and the BRF retrieval is performed for an artificial target and compared to laboratory spectrodirectional measurement results obtained with the same goniometer system. Suggestions for further improving goniometer systems are given and the need for intercalibration of various goniometers as well as for standardizing spectrodirectional measurements is expressed. PMID:27873805

  14. Bayesian cloud detection for MERIS, AATSR, and their combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, A.; Fischer, J.; Carbajal Henken, C.; Preusker, R.

    2014-11-01

    A broad range of different of Bayesian cloud detection schemes is applied to measurements from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and their combination. The cloud masks were designed to be numerically efficient and suited for the processing of large amounts of data. Results from the classical and naive approach to Bayesian cloud masking are discussed for MERIS and AATSR as well as for their combination. A sensitivity study on the resolution of multidimensional histograms, which were post-processed by Gaussian smoothing, shows how theoretically insufficient amounts of truth data can be used to set up accurate classical Bayesian cloud masks. Sets of exploited features from single and derived channels are numerically optimized and results for naive and classical Bayesian cloud masks are presented. The application of the Bayesian approach is discussed in terms of reproducing existing algorithms, enhancing existing algorithms, increasing the robustness of existing algorithms, and on setting up new classification schemes based on manually classified scenes.

  15. Bayesian cloud detection for MERIS, AATSR, and their combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, A.; Fischer, J.; Carbajal Henken, C.; Preusker, R.

    2015-04-01

    A broad range of different of Bayesian cloud detection schemes is applied to measurements from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and their combination. The cloud detection schemes were designed to be numerically efficient and suited for the processing of large numbers of data. Results from the classical and naive approach to Bayesian cloud masking are discussed for MERIS and AATSR as well as for their combination. A sensitivity study on the resolution of multidimensional histograms, which were post-processed by Gaussian smoothing, shows how theoretically insufficient numbers of truth data can be used to set up accurate classical Bayesian cloud masks. Sets of exploited features from single and derived channels are numerically optimized and results for naive and classical Bayesian cloud masks are presented. The application of the Bayesian approach is discussed in terms of reproducing existing algorithms, enhancing existing algorithms, increasing the robustness of existing algorithms, and on setting up new classification schemes based on manually classified scenes.

  16. A dual-view digital tomosynthesis imaging technique for improved chest imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) has been shown to be useful for reducing the overlapping of abnormalities with anatomical structures at various depth levels along the posterior–anterior (PA) direction in chest radiography. However, DTS provides crude three-dimensional (3D) images that have poor resolution in the lateral view and can only be displayed with reasonable quality in the PA view. Furthermore, the spillover of high-contrast objects from off-fulcrum planes generates artifacts that may impede the diagnostic use of the DTS images. In this paper, the authors describe and demonstrate the use of a dual-view DTS technique to improve the accuracy of themore » reconstructed volume image data for more accurate rendition of the anatomy and slice images with improved resolution and reduced artifacts, thus allowing the 3D image data to be viewed in views other than the PA view. Methods: With the dual-view DTS technique, limited angle scans are performed and projection images are acquired in two orthogonal views: PA and lateral. The dual-view projection data are used together to reconstruct 3D images using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization iterative algorithm. In this study, projection images were simulated or experimentally acquired over 360° using the scanning geometry for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). While all projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images, selected projections were extracted and used to reconstruct single- and dual-view DTS images for comparison with the CBCT images. For realistic demonstration and comparison, a digital chest phantom derived from clinical CT images was used for the simulation study. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged for the experimental study. The resultant dual-view DTS images were visually compared with the single-view DTS images and CBCT images for the presence of image artifacts and accuracy of CT numbers and anatomy and quantitatively compared with root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD

  17. The advanced along track scanning radiometer (aatsr) on esa's envisat satellite - an early assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Mutlow, C.; Smith, D.; Edwards, M.

    The AATSR sensor is an imaging radiometer designed to measure top-of-the- atmosphere brightness temperature in seven thermal infrared, reflected infrared and visible wavelength channels. The main objective of the AATSR mission is to generate fields of global sea-surface temperature to the high levels of accuracy required for the monitoring and detection of climate change, and to support a broad range of associated research into the marine, terrestrial, cryospheric and atmospheric environments. An essential component of this objective is maintain continuity with the high-quality data-sets already collected form the two predecessor sensors, ATSR1 and 2 on ESA's ERS-1 and -2 satellites respectively. Following the successful launch of ENVISAT on March 1 2002, the AATSR sensor was activated and systematically brought up to full operating configuration in accordance with the agreed Switch-On and Data Acquisition Plan (SODAP). The early images form AATSR are of a quality that is consistent with its objective of effective data continuity. Since the instrument has been returning data, a programme of quality assessment has been taking place. This has included a systematic assessment of instrumental aspects such as signal-to-noise performance and image stability as well as the initial observations in the AATSR validation programme. In this programme, AATSR data-products are compared with correlative observations from other sources, which include, sea-borne radiometers, meteorological analysis fields and data from other satellites. This paper reports early results from some of the activities.

  18. Dual-induced multifractality in online viewing activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu-Hao; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Gao, Liang; Stanley, H Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Although recent studies have found that the long-term correlations relating to the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times exist in human activity and that these correlations indicate the presence of fractality, the property of fractality and its origin have not been analyzed. We use both detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to analyze the time series in online viewing activity separating from Movielens and Netflix. We find long-term correlations at both the individual and communal levels and that the extent of correlation at the individual level is determined by the activity level. These long-term correlations also indicate that there is fractality in the pattern of online viewing. We first find a multifractality that results from the combined effect of the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times (i.e., the times between successive viewing actions of individuals) and the long-term correlations in online viewing activity and verify this finding using three synthesized series. Therefore, it can be concluded that the multifractality in online viewing activity is caused by both the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times and the long-term correlations and that this enlarges the generic property of human activity to include not just physical space but also cyberspace.

  19. Dual-induced multifractality in online viewing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yu-Hao; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Gao, Liang; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Although recent studies have found that the long-term correlations relating to the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times exist in human activity and that these correlations indicate the presence of fractality, the property of fractality and its origin have not been analyzed. We use both detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to analyze the time series in online viewing activity separating from Movielens and Netflix. We find long-term correlations at both the individual and communal levels and that the extent of correlation at the individual level is determined by the activity level. These long-term correlations also indicate that there is fractality in the pattern of online viewing. We first find a multifractality that results from the combined effect of the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times (i.e., the times between successive viewing actions of individuals) and the long-term correlations in online viewing activity and verify this finding using three synthesized series. Therefore, it can be concluded that the multifractality in online viewing activity is caused by both the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times and the long-term correlations and that this enlarges the generic property of human activity to include not just physical space but also cyberspace.

  20. Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong-In; Kwon, Yong-Hoan; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2007-03-01

    The authors propose a method to control the viewing angle of a liquid crystal (LC) panel using dual-mode switching. To realize both wide viewing angle (WVA) characteristics and narrow viewing angle (NVA) characteristics with a single LC panel, the authors use two different dark states. The LC layer can be aligned homogeneously parallel to the transmission axis of the bottom polarizer for WVA dark state operation, while it can be aligned vertically for NVA dark state operation. The authors demonstrated that viewing angle control can be achieved with a single panel without any loss of contrast at the front.

  1. An Exploration of Elementary Teachers' Views of Informal Reading Inventories in Dual Language Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how elementary teachers (grades three through five) in dual-language, bilingual programs (Spanish/English) view informal reading inventories (IRIs) to support their students' reading growth. The research, conducted in an urban district in the Northeastern United States, draws on interviews with 20 teachers in these programs.…

  2. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  3. Wide field-of-view dual-band multispectral muzzle flash detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, J.; Melchor, J.; Spiliotis, P.; Taplin, L.

    2013-06-01

    Sensor technologies are undergoing revolutionary advances, as seen in the rapid growth of multispectral methodologies. Increases in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, and in breadth of spectral coverage, render feasible sensors that function with unprecedented performance. A system was developed that addresses many of the key hardware requirements for a practical dual-band multispectral acquisition system, including wide field of view and spectral/temporal shift between dual bands. The system was designed using a novel dichroic beam splitter and dual band-pass filter configuration that creates two side-by-side images of a scene on a single sensor. A high-speed CMOS sensor was used to simultaneously capture data from the entire scene in both spectral bands using a short focal-length lens that provided a wide field-of-view. The beam-splitter components were arranged such that the two images were maintained in optical alignment and real-time intra-band processing could be carried out using only simple arithmetic on the image halves. An experiment related to limitations of the system to address multispectral detection requirements was performed. This characterized the system's low spectral variation across its wide field of view. This paper provides lessons learned on the general limitation of key hardware components required for multispectral muzzle flash detection, using the system as a hardware example combined with simulated multispectral muzzle flash and background signatures.

  4. AATSR: global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Edwards, M. C.; Mutlow, C. T.; Birks, A. R.; Barton, I. J.; Tait, H.

    2001-02-01

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ESA's Envisat spacecraft is designed to meet the challenging task of monitoring and detecting climate change. It builds on the success of its predecessor instruments on the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites, and will lead to a 15+ year record of precise and accurate global Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) measurements, thereby making a valuable contribution to the long-term climate record. With its high-accuracy, high-quality imagery and channels in the visible, near-infrared and thermal wavelengths, AATSR data will support many applications in addition to oceanographic and climate research, including a wide range of land-surface, cryosphere and atmospheric studies.

  5. Dual-view-zone tabletop 3D display system based on integral imaging.

    PubMed

    He, Min-Yang; Zhang, Han-Le; Deng, Huan; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Da-Hai; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a dual-view-zone tabletop 3D display system based on integral imaging by using a multiplexed holographic optical element (MHOE) that has the optical properties of two sets of microlens arrays. The MHOE is recorded by a reference beam using the single-exposure method. The reference beam records the wavefronts of a microlens array from two different directions. Thus, when the display beam is projected on the MHOE, two wavefronts with the different directions will be rebuilt and the 3D virtual images can be reconstructed in two viewing zones. The MHOE has angle and wavelength selectivity. Under the conditions of the matched wavelength and the angle of the display beam, the diffraction efficiency of the MHOE is greatest. Because the unmatched light just passes through the MHOE, the MHOE has the advantage of a see-through display. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the dual-view-zone tabletop 3D display system.

  6. Environmental influences on energy balance-related behaviors: A dual-process view

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Stef PJ; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy LS; van Mechelen, Willem; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies on the impact of the 'obesogenic' environment have often used non-theoretical approaches. In this journal's debate and in other papers authors have argued the necessity of formulating conceptual models for differentiating the causal role of environmental influences on behavior. Discussion The present paper aims to contribute to the debate by presenting a dual-process view on the environment – behavior relationship. This view is conceptualized in the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention). In the framework, behavior is postulated to be the result of a simultaneous influence of conscious and unconscious processes. Environmental influences are hypothesized to influence behavior both indirectly and directly. The indirect causal mechanism reflects the mediating role of behavior-specific cognitions in the influence of the environment on behavior. A direct influence reflects the automatic, unconscious, influence of the environment on behavior. Specific personal and behavioral factors are postulated to moderate the causal path (i.e., inducing either the automatic or the cognitively mediated environment – behavior relation). In addition, the EnRG framework applies an energy balance-approach, stimulating the integrated study of determinants of diet and physical activity. Conclusion The application of a dual-process view may guide research towards causal mechanisms linking specific environmental features with energy balance-related behaviors in distinct populations. The present paper is hoped to contribute to the evolution of a paradigm that may help to disentangle the role of 'obesogenic' environmental factors. PMID:16700907

  7. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  8. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  9. Dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional display using polarized glasses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Lv, Guo-Jiao; Deng, Huan; Zhao, Bai-Chuan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-02-20

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) three-dimensional (3D) display using polarized glasses. The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a polarized parallax barrier, a microlens array, and two pairs of polarized glasses. Two kinds of elemental images, which are captured from two different 3D scenes, are alternately arranged on the display panel. The polarized parallax barrier is attached to the display panel and composed of two kinds of units that are also alternately arranged. The polarization directions between adjacent units are perpendicular. The polarization directions of the two pairs of polarized glasses are the same as those of the two kinds of units of the polarized parallax barrier, respectively. The lights emitted from the two kinds of elemental images are modulated by the corresponding polarizer units and microlenses, respectively. Two different 3D images are reconstructed in the viewing zone and separated by using two pairs of polarized glasses. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed and two 3D images can be presented simultaneously, verifying the hypothesis.

  10. Dual view Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget from the Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Moreels, Johan

    2017-04-01

    The diurnal cycle of the radiation budget is a key component of the tropical climate. The geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites carrying both the broadband Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument with nadir resolution of 50 km and the multispectral Spinning Enhanced VIsible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) with nadir resolution of 3 km offer a unique opportunity to observe this diurnal cycle. The geostationary orbit has the advantage of good temporal sampling but the disadvantage of fixed viewing angles, which makes the measurements of the broadband Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes more sensitive to angular dependent errors. The Meteosat-10 (MSG-3) satellite observes the earth from the standard position at 0° longitude. From October 2016 onwards the Meteosat-8 (MSG-1) satellite makes observations from a new position at 41.5° East over the Indian Ocean. The dual view from Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-10 allows the assessment and correction of angular dependent systematic errors of the flux estimates. We demonstrate this capability with the validation of a new method for the estimation of the clear-sky TOA albedo from the SEVIRI instruments.

  11. Two decades of satellite observations of AOD over mainland China using ATSR-2, AATSR and MODIS/Terra: data set evaluation and large-scale patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Marinou, Eleni; Xue, Yong; van der A, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from satellite observations provides their spatial distribution over a wide area in cloud-free conditions. As such, they complement ground-based measurements by providing information over sparsely instrumented areas, albeit that significant differences may exist in both the type of information obtained and the temporal information from satellite and ground-based observations. In this paper, information from different types of satellite-based instruments is used to provide a 3-D climatology of aerosol properties over mainland China, i.e., vertical profiles of extinction coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), a lidar flying aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite and the column-integrated extinction (aerosol optical depth - AOD) available from three radiometers: the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Along-Track Scanning Radiometer version 2 (ATSR-2), Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) (together referred to as ATSR) and NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite, together spanning the period 1995-2015. AOD data are retrieved from ATSR using the ATSR dual view (ADV) v2.31 algorithm, while for MODIS Collection 6 (C6) the AOD data set is used that was obtained from merging the AODs obtained from the dark target (DT) and deep blue (DB) algorithms, further referred to as the DTDB merged AOD product. These data sets are validated and differences are compared using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) version 2 L2.0 AOD data as reference. The results show that, over China, ATSR slightly underestimates the AOD and MODIS slightly overestimates the AOD. Consequently, ATSR AOD is overall lower than that from MODIS, and the difference increases with increasing AOD. The comparison also shows that neither of the ATSR and MODIS AOD data sets is better than the other one everywhere. However, ATSR ADV

  12. Synergy of stereo cloud top height and ORAC optimal estimation cloud retrieval: evaluation and application to AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Daniel; Poulsen, Caroline A.; Thomas, Gareth E.; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we evaluate the impact on the cloud parameter retrievals of the ORAC (Optimal Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud) algorithm following the inclusion of stereo-derived cloud top heights as a priori information. This is performed in a mathematically rigorous way using the ORAC optimal estimation retrieval framework, which includes the facility to use such independent a priori information. Key to the use of a priori information is a characterisation of their associated uncertainty. This paper demonstrates the improvements that are possible using this approach and also considers their impact on the microphysical cloud parameters retrieved. The Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) instrument has two views and three thermal channels, so it is well placed to demonstrate the synergy of the two techniques. The stereo retrieval is able to improve the accuracy of the retrieved cloud top height when compared to collocated Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), particularly in the presence of boundary layer inversions and high clouds. The impact of the stereo a priori information on the microphysical cloud properties of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (RE) was evaluated and generally found to be very small for single-layer clouds conditions over open water (mean RE differences of 2.2 (±5.9) microns and mean COD differences of 0.5 (±1.8) for single-layer ice clouds over open water at elevations of above 9 km, which are most strongly affected by the inclusion of the a priori).

  13. Ensembles of satellite aerosol retrievals based on three AATSR algorithms within aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmale, Miriam; Popp, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Ensemble techniques are widely used in the modelling community, combining different modelling results in order to reduce uncertainties. This approach could be also adapted to satellite measurements. Aerosol_cci is an ESA funded project, where most of the European aerosol retrieval groups work together. The different algorithms are homogenized as far as it makes sense, but remain essentially different. Datasets are compared with ground based measurements and between each other. Three AATSR algorithms (Swansea university aerosol retrieval, ADV aerosol retrieval by FMI and Oxford aerosol retrieval ORAC) provide within this project 17 year global aerosol records. Each of these algorithms provides also uncertainty information on pixel level. Within the presented work, an ensembles of the three AATSR algorithms is performed. The advantage over each single algorithm is the higher spatial coverage due to more measurement pixels per gridbox. A validation to ground based AERONET measurements shows still a good correlation of the ensemble, compared to the single algorithms. Annual mean maps show the global aerosol distribution, based on a combination of the three aerosol algorithms. In addition, pixel level uncertainties of each algorithm are used for weighting the contributions, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the ensemble. Results of different versions of the ensembles for aerosol optical depth will be presented and discussed. The results are validated against ground based AERONET measurements. A higher spatial coverage on daily basis allows better results in annual mean maps. The benefit of using pixel level uncertainties is analysed.

  14. Dual Active Bridge based DC Transformer LabVIEW FPGA Control Code

    SciTech Connect

    In the area of power electronics control, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have the capability to outperform their Digital Signal Processor (DSP) counterparts due to the FPGA’s ability to implement true parallel processing and therefore facilitate higher switching frequencies, higher control bandwidth, and/or enhanced functionality. National Instruments (NI) has developed two platforms, Compact RIO (cRIO) and Single Board RIO (sbRIO), which combine a real-time processor with an FPGA. The FPGA can be programmed with a subset of the well-known LabVIEW graphical programming language. The candidate software implements complete control algorithms in LabVIEW FPGA for a DC Transformer (DCX) based onmore » a dual active bridge (DAB). A DCX is an isolated bi-directional DC-DC converter designed to operate at unity conversion ratio, M, defined by where Vin is the primary-side DC bus voltage, Vout is the secondary-side DC bus voltage, and n is the turns ratio of the embedded high frequency transformer (HFX). The DCX based on a DAB incorporates two H-bridges, a resonant inductor, and an HFX to provide this functionality. The candidate software employs phase-shift modulation of the two H-bridges and a feedback loop to regulate the conversion ratio at unity. The software also includes alarm-handling capabilities as well as debugging and tuning tools. The software fits on the Xilinx Virtex V LX110 FPGA embedded in the NI cRIO-9118 FPGA chassis, and with a 40 MHz base clock, supports a modulation update rate of 40 MHz, and user-settable switching frequencies and synchronized control loop update rates of tens of kHz.« less

  15. Single-beam, dual-view digital holographic interferometry for biomechanical strain measurements of biological objects.

    PubMed

    Pantelić, Dejan V; Grujić, Dušan Ž; Vasiljević, Darko M

    2014-12-01

    We describe a method for dual-view biomechanical strain measurements of highly asymmetrical biological objects, like teeth or bones. By using a spherical mirror, we were able to simultaneously record a digital hologram of the object itself and the mirror image of its (otherwise invisible) rear side. A single laser beam was sufficient to illuminate both sides of the object, and to provide a reference beam. As a result, the system was mechanically very stable, enabling long exposure times (up to 2 min) without the need for vibration isolation. The setup is simple to construct and adjust, and can be used to interferometrically observe any object that is smaller than the mirror diameter. Parallel data processing on a CUDA-enabled (compute unified device architecture) graphics card was used to reconstruct digital holograms and to further correct image distortion. We used the setup to measure the deformation of a tooth due to mastication forces. The finite-element method was used to compare experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  16. Dual-view plane illumination microscopy for rapid and spatially isotropic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Chandris, Panagiotis; Gandler, William; McCreedy, Evan; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; McAuliffe, Matthew; Rondeau, Gary; Shroff, Hari

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a compact dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscope (diSPIM) for time-lapse volumetric (4D) imaging of living samples at subcellular resolution. Our protocol enables a biologist with some prior microscopy experience to assemble a diSPIM from commercially available parts, to align optics and test system performance, to prepare samples, and to control hardware and data processing with our software. Unlike existing light sheet microscopy protocols, our method does not require the sample to be embedded in agarose; instead, samples are prepared conventionally on glass coverslips. Tissue culture cells and Caenorhabditis elegans embryos are used as examples in this protocol; successful implementation of the protocol results in isotropic resolution and acquisition speeds up to several volumes per s on these samples. Assembling and verifying diSPIM performance takes ~6 d, sample preparation and data acquisition take up to 5 d and postprocessing takes 3–8 h, depending on the size of the data. PMID:25299154

  17. Single-beam, dual-view digital holographic interferometry for biomechanical strain measurements of biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelić, Dejan V.; Grujić, Dušan Ž.; Vasiljević, Darko M.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a method for dual-view biomechanical strain measurements of highly asymmetrical biological objects, like teeth or bones. By using a spherical mirror, we were able to simultaneously record a digital hologram of the object itself and the mirror image of its (otherwise invisible) rear side. A single laser beam was sufficient to illuminate both sides of the object, and to provide a reference beam. As a result, the system was mechanically very stable, enabling long exposure times (up to 2 min) without the need for vibration isolation. The setup is simple to construct and adjust, and can be used to interferometrically observe any object that is smaller than the mirror diameter. Parallel data processing on a CUDA-enabled (compute unified device architecture) graphics card was used to reconstruct digital holograms and to further correct image distortion. We used the setup to measure the deformation of a tooth due to mastication forces. The finite-element method was used to compare experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  18. Examining the Affordances of Dual Cognitive Processing to Explain the Development of High School Students' Nature of Science Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke M.

    This mixed method study was aimed at examining the influence of dual processing (Type 1 and Type 2 thinking) on the development of high school students' nature of science (NOS) views. Type 1 thinking is intuitive, experiential, and heuristic. Type 2 thinking is rational, analytical, and explicit. Three research questions were asked: (1) Do the experiential process (Type 1) and the logical process (Type 2) influence the development of students' NOS views? (2) If there is an influence on students' NOS views, then what is the nature of relationship between the experiential process (Type 1) and the development of NOS views? (3) What is the nature of relationship between the logical process (Type 2) and the development of NOS views? The Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire C (VNOS-C; Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, & Schwartz, 2002) was administered to 29 high school students at the beginning and at the end of an explicit-reflective NOS intervention offered in an Advanced Placement environmental science course. Changes in students' NOS views were calculated through a chi-square test and examining the percentage of students holding NOS views at various levels of sophistication. With the chi-square goodness of fit test performed, the relationship between pre and post NOS scores was not significant, X2(3, 29) = 4.78, p <.05. The informed and preinformed NOS views increased (14%, 17%) in frequency while the mixed and uninformed NOS views decreased (i.e. improved 26%, 24%) in frequency from pre to posttest. The reading discussions were coded based on the EBR framework (Furtak et al., 2010) to analyze the use of dual processing. Type1 and Type 2 thinking were both used during the intervention and reading reflections. Type 2 thinking was more prominent when analyzing a problem, formulating a hypothesis, or stating logical claims. The association of NOS education and Type 1 and Type 2 thinking in scientific literacy was examined, and implications and future research are

  19. Cloud property datasets retrieved from AVHRR, MODIS, AATSR and MERIS in the framework of the Cloud_cci project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengel, Martin; Stapelberg, Stefan; Sus, Oliver; Schlundt, Cornelia; Poulsen, Caroline; Thomas, Gareth; Christensen, Matthew; Carbajal Henken, Cintia; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen; Devasthale, Abhay; Willén, Ulrika; Karlsson, Karl-Göran; McGarragh, Gregory R.; Proud, Simon; Povey, Adam C.; Grainger, Roy G.; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Feofilov, Artem; Bennartz, Ralf; Bojanowski, Jedrzej S.; Hollmann, Rainer

    2017-11-01

    New cloud property datasets based on measurements from the passive imaging satellite sensors AVHRR, MODIS, ATSR2, AATSR and MERIS are presented. Two retrieval systems were developed that include components for cloud detection and cloud typing followed by cloud property retrievals based on the optimal estimation (OE) technique. The OE-based retrievals are applied to simultaneously retrieve cloud-top pressure, cloud particle effective radius and cloud optical thickness using measurements at visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared wavelengths, which ensures spectral consistency. The retrieved cloud properties are further processed to derive cloud-top height, cloud-top temperature, cloud liquid water path, cloud ice water path and spectral cloud albedo. The Cloud_cci products are pixel-based retrievals, daily composites of those on a global equal-angle latitude-longitude grid, and monthly cloud properties such as averages, standard deviations and histograms, also on a global grid. All products include rigorous propagation of the retrieval and sampling uncertainties. Grouping the orbital properties of the sensor families, six datasets have been defined, which are named AVHRR-AM, AVHRR-PM, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, ATSR2-AATSR and MERIS+AATSR, each comprising a specific subset of all available sensors. The individual characteristics of the datasets are presented together with a summary of the retrieval systems and measurement records on which the dataset generation were based. Example validation results are given, based on comparisons to well-established reference observations, which demonstrate the good quality of the data. In particular the ensured spectral consistency and the rigorous uncertainty propagation through all processing levels can be considered as new features of the Cloud_cci datasets compared to existing datasets. In addition, the consistency among the individual datasets allows for a potential combination of them as well as facilitates studies on the

  20. Estimation of the Total Atmospheric Water Vapor Content and Land Surface Temperature Based on AATSR Thermal Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tangtang; Wen, Jun; van der Velde, Rogier; Meng, Xianhong; Li, Zhenchao; Liu, Yuanyong; Liu, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The total atmospheric water vapor content (TAWV) and land surface temperature (LST) play important roles in meteorology, hydrology, ecology and some other disciplines. In this paper, the ENVISAT/AATSR (The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) thermal data are used to estimate the TAWV and LST over the Loess Plateau in China by using a practical split window algorithm. The distribution of the TAWV is accord with that of the MODIS TAWV products, which indicates that the estimation of the total atmospheric water vapor content is reliable. Validations of the LST by comparing with the ground measurements indicate that the maximum absolute derivation, the maximum relative error and the average relative error is 4.0K, 11.8% and 5.0% respectively, which shows that the retrievals are believable; this algorithm can provide a new way to estimate the LST from AATSR data. PMID:27879795

  1. Dual Enrollment from Two Points of View: Higher Education and K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Wendy; Wagner, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    While dual enrollment fills a similar student success niche in both higher and K-12 education, the administrative perspectives of these two entities do not always align. This article highlights the groups' similarities and differences in perspective and proposes implications for practice.

  2. The accuracy of SST retrievals from AATSR: An initial assessment through geophysical validation against in situ radiometers, buoys and other SST data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, G. K.; Barton, I. J.; Donlon, C. J.; Edwards, M. C.; Good, S. A.; Horrocks, L. A.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Merchant, C. J.; Minnett, P. J.; Nightingale, T. J.; Noyes, E. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Remedios, J. J.; Robinson, I. S.; Saunders, R. W.; Watts, J. G.

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) was launched on Envisat in March 2002. The AATSR instrument is designed to retrieve precise and accurate global sea surface temperature (SST) that, combined with the large data set collected from its predecessors, ATSR and ATSR-2, will provide a long term record of SST data that is greater than 15 years. This record can be used for independent monitoring and detection of climate change. The AATSR validation programme has successfully completed its initial phase. The programme involves validation of the AATSR derived SST values using in situ radiometers, in situ buoys and global SST fields from other data sets. The results of the initial programme presented here will demonstrate that the AATSR instrument is currently close to meeting its scientific objectives of determining global SST to an accuracy of 0.3 K (one sigma). For night time data, the analysis gives a warm bias of between +0.04 K (0.28 K) for buoys to +0.06 K (0.20 K) for radiometers, with slightly higher errors observed for day time data, showing warm biases of between +0.02 (0.39 K) for buoys to +0.11 K (0.33 K) for radiometers. They show that the ATSR series of instruments continues to be the world leader in delivering accurate space-based observations of SST, which is a key climate parameter.

  3. The double crush syndrome revisited--a Delphi study to reveal current expert views on mechanisms underlying dual nerve disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Coppieters, Michel W

    2011-12-01

    A high prevalence of dual nerve disorders is frequently reported. How a secondary nerve disorder may develop following a primary nerve disorder remains largely unknown. Although still frequently cited, most explanatory theories were formulated many years ago. Considering recent advances in neuroscience, it is uncertain whether these theories still reflect current expert opinion. A Delphi study was conducted to update views on potential mechanisms underlying dual nerve disorders. In three rounds, seventeen international experts in the field of peripheral nerve disorders were asked to list possible mechanisms and rate their plausibility. Mechanisms with a median plausibility rating of ≥7 out of 10 were considered highly plausible. The experts identified fourteen mechanisms associated with a first nerve disorder that may predispose to the development of another nerve disorder. Of these fourteen mechanisms, nine have not previously been linked to double crush. Four mechanisms were considered highly plausible (impaired axonal transport, ion channel up or downregulation, inflammation in the dorsal root ganglia and neuroma-in-continuity). Eight additional mechanisms were listed which are not triggered by a primary nerve disorder, but may render the nervous system more vulnerable to multiple nerve disorders, such as systemic diseases and neurotoxic medication. Even though many mechanisms were classified as plausible or highly plausible, overall plausibility ratings varied widely. Experts indicated that a wide range of mechanisms has to be considered to better understand dual nerve disorders. Previously listed theories cannot be discarded, but may be insufficient to explain the high prevalence of dual nerve disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual exposure view of exterior and interior of Apollo Mission simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1967-08-01

    S67-50585 (1967) --- This is an intentional double exposure showing the Apollo Mission Simulator in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility, Building 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. In the exterior view astronauts William A. Anders, Michael Collins, and Frank Borman (reading from top of stairs) are about to enter the simulator. The interior view shows the three astronauts in the simulator. They are (left to right) Borman, Collins, and Anders. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Performance of basic manipulation and intracorporeal suturing tasks in a robotic surgical system: single- versus dual-monitor views.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit D; Cao, Alex; Golenberg, Lavie; Ellis, R Darin; Auner, Gregory W; Pandya, Abhilash K; Klein, Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Technical advances in the application of laparoscopic and robotic surgical systems have improved platform usability. The authors hypothesized that using two monitors instead of one would lead to faster performance with fewer errors. All tasks were performed using a surgical robot in a training box. One of the monitors was a standard camera with two preset zoom levels (zoomed in and zoomed out, single-monitor condition). The second monitor provided a static panoramic view of the whole surgical field. The standard camera was static at the zoomed-in level for the dual-monitor condition of the study. The study had two groups of participants: 4 surgeons proficient in both robotic and advanced laparoscopic skills and 10 lay persons (nonsurgeons) who were given adequate time to train and familiarize themselves with the equipment. Running a 50-cm rope was the basic task. Advanced tasks included running a suture through predetermined points and intracorporeal knot tying with 3-0 silk. Trial completion times and errors, categorized into three groups (orientation, precision, and task), were recorded. The trial completion times for all the tasks, basic and advanced, in the two groups were not significantly different. Fewer orientation errors occurred in the nonsurgeon group during knot tying (p=0.03) and in both groups during suturing (p=0.0002) in the dual-monitor arm of the study. Differences in precision and task error were not significant. Using two camera views helps both surgeons and lay persons perform complex tasks with fewer errors. These results may be due to better awareness of the surgical field with regard to the location of the instruments, leading to better field orientation. This display setup has potential for use in complex minimally invasive surgeries such as esophagectomy and gastric bypass. This technique also would be applicable to open microsurgery.

  6. Dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (diSPIM) with improved background rejection for accurate 3D digital pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bihe; Bolus, Daniel; Brown, J. Quincy

    2018-02-01

    Current gold-standard histopathology for cancerous biopsies is destructive, time consuming, and limited to 2D slices, which do not faithfully represent true 3D tumor micro-morphology. Light sheet microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for 3D imaging of cancer biospecimens. Here, we utilize the versatile dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (diSPIM) to render digital histological images of cancer biopsies. Dual-view architecture enabled more isotropic resolution in X, Y, and Z; and different imaging modes, such as adding electronic confocal slit detection (eCSD) or structured illumination (SI), can be used to improve degraded image quality caused by background signal of large, scattering samples. To obtain traditional H&E-like images, we used DRAQ5 and eosin (D&E) staining, with 488nm and 647nm laser illumination, and multi-band filter sets. Here, phantom beads and a D&E stained buccal cell sample have been used to verify our dual-view method. We also show that via dual view imaging and deconvolution, more isotropic resolution has been achieved for optical cleared human prostate sample, providing more accurate quantitation of 3D tumor architecture than was possible with single-view SPIM methods. We demonstrate that the optimized diSPIM delivers more precise analysis of 3D cancer microarchitecture in human prostate biopsy than simpler light sheet microscopy arrangements.

  7. High-resolution velocity measurements using dual-view tomographic digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    A recently developed two-view tomographic digital holographic microscopy (DHM) system is used for measuring the flow around a pair of cubes with height of 90 wall units immersed in the inner layer of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 2500. Matching of the two views at 1- μm precision is achieved by implementing a self-calibration procedure that determines the three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) distortion function, which corrects the geometric mapping. The procedure has been tested using distorted synthetic particle fields, and then implemented on experimental data. The two views are used to overcome the reduced accuracy of DHM in the axial direction of the reference beam due to elongation of the reconstructed traces. Multiplying the two precisely-matched 3D intensity fields is used for truncating the elongated traces. The velocity distributions are obtained by 3D particle tracking guided by 3D cross-correlation of the truncated intensity fields along with other size/shape/smoothness constraints. As demonstrated by how divergence-free the data is, the resulting 3D3C velocity field is substantially more accurate than results obtained from single-view DHM. Results show that the cube is surrounded by a vorticity ``canopy'' that extends from upstream of its front surface to the separated region in its near wake. Nearly axial necklace vortices remain confined to the near wall region between the cubes, but expand rapidly behind them. Funded by NSF and ONR.

  8. Dual energy CT with one full scan and a second sparse-view scan using structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Conventional dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstruction requires two full-size projection datasets with two different energy spectra. In this study, we propose an iterative algorithm to enable a new data acquisition scheme which requires one full scan and a second sparse-view scan for potential reduction in imaging dose and engineering cost of DECT. A bilateral filter is calculated as a similarity matrix from the first full-scan CT image to quantify the similarity between any two pixels, which is assumed unchanged on a second CT image since DECT scans are performed on the same object. The second CT image from reduced projections is reconstructed by an iterative algorithm which updates the image by minimizing the total variation of the difference between the image and its filtered image by the similarity matrix under data fidelity constraint. As the redundant structural information of the two CT images is contained in the similarity matrix for CT reconstruction, we refer to the algorithm as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR). The proposed method is evaluated on both digital and physical phantoms, and is compared with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) method, the conventional total-variation-regularization-based algorithm (TVR) and prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing (PICCS). SPIR with a second 10-view scan reduces the image noise STD by a factor of one order of magnitude with same spatial resolution as full-view FBP image. SPIR substantially improves over TVR on the reconstruction accuracy of a 10-view scan by decreasing the reconstruction error from 6.18% to 1.33%, and outperforms TVR at 50 and 20-view scans on spatial resolution with a higher frequency at the modulation transfer function value of 10% by an average factor of 4. Compared with the 20-view scan PICCS result, the SPIR image has 7 times lower noise STD with similar spatial resolution. The electron density map obtained from the SPIR-based DECT images with a second 10-view scan has an

  9. Major depressive disorder and impulsive reactivity to emotion: toward a dual-process view of depression.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Joormann, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Dual-process theories of behaviour have been used to suggest that vulnerability to depression involves elevated reactivity to emotions. This study tests that idea, examining self-reported reactivity. Comparison between persons with at least one lifetime episode of major depressive disorder (lifetime MDD) and those without this diagnosis, controlling for symptoms of alcohol use (a potential externalizing confound) and current symptoms of depression (a potential state-dependent confound). Undergraduates (N = 120) completed a clinical interview to diagnose lifetime MDD and a series of self-reports bearing on diverse aspects of self-control, including reactivity to emotion. Thirty-four people were diagnosed with lifetime MDD; 86 did not meet criteria for MDD. The groups were then compared on three factors underlying the scales assessing self-control. The MDD group had higher scores than controls on the two factors that reflect impulsive reactivity to diverse emotions, including emotions that are positive in valence. These effects were not explained by associations with either externalizing symptoms or current depressive symptoms. Reflexive reactivity to emotions characterizes depression, in addition to some externalizing problems, and it may deserve study as a potential trans-diagnostic feature. Reflexive reactivity to emotions characterizes persons diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Findings suggest desirability of focusing treatment partly on management of reflexive reactions to emotions. Measures were self-reports, rather than behavioural responses to emotions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Major Depressive Disorder and Impulsive Reactivity to Emotion: Toward a Dual Process View of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Joormann, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dual process theories of behavior have been used to suggest that vulnerability to depression involves elevated reactivity to emotions. This study tests that idea, examining self-reported reactivity. Design Comparison between persons with at least one lifetime episode of major depressive disorder (lifetime MDD) and those without this diagnosis, controlling for symptoms of alcohol use (a potential externalizing confound) and current symptoms of depression (a potential state-dependent confound). Methods Undergraduates (N = 120) completed a clinical interview to diagnose lifetime MDD and a series of self-reports bearing on diverse aspects of self-control, including reactivity to emotion. Thirty-four were diagnosed with lifetime MDD; 86 did not meet criteria for MDD. The groups were then compared on three factors underlying the scales assessing self-control. Results The MDD group had higher scores than controls on the two factors that reflect impulsive reactivity to diverse emotions, including emotions that are positive in valence. These effects were not explained by associations with either externalizing symptoms or current depressive symptoms. Conclusions Reflexive reactivity to emotions characterizes depression, in addition to some externalizing problems, and it may deserve study as a potential transdiagnostic feature. PMID:23865405

  11. Examining the Affordances of Dual Cognitive Processing to Explain the Development of High School Students' Nature of Science Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Luke M.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study was aimed at examining the influence of dual processing (Type 1 and Type 2 thinking) on the development of high school students' nature of science (NOS) views. Type 1 thinking is intuitive, experiential, and heuristic. Type 2 thinking is rational, analytical, and explicit. Three research questions were asked: (1) Do the…

  12. Cortical thickness estimation of the proximal femur from multi-view dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaousis, N.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.; Poole, K. E. S.

    2013-02-01

    Hip fracture is the leading cause of acute orthopaedic hospital admission amongst the elderly, with around a third of patients not surviving one year post-fracture. Although various preventative therapies are available, patient selection is difficult. The current state-of-the-art risk assessment tool (FRAX) ignores focal structural defects, such as cortical bone thinning, a critical component in characterizing hip fragility. Cortical thickness can be measured using CT, but this is expensive and involves a significant radiation dose. Instead, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the preferred imaging modality for assessing hip fracture risk and is used routinely in clinical practice. Our ambition is to develop a tool to measure cortical thickness using multi-view DXA instead of CT. In this initial study, we work with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) derived from CT data as a surrogate for DXA scans: this enables us to compare directly the thickness estimates with the gold standard CT results. Our approach involves a model-based femoral shape reconstruction followed by a data-driven algorithm to extract numerous cortical thickness point estimates. In a series of experiments on the shaft and trochanteric regions of 48 proximal femurs, we validated our algorithm and established its performance limits using 20 views in the range 0°-171°: estimation errors were 0:19 +/- 0:53mm (mean +/- one standard deviation). In a more clinically viable protocol using four views in the range 0°-51°, where no other bony structures obstruct the projection of the femur, measurement errors were -0:07 +/- 0:79 mm.

  13. Assimilation of AATSR, MERIS and MODIS Data in the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) on the Upper Rio Grande (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiweiss, M. P.; Rampini, A.; Pepe, M.; Rango, A.; Steele, C.; Stein, W. L.; Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Current efforts for simulating or forecasting snowmelt are time-consuming and laborious; the AWARE project (A tool for monitoring and forecasting Available WAter REsource in mountain environments) has been motivated by the urgent need to facilitate the prediction of medium-term flows from snowmelt for an effective and sustainable water resources management. Its main goal is to provide innovative tools for monitoring and predicting water availability and distribution in drainage basins where snowmelt is a major component of the annual water balance. The particular objective of the effort reported here is to compare results obtained from the MODIS sensor on NASA Terra and Aqua satellite and next generation sensors AATSR and MERIS on board ESA Envisat satellite. The vehicle for this comparison is the AWARE Geoportal (http://www.aware- eu.info/eng/home.htm) which is a WWW implementation of the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM). The river basin chosen for analysis is the Upper Rio Grande of North America. The time period for analysis encompasses the Water Years 2005, 2006, and 2007 (October 2004 - September 2007). The reason for this is to ensure that data from all three sensors are available for use and to investigate variable climate conditions. A successful comparison between the various sensors will help demonstrate that the AWARE approach will facilitate future processing of several years' worth of snow cover data from a variety of sensors that covers large extremes in climate variability. This will allow greater success in developing forecasts and understanding of longer term climate change impacts.

  14. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    PubMed

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40-77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas - tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 keV was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0

  15. Climate Trend Detection using Sea-Surface Temperature Data-sets from the (A)ATSR and AVHRR Space Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Remedios, J. J.; Noyes, E. J.; Good, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) is an important indicator of global change, designated by GCOS as an essential Climate Variable (ECV). The detection of trends in Global SST requires rigorous measurements that are not only global, but also highly accurate and consistent. Space instruments can provide the means to achieve these required attributes in SST data. This paper presents an analysis of 15 years of SST data from two independent data sets, generated from the (A)ATSR and AVHRR series of sensors respectively. The analyses reveal trends of increasing global temperature between 0.13°C to 0.18 °C, per decade, closely matching that expected from some current predictions. A high level of consistency in the results from the two independent observing systems is seen, which gives increased confidence in data from both systems and also enables comparative analyses of the accuracy and stability of both data sets to be carried out. The conclusion is that these satellite SST data-sets provide important means to quantify and explore the processes of climate change. An analysis based upon singular value decomposition, allowing the removal of gross transitory disturbances, notably the El Niño, in order to examine regional areas of change other than the tropical Pacific, is also presented. Interestingly, although El Niño events clearly affect SST globally, they are found to have a non- significant (within error) effect on the calculated trends, which changed by only 0.01 K/decade when the pattern of El Niño and the associated variations was removed from the SST record. Although similar global trends were calculated for these two independent data sets, larger regional differences are noted. Evidence of decreased temperatures after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 was also observed. The methodology demonstrated here can be applied to other data-sets, which cover long time-series observations of geophysical observations in order to characterise long-term change.

  16. Indirect estimation of absorption properties for fine aerosol particles using AATSR observations: a case study of wildfires in Russia in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundstrom, A.-M.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-08-01

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the ENVISAT satellite is used to study aerosol properties. The retrieval of aerosol properties from satellite data is based on the optimized fit of simulated and measured reflectances at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The simulations are made using a radiative transfer model with a variety of representative aerosol properties. The retrieval process utilizes a combination of four aerosol components, each of which is defined by their (lognormal) size distribution and a complex refractive index: a weakly and a strongly absorbing fine-mode component, coarse mode sea salt aerosol and coarse mode desert dust aerosol). These components are externally mixed to provide the aerosol model which in turn is used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the AATSR aerosol retrieval algorithm, the mixing of these components is decided by minimizing the error function given by the sum of the differences between measured and calculated path radiances at 3-4 wavelengths, where the path radiances are varied by varying the aerosol component mixing ratios. The continuous variation of the fine-mode components allows for the continuous variation of the fine-mode aerosol absorption. Assuming that the correct aerosol model (i.e. the correct mixing fractions of the four components) is selected during the retrieval process, also other aerosol properties could be computed such as the single scattering albedo (SSA). Implications of this assumption regarding the ratio of the weakly/strongly absorbing fine-mode fraction are investigated in this paper by evaluating the validity of the SSA thus obtained. The SSA is indirectly estimated for aerosol plumes with moderate-to-high AOD resulting from wildfires in Russia in the summer of 2010. Together with the AOD, the SSA provides the aerosol absorbing optical depth (AAOD). The results are compared with AERONET data, i.e. AOD level 2.0 and SSA and AAOD inversion products. The RMSE

  17. Combined high contrast and wide field of view in the scanning laser ophthalmoscope through dual detection of light paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, Guillem; Muyo, Gonzalo; van Hemert, Jano; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a multimode detection system in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) that enables simultaneous operation in confocal, indirect, and direct modes to permit an agile trade between image contrast and optical sensitivity across the retinal field of view to optimize the overall imaging performance, enabling increased contrast in very wide-field operation. We demonstrate the method on a wide-field SLO employing a hybrid pinhole at its image plane, to yield a twofold increase in vasculature contrast in the central retina compared to its conventional direct mode while retaining high-quality imaging across a wide field of the retina, of up to 200 deg and 20 μm on-axis resolution.

  18. Dual Career Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Helen S.

    Home-career conflict may exist in varying degrees for both spouses in a dual-career couple. Home-career conflict exists when a dual-career wife values both homemaking and career and views some aspects of these two roles as incompatible. Home-career conflict results when a dual-career husband values his own career and that of his wife, but is…

  19. Analysis of Rosetta/VIRTIS spectra of earth using observations from ENVISAT/AATSR, TERRA/MODIS and ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY, and radiative-transfer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M.; Oliva, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Smith, A.; Filacchione, G.; Tosi, F.; Thomas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Rosetta, the Solar System cornerstone mission of ESA's Horizon 2000 programme, consists of an orbiter and a lander, and is due to arrive at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in May 2014. Following its 2004 launch, Rosetta carried out a series of planetary fly-bys and gravitational assists. On these close fly-bys of the Earth, measurements were taken by the Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS). Analysis of these spectra and comparison with spectra acquired by Earth-observing satellites can support the verification of the inflight calibration of Rosetta/VIRTIS. In this paper, measurements taken by VIRTIS in November 2009 are compared with suitable coincident data from Earth-observing instruments (ESA-ENVISAT/AATSR and SCIAMACHY, and EOS-TERRA/MODIS). Radiative transfer simulations using NEMESIS (Irwin et al., 2008) are fit to the fly-by data taken by VIRTIS, using representative atmospheric and surface parameters. VIRTIS measurements correlate 90% with AATSR's, 85-94% with MODIS, and 82-88% with SCIAMACHYs. The VIRTIS spectra are reproducible in the 1-5 μm region, except in the 1.4 μm deep water vapour spectral absorption band in the near-infrared in cases in which the radiance is very low (cloud-free topographies), where VIRTIS consistently registers more radiance than do MODIS and SCIAMACHY. Over these cloud-free regions, VIRTIS registers radiances a factor of 3-10 larger than SCIAMACHY and of 3-8 greater than MODIS. It is speculated that this discrepancy could be due to a spectral light leak originating from reflections from the order-sorting filters above the detector around 1.4 μm.

  20. Contrails and Climate Change: An Investigation of the Role of Aviation-Induced-Cloudiness on the Ireland Climate Using AATSR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Gillian M.; Cawkwell, Fiona; Mannstein, Hermann; Minnis, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Contrails, or 'condensation trails', produced in the wake of jet aircraft have been found to have a small but significant global net climate-warming effect [1]. When atmospheric conditions are favorable (i.e. when ambient atmospheric humidity is high and temperature is below a threshold value of typically less than -40oC), contrails can persist for several hours, grow to become several kilometers long and can also trigger additional cirrus- cloud formation as they spread - which can further impact climate! Due to Ireland's proximity to the North Atlantic Flight Corridor, large volumes of high-altitude overflights cross Ireland daily. Contrails are essentially artificial-linear-ice-clouds at a lower temperature than the surrounding atmosphere and so are visible in 1 Km satellite imagery at the 11 and 12 μm wavelengths; but are better detected in the temperature difference image between these two thermal channels. An automated Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA) is applied to AATSR thermal imagery over Ireland, and the percentage contrail-coverage of each scene determined. Preliminary results, based on 2008 morning and evening AATSR overpasses show a similar annual average contrail-coverage when present of 0.25% and 0.19% respectively, even though air-traffic density is typically several times higher during the morning overpasses. Cases of excessive contrail-coverage, of up to 2.06% have been observed in combination with extensive cirrus-coverage over Ireland. Results from meteorological data indicate more highly favorable atmospheric conditions for contrail formation and persistence in 00h00 and 06h00 radiosonde ascents; which corresponds to a night-time peak in high-altitude flights over Ireland. Furthermore, exceptionally thick contrail-susceptible-atmospheric layers are found in conjunction with cases of excessive satellite-derived- contrail-coverage.

  1. WE-EF-207-07: Dual Energy CT with One Full Scan and a Second Sparse-View Scan Using Structure Preserving Iterative Reconstruction (SPIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T; Zhu, L

    Purpose: Conventional dual energy CT (DECT) reconstructs CT and basis material images from two full-size projection datasets with different energy spectra. To relax the data requirement, we propose an iterative DECT reconstruction algorithm using one full scan and a second sparse-view scan by utilizing redundant structural information of the same object acquired at two different energies. Methods: We first reconstruct a full-scan CT image using filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The material similarities of each pixel with other pixels are calculated by an exponential function about pixel value differences. We assume that the material similarities of pixels remains in the second CTmore » scan, although pixel values may vary. An iterative method is designed to reconstruct the second CT image from reduced projections. Under the data fidelity constraint, the algorithm minimizes the L2 norm of the difference between pixel value and its estimation, which is the average of other pixel values weighted by their similarities. The proposed algorithm, referred to as structure preserving iterative reconstruction (SPIR), is evaluated on physical phantoms. Results: On the Catphan600 phantom, SPIR-based DECT method with a second 10-view scan reduces the noise standard deviation of a full-scan FBP CT reconstruction by a factor of 4 with well-maintained spatial resolution, while iterative reconstruction using total-variation regularization (TVR) degrades the spatial resolution at the same noise level. The proposed method achieves less than 1% measurement difference on electron density map compared with the conventional two-full-scan DECT. On an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom, our method successfully reconstructs the complicated vertebra structures and decomposes bone and soft tissue. Conclusion: We develop an effective method to reduce the number of views and therefore data acquisition in DECT. We show that SPIR-based DECT using one full scan and a second 10-view scan

  2. Low-cost soft-copy display accuracy in the detection of pulmonary nodules by single-exposure dual-energy subtraction: comparison with hard-copy viewing.

    PubMed

    Kido, S; Kuriyama, K; Hosomi, N; Inoue, E; Kuroda, C; Horai, T

    2000-02-01

    This study endeavored to clarify the usefulness of single-exposure dual-energy subtraction computed radiography (CR) of the chest and the ability of soft-copy images to detect low-contrast simulated pulmonary nodules. Conventional and bone-subtracted CR images of 25 chest phantom image sets with a low-contrast nylon nodule and 25 without a nodule were interpreted by 12 observers (6 radiologists, 6 chest physicians) who rated each on a continuous confidence scale and marked the position of the nodule if one was present. Hard-copy images were 7 x 7-inch laser-printed CR films, and soft-copy images were displayed on a 21-inch noninterlaced color CRT monitor with an optimized dynamic range. Soft-copy images were adjusted to the same size as hard-copy images and were viewed under darkened illumination in the reading room. No significant differences were found between hard- and soft-copy images. In conclusion, the soft-copy images were found to be useful in detecting low-contrast simulated pulmonary nodules.

  3. Using Stage- and Slit-Scanning to Improve Contrast and Optical Sectioning in Dual-View Inverted Light Sheet Microscopy (diSPIM)

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, ABHISHEK; CHRISTENSEN, RYAN; GUO, MIN; CHANDRIS, PANOS; DUNCAN, WILLIAM; WU, YICONG; SANTELLA, ANTHONY; MOYLE, MARK; WINTER, PETER W.; COLÓN-RAMOS, DANIEL; BAO, ZHIRONG; SHROFF, HARI

    2017-01-01

    Dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (diSPIM) enables high-speed, long-term, fourdimensional (4D) imaging with isotropic spatial resolution. It is also compatible with conventional sample mounting on glass coverslips. However, broadening of the light sheet at distances far from the beam waist and sample-induced scattering degrades diSPIM contrast and optical sectioning. We describe two simple improvements that address both issues and entail no additional hardware modifications to the base diSPIM. First, we demonstrate improved diSPIM sectioning by keeping the light sheet and detection optics stationary, and scanning the sample through the stationary light sheet (rather than scanning the broadening light sheet and detection plane through the stationary sample, as in conventional diSPIM). This stage-scanning approach allows a thinner sheet to be used when imaging laterally extended samples, such as fixed microtubules or motile mitochondria in cell monolayers, and produces finer contrast than does conventional diSPIM. We also used stage-scanning diSPIM to obtain high-quality, 4D nuclear datasets derived from an uncompressed nematode embryo, and performed lineaging analysis to track 97% of cells until twitching. Second, we describe the improvement of contrast in thick, scattering specimens by synchronizing light-sheet synthesis with the rolling, electronic shutter of our scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (sCMOS) detector. This maneuver forms a virtual confocal slit in the detection path, partially removing out-of-focus light. We demonstrate the applicability of our combined stage- and slit-scanning-methods by imaging pollen grains and nuclear and neuronal structures in live nematode embryos. All acquisition and analysis code is freely available online. PMID:27638693

  4. The validation and analysis of novel stereo-derived smoke plume products from AATSR and their application to fire events from the 2008 Russian fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D.; Muller, J.-P.; Yershov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning events in Boreal forests generate significant amounts of important greenhouse gases; including CO2, CO, NOx [1,2]. When the injection height is above the boundary layer (BL), the lifespan of these chemicals is greatly extended, as is their spatial distribution [2]. Typically, in chemical transport models (CTMs), BL injection heights are simplified and assumed to be constant. This is in part due to poor data availability. This leads to a reduction in the accuracy of the distribution outputs from such models. To generate better smoke-plume injection height (SPIH) inputs into CTMs, measurements need to be made of smoke plume heights, which can be used as a proxy for aerosol injection height into the atmosphere. One method of measuring SPIH is through stereo-photogrammetry [5], originally applied to optically thick clouds [3,4]. Here, we present validation and analysis of the M6 stereo matching method [5] for the determination of SPIHs applied to AATSR. It is referred to as M6 due to a shared heritage with the other M-series matchers [3,4]. M6 utilizes novel normalization and matching techniques to generate improved results, in terms of coverage and accuracy, over these afore-referenced matchers of similar type. Validation is carried out against independent, coincident and higher resolution SPIH measurements obtained from both the CALIOP instrument carried onboard the NASA-CNES CALIPSO satellite and also against measurements from the MISR Smoke Plume Product obtained by manual measurements using the MINX system (http://www.openchannelsoftware.com/projects/MINX) with the MISR instrument onboard the NASA satellite Terra. The results of this inter-comparison show an excellent agreement between AATSR and the CALIOP and MISR measurements. Further an inter-comparison between a heritage M-series matcher, M4 [3], also against MISR data demonstrates the significant improvement in SPIH generated by M6. [1] Crutzen, P. J., L. E. Heidt, et al. (1979). "Biomass

  5. Multi-Annual Data Products on Turbulent Heat Fluxes at the Local and Continental Scale Using AATSR and FY-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Ghafarian, H.; Tang, B.; Faivre, R.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Roupios, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of studies carried in the framework of the Dragon 2 Program - Project 5322 Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters Retrieval and Land Data Assimilation System Development in a Typical Inland River Basin of Chinas Arid Region. The investigations were focused on monitoring the fluxes of energy and water at the land-atmosphere interface across a range of spatial scales, using multi-spectral radiometric data collected by space-borne imaging radiometers. At the local scale a new approach to parameterize heat and vapour fluxes was developed and applied using Computational Fluid Dynamics to describe state and dynamics of the boundary layer over the heterogeneous and 3D structured land surface. An airborne scanning LIDAR was used to capture in detail surface geometry. Over the large area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau a land-atmospheric model was used to characterize the atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layer. The effect of land surface heterogeneity and structure on the exchange of heat and water was captured using the bi-angular observations of brightness temperature provided by the AATSR imaging radiometer. The heat and water flux densities were calculated hourly with Feng-Yun C, D and E VISSR data over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the headwaters of main rivers around it.

  6. Reconciling the aerosol-liquid water path relationship in the ECHAM6-HAM GCM and the Aerosol_cci/Cloud_cci (A)ATSR dataset by minimizing the effect of aerosol swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, D.; Christensen, M.; Lohmann, U.; Poulsen, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Studies using present day variability to assess statistical relationships between aerosol and cloud properties find different strengths of these relationships between satellite data and general circulation model (GCM) data. This discrepancy can be explained by structural uncertainties due to differences in the analysis/observational scale and the process scale or spurious relationships between aerosol and cloud properties. Such spurious relationships are the growth of aerosol particles in the humid environment surrounding clouds, misclassification of partly cloudy satellite pixels as cloud free pixels, brightening of aerosol particles by sunlight reflected at cloud edges, or effects of clouds on aerosol like processing of aerosol particles in clouds by nucleation or impact scavenging and subsequent growth by heterogeneous chemistry and release by cloud droplet evaporation or wet scavenging of aerosol particles. To minimize the effects of spatial aggregation and spurious relationships we apply a new nearest neighbour approach to high resolution (A)ATSR datasets from the Aerosol_cci and Cloud_cci projects of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme of ESA. For the ECHAM6-HAM GCM we quantify the impact of using dry aerosol (without aerosol water) in the analysis to mimic the effect of the nearest neighbour approach. The aerosol-liquid water path relationship in ECHAM6-HAM is systematically stronger than in (A)ATSR data and cannot be explained by an overestimation of autoconversion when using diagnostic precipitation but rather by aerosol swelling in regions where humidity is high and clouds are present. When aerosol water is removed from the analysis in ECHAM6-HAM the strength of the aerosol-liquid water path relationship agrees much better with the ones of (A)ATSR or MODIS. We further find that while the observed relationships of different satellite sensors ((A)ATSR vs. MODIS) are not always consistent for tested environmental conditions the relationships in

  7. Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Allan; Lambert, Wallace

    1981-01-01

    Describes study which tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit comparison of the effects of bilingual encoding with verbal-nonverbal dual encoding items. Results provide strong support for a version of the independent or separate stories view of bilingual memory. (Author/BK)

  8. Dual-Frequency VLBI Study of Centaurus A on Sub-Parsec Scales: The Highest-Resolution View of an Extragalactic Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Wilms, J.; Boeck, M.; Edwards, P.; Fromm, C. M.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Centaurus A is the closest active galactic nucleus. High resolution imaging using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) enables us to study the spectral and kinematic behavior of the radio jet-<:ounterjet system on sub-parsec scales, providing essential information for jet emission and formation models. Aims. Our aim is to study the structure and spectral shape of the emission from the central-parsec region of Cen A. Methods. As a target of the Southern Hemisphere VLBI monitoring program TANAMI (Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Millliarcsecond Interferometry), VLBI observations of Cen A are made regularly at 8.4 and 22.3 GHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and associated telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, and South Africa. Results. The first dual-frequency images of this source are presented along with the resulting spectral index map. An angular resolution of 0.4 mas x 0.7 mas is achieved at 8.4 GHz, corresponding to a linear scale of less than 0.013 pc. Hence, we obtain the highest resolution VLBI image of Cen A, comparable to previous space-VLBI observations. By combining with the 22.3 GHz image, we present the corresponding dual-frequency spectral index distribution along the sub-parsec scale jet revealing the putative emission regions for recently detected y-rays from the core region by Fermi/LAT. Conclusions. We resolve the innermost structure of the milliarcsecond scale jet and counter jet system of Cen A into discrete components. The simultaneous observations at two frequencies provide the highest resolved spectral index map of an AGN jet allowing us to identify up to four possible sites as the origin of the high energy emission. Key words. galaxies: active galaxies: individual (Centaurus A, NGC 5128) - galaxies: jets - techniques: high angular resolution

  9. How can insulin initiation delivery in a dual-sector health system be optimised? A qualitative study on healthcare professionals' views.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping Yein; Lee, Yew Kong; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2012-04-30

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in developing countries. However, glycaemia control remains suboptimal and insulin use is low. One important barrier is the lack of an efficient and effective insulin initiation delivery approach. This study aimed to document the strategies used and proposed by healthcare professionals to improve insulin initiation in the Malaysian dual-sector (public-private) health system. In depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Klang Valley and Seremban, Malaysia in 2010-11. Healthcare professionals consisting of general practitioners (n = 11), medical officers (n = 8), diabetes educators (n = 3), government policy makers (n = 4), family medicine specialists (n = 10) and endocrinologists (n = 2) were interviewed. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach. Three main themes emerged from the interviews. Firstly, there was a lack of collaboration between the private and public sectors in diabetes care. The general practitioners in the private sector proposed an integrated system for them to refer patients to the public health services for insulin initiation programmes. There could be shared care between the two sectors and this would reduce the disproportionately heavy workload at the public sector. Secondly, besides the support from the government health authority, the healthcare professionals wanted greater involvement of non-government organisations, media and pharmaceutical industry in facilitating insulin initiation in both the public and private sectors. The support included: training of healthcare professionals; developing and disseminating patient education materials; service provision by diabetes education teams; organising programmes for patients' peer group sessions; increasing awareness and demystifying insulin via public campaigns; and subsidising glucose

  10. How can insulin initiation delivery in a dual-sector health system be optimised? A qualitative study on healthcare professionals’ views

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in developing countries. However, glycaemia control remains suboptimal and insulin use is low. One important barrier is the lack of an efficient and effective insulin initiation delivery approach. This study aimed to document the strategies used and proposed by healthcare professionals to improve insulin initiation in the Malaysian dual-sector (public–private) health system. Methods In depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Klang Valley and Seremban, Malaysia in 2010–11. Healthcare professionals consisting of general practitioners (n = 11), medical officers (n = 8), diabetes educators (n = 3), government policy makers (n = 4), family medicine specialists (n = 10) and endocrinologists (n = 2) were interviewed. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach. Results Three main themes emerged from the interviews. Firstly, there was a lack of collaboration between the private and public sectors in diabetes care. The general practitioners in the private sector proposed an integrated system for them to refer patients to the public health services for insulin initiation programmes. There could be shared care between the two sectors and this would reduce the disproportionately heavy workload at the public sector. Secondly, besides the support from the government health authority, the healthcare professionals wanted greater involvement of non-government organisations, media and pharmaceutical industry in facilitating insulin initiation in both the public and private sectors. The support included: training of healthcare professionals; developing and disseminating patient education materials; service provision by diabetes education teams; organising programmes for patients’ peer group sessions; increasing awareness and demystifying insulin via public

  11. What Makes Dual-Career Marriages Tick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    A dual-career family is a family in which both spouses are committed to occupational work and to a family life together and support each other's desires to combine roles that traditionally were viewed as incompatible. Male socialization in the areas of entitlement, dependency, and nurturance can cause problems for men in dual-career marriages. In…

  12. [Dual pathology].

    PubMed

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  13. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  14. Limited Angle Dual Modality Breast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Mitali J.; Li, Heng; Goodale, Patricia J.; Zheng, Yibin; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Welch, Benjamin; Williams, Mark B.

    2007-06-01

    We are developing a dual modality breast scanner that can obtain x-ray transmission and gamma ray emission images in succession at multiple viewing angles with the breast held under mild compression. These views are reconstructed and fused to obtain three-dimensional images that combine structural and functional information. Here, we describe the dual modality system and present results of phantom experiments designed to test the system's ability to obtain fused volumetric dual modality data sets from a limited number of projections, acquired over a limited (less than 180 degrees) angular range. We also present initial results from phantom experiments conducted to optimize the acquisition geometry for gamma imaging. The optimization parameters include the total number of views and the angular range over which these views should be spread, while keeping the total number of detected counts fixed. We have found that in general, for a fixed number of views centered around the direction perpendicular to the direction of compression, in-plane contrast and SNR are improved as the angular range of the views is decreased. The improvement in contrast and SNR with decreasing angular range is much greater for deeper lesions and for a smaller number of views. However, the z-resolution of the lesion is significantly reduced with decreasing angular range. Finally, we present results from limited angle tomography scans using a system with dual, opposing heads.

  15. Dual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Magicians and scientists have a curious relationship, with both conflicting views and common ground. Magicians use natural means to construct supernatural illusions. They exploit surprise and misdirected focus in their tricks. Scientists like to deconstruct and explain marvels. They methodically measure, evaluate and repeat observations. However,…

  16. The Leicester AATSR Global Analyser (LAGA) - Giving Young Students the Opportunity to Examine Space Observations of Global Climate-Related Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Good, Simon; Corlett, Gary

    A pc-based analysis package has been developed, for the dual purposes of, firstly, providing ‘quick-look' capability to research workers inspecting long time-series of global satellite datasets of Sea-surface Temperature (SST); and, secondly, providing an introduction for students, either undergraduates, or advanced high-school students to the characteristics of commonly used analysis techniques for large geophysical data-sets from satellites. Students can also gain insight into the behaviour of some basic climate-related large-scale or global processes. The package gives students immediate access to up to 16 years of continuous global SST data, mainly from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer, currently flying on ESA's Envisat satellite. The data are available and are presented in the form of monthly averages and spatial averaged to half-degree or one-sixth degree longitude-latitude grids. There are simple button-operated facilities for defining and calculating box-averages; producing time-series of such averages; defining and displaying transects and their evolution over time; and the examination anomalous behaviour by displaying the difference between observed values and values derived from climatological means. By using these facilities a student rapidly gains familiarity with such processes as annual variability, the El Nĩo effect, as well as major current systems n such as the Gulf Stream and other climatically important phenomena. In fact, the student is given immediate insights into the basic methods of examining geophysical data in a research context, without needing to acquire special analysis skills are go trough lengthy data retrieval and preparation procedures which are more generally required, as precursors to serious investigation, in the research laboratory. This software package, called the Leicester AAATSR Global Analyser (LAGA), is written in a well-known and widely used analysis language and the package can be run by using software

  17. Ocean View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Analytical Spectral Devices was able to commercialize the "engine" of SeaSpec. The Dual CCD developed for SeaSpec is used in our FieldSpecO Dual UV/VNIR/CCD. This product is very popular for coastal research. It allows for a small suitcase sized spectrometer to be placed in a boat and the attached fiber optic cable can be lowered 30 feet below the surface allowing researchers to perform the same studies as SeaSpec just not at the deep-water depths. Most of the people who inquire about SeaSpec end up purchasing a FieldSpec Dual CCD.SeaSpec was designed to withstand harsh marine environments and depths up to 200 m. While it meets these requirements it is the only instrument of its kind and we consider it a prototype. The first version was released in April 1997. It was tested, we made modification and returned the product in March 1998.

  18. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of rigid and deformable motion correction algorithms using dual-energy CT images in view of application to CT perfusion measurements in abdominal organs affected by breathing motion

    PubMed Central

    Skornitzke, S; Fritz, F; Klauss, M; Pahn, G; Hansen, J; Hirsch, J; Grenacher, L; Kauczor, H-U

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare six different scenarios for correcting for breathing motion in abdominal dual-energy CT (DECT) perfusion measurements. Methods: Rigid [RRComm(80 kVp)] and non-rigid [NRComm(80 kVp)] registration of commercially available CT perfusion software, custom non-rigid registration [NRCustom(80 kVp], demons algorithm) and a control group [CG(80 kVp)] without motion correction were evaluated using 80 kVp images. Additionally, NRCustom was applied to dual-energy (DE)-blended [NRCustom(DE)] and virtual non-contrast [NRCustom(VNC)] images, yielding six evaluated scenarios. After motion correction, perfusion maps were calculated using a combined maximum slope/Patlak model. For qualitative evaluation, three blinded radiologists independently rated motion correction quality and resulting perfusion maps on a four-point scale (4 = best, 1 = worst). For quantitative evaluation, relative changes in metric values, R2 and residuals of perfusion model fits were calculated. Results: For motion-corrected images, mean ratings differed significantly [NRCustom(80 kVp) and NRCustom(DE), 3.3; NRComm(80 kVp), 3.1; NRCustom(VNC), 2.9; RRComm(80 kVp), 2.7; CG(80 kVp), 2.7; all p < 0.05], except when comparing NRCustom(80 kVp) with NRCustom(DE) and RRComm(80 kVp) with CG(80 kVp). NRCustom(80 kVp) and NRCustom(DE) achieved the highest reduction in metric values [NRCustom(80 kVp), 48.5%; NRCustom(DE), 45.6%; NRComm(80 kVp), 29.2%; NRCustom(VNC), 22.8%; RRComm(80 kVp), 0.6%; CG(80 kVp), 0%]. Regarding perfusion maps, NRCustom(80 kVp) and NRCustom(DE) were rated highest [NRCustom(80 kVp), 3.1; NRCustom(DE), 3.0; NRComm(80 kVp), 2.8; NRCustom(VNC), 2.6; CG(80 kVp), 2.5; RRComm(80 kVp), 2.4] and had significantly higher R2 and lower residuals. Correlation between qualitative and quantitative evaluation was low to moderate. Conclusion: Non-rigid motion correction improves spatial alignment of the target region and fit of CT

  20. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  1. Dual Relationships in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Barbara; Corey, Gerald

    Issues involving dual relationships in counseling are discussed in this monograph. Dual relationships occur when counselors have another, significantly different, relationship with one of their clients, students, or supervisees. This monograph is intended to be a resource that reflects the current thinking of the counseling profession and that…

  2. Dual methods and approximation concepts in structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Approximation concepts and dual method algorithms are combined to create a method for minimum weight design of structural systems. Approximation concepts convert the basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem into a sequence of explicit primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to nonnegativity constraints on the dual variables. It is shown that the joining together of approximation concepts and dual methods can be viewed as a generalized optimality criteria approach. The dual method is successfully extended to deal with pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable problems. The power of the method presented is illustrated with numerical results for example problems, including a metallic swept wing and a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.

  3. Dual algebraic formulation of differential GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannes, A.; Dur, S.

    2003-05-01

    A new approach to differential GPS is presented. The corresponding theoretical framework calls on elementary concepts of algebraic graph theory. The notion of double difference, which is related to that of closure in the sense of Kirchhoff, is revisited in this context. The Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse of the closure operator plays a key role in the corresponding dual formulation. This approach, which is very attractive from a conceptual point of view, sheds a new light on the Teunissen formulation.

  4. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  5. Dual coil ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  6. Dual mode scanner-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongeon, R. J.

    1984-11-01

    The beam of a laser radar is moved over the field of view by means of a pair of scanner/trackers arranged in cascade along the laser beam. One of the scanner/trackers operates at high speed, with high resolution and a wide field and is located in the demagnified portion of the laser beam. The two scanner/trackers complement each other to achieve high speed, high resolution scanning as well as tracking of moving targets. A beam steering telescope for an airborne laser radar which incorporates the novel dual mode scanner/tracker is also shown. The other scanner/tracker operates at low speed with low resolution and a wide field and is located in the magnified portion of the laser beam.

  7. Remote viewing.

    PubMed

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  8. Benefits and Challenges of Dual-Earning: Perspectives of Successful Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, Shelley A.; Rattenborg, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Examines the benefits and challenges derived from the dual-earner lifestyle for couples who successfully balance family and work. Many therapists harbor negative and stereotypical assumptions of the quality of dual-earner family life, but the findings of this study are helpful in providing a more balanced, informed view of the possibilities of…

  9. Dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce; Tang, H. Roger; Da Silva, Angela J.; Wong, Kenneth H.; Iwata, Koji; Wu, Max C.

    2001-09-01

    In comparison to conventional medical imaging techniques, dual-modality imaging offers the advantage of correlating anatomical information from X-ray computed tomography (CT) with functional measurements from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or with positron emission tomography (PET). The combined X-ray/radionuclide images from dual-modality imaging can help the clinician to differentiate disease from normal uptake of radiopharmaceuticals, and to improve diagnosis and staging of disease. In addition, phantom and animal studies have demonstrated that a priori structural information from CT can be used to improve quantification of tissue uptake and organ function by correcting the radionuclide data for errors due to photon attenuation, partial volume effects, scatter radiation, and other physical effects. Dual-modality imaging therefore is emerging as a method of improving the visual quality and the quantitative accuracy of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of patients with cancer and heart disease.

  10. Zograscopic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance. PMID:23799196

  11. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  12. Dual Pathology of Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Rajurkar, Suday G.; Deshpande, Mohan D.; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed. PMID:29264307

  13. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    PubMed

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  14. Jean Piaget's Theory of Equilibration Applied to Dual Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Luisa C.

    This paper suggests that one possibility for the lack of study emphasis and unity of understanding in the area of dual language development is that language study in general shows some serious gaps and reveals a need for viewing language development as a holistic endeavor. Noting the failures of Skinnerian theory, Chomskian theory, Soviet…

  15. Conflict Monitoring in Dual Process Theories of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neys, Wim; Glumicic, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Popular dual process theories have characterized human thinking as an interplay between an intuitive-heuristic and demanding-analytic reasoning process. Although monitoring the output of the two systems for conflict is crucial to avoid decision making errors there are some widely different views on the efficiency of the process. Kahneman…

  16. Dual Coding in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  17. Dual beam optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A dual beam interferometer device is disclosed that enables moving an optics module in a direction, which changes the path lengths of two beams of light. The two beams reflect off a surface of an object and generate different speckle patterns detected by an element, such as a camera. The camera detects a characteristic of the surface.

  18. Application and Discussion of Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor in Biomass Energy Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haibin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Baofeng; Yang, Liguo; Sun, Rongfeng

    2018-01-01

    As an important clean and renewable energy, biomass has a broad market prospect. The dual fluidized bed is widely used in biomass gasification technology, and has become an important way of biomass high-value utilization. This paper describes the basic principle of dual fluidized bed gasification, from the gas composition, tar content and thermal efficiency of the system point of view, analyzes and summarizes several typical dual fluidized bed biomass gasification technologies, points out the existence of gas mixing, the external heat source, catalyst development problems on gas. Finally, it is clear that the gasification of biomass in dual fluidized bed is of great industrial application and development prospect.

  19. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-07

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  20. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  1. Dual-readout calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sehwook; Livan, Michele; Wigmans, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the past 20 years, dual-readout calorimetry has emerged as a technique for measuring the properties of high-energy hadrons and hadron jets that offers considerable advantages compared with the instruments that are currently used for this purpose in experiments at the high-energy frontier. The status of this experimental technique and the challenges faced for its further development are reviewed.

  2. Dual-Modality Small Animal Imaging System*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranck, Amoreena; Feldmann, John; Saunders, Robert S.; Welsh, Robert E.; Bradley, Eric L.; Saha, Margaret S.; Kross, Brian; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph

    2000-10-01

    We describe preliminary results from an imaging system consisting of an array of position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) viewing pixelated scintillators and a small fluoroscopic x-ray system (Lixi, Inc.). The PSPMT detectors are used to follow the uptake of lignads tagged principally with ^125I which emits photons in the 30keV region. The fluoroscope allows the superposition of structural information on the pattern of the radioligands. This "dual modality" technique permits more accurate tracking of the tagged material in the animal under study. Small sources give fiducial information on both x-ray and radioligand pictures allowing close registration of the two views of the system under study. Improvements to this system incorporating a very versatile rotatable gantry capable of supporting a wide range of detection systems simultaneously will be described. *Supported in part by The American Diabetes Association, The Jeffress Trust, The National Science Foundation, The Department of Energy, and The Howard Hughes Foundation

  3. Direct social perception and dual process theories of mindreading.

    PubMed

    Herschbach, Mitchell

    2015-11-01

    The direct social perception (DSP) thesis claims that we can directly perceive some mental states of other people. The direct perception of mental states has been formulated phenomenologically and psychologically, and typically restricted to the mental state types of intentions and emotions. I will compare DSP to another account of mindreading: dual process accounts that posit a fast, automatic "Type 1" form of mindreading and a slow, effortful "Type 2" form. I will here analyze whether dual process accounts' Type 1 mindreading serves as a rival to DSP or whether some Type 1 mindreading can be perceptual. I will focus on Apperly and Butterfill's dual process account of mindreading epistemic states such as perception, knowledge, and belief. This account posits a minimal form of Type 1 mindreading of belief-like states called registrations. I will argue that general dual process theories fit well with a modular view of perception that is considered a kind of Type 1 process. I will show that this modular view of perception challenges and has significant advantages over DSP's phenomenological and psychological theses. Finally, I will argue that if such a modular view of perception is accepted, there is significant reason for thinking Type 1 mindreading of belief-like states is perceptual in nature. This would mean extending the scope of DSP to at least one type of epistemic state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual-Schemata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  5. [Dual-doctor marriages].

    PubMed

    Gjerberg, Elisabeth

    2003-08-28

    Dual-doctor marriages are increasingly frequent. The question raised here is whether being married to a fellow physician has a different impact on a doctor's career and family life than having a spouse in a different profession. In 1996 a questionnaire was mailed to physicians who received their authorisation to practise medicine in Norway in the years 1980 through 1983 period; 1142 responded (67 %). They supplied data on their current employment status and data on employment history and marital background. Multivariate analysis was used in order to explore how the educational background of spouses affects a medical career. Female physicians who marry a physician marry and have families at a younger age than other female physicians. Moreover, they more often enter specialties; in some specialities they also qualify earlier than those who marry non-physicians. The same did not hold for male physicians. However, male physicians in dual-doctor marriages more frequently worked part time and they far less frequently had spouses working part time than other male doctors. The results suggest that dual-doctor couples to a higher extent share in giving care to their families, have more interests in common and are more supportive of each other's needs. Female physicians seem to benefit particularly.

  6. Color Infrared view of Houston, TX, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-18

    This color infrared view of Houston (29.5N, 95.0W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-78-034 for an analysis of the unique properties of each film type. Comparative tests such as this aids in determining the kinds of information unique to each film system and evaluates and compares photography taken through hazy atmospheres. Infrared film is best at penetrating haze, vegetation detection and producing a sharp image.

  7. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  8. STEREO's View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    currently viewing the far side of the sun. Together these instruments help scientists create a three-dimensional model of any CME as its journey unfolds through interplanetary space. Such information can show why a given characteristic of a CME close to the sun might lead to a given effect near Earth, or any other planet in the solar system. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. Multiple Views

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    , mission, which launched in 2006. The two STEREO spacecraft are both currently viewing the far side of the sun. Together these instruments help scientists create a three-dimensional model of any CME as its journey unfolds through interplanetary space. Such information can show why a given characteristic of a CME close to the sun might lead to a given effect near Earth, or any other planet in the solar system...NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Dual antibiotics for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Lambert M; Grundy, Seamus; Milan, Stephen J; Armstrong, Ross; Harrison, Haley; Lynes, Dave; Spencer, Sally

    2018-06-11

    Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the smaller airways and associated with a mortality rate greater than twice that of the general population. Antibiotics serve as front-line therapy for managing bacterial load, but their use is weighed against the development of antibiotic resistance. Dual antibiotic therapy has the potential to suppress infection from multiple strains of bacteria, leading to more successful treatment of exacerbations, reduced symptoms, and improved quality of life. Further evidence is required on the efficacy of dual antibiotics in terms of management of exacerbations and extent of antibiotic resistance. To evaluate the effects of dual antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis. We identified studies from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), which includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), and PsycINFO, as well as studies obtained by handsearching of journals/abstracts. We also searched the following trial registries: US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We imposed no restriction on language of publication. We conducted our search in October 2017. We searched for randomised controlled trials comparing dual antibiotics versus a single antibiotic for short-term (< 4 weeks) or long-term management of bronchiectasis diagnosed in adults and/or children by bronchography, plain film chest radiography, or high-resolution computed tomography. Primary outcomes included exacerbations, length of hospitalisation, and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes were response rates, emergence of resistance to antibiotics, systemic markers of infection, sputum

  11. Dual fluorescence of syringaldazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendiran, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2007-11-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of syringaldazine (SYAZ) has been recorded in solvents of different polarity, pH and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and compared with syringaldehyde (SYAL). The inclusion complex of SYAZ with β-CD is investigated by UV-vis, fluorimetry, AM 1, FT-IR, 1H NMR and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Δ G value suggests the inclusion process is an exothermic and spontaneous. In all solvents a dual fluorescence is observed for SYAZ, whereas, SYAL shows a dual luminescence only in polar solvents. The excitation spectra for the 410 nm is different from 340 nm indicate two different species present in this molecule. In pH solutions: (i) a large red shifted maxima is observed in the dianion and is due to large interactions between the aromatic ring and (ii) the large blue shift at pH ˜4.5, is due to dissociation of azine group and formation of aldehyde. β-CD studies reveal that, SYAZ forms a 1:2 complex from 1:1 complex with β-CD.

  12. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  13. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  14. Validation and Comparison of AATRS AOD L2 Products over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yahui; Xue, Yong; Guang, Jie; Guo, Jianping; Li, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aboard on ENVISAT has been used to observe the Earth for more than 10 years since than 2002. One of main applications of AATSR instrument is to observe atmospheric aerosol, especially in retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD), taking advantage of its dual-view that helps to separate the contribution of aerosol from top of atmosphere reflectance (A. A. Kokhanovsky and de Leeuw, 2009). The project of Aerosol_CCI, as part of European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), has released new AATSR aerosol AOD products by the of 2015, including the SU v4.21 product from Swansea algorithm, ADV v2.3 product from the ATSR-2/AATSR dual view aerosol retrieval algorithm (ADV) and ORAC v03.04 product from the Oxford-RAL Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud algorithm. The previous versions of these three AOD level 2 (L2) products in 2008 have been validated over mainland China (Che and Xue, 2015). In this paper, we validated these AATSR AOD products with latest versions in mainland China in 2007, 2008 and 2010 by the means of comparison with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET). The combination of AERONET and CARSNET helps to make up for the disadvantages of small number and uneven distribution of AEROENT cites. The validation results show different performance of these AOD products over China. The performances of SU and ADV products seem to be the same with close correlation coefficient (CC) about 08~0.9 and root mean square (RMS) within 0.15 in all three years, and sensitive to high AOD values (AOD >1): more AODs and more underestimated. However, these two products do exist difference, which is that the SU algorithm retrieves more high AODs, leading to more space-time validation matches with ground-based data. The ORAC algorithm is different from the others, it can be not only used to retrieve low AODs but also high AODs over different landcover types. Even though

  15. The dilemma of dual use biological research: Polish perspective.

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2010-03-01

    Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and/or national security is termed dual use. In Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting such threats are required, and the national system of biosecurity should enable early, reliable, and complete identification of this type of research. Scientists should have a fundamental role in this process, their duty being to immediately, upon identification, report research with dual use potential. An important entity in the identification system of dual use research should also be the Central Register of Biological and Biomedical Research, which gathers information about all biological and biomedical research being conducted in a given country. Publishers, editors, and review committees of journals and other scientific publications should be involved in evaluating results of clinical trials. The National Council of Biosecurity should be the governmental institution responsible for developing a system of dual use research threat prevention. Its role would be to develop codes of conduct, form counsel of expertise, and monitor the problem at national level, while the Dual Use Research Committee would be responsible for individual cases. In Poland, current actions aiming to provide biological safety were based on developing and passing an act about genetically modified organisms (GMO's) and creating a GMO Committee. Considering experiences of other nations, one should view these actions as fragmentary, and thus insufficient protection against dual use research threats.

  16. Dual-modality imaging of function and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Iwata, Koji; Wong, Kenneth H.; Wu, Max C.; Da Silva, Angela; Tang, Hamilton R.; Barber, William C.; Hwang, Andrew B.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-04-01

    Dual-modality imaging is a technique where computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is combined with positron emission tomography or single-photon computed tomography to acquire structural and functional images with an integrated system. The data are acquired during a single procedure with the patient on a table viewed by both detectors to facilitate correlation between the structural and function images. The resulting data can be useful for localization for more specific diagnosis of disease. In addition, the anatomical information can be used to compensate the correlated radionuclide data for physical perturbations such as photon attenuation, scatter radiation, and partial volume errors. Thus, dual-modality imaging provides a priori information that can be used to improve both the visual quality and the quantitative accuracy of the radionuclide images. Dual-modality imaging systems also are being developed for biological research that involves small animals. The small-animal dual-modality systems offer advantages for measurements that currently are performed invasively using autoradiography and tissue sampling. By acquiring the required data noninvasively, dual-modality imaging has the potential to allow serial studies in a single animal, to perform measurements with fewer animals, and to improve the statistical quality of the data.

  17. Enhancement of Dual-Band Reflection-Mode Circular Polarizers Using Dual-Layer Rectangular Frequency Selective Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fartookzadeh, M.; Mohseni Armaki, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of dual-band reflection-mode circular polarizers (RMCPs) is introduced with wide bandwidth and wide-view at the operating frequencies. The proposed RMCPs are based on dual-layer rectangular patches on both sides of a substrate, separated by a foam or air layer from the ground plane. Required TE susceptance of the first layer patches to produce circular polarization is calculated using the equivalent transmission line model. Dimensions of the RMCP are obtained using parametrical study for the two frequency bands, 1.9-2.3 GHz and 7.9-8.3 GHz. In addition, it is indicated that the accepted view angle and bandwidth of the proposed dual-layer RMCP are improved compared with the single layer RMCP, significantly. Moreover, a tradeoff is observed for the dual-layer RMCP on the bandwidths of X band and S band that can be controlled by propagation angle of the incident wave. The proposed RMCP has 30.5 % and 33.7 % bandwidths for less than 3 dB axial ratio with incident angles {\\theta}max=50{\\deg} and {\\theta}min=35{\\deg}. Finally, simulation results are met by the measurement for three angles of the incident wave.

  18. Sensitivity of dual-wall structures under hypervelocity impact to multi-layer thermal insulation thickness and placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1993-04-01

    Results are presented from an experimental study in which Al dual-wall structures were tested, under various high-speed impact conditions, with a view to the effect of multilayer insulation thickness and location on perforation resistance. Attention is given to comparisons of the damage sustained by dual-wall systems with multilayer insulation blankets of various thicknesses and at various locations within the dual-wall system, under comparable impact loading conditions. The placement of the insulation has a significant effect on the ballistic limit of the dual-wall structures considered, while reducing insulation thickness by as much as a third did not.

  19. Dual-modality imaging with a ultrasound-gamma device for oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, C.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; De Vincentis, G.; Lo Meo, S.; Fabbri, A.; Bennati, P.; Cencelli, V. Orsolini; Pani, R.

    2018-06-01

    Recently, dual-modality systems have been developed, aimed to correlate anatomical and functional information, improving disease localization and helping oncological or surgical treatments. Moreover, due to the growing interest in handheld detectors for preclinical trials or small animal imaging, in this work a new dual modality integrated device, based on a Ultrasounds probe and a small Field of View Single Photon Emission gamma camera, is proposed.

  20. Lexicons, contexts, events, and images: commentary on Elman (2009) from the perspective of dual coding theory.

    PubMed

    Paivio, Allan; Sadoski, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Elman (2009) proposed that the traditional role of the mental lexicon in language processing can largely be replaced by a theoretical model of schematic event knowledge founded on dynamic context-dependent variables. We evaluate Elman's approach and propose an alternative view, based on dual coding theory and evidence that modality-specific cognitive representations contribute strongly to word meaning and language performance across diverse contexts which also have effects predictable from dual coding theory. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Dual-Targeting of AR and Akt Pathways by Berberine in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0275 TITLE: Dual-Targeting of AR and Akt Pathways by Berberine in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Dual-Targeting of AR and Akt Pathways by Berberine in Castration- Resistant Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  2. Dual mode warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Obrsky, J.; Alexander, A.A.; Griffen, O.H.

    1980-12-31

    A dual mode warhead is provided for use against both soft and hard targets and capable of sensing which type of target has been struck comprising a casing made of a ductile material containing an explosive charge and a fuze assembly. The ductile warhead casing will mushroom and later split upon striking a hard target while still confining the explosive. Proper ductility and confinement are necessary for fuze sensing. The fuze assembly contains a pair of parallel firing trains, one initiated only by high and one by low impact deceleration. The firing train actuated by low impact deceleration contains amore » pyrotechnic delay to allow penetration of soft targets.« less

  3. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  4. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  5. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, Robert M.; Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  6. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  7. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  8. Integrated Dual Imaging Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

  9. Parents' Working Hours: Adolescent Children's Views and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane; Noden, Philip; Sarre, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    As dual-earner families have become the norm, the different kinds of "time" children spend with parents has become an important issue. We use the 2000 Time Use Survey to identify adolescent children spending time alone at home, and interviews with 50 children aged 14 and 15 to explore young people's experiences. We investigate their views on their…

  10. Dual-use technology programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Lionel S.

    1994-10-01

    The paper presents the Clinton Administration's commitment to American industrial competitiveness through a strategic focus on research and development and to dual-use technologies in particular. Working in partnership with industry, the dual-use approach is essential for giving our armed forces the world's best, most technically advanced military equipment at affordable cost. The President has set a goal of shifting from a dominant role for military technologies in our Federal R&D investments to a roughly equal balance between military on the one hand and civilian and dual-use on the other. We have already made significant progress toward this goal.

  11. Peptides with Dual Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felício, Mário R.; Silva, Osmar N.; Gonçalves, Sônia; Santos, Nuno C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the number of people suffering from cancer and multi-resistant infections has increased, such that both diseases are already seen as current and future major causes of death. Moreover, chronic infections are one of the main causes of cancer, due to the instability in the immune system that allows cancer cells to proliferate. Likewise, the physical debility associated with cancer or with anticancer therapy itself often paves the way for opportunistic infections. It is urgent to develop new therapeutic methods, with higher efficiency and lower side effects. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in the innate immune system of a wide range of organisms. Identified as the most promising alternative to conventional molecules used nowadays against infections, some of them have been shown to have dual activity, both as antimicrobial and anticancer peptides (ACPs). Highly cationic and amphipathic, they have demonstrated efficacy against both conditions, with the number of nature-driven or synthetically designed peptides increasing year by year. With similar properties, AMPs that can also act as ACPs are viewed as future chemotherapeutic drugs, with the advantage of low propensity to resistance, which started this paradigm in the pharmaceutical market. These peptides have already been described as molecules presenting killing mechanisms at the membrane level, but also acting towards intracellular targets, which increases their success comparatively to specific one-target drugs. This review will approach the desirable characteristics of small peptides that demonstrated dual activity against microbial infections and cancer, as well as the peptides engaged in clinical trials.

  12. Lesion Quantification in Dual-Modality Mammotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heng; Zheng, Yibin; More, Mitali J.; Goodale, Patricia J.; Williams, Mark B.

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a novel x-ray/SPECT dual modality breast imaging system that provides 3D structural and functional information. While only a limited number of views on one side of the breast can be acquired due to mechanical and time constraints, we developed a technique to compensate for the limited angle artifact in reconstruction images and accurately estimate both the lesion size and radioactivity concentration. Various angular sampling strategies were evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. It was demonstrated that quantification of lesion size to an accuracy of 10% and quantification of radioactivity to an accuracy of 20% are feasible from limited-angle data acquired with clinically practical dosage and acquisition time

  13. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOEpatents

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  14. Lp-dual affine surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  15. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  16. Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study. [dual throat and dual expander nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Geometric, aerodynamic flow field, performance prediction, and heat transfer analyses are considered for two advanced chamber nozzle concepts applicable to Earth-to-orbit engine systems. Topics covered include improvements to the dual throat aerodynamic and performance prediction program; geometric and flow field analyses of the dual expander concept; heat transfer analysis of both concepts, and engineering analysis of data from the NASA/MSFC hot-fire testing of a dual throat thruster model thrust chamber assembly. Preliminary results obtained are presented in graphs.

  17. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-05

    of 15 DUAL MODE SLOTTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...to a dual mode antenna having one mode as a slotted cylinder antenna and another mode as a monopole antenna . (2) Description of the Prior Art...0004] Slotted cylinder antennas are popular antennas for use in line of sight communications systems, especially where the carrier frequency exceeds

  18. View From Outside the Viewing Sphere

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Pepperell, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The ‘viewing sphere’, as defined by Euclid and explored by Gibson as the ‘optic array’, is generally thought of as wrapped around the eye. Can an observer step out of it? With currently popular photographic techniques, the spectator is forced to, because the viewing sphere is presented as a pictorial object. Then the question is whether human observers are able to use such pictorial representations in an intuitive manner. Can the spectator ‘mentally step into the interior’ of the pictorial viewing sphere? We explore this issue in a short experiment. Perhaps unsurprisingly, because the eye cannot see itself, the short answer is no. PMID:29854376

  19. Building a Framework for a Dual Task Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Tara L.; Lamberg, Eric M.; Muratori, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The study of dual task interference has gained increasing attention in the literature for the past 35 years, with six MEDLINE citations in 1979 growing to 351 citations indexed in 2014 and a peak of 454 cited papers in 2013. Increasingly, researchers are examining dual task cost in individuals with pathology, including those with neurodegenerative diseases. While the influence of these papers has extended from the laboratory to the clinic, the field has evolved without clear definitions of commonly used terms and with extreme variations in experimental procedures. As a result, it is difficult to examine the interference literature as a single body of work. In this paper we present a new taxonomy for classifying cognitive-motor and motor-motor interference within the study of dual task behaviors that connects traditional concepts of learning and principles of motor control with current issues of multitasking analysis. As a first step in the process we provide an operational definition of dual task, distinguishing it from a complex single task. We present this new taxonomy, inclusive of both cognitive and motor modalities, as a working model; one that we hope will generate discussion and create a framework from which one can view previous studies and develop questions of interest. PMID:25961027

  20. misr_view

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2018-03-21

    ... data files,  misr_view , was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. misr_view, which includes a User's Guide, is available ... Processing Applications and Development Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.   ...

  1. Single lens system for forward-viewing navigation and scanning side-viewing optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; McGregor, Davis; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2017-02-01

    The optical design for a dual modality endoscope based on piezo scanning fiber technology is presented including a novel technique to combine forward-viewing navigation and side viewing OCT. Potential applications include navigating body lumens such as the fallopian tube, biliary ducts and cardiovascular system. A custom cover plate provides a rotationally symmetric double reflection of the OCT beam to deviate and focus the OCT beam out the side of the endoscope for cross-sectional imaging of the tubal lumen. Considerations in the choice of the scanning fiber are explored and a new technique to increase the divergence angle of the scanning fiber to improve system performance is presented. Resolution and the necessary scanning density requirements to achieve Nyquist sampling of the full image are considered. The novel optical design lays the groundwork for a new approach integrating side-viewing OCT into multimodality endoscopes for small lumen imaging. KEYWORDS:

  2. Development and characterization of a dual-energy subtraction imaging system for chest radiography based on CsI:Tl amorphous silicon flat-panel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabol, John M.; Avinash, Gopal B.; Nicolas, Francois; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Zhao, Jianguo; Dobbins, James T., III

    2001-06-01

    Dual-energy subtraction imaging increases the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary nodule detection in chest radiography by reducing the contrast of overlying bone structures. Recent development of a fast, high-efficiency detector enables dual-energy imaging to be integrated into the traditional workflow. We have modified a GE RevolutionTM XQ/i chest imaging system to construct a dual-energy imaging prototype system. Here we describe the operating characteristics of this prototype and evaluate image quality. Empirical results show that the dual-energy CNR is maximized if the dose is approximately equal for both high and low energy exposures. Given the high detector DQE, and allocation of dose between the two views, we can acquire dual-energy PA and conventional lateral images with total dose equivalent to a conventional two-view film chest exam. Calculations have shown that the dual-exposure technique has superior CNR and tissue cancellation than single-exposure CR systems. Clinical images obtained on a prototype dual-energy imaging system show excellent tissue contrast cancellation, low noise, and modest motion artefacts. In summary, a prototype dual-energy system has been constructed which enables rapid, dual-exposure imaging of the chest using a commercially available high-efficiency, flat-panel x-ray detector. The quality of the clinical images generated with this prototype exceeds that of CR techniques and demonstrates the potential for improved detection and characterization of lung disease through dual-energy imaging.

  3. Superlinear variant of the dual affine scaling algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, C.; Cardosa, D.

    1994-12-31

    The affine scaling methods introduced by Dikin are generally considered the most efficient interior point algorithms from a computational point of view. However, it is actually an open question to know whether there is a polynomial affine scaling algorithm. This fact has motivated many investigations efforts and led to several convergence results. This is the case of the recently obtained results by Tsuchiya, Tseng and Luo and Tsuchiya and Muramatsu which, unlike the pioneering Dikin`s convergence result, do not require any non degeneracy assumption. This paper presents a new variant of the dual affine scaling algorithm for Linear Programming that,more » in a finite number of iterations, determines a primal-dual pair of optimal solutions. It is also shown the superlinear convergence of that variant without requiring any non degeneracy assumption.« less

  4. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  5. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  6. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  7. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  8. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING VESTIBULE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING VESTIBULE. VIEW TO WEST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  10. Attitudinal Perspectives: A Factor to Implementation of a Dual Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitacre, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The central focus of this study was to determine the overall perceptions of school administrators, and the district bilingual coordinator on transferring theory to classroom practice, implementation, as viewed by those involved in the implementation process of the Gómez and Gómez Model of Dual Language Education. Responses were solicited from…

  11. Animations Need Narrations: An Experimental Test of a Dual-Coding Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Anderson, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    In two experiments, 102 mechanically naive college students viewed an animation on bicycle tire pump operation with a verbal description before or during the animation or without description. Improved performance of those receiving description during the animation supports a dual-coding hypothesis of connections between visual and verbal stimuli.…

  12. Dual symmetry in a generalized Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, F. T.; Frenkel, J.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2016-09-01

    We examine Podolsky’s electrodynamics, which is non-invariant under the usual duality transformation. We deduce a generalization of Hodge’s star duality, which leads to a dual gauge field and restores to a certain extent the dual symmetry. The model becomes fully dual symmetric asymptotically, when it reduces to the Maxwell theory. We argue that this strict dual symmetry directly implies the existence of the basic invariants of the electromagnetic fields.

  13. [The dual process model of addiction. Towards an integrated model?].

    PubMed

    Vandermeeren, R; Hebbrecht, M

    2012-01-01

    Neurobiology and cognitive psychology have provided us with a dual process model of addiction. According to this model, behavior is considered to be the dynamic result of a combination of automatic and controlling processes. In cases of addiction the balance between these two processes is severely disturbed. Automated processes will continue to produce impulses that ensure the continuance of addictive behavior. Weak, reflective or controlling processes are both the reason for and the result of the inability to forgo addiction. To identify features that are common to current neurocognitive insights into addiction and psychodynamic views on addiction. The picture that emerges from research is not clear. There is some evidence that attentional bias has a causal effect on addiction. There is no evidence that automatic associations have a causal effect, but there is some evidence that automatic action-tendencies do have a causal effect. Current neurocognitive views on the dual process model of addiction can be integrated with an evidence-based approach to addiction and with psychodynamic views on addiction.

  14. All-around viewing display system for group activity on life review therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Okumura, Mitsuru

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes 360 degree viewing display system that can be viewed from any direction. A conventional monitor display is viewed from one direction, i.e., the display has narrow viewing angle and observers cannot view the screen from the opposite side. To solve this problem, we developed the 360 degree viewing display for collaborative tasks on the round table. This developed 360 degree viewing system has a liquid crystal display screen and a 360 degree rotating table by motor. The principle is very simple. The screen of a monitor only rotates at a uniform speed, but the optical techniques are also utilized. Moreover, we have developed a floating 360 degree viewing display that can be viewed from any direction. This new viewing system has a display screen, a rotating table and dual parabolic mirrors. In order to float the only image screen above the table, the rotating mechanism works in the parabolic mirrors. Because the dual parabolic mirrors generate a "mirage" image over the upper mirror, observers can view a floating 2D image on the virtual screen in front of them. Then the observer can view a monitor screen at any position surrounding the round table.

  15. The Rise of Dual Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Successful dual enrollment programs begin with strong, collaborative partnerships between community colleges and their local K-12 school systems. They also require clearly articulated agreements that spell out what each entity's responsibilities. For example: Who's going to teach the courses? Will the instruction take place at the high school or…

  16. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  17. Dual function conducting polymer diodes

    DOEpatents

    Heeger, Alan J.; Yu, Gang

    1996-01-01

    Dual function diodes based on conjugated organic polymer active layers are disclosed. When positively biased the diodes function as light emitters. When negatively biased they are highly efficient photodiodes. Methods of preparation and use of these diodes in displays and input/output devices are also disclosed.

  18. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  19. Dual redundant core memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

  20. Psychosocial approaches to dual diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Drake, R E; Mueser, K T

    2000-01-01

    Recent research elucidates many aspects of the problem of co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) in patients with severe mental illness, which is often termed dual diagnosis. This paper provides a brief overview of current research on the epidemiology, adverse consequences, and phenomenology of dual diagnosis, followed by a more extensive review of current approaches to services, assessment, and treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that comorbid SUD is quite common among individuals with severe mental illness and that these individuals suffer serious adverse consequences of SUD. The research further suggests that traditional, separate services for individuals with dual disorders are ineffective, and that integrated treatment programs, which combine mental health and substance abuse interventions, offer more promise. In addition to a comprehensive integration of services, successful programs include assessment, assertive case management, motivational interventions for patients who do not recognize the need for substance abuse treatment, behavioral interventions for those who are trying to attain or maintain abstinence, family interventions, housing, rehabilitation, and psychopharmacology. Further research is needed on the organization and financing of dual-diagnosis services and on specific components of the integrated treatment model, such as group treatments, family interventions, and housing approaches.

  1. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  2. Dual-Laser-Pulse Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A dual-pulse laser (DPL) technique has been demonstrated for generating laser-induced sparks (LIS) to ignite fuels. The technique was originally intended to be applied to the ignition of rocket propellants, but may also be applicable to ignition in terrestrial settings in which electric igniters may not be suitable.

  3. Possibilities, intentions and threats: dual use in the life sciences reconsidered.

    PubMed

    van der Bruggen, Koos

    2012-12-01

    Due to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the anthrax letters of a few weeks later, the concept of dual use has spread widely in the life sciences during the past decade. This article is aimed at a clarification of the dual use concept and its scope of application for the life sciences. Such a clarification would greatly facilitate the work of policymakers seeking to ensure security while avoiding undesirable interventions of government in the conduct of science. The article starts with an overview of the main developments in life sciences in relation to dual use. This is illustrated by discussions on synthetic biology and dual use. The findings lead to a reconsideration of the dual use concept. An area in need of further attention is to what extent threats and intentions should have impact on the definition of dual use. Possible threats are analyzed against the background of the phenomenon of securitization of health care and life sciences: considering these sectors of society in security terms. Some caveats that should be taken into account in a dual use policy are described. An acceptable, adequate and applicable definition of the dual use concept could help researchers, universities, companies and policy makers. Such a definition should build upon, but go beyond, the view developed in the influential Fink-report, which concentrates on the so-called 'experiments of concern', e.g. experiments that enhance the virulence of pathogens (National Research Council of the National Academies 2004) It will be argued that-in addition to these more technical aspects-a definition of dual use should include the aspect of threats and intentions.

  4. Caustic Singularities Of High-Gain, Dual-Shaped Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Victor; Veruttipong, Thavath W.; Imbriale, William A.; Rengarajan, Sambiam

    1991-01-01

    Report presents study of some sources of error in analysis, by geometric theory of diffraction (GTD), of performance of high-gain, dual-shaped antenna reflector. Study probes into underlying analytic causes of singularity, with view toward devising and testing practical methods to avoid problems caused by singularity. Hybrid physical optics (PO) approach used to study near-field spillover or noise-temperature characteristics of high-gain relector antenna efficiently and accurately. Report illustrates this approach and underlying principles by presenting numerical results, for both offset and symmetrical reflector systems, computed by GTD, PO, and PO/GO methods.

  5. Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.

  6. 44. Building 102, view from mezzanine looking down to first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Building 102, view from mezzanine looking down to first floor showing Klystron tube equipment vaults with dual waveguides leaving top of vaults through bifurcation combiner system at start of waveguides; note tops of capacitor vaults along photograph to left. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. Dual-telescope multi-channel thermal-infrared radiometer for outer planet fly-by missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; Irwin, Patrick; Jennings, Donald E.; Kessler, Ernst; Lakew, Brook; Loeffler, Mark; Mellon, Michael; Nicoletti, Anthony; Nixon, Conor A.; Putzig, Nathaniel; Quilligan, Gerard; Rathbun, Julie; Segura, Marcia; Spencer, John; Spitale, Joseph; West, Garrett

    2016-11-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 μm, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual-telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field-of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  8. Dual-Telescope Multi-Channel Thermal-Infrared Radiometer for Outer Planet Fly-By Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; hide

    2016-01-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 microns, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual- telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field- of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  9. World Views and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    1978-01-01

    Counselors who hold world views different from their clients' views and who are unaware of the bases for these differences are most likely to impute negative traits to their clients. Culturally different clients such as Asian-Americans, Blacks, Chicanos, and native Americans have a greater probability of holding different perspectives. (Author)

  10. Dual leadership in a hospital practice.

    PubMed

    Thude, Bettina Ravnborg; Thomsen, Svend Erik; Stenager, Egon; Hollnagel, Erik

    2017-02-06

    Purpose Despite the practice of dual leadership in many organizations, there is relatively little research on the topic. Dual leadership means two leaders share the leadership task and are held jointly accountable for the results of the unit. To better understand how dual leadership works, this study aims to analyse three different dual leadership pairs at a Danish hospital. Furthermore, this study develops a tool to characterize dual leadership teams from each other. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Six leaders were interviewed to clarify how dual leadership works in a hospital context. All interviews were transcribed and coded. During coding, focus was on the nine principles found in the literature and another principle was found by looking at the themes that were generic for all six interviews. Findings Results indicate that power balance, personal relations and decision processes are important factors for creating efficient dual leaderships. The study develops a categorizing tool to use for further research or for organizations, to describe and analyse dual leaderships. Originality/value The study describes dual leadership in the hospital context and develops a categorizing tool for being able to distinguish dual leadership teams from each other. It is important to reveal if there are any indicators that can be used for optimising dual leadership teams in the health-care sector and in other organisations.

  11. Dual-Phase Nozzle Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    peowti ulliy klei =PodUaWU THESIS DUAL-PHASE NO ZZL FLOW :hcras C. Holi. Jr. Oco’ber 934’ Thesis Advisor: J. F. SlIj=kv Ap:roved _"o~r :zubiic releasc...REPORT NUMBER ILGOVT ACCESSION NO. I. MECIP1EMYS CATALOG NUNSI 3 A. TTLE Old WIM110)S. TYPE or mrEowR A PERIOD COVERED Master’s Thesis ; Dual-Phase Nozzle...ALPUS , Aml A As AT , ’A rF2 fl’Q 2 05 dETAS 181 T AM Si. T 1 AS J!’𔃻 3 c * I CA,; I CA ;A a ZA c1. 1 B SL z.1J 4 CBG1 *CAL *CASE * b. a C𔃾 ; -* U.9 CC

  12. Nonlinear analysis for dual-frequency concurrent energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Lei, Hong; Tan, Ting; Sun, Weipeng; Huang, Wenhu

    2018-05-01

    The dual-frequency responses of the hybrid energy harvester undergoing the base excitation and galloping were analyzed numerically. In this work, an approximate dual-frequency analytical method is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of such a system. To obtain the approximate analytical solutions of the full coupled distributed-parameter model, the forcing interactions is first neglected. Then, the electromechanical decoupled governing equation is developed using the equivalent structure method. The hybrid mechanical response is finally separated to be the self-excited and forced responses for deriving the analytical solutions, which are confirmed by the numerical simulations of the full coupled model. The forced response has great impacts on the self-excited response. The boundary of Hopf bifurcation is analytically determined by the onset wind speed to galloping, which is linearly increased by the electrical damping. Quenching phenomenon appears when the increasing base excitation suppresses the galloping. The theoretical quenching boundary depends on the forced mode velocity. The quenching region increases with the base acceleration and electrical damping, but decreases with the wind speed. Superior to the base-excitation-alone case, the existence of the aerodynamic force protects the hybrid energy harvester at resonance from damages caused by the excessive large displacement. From the view of the harvested power, the hybrid system surpasses the base-excitation-alone system or the galloping-alone system. This study advances our knowledge on intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the dual-frequency energy harvesting system by taking advantage of the analytical solutions.

  13. Dual clearance squeeze film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A dual clearance hydrodynamic liquid squeeze film damper for a gas turbine engine is described. Under normal operating conditions, the device functions as a conventional squeeze film damper, using only one of its oil films. When an unbalance reaches abusive levels, as may occur with a blade loss or foreign object damage, a second, larger clearance film becomes active, controlling vibration amplitudes in a near optimum manner until the engine can be safely shut down and repaired.

  14. HELIOS dual swept frequency radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The HELIOS dual swept frequency radiometer, used in conjunction with a dipole antenna, was designed to measure electromagnetic radiation in space. An engineering prototype was fabricated and tested on the HELIOS spacecraft. Two prototypes and two flight units were fabricated and three of the four units were integrated into the HELIOS spacecraft. Two sets of ground support equipment were provided for checkout of the radiometer.

  15. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  16. Ahuna Mons: Side View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-01

    Ceres' lonely mountain, Ahuna Mons, is seen in this simulated perspective view. The elevation has been exaggerated by a factor of two. The view was made using enhanced-color images from NASA's Dawn mission. Images taken using blue (440 nanometers), green (750 nanometers) and infrared (960 nanometers) spectral filters were combined to create the view. The spacecraft's framing camera took the images from Dawn's low-altitude mapping orbit, from an altitude of 240 miles (385 kilometers) in August 2016. The resolution of the component images is 120 feet (35 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20915

  17. Oxo Crater: Side View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-01

    Ceres' lonely mountain, Ahuna Mons, is seen in this simulated perspective view. The elevation has been exaggerated by a factor of two. The view was made using enhanced-color images from NASA's Dawn mission. Images taken using blue (440 nanometers), green (750 nanometers) and infrared (960 nanometers) spectral filters were combined to create the view. The spacecraft's framing camera took the images from Dawn's low-altitude mapping orbit, from an altitude of 240 miles (385 kilometers) in August 2016. The resolution of the component images is 120 feet (35 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20915

  18. Plume Detection and Plume Top Height Estimation using SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith; Saponaro, Giulia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    We present preliminary results on ash and desert dust plume detection and plume top height estimates based on satellite data from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) aboard Sentinel-3, launched in 2016. The methods are based on the previously developed AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm, which utilized the data of the preceding similar instrument, Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of SLSTR, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° backward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. The ash plume detection is based on the brightness temperature difference between between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 μm, which show characteristic signals for both desert dust and ash plumes. The SLSTR instrument provides a unique combination of dual-view capability and a wavelength range from visible to thermal infrared, rendering it an ideal instrument for this work. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with other volcanic ash and desert dust retrieval methods and dispersion models. The current work is being carried out as part of the H2020 project EUNADICS-AV ("European Natural Disaster Coordination and Information System for Aviation"), which started in October 2016.

  19. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  20. Curiosity View From Below

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-17

    The Curiosity engineering team created this cylindrical projection view from images taken by NASA Curiosity rover front hazard avoidance cameras underneath the rover deck on Sol 0. Pictured here are are the pigeon-toed the wheels.

  1. MISR Views the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-16

    A special maneuver of NASA Terra spacecraft was performed as it traversed the nightside enabling a backward somersault of the spacecraft, allowing the normally Earth-viewing instruments to look at deep space and the waxing gibbous Moon.

  2. Coastal Chile Perspective View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-04

    This perspective view from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of coastal Chile indicates the epicenter red marker of the 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, just offshore of the Maule region in the Bahia de Chanco.

  3. Television viewing and snacking.

    PubMed

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  4. Assassination: A Military View.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Assassination: A Military View Individual Essay S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTI4OR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMGER(e) COL Charles K. Eden S...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(hen Data Entered) USAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER ASSASSINATION: A MILITARY VILW An Individual Essay hceess ’. :’r by...Military View FORMAT: Individual Essay DATE: 23 March 1987 PAGES: 17 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified -Assassination is a topic with which most Americans

  5. WebView Materialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    horoscope page (for Scorpio). Although this particular combination might be unique or unpopular, if we decompose the page into four WebViews, one for metro...news, one for international news, one for the weather and one for the horoscope , then these WebViews can be accessed frequently enough to merit...query results, the cost of accessing them is about the same as the cost of generating them from scratch, using the virt policy. This will also be true

  6. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SECOND FLOOR CORRIDOR. VIEW TO NORTH. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FIRST FLOOR CORRIDOR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING VESTIBULE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING VESTIBULE AND COPY ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW ON SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. INTERIOR VIEW ON SECOND FLOOR SHOWING TYPICAL OFFICE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Morning view, contextual view showing the road and gate to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the road and gate to be widened; view taken from the statue area with the camera facing north. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  11. TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM STATE STREET, WITH THE NATIONAL REGISTER-LISTED OREGON STATE FORESTER'S OFFICE BUILDING TO THE LEFT OF VIEW. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  12. Contextual view of Johnson Ranch. Structures viewed from left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Johnson Ranch. Structures viewed from left to right; shop, barn 2 silo, residence, garage and residence 1, view to west. - Nunes Dairy, 9854 Bruceville Road, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  13. Dual Nozzle Aerodynamic and Cooling Analysis Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-27

    program and to the aerodynamic model computer program. This pro - cedure was used to define two secondary nozzle contours for the baseline con - figuration...both the dual-throat and dual-expander con - cepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow...preliminary heat transfer analysis of both con - cepts, and (5) engineering analysis of data from the NASA/MSFC hot-fire testing of a dual-throat

  14. Running at Double Pace: Women in Dual-Profession Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfken, Deborah Elwell

    Although the problems facing dual-profession couples are almost universally acknowledged, studies on dual-profession couples have only recently emerged from those on dual-worker or dual-career families. To explore the perceptions that women in dual-profession marriages have of their roles, conflicts, and coping strategies, focus group interviews…

  15. Development of a dual-modality, dual-view smartphone-based imaging system for oral cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthoff, Ross D.; Song, Bofan; Birur, Praveen; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Sunny, Sumsum; Suresh, Amritha; Patrick, Sanjana; Anbarani, Afarin; Spires, Oliver; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Liang, Rongguang

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is a rising health issue in many low and middle income countries (LMIC). Proposed is an implementation of autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and white light imaging (WLI) on a smartphone platform providing inexpensive early detection of cancerous conditions in the oral cavity. Interchangeable modules allow both whole mouth imaging for an overview of the patients' oral health and an intraoral imaging probe for localized information. Custom electronics synchronize image capture and external LED operation for the excitation of tissue fluorescence. A custom Android application captures images and an image processing algorithm provides likelihood estimates of cancerous conditions. Finally, all data can be uploaded to a cloud server where a convolutional neural network classifies the images and a remote specialist can provide diagnosis and triage instructions.

  16. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SHOWING WEST FACADE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SHOWING WEST FACADE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Administration Building, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 29. View captioned Construction of Shipbuilding Dock, general view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View captioned Construction of Shipbuilding Dock, general view looking southwest, completed. Jan. 2, 1919. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING VIEW TOWARD CARPENTER'S HALL - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Dual-fuel, dual-mode rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a dual fuel, dual mode rocket engine designed to improve the performance of earth-to-orbit vehicles. For any vehicle that operates from the earth's surface to earth orbit, it is advantageous to use two different fuels during its ascent. A high density impulse fuel, such as kerosene, is most efficient during the first half of the trajectory. A high specific impulse fuel, such as hydrogen, is most efficient during the second half of the trajectory. The invention allows both fuels to be used with a single rocket engine. It does so by adding a minimum number of state-of-the-art components to baseline single made rocket engines, and is therefore relatively easy to develop for near term applications. The novelty of this invention resides in the mixing of fuels before exhaust nozzle cooling. This allows all of the engine fuel to cool the exhaust nozzle, and allows the ratio of fuels used throughout the flight depend solely on performance requirements, not cooling requirements.

  1. Nonword Reading: Comparing Dual-Route Cascaded and Connectionist Dual-Process Models with Human Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Stephen C.; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Two prominent dual-route computational models of reading aloud are the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, and the connectionist dual-process plus (CDP+) model. While sharing similarly designed lexical routes, the two models differ greatly in their respective nonlexical route architecture, such that they often differ on nonword pronunciation. Neither…

  2. The Dual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Olague, Natalie; Rogers, David

    This guide offers a framework to facilitate the planning process for dual language programs, assuming at least a basic working knowledge of the central characteristics and essential features of dual language models. It provides an overview of the various models that serve linguistically diverse student populations, defining the term dual language…

  3. Immersive viewing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  4. Dual actuation micro-mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alneamy, A. M.; Khater, M. E.; Al-Ghamdi, M. S.; Park, S.; Heppler, G. R.; Abdel-Rahman, E. M.

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the performance of cantilever-type micro-mirrors under electromagnetic, electrostatic and dual actuation. We developed and validated a two-DOFs model of the coupled bending-torsion motions of the mirror and used it in conjunction with experiments in air and in vacuum to compare all three actuation methods. We found that electromagnetic actuation is the most effective delivering a scanning range of  ± out of a geometrically allowable range of  ± at a current amplitude i  =  3 mA and a magnetic field of B  =  30 mT. Electrostatic actuation, whether alone or in conjunction with electromagnetic actuation, limited the stable angular range to smaller values (as small as ) due to the presence of spurious piston motions. This is an innate characteristic of micro-scale electrostatic actuation, the electrostatic force and the undesirable piston motion grow faster than the electrostatic torque and the desired angular displacement as the voltage is increased and they limit the stable angular range. Finally, we found that the dual actuation can be used to design two-DOF mirrors where electromagnetic actuation drives angular motion for optical beam steering and electrostatic actuation drives piston motion to control the mirror focus.

  5. Enhanced Dual Confocal Measurement System

    DOE PAGES

    Tomlinson, Kurt; Seagle, C. T.; Huang, H.; ...

    2017-11-29

    A measurement instrument utilizing dual, chromatic, confocal, distance sensors has been jointly developed by General Atomics (GA) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for thickness and flatness measurement of target components used in dynamic materials properties (DMP) experiments on the SNL Z-Machine (Z). Compared to previous methods used in production of these types of targets, the tool saves time and yields a 4x reduction in thickness uncertainty which is one of the largest sources of error in equation of state (EOS) measurements critical to supporting the NNSA’s Stockpile Stewardship program and computer modeling of high energy density experiments. It has numerousmore » differences from earlier instruments operating on the dual confocal sensor principle to accommodate DMP components including larger lateral travel, longer working distance, ability to measure flatness in addition to thickness, built-in thickness calibration standards for quickly checking calibration before and after each measurement, and streamlined operation. Thickness and flatness of 0.2mm-3.3mm thick sections of diamond machined copper and aluminum can be measured to “sub-micron” accuracy. Sections up to 6mm thick can be measured with as-yet undermined accuracy. Furthermore, samples must have one surface which is flat to within 300µm, lateral dimensions of no more than 50mm x 50mm, and height less than 40mm.« less

  6. Toward an understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying dual-task performance: Contribution of comparative approaches using animal models.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2018-01-01

    The study of dual-task performance in human subjects has received considerable interest in cognitive neuroscience because it can provide detailed insights into the neural mechanisms underlying higher-order cognitive control. Despite many decades of research, our understanding of the neurobiological basis of dual-task performance is still limited, and some critical questions are still under debate. Recently, behavioral and neurophysiological studies of dual-task performance in animals have begun to provide intriguing evidence regarding how dual-task information is processed in the brain. In this review, we first summarize key evidence in neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies in humans and discuss possible reasons for discrepancies across studies. We then provide a comprehensive review of the literature on dual-task studies in animals and provide a novel working hypothesis that may reconcile the divergent results in human studies toward a unified view of the mechanisms underlying dual-task processing. Finally, we propose possible directions for future dual-task experiments in the framework of comparative cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  8. Close up view of the center console on the flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the center console on the flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery showing the console's instrumentation and controls. The commanders station is located to the left in this view and the pilot's station is to the right in the view. The handle and lever located on the right side of the center console and towards its front is one of a pair, the commander has one on the left of his seat in his station, of Speed Brake/Thrust Controllers. These are dual purpose controllers. During ascent the controller can be use to throttle the main engines and during entry the controllers can be used to control aerodynamic drag by opening or closing the orbiter's speed brake. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Dual Learning Processes in Interactive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Wai-Tat; Anderson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Acquisition of interactive skills involves the use of internal and external cues. Experiment 1 showed that when actions were interdependent, learning was effective with and without external cues in the single-task condition but was effective only with the presence of external cues in the dual-task condition. In the dual-task condition, actions…

  10. Safety and Crashworthiness of Dual Mode Vehicles

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    Safety features and the degree of safety expected of dual-mode systems are reviewed. Some of the inherent advantages and disadvantages of dual-mode transportation are also outlined. Possible categories of vehicle safety are defined to aid in developi...

  11. Dual Enrollment as a Liminal Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Eric; Voloch, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dual enrollment is a place between high school and college that is neither exclusively one nor the other. Dual enrollment inhabits a space where larger questions about higher education--the cultural practices, norms, institutional relationships and interactions, and the overall "business" of learning--are grappled with on a daily basis. To the…

  12. Dual mode nuclear rocket system applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretz, J. E.; Bell, J. M.; Plebuch, R. K.; Priest, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mission areas where the dual-mode nuclear rocket system is superior to nondual-mode systems are demonstrated. It is shown that the dual-mode system is competitive with the nondual-mode system even for those specific missions and particular payload configurations where it does not have a clear-cut advantage.

  13. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  14. 7 CFR 7.17 - Dual office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual office. 7.17 Section 7.17 Agriculture Office of... STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.17 Dual office. (a) County committee membership. A member of... any other county office employee. (b) Community committee membership. A member of the community...

  15. Departmental Issues in Dual-Academic Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Anita P.; Cunningham, Michael R.

    This paper discusses issues pertaining to the recruitment and hiring of dual-career academic couples by universities and psychology departments. Studies have shown that both husbands and wives in dual psychologist couples are more productive in number of publications, paper presentations, and grants awarded than their single counterparts, yet many…

  16. Learning from the Past: Dual Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Nicole; Justice, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study involved identifying, categorizing, and comparing critical incidents related to qualifying dual credit high school students' decisions to enroll or not to enroll in dual credit coursework in either a traditional or early college high school. The purpose of the study was (a) to identify the reasons qualifying students decide to enroll in…

  17. Support Networks of Dual Career Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Sally A.; And Others

    Although social networks play an important role in supporting families under stress, there is some evidence that families living a stressful dual career life style may have limited network resources. To describe support networks of dual career couples and to examine the relationship between the supportiveness of the network and satisfaction with…

  18. Dual Protection and Dual Methods in Women Living with HIV: The Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Regina María; Pinho, Adriana de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of HIV and unintended pregnancy has prompted a body of work on dual protection, the simultaneous protection against HIV and unintended pregnancy. This study examines dual protection and dual methods as a risk-reduction strategy for women living with HIV. Data are from a cross-sectional sample of HIV-positive women attended in Specialized STI/AIDS Public Health Service Clinics in 13 municipalities from all five regions of Brazil 2003-2004 (N = 834). Descriptive techniques and logistic regression were used to examine dual protection among women living with HIV. We expand the definition of dual protection to include consistent condom use and reversible/irreversible contraceptive methods, we test the dual methods hypothesis that women who use dual methods will use condoms less consistently than women who use only condoms, and we identify predictors of dual protection. Dual protection is common in our sample. Women who use dual methods have lower odds of consistent condom use than women who only use condoms. Among dual method users, we find that women who use an irreversible method use condoms more consistently than women who use a reversible method. Women on ART and with an HIV-serodiscordant partner have greater odds of consistent condom use than their counterparts. PMID:26316959

  19. Aerial Views of KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-23

    The KSC Press Site is seen from the air. The large white building is the NASA News Center. At lower left are the grandstands that provide viewing of Shuttle launches for the media. Stretching from the News Center to the right are buildings and trailers occupied by television media and other news agencies such as Associated Press and Reuters.

  20. Aerial Views of KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-23

    This aerial view, looking northwest, shows the newly opened Space Commerce Way that winds from S.R 3 on the right to its exit on S.R. 405 (near the top) in the background. The road is the new public access from Merritt Island to the KSC Visitor Complex (seen at top).

  1. Hubble View of Neptune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-08-02

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views of the blue-green planet Neptune provide three snapshots of changing weather conditions. The images were taken in 1994 on 3 separate days when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles 4.5 billion kilometers from Earth.

  2. Viewing Files | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML webpages, our website contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers. Documents  Adobe Acrobat Reader (.pdf)

  3. View from Above

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-31

    Saturn appears as a serene globe amid tranquil rings in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. In reality, the planet's atmosphere is an ever-changing scene of high-speed winds and evolving weather patterns, punctuated by occasional large storms (see PIA14901). The rings, consist of countless icy particles, which are continually colliding. Such collisions play a key role in the rings' numerous waves and wakes, which are the manifestation of the subtle influence of Saturn's moons and, indeed, the planet itself. The long duration of the Cassini mission has allowed scientists to study how the atmosphere and rings of Saturn change over time, providing much-needed insights into this active planetary system. The view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 41 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 16, 2016 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1 million miles (2 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 68 miles (110 kilometers) per pixel. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 752,000 miles (1.21 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 6 degrees. Image scale is 45 miles (72 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20502

  4. Baja Earthquake Perspective View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-05

    The topography surrounding the Laguna Salada Fault in the Mexican state of Baja, California, is shown in this combined radar image and topographic view with data from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission where a 7.2 earthquake struck on April 4, 2010.

  5. The dual-use problem, scientific isolationism and the division of moral labour.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The dual-use problem is an ethical quandary sometimes faced by scientists and others in a position to influence the creation or dissemination of scientific knowledge. It arises when (i) an agent is considering whether to pursue some project likely to result in the creation or dissemination of scientific knowledge, (ii) that knowledge could be used in both morally desirable and morally undesirable ways, and (iii) the risk of undesirable use is sufficiently high that it is not clear that the agent may permissibly pursue the project or policy. Agents said to be faced with dual-use problems have frequently responded by appealing to a view that I call scientific isolationism. This is, roughly, the view that scientific decisions may be made without morally appraising the likely uses of the scientific knowledge whose production or dissemination is at stake. I consider whether scientific isolationism can be justified in a form that would indeed provide a way out of dual-use problems. I first argue for a presumption against a strong form of isolationism, and then examine four arguments that might be thought to override this presumption. The most promising of these arguments appeals to the idea of a division of moral labour, but I argue that even this argument can sustain at most a highly attenuated form of scientific isolationism and that this variant of isolationism has little practical import for discussions of the dual-use problem.

  6. Dual-resolution image reconstruction for region-of-interest CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. O.; Shin, K. Y.; Yoo, S. K.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, K. H.; Huh, Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Kwon, O.-K.

    2014-07-01

    In ordinary CT scan, so called full field-of-view (FFOV) scan, in which the x-ray beam span covers the whole section of the body, a large number of projections are necessary to reconstruct high resolution images. However, excessive x-ray dose is a great concern in FFOV scan. Region-of-interest (ROI) scan is a method to visualize the ROI in high resolution while reducing the x-ray dose. But, ROI scan suffers from bright-band artifacts which may hamper CT-number accuracy. In this study, we propose an image reconstruction method to eliminate the band artifacts in the ROI scan. In addition to the ROI scan with high sampling rate in the view direction, we get FFOV projection data with much lower sampling rate. Then, we reconstruct images in the compressed sensing (CS) framework with dual resolutions, that is, high resolution in the ROI and low resolution outside the ROI. For the dual-resolution image reconstruction, we implemented the dual-CS reconstruction algorithm in which data fidelity and total variation (TV) terms were enforced twice in the framework of adaptive steepest descent projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS). The proposed method has remarkably reduced the bright-band artifacts at around the ROI boundary, and it has also effectively suppressed the streak artifacts over the entire image. We expect the proposed method can be greatly used for dual-resolution imaging with reducing the radiation dose, artifacts and scan time.

  7. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  8. For Whom Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Extensions of a Dual-Coding Theory of Multimedia Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Sims, Valerie K.

    1994-01-01

    In 2 experiments, 162 high- and low-spatial ability students viewed a computer-generated animation and heard a concurrent or successive explanation. The concurrent group generated more creative solutions to transfer problems and demonstrated a contiguity effect consistent with dual-coding theory. (SLD)

  9. The Effect of Dual-Language Immersion on Student Achievement in Math, Science, and English Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert; Li, Jennifer; Zamarro, Gema; Miller, Trey

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with many challenges to improving the quality of U.S. public K-12 education, many policymakers have viewed the study of a second language as a useful but nonessential ingredient of a world-class education system. However, others point out that dual-language education can be a powerful intervention for closing the achievement gap for…

  10. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  11. Grating Oriented Line-Wise Filtration (GOLF) for Dual-Energy X-ray CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yan; Cong, Wenxiang; Harrison, Daniel; Wang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    In medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), the use of two distinct X-ray source spectra (energies) allows dose-reduction and material discrimination relative to that achieved with only one source spectrum. Existing dual-energy CT methods include source kVp-switching, double-layer detection, dual-source gantry, and two-pass scanning. Each method suffers either from strong spectral correlation or patient-motion artifacts. To simultaneously address these problems, we propose to improve CT data acquisition with the Grating Oriented Line-wise Filtration (GOLF) method, a novel X-ray filter that is placed between the source and patient. GOLF uses a combination of absorption and filtering gratings that are moved relative to each other and in synchronization with the X-ray tube kVp-switching process and/or the detector view-sampling process. Simulation results show that GOLF can improve the spectral performance of kVp-switching to match that of dual-source CT while avoiding patient motion artifacts and dual imaging chains. Although significant flux is absorbed by this pre-patient filter, the proposed GOLF method is a novel path for cost-effectively extracting dual-energy or multi-energy data and reducing radiation dose with or without kVp switching.

  12. Grating Oriented Line-Wise Filtration (GOLF) for Dual-Energy X-ray CT

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yan; Cong, Wenxiang; Harrison, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), the use of two distinct X-ray source spectra (energies) allows dose-reduction and material discrimination relative to that achieved with only one source spectrum. Existing dual-energy CT methods include source kVp-switching, double-layer detection, dual-source gantry, and two-pass scanning. Each method suffers either from strong spectral correlation or patient-motion artifacts. To simultaneously address these problems, we propose to improve CT data acquisition with the Grating Oriented Line-wise Filtration (GOLF) method, a novel X-ray filter that is placed between the source and patient. GOLF uses a combination of absorption and filtering gratings that are moved relative to each other and in synchronization with the X-ray tube kVp-switching process and/or the detector view-sampling process. Simulation results show that GOLF can improve the spectral performance of kVp-switching to match that of dual-source CT while avoiding patient motion artifacts and dual imaging chains. Although significant flux is absorbed by this pre-patient filter, the proposed GOLF method is a novel path for cost-effectively extracting dual-energy or multi-energy data and reducing radiation dose with or without kVp switching. PMID:29333113

  13. Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddewig, Michael R.; Pust, Nathan J.; Churnside, James H.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2017-03-01

    The design of a compact, dual-polarization, nonscanning lidar system intended to fly in a small, single-engine aircraft for airborne study of freshwater marine ecosystems and mapping of fish schools in mountain lakes is discussed. Design trade-offs are presented with special attention paid to selecting the field of view and telescope aperture diameter. Example results and a comparison with a similar existing lidar system are presented.

  14. A graphics approach in the design of the dual air density Explorer satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program was developed to generate a graphics display of the Dual Air Density (DAD) Explorer satellites which aids in the engineering and scientific design. The program displays a two-dimensional view of both spacecraft and their surface features from any direction. The graphics have been an indispensable tool in the design, analysis, and understanding of the critical locations of the various surface features for both satellites.

  15. Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    and support by developing self -awareness through leader feedback and leader resiliency. The School of Strategic Landpower develops strategic...forces; • Regional strategic appraisals; • The nature of land warfare; • Matters affecting the Army’s future; • The concepts, philosophy, and theory of...Army War College Press TOWARD A UNIFIED MILITARY RESPONSE: HURRICANE SANDY AND THE DUAL STATUS COMMANDER Ryan Burke Sue McNeil April 2015 The views

  16. Integration of an Apple II Plus Computer into an Existing Dual Axis Sun Tracker System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Identify by block number) S, tpec l Sun Tracker System Solar Energy Apple II Plus Computer 20. ABSTRACT (’ ntlnue on reveree ide If neceesery end...14 4. Dual Axis Sun Tracker (Side View) ----------------- 15 5. Solar Tracker System Block Diagram ---------------- 17 6. Plug Wiring Diagram for Top...sources will be competitive. Already many homes have solar collectors and other devices designed to decrease the consumption of gas, oil, and

  17. Shock sensing dual mode warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Shamblen, M.; Walchak, M.T.; Richmond, L.

    1980-12-31

    A shock sensing dual mode warhead is provided for use against both soft and hard targets and is capable of sensing which type of target has been struck. The warhead comprises a casing made of a ductile material containing an explosive charge and a fuze assembly. The ductile warhead casing will mushroom upon striking a hard target while still confining the explosive. Proper ductility and confinement are necessary for fuze shock sensing. The fuze assembly contains a pair of parallel firing trains, one initiated only by dynamic pressure caused high impact deceleration and one initiated by low impact deceleration. Themore » firing train actuated by high impact deceleration senses dynamic pressure transmitted, during deformation of the warhead, through the explosive filler which is employed as a fuzing signature. The firing train actuated by low impact deceleration contains a pyrotechnic delay to allow penetration of soft targets.« less

  18. Dual processing and diagnostic errors.

    PubMed

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates.

  19. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Rawlinson, K. Scott

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  20. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  1. Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. This drawing depicts a cross-section of a set of Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus (DMDA) specimen wells, one of which can include a reverse osmosis membrane to dewater a protein solution and thus cause crystallization. Depending on individual needs, two or three wells may be used, the membrane may be absent, or other proprietary enhancements may be present. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  2. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  3. Hot section viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the hot section viewing program is to develop a prototype optical system for viewing the interior of a gas turbine combustor during high temperature, high pressure operation in order to produce a visual record of some causes of premature hot section failures. The program began by identifying and analyzing system designs that would provide clearest images while being able to survive the hostile environment inside the combustion chamber. Different illumination methods and computer techniques for image enhancement and analysis were examined during a preliminary test phase. In the final phase of the program the prototype system was designed and fabricated and is currently being tested on a high pressure combustor rig.

  4. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOEpatents

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  5. Hot section viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the development and testing of a prototype combustor viewing system. The system allows one to see and record images from the inside of an operating gas turbine combustor. The program proceeded through planned phases of conceptual design, preliminary testing to resolve problem areas, prototype design and fabrication, and rig testing. Successful tests were completed with the viewing system in the laboratory, in a high pressure combustor rig, and on a Pratt and Whitney PW20307 jet engine. Both film and video recordings were made during the tests. Digital image analysis techniques were used to enhance images and bring out special effects. The use of pulsed laser illumination was also demonstrated as a means for observing liner surfaces in the presence of luminous flame.

  6. Studio with a view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Anthony K.

    2003-04-01

    Berklee College of Music (in Boston) needed a new studio in which to teach stereo mixing and critical listening. A small synthesis lab (adjacent to the main lobby, directly over the cafeteria kitchen, penetrated by exhaust ducts, and next to a bathroom) was chosen for renovation. The primary requirements were for maximum visibility to assure hopeful future engineers a full view of all the cool gear, and comfortable seating for fifteen students. The challenges, to be discussed, included isolation with a view, quiet HVAC, and great sound, in a space that was acoustically too small and in the wrong place. The best verification of success is its popularity, which has prevented the author from booking time for listening or testing.

  7. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOEpatents

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  8. REACTOR VIEWING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Monk, G.S.

    1959-01-13

    An optical system is presented that is suitable for viewing objects in a region of relatively high radioactivity, or high neutron activity, such as a neutronic reactor. This optical system will absorb neutrons and gamma rays thereby protecting personnel fronm the harmful biological effects of such penetrating radiations. The optical system is comprised of a viewing tube having a lens at one end, a transparent solid member at the other end and a transparent aqueous liquid completely filling the tube between the ends. The lens is made of a polymerized organic material and the transparent solid member is made of a radiation absorbent material. A shield surrounds the tube betwcen the flanges and is made of a gamma ray absorbing material.

  9. Neutron radiographic viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development and application of a neutron radiographic viewing system for use in nondestructive testing applications is considered. The system consists of a SEC vidicon camera, neutron image intensifier system, disc recorder, and TV readout. Neutron bombardment of the subject is recorded by an image converter and passed through an optical system into the SEC vidicon. The vidicon output may be stored, or processed for visual readout.

  10. View of LADEE's Gantry!

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-07

    This image shows an evening view gantry at Pad 0B at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Va., on Sept. 4, 2013. In this photograph, the gantry surrounds the Minotaur V rocket that will launch NASA LADEE. The gantry is now removed and the Minotaur is getting ready to launch LADEE at 11:27 p.m. EDT tonight. Image credit: NASA Wallops/Patrick Black

  11. Europe An Insider's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Paul

    1988-06-01

    What I would like to do is to really answer a question which most American companies find themselves wrestling with when they first start to consider the European market. That question is, "should one view Europe as a single entity, or as a collection of individual states?" Once you have answered that question, then from that is driven your whole marketing sales and distribution policy.

  12. Dual-targeting siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tiemann, Katrin; Höhn, Britta; Ehsani, Ali; Forman, Stephen J.; Rossi, John J.; Sætrom, Pål

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm for the prediction of dual-targeting short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in which both strands are deliberately designed to separately target different mRNA transcripts with complete complementarity. An advantage of this approach versus the use of two separate duplexes is that only two strands, as opposed to four, are competing for entry into the RNA-induced silencing complex. We chose to design our dual-targeting siRNAs as Dicer substrate 25/27mer siRNAs, since design features resembling pre-microRNAs (miRNAs) can be introduced for Dicer processing. Seven different dual-targeting siRNAs targeting genes that are potential targets in cancer therapy have been developed including Bcl2, Stat3, CCND1, BIRC5, and MYC. The dual-targeting siRNAs have been characterized for dual target knockdown in three different cell lines (HEK293, HCT116, and PC3), where they were as effective as their corresponding single-targeting siRNAs in target knockdown. The algorithm developed in this study should prove to be useful for predicting dual-targeting siRNAs in a variety of different targets and is available from http://demo1.interagon.com/DualTargeting/. PMID:20410240

  13. Dual multispectral and 3D structured light laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Lin, Jianyu; Arya, Shobhit; Hanna, George B.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative feedback on tissue function, such as blood volume and oxygenation would be useful to the surgeon in cases where current clinical practice relies on subjective measures, such as identification of ischaemic bowel or tissue viability during anastomosis formation. Also, tissue surface profiling may be used to detect and identify certain pathologies, as well as diagnosing aspects of tissue health such as gut motility. In this paper a dual modality laparoscopic system is presented that combines multispectral reflectance and 3D surface imaging. White light illumination from a xenon source is detected by a laparoscope-mounted fast filter wheel camera to assemble a multispectral image (MSI) cube. Surface shape is then calculated using a spectrally-encoded structured light (SL) pattern detected by the same camera and triangulated using an active stereo technique. Images of porcine small bowel were acquired during open surgery. Tissue reflectance spectra were acquired and blood volume was calculated at each spatial pixel across the bowel wall and mesentery. SL features were segmented and identified using a `normalised cut' algoritm and the colour vector of each spot. Using the 3D geometry defined by the camera coordinate system the multispectral data could be overlaid onto the surface mesh. Dual MSI and SL imaging has the potential to provide augmented views to the surgeon supplying diagnostic information related to blood supply health and organ function. Future work on this system will include filter optimisation to reduce noise in tissue optical property measurement, and minimise spot identification errors in the SL pattern.

  14. Dual laser optical system and method for studying fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.; Witherow, W. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A dual laser optical system and method is disclosed for visualization of phenomena in transport substances which induce refractive index gradients such as fluid flow and pressure and temperature gradients in fluids and gases. Two images representing mutually perpendicular components of refractive index gradients may be viewed simultaneously on screen. Two lasers having wave lengths in the visible range but separated by about 1000 angstroms are utilized to provide beams which are collimated into a beam containing components of the different wave lengths. The collimated beam is passed through a test volume of the transparent substance. The collimated beam is then separated into components of the different wave lengths and focused onto a pair of knife edges arranged mutually perpendicular to produce and project images onto the screen.

  15. Shot H3837: Darht's First Dual-Axis Explosive Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Jacob; McNeil, Wendy Vogan; Harsh, James; Hull, Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Test H3837 was the first explosive shot performed in front of both flash x-ray axes at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility. Executed in November 2009, the shot was an explosively-driven metal flyer plate in a series of experiments designed to explore equation-of-state properties of shocked materials. Imaging the initial shock wave traveling through the flyer plate, DARHT Axis II captured the range of motion from the shock front emergence in the flyer to breakout at the free surface; the Axis I pulse provided a perpendicular perspective of the shot at a time coinciding with the third pulse of Axis II. Since the days of the Manhattan Project, penetrating radiography with multiple frames from different viewing angles has remained a high-profile goal at the Laboratory. H3837 is merely the beginning of a bright future for two-axis penetrating radiography.

  16. Fostering radical conceptual change through dual-situated learning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2004-02-01

    This article examines how the Dual-Situated Learning Model (DSLM) facilitates a radical change of concepts that involve the understanding of matter, process, and hierarchical attributes. The DSLM requires knowledge of students' prior beliefs of science concepts and the nature of these concepts. In addition, DSLM also serves two functions: it creates dissonance with students' prior knowledge by challenging their epistemological and ontological beliefs about science concepts, and it provides essential mental sets for students to reconstruct a more scientific view of the concepts. In this study, the concept heat transfer: heat conduction and convection, which requires an understanding of matter, process, and hierarchical attributes, was chosen to examine how DSLM can facilitate radical conceptual change among students. Results show that DSLM has great potential to foster a radical conceptual change process in learning heat transfer. Radical conceptual change can definitely be achieved and does not necessarily involve a slow or gradual process.

  17. Low-Profile, Dual-Wavelength, Dual-Polarized Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A single-aperture, low-profile antenna design has been developed that supports dual-polarization and simultaneous operation at two wavelengths. It realizes multiple beams in the elevation plane, and supports radiometric, radar, and conical scanning applications. This antenna consists of multiple azimuth sticks, with each stick being a multilayer, hybrid design. Each stick forms the h-plane pattern of the C and Ku-band vertically and horizontally polarized antenna beams. By combining several azimuth sticks together, the elevation beam is formed. With a separate transceiver for each stick, the transmit phase and amplitude of each stick can be controlled to synthesize a beam at a specific incidence angle and to realize a particular side-lobe pattern. By changing the transmit phase distribution through the transceivers, the transmit antenna beam can be steered to different incidence angles. By controlling the amplitude distribution, different side lobe patterns and efficiencies can be realized. The receive beams are formed using digital beam synthesis techniques, resulting in very little loss in the receive path, thus enabling a very-low loss receive antenna to support passive measurements.

  18. View northeast toward west side of building 68. View partially ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast toward west side of building 68. View partially obscured by automobiles and storage structures. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  19. Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking northwest to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking northwest to show board & batten door opened to reveal original planks, with scale; note; nursery beyond door to west - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  20. 14. View north of Tropic wind tunnel and frontal view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View north of Tropic wind tunnel and frontal view of main fan (typical). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTORPOOL, AUTOMOTIVE SHOP AND FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  2. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE FOREST PROTECTION BUILDING, THE MOTORPOOL, AND THE AUTOMOTIVE SHOP (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  3. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  4. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  5. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  6. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  7. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  8. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  9. Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to south Promontory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to south - Promontory Route Railroad Trestles, S.P. Trestle 779.91, One mile southwest of junction of State Highway 83 and Blue Creek, Corinne, Box Elder County, UT

  10. Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to east Promontory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to east - Promontory Route Railroad Trestles, S.P. Trestle 779.91, One mile southwest of junction of State Highway 83 and Blue Creek, Corinne, Box Elder County, UT

  11. Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to west Promontory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to west - Promontory Route Railroad Trestles, S.P. Trestle 779.91, One mile southwest of junction of State Highway 83 and Blue Creek, Corinne, Box Elder County, UT

  12. Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to north Promontory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trestle #1, three quarters view. View to north - Promontory Route Railroad Trestles, S.P. Trestle 779.91, One mile southwest of junction of State Highway 83 and Blue Creek, Corinne, Box Elder County, UT

  13. 15. View to northeast. View along centerline from below deck; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View to northeast. View along centerline from below deck; detail of bent and floor beams. (65mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  14. 14. View to southwest. View through truss along centerline from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View to southwest. View through truss along centerline from below deck. (65mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  15. 3. View to southwest. Oblique view of downstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View to southwest. Oblique view of downstream side of bridge and west pier. (135mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  16. 20. View to southeast. Aerial view of bridge in setting; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View to southeast. Aerial view of bridge in setting; downstream side. (135mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  17. 2. View to east. Oblique view of downstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View to east. Oblique view of downstream side of bridge and east pier. (135mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  18. 9. View to northeast. Oblique view of upstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View to northeast. Oblique view of upstream side of bridge from approximately deck level. (90mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  19. 13. View to northeast. View along centerline from Humboldt County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View to northeast. View along centerline from Humboldt County side of bridge. (90mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  20. 12. View to southwest. View along centerline from Trinity County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View to southwest. View along centerline from Trinity County side of bridge. (90mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  1. 7. View to southeast. View of downstream side of bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View to southeast. View of downstream side of bridge from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers. (90mm Lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  2. 4. View to westsouthwest. Oblique view of upstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View to west-southwest. Oblique view of upstream side of bridge from approximately deck level. (90mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  3. 8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR VIEW, WIND TUNNEL 139 Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR VIEW, WIND TUNNEL 139 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. 6. VIEW NORTH, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, SUPERSONIC WIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTH, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  5. View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See HABS No. CA 2774-B) in background. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  6. Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  7. General view. View to southwest Offutt Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view. View to southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. Morning view, contextual view showing unpaved corridor down the westernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing unpaved corridor down the westernmost lane where the wall section (E) will be removed; camera facing north-northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  9. Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wallconstruction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wall-construction detail. North wall, with the camera facing northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  10. 2. GENERAL VIEW, EAST FRONT, NORTHWEST VIEW Kingsway Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW, EAST FRONT, NORTHWEST VIEW - Kingsway Center Commercial Area, Bounded by Kings Highway, Doctor Martin Luther King Boulevard, Page Avenue, & Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  11. TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW OF THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW OF THE STATE FORESTER'S COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM STATE STREET, WITH THE K.O.G BUILDING (KEEP OREGON GREEN) IN THE FOREGROUND. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  12. Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  13. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT THE OREGON FORESTER'S OFFICE BUILDING, WITH MILL CREEK IN THE FOREGROUND. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  14. Topographic view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking south - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  15. General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking southeast - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  16. General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking southwest - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  17. Interior view, view looking from the southeast corner to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, view looking from the southeast corner to the northwest in direction of the door connecting it to the north entry hall - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  18. 1. VIEW WEST, GENERAL VIEW OF DAM, WITH CANAL SPILLWAY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST, GENERAL VIEW OF DAM, WITH CANAL SPILLWAY, WEST ABUTMENT, AND GATEHOUSE IN DISTANCE - Norwich Water Power Company, West bank of Shetucket River beginning opposite Second Street & extending .8 mile northward, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  19. 12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  20. 2. VIEW SOUTH, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING CANAL, CANAL SPILLWAY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING CANAL, CANAL SPILLWAY ON LEFT, DRAIN GATE GATEHOUSE IN DISTANCE - Norwich Water Power Company, West bank of Shetucket River beginning opposite Second Street & extending .8 mile northward, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  1. 31. View captioned General view of Shipbuilding Dock with Ammunition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. View captioned General view of Shipbuilding Dock with Ammunition Ships in process of construction. Aug. 13, 1919. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 7. Oblique view, east and north side, view to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oblique view, east and north side, view to southwest. Note expansive use of glass to provide natural light to interior. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. South view; Interior view of covered ramp to Street Car ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South view; Interior view of covered ramp to Street Car Waiting House from Station Building - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. North view; Interior view of covered ramp to Station Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Interior view of covered ramp to Station Building from Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing the framing for the main roof, view facing south - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building, general view in setting; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  10. 4. Typical view of concrete channel. View is looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Typical view of concrete channel. View is looking east, with Trestle 8 in the background. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  11. General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking southwest. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

  12. General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

  13. Topographic view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking westbound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Marion Creek Bridge, view looking westbound on the Santiam Highway. - Marion Creek Bridge, Spanning Marion Creek at Milepoint 66.42 on North Santiam Highway (OR-22), Marion Forks, Linn County, OR

  14. 7. GENERAL VIEW. VIEW FROM SOUTH SIDE OF BROADWAY LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW. VIEW FROM SOUTH SIDE OF BROADWAY LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWS PRESENT SENIOR CITIZENS HIGHRISE ON THE WEST AND MARION COUNTY COURTHOUSE ON THE EAST - Mitchell-Anderson House, 1008 Broadway, Hannibal, Marion County, MO

  15. 1. General oblique view of north and east sides, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General oblique view of north and east sides, view to southwest, showing main loading docks - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  16. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, VIEW TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  17. PLANAR VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  18. OVERALL view OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL view OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. view TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. OVERALL VIEW OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  1. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  2. View east; interior view of south bay Naval Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east; interior view of south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. View east; interior view of central bay Naval Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east; interior view of central bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 15. INTERIOR VIEW OF PROPELLER STAND VIEWING ROOM AND SCOPE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR VIEW OF PROPELLER STAND VIEWING ROOM AND SCOPE. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 20A, Propeller Test Complex, Seventh Street, from E to G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  5. View west; interior view of south bay Naval Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west; interior view of south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. View west; interior view of central bay Naval Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west; interior view of central bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. View south; detail view of column A13, south bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; detail view of column A13, south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Context view looking north from shoulder of railroad tracks. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view looking north from shoulder of railroad tracks. View includes railroad tracks on right. Farmhouse complex on left, and barn complex in distance. - Kosai Farm, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  9. General topographic view of Lakeview Historic District, view looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General topographic view of Lakeview Historic District, view looking south on G Street toward intersection of G and Center Streets - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  10. 33. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF A VIEWING WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF A VIEWING WINDOW IN ROOM 108, THE OPERATIONS AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 3. VIEW OF EAST SOUTHEAST, GROUND LEVEL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EAST - SOUTHEAST, GROUND LEVEL VIEW OF APPROACH SPANS, NORTH END OF BRIDGE, MAIN SPANS IN BACKGROUND - Buffalo River Bridge, Spanning Buffalo River on U.S. Highway 65, Marshall, Searcy County, AR

  12. Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  13. Interior view, detail view in first floor drawing room to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in first floor drawing room to show whale oil chandelier and ceiling medallion (duplicate of HABS No. MS-61-A-32) - Melrose, Main House, 1 Melrose-Montebello Parkway, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  14. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS SHOWING CALCIUM CARBIDE IN COOLING CARS ON THE FLOOR. DECEMBER 26, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN CONTROL STATION, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN CONTROL STATION, VIEW TOWARDS WEST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Control Station, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  17. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  18. GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  19. Interior view, law library closer view to show painted details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, law library closer view to show painted details on the groin vaults - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  1. Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  2. Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  3. Interior view, perspective view looking from the east southeast to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, perspective view looking from the east southeast to fireplace and mantel - National Park Seminary, Music Hall, Linden Lane at western edge of campus, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. 10. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW SHOWS COPPER SHEETING ON WALLS. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH AND EAST SIDES. VIEW SHOWS POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH AND EAST SIDES. VIEW SHOWS POSITION OF BUILDING UNDER LEG OF TOWER 33. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, PERS Support Storage Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  6. Interior view, room 1103, view looking from the southeast to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, room 1103, view looking from the southeast to fireplace and mantel and inglenook, with scale - National Park Seminary, Music Hall, Linden Lane at western edge of campus, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Interior view, room 1103 northeast anteroom, general view to show ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, room 1103 northeast anteroom, general view to show fireplace and windows - National Park Seminary, Music Hall, Linden Lane at western edge of campus, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  8. Interior view, room 1103, view of fireplace and mantel, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, room 1103, view of fireplace and mantel, and inglenook, looking from the southeast - National Park Seminary, Music Hall, Linden Lane at western edge of campus, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. Coping in Dual-Employed Families: Spousal Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Denise A.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    The Dual Employed Coping Scales (DECS) were developed to measure coping behaviors and patterns of dual-employed families. The original DECS (58 self-report items) was administered to a sample of 60 individuals in dual-employed families. In another study, in which 69 dual-employed couples completed the DECS and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion…

  10. 46 CFR 120.324 - Dual voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual voltage generators. 120.324 Section 120.324... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.324 Dual voltage generators. (a) A dual voltage generator installed on a vessel shall be of the grounded type, where: (1) The neutral of a dual voltage...

  11. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage generator is installed on an OSV— (a) The neutral of the dual-voltage system must be solidly grounded at the...

  12. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. An independent view?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David L.

    The current dispute over the oxygen abundance in metal-poor stars has been viewed from a distance by this observer who would claim a measure of independence despite an intermittent interest in oxygen abundance determinations over 3 decades. This summary attempts to persuade all participants whether they advocate a "high" or "low" oxygen abundance or are simply bemused by the dispute that in resolving the present disagreements we shall learn not only about the oxygen abundance of these oldest Galactic stars but shall achieve a deeper understanding of the atmospheres of the stars.

  14. Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick walls along the boundary of the cemetery; interior view taken from midway down the paved west road with the camera facing west to capture the morning light on the west wall. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  15. BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH THE FOREST PRACTICES BUILDING IN THE FOREGROUND, THE K.O.G. BUILDING TO THE RIGHT OF VIEW, AND THE BRIDGE AND THE OREGON STATE FORESTER'S OFFICE BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND. - Oregon State Forester's Office Complex, 2600 State Street, Salem, Marion, OR

  16. 13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. Grain tripper straddles belt conveyor at mid-view. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  17. Dual current readout for precision plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Bistable amplifier prevents damage in the low range circuitry of a dual scale ammeter. It senses the current and switches automatically to the high range circuitry as the current rises above a preset level.

  18. Fringe Formation in Dual-Hologram Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    A first order geometrical optics treatment of holograms combined with the generation of interference fringes by two point sources is used to describe reference fringe formation in non-diffuse dual-hologram interferometry.

  19. Braking System Integration in Dual Mode Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-05-01

    An optimal braking system for Dual Mode is a complex product of vast number of multivariate, interdependent parameters that encompass on-guideway and off-guideway operation as well as normal and emergency braking. : Details of, and interralations amo...

  20. Dual Career Marriages: Elements for Potential Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Mary F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the family and work relationships of dual career couples and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these relationships. Various ingredients including personality traits that contribute to the success of the two-career partnership are listed. (RC)

  1. Alternative Dual Mode Network Control Strategies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-03-01

    From a literature survey a qualitative evaluation was made of four network control strategies for the fundamental control philosophy of the moving synchronous slot. In the literature concerning automated transportation systems, such as dual mode, a g...

  2. Dual Enrollment Participation from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanny, M. Allison

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.

  3. Truncated Dual-Cap Nucleation Site Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Sander, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    During heterogeneous nucleation within a metastable mushy-zone, several geometries for nucleation site development must be considered. Traditional spherical dual cap and crevice models are compared to a truncated dual cap to determine the activation energy and critical cluster growth kinetics in ternary Fe-Cr-Ni steel alloys. Results of activation energy results indicate that nucleation is more probable at grain boundaries within the solid than at the solid-liquid interface.

  4. On the manipulability of dual cooperative robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.

  5. Fringe formation in dual-hologram interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    Reference-fringe formation in nondiffuse dual-hologram interferometry is described by combining a first-order geometrical hologram treatment with interference fringes generated by two point sources. The first-order imaging relationships can be used to describe reference-fringe patterns for the geometry of the dual-hologram interferometry. The process can be completed without adjusting the two holograms when the reconstructing wavelength is less than the exposing wavelength, and the process is found to facilitate basic intereferometer adjustments.

  6. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  7. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to dual analog angular rate sensors which are implemented without the use of mechanical brushes. A resolver rate sensor which includes two brushless resolvers which are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft is provided with inputs which are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. Novelty and advantages of the invention reside in the excitation of a resolver with a DC signal and in the utilization of two resolvers and the trigonometric identity of cos(exp 2)(theta) + sin(exp 2)(theta) = 1 to provide an accurate rate sensor which is sensitive to direction and accurate through zero rate.

  8. Children's difficulties handling dual identity.

    PubMed

    Apperly, I A; Robinson, E J

    2001-04-01

    Thirty-nine 6-year-old children participated in a longitudinal study using tasks that required handling of dual identity. Pre- and posttest sessions employed tasks involving a protagonist who was partially informed about an object or person; for example, he knew an item as a ball but not as a present. Children who judged correctly that the protagonist did not know the ball was a present (thereby demonstrating some understanding of the consequences of limited information access), often judged incorrectly (1) that he knew that there was a present in the box, and (2) that he would search as if fully informed. Intervening sessions added contextual support and tried to clarify the experimenter's communicative intentions in a range of ways. Despite signs of general improvement, the distinctive pattern of errors persisted in every case. These findings go beyond previous studies of children's handling of limited information access, and are hard to accommodate within existing accounts of developing understanding of the mind. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  10. Two F Ring Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    These views, taken two hours apart, demonstrate the dramatic variability in the structure of Saturn's intriguing F ring.

    In the image at the left, ringlets in the F ring and Encke Gap display distinctive kinks, and there is a bright patch of material on the F ring's inner edge. Saturn's moon Janus (181 kilometers, or 113 miles across) is shown here, partly illuminated by reflected light from the planet.

    At the right, Prometheus (102 kilometers, or 63 miles across) orbits ahead of the radial striations in the F ring, called 'drapes' by scientists. The drapes appear to be caused by successive passes of Prometheus as it reaches the greatest distance (apoapse) in its orbit of Saturn. Also in this image, the outermost ringlet visible in the Encke Gap displays distinctive bright patches.

    These views were obtained from about three degrees below the ring plane.

    The images were taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on June 29, 2005, when Cassini was about 1.5 million kilometers (900,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is about 9 kilometers (6 miles) per pixel.

  11. Dynamic dual-tracer PET reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Huafeng; Jian, Yiqiang; Shi, Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Although of important medical implications, simultaneous dual-tracer positron emission tomography reconstruction remains a challenging problem, primarily because the photon measurements from dual tracers are overlapped. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous dynamic dual-tracer reconstruction of tissue activity maps based on guidance from tracer kinetics. The dual-tracer reconstruction problem is formulated in a state-space representation, where parallel compartment models serve as continuous-time system equation describing the tracer kinetic processes of dual tracers, and the imaging data is expressed as discrete sampling of the system states in measurement equation. The image reconstruction problem has therefore become a state estimation problem in a continuous-discrete hybrid paradigm, and H infinity filtering is adopted as the estimation strategy. As H infinity filtering makes no assumptions on the system and measurement statistics, robust reconstruction results can be obtained for the dual-tracer PET imaging system where the statistical properties of measurement data and system uncertainty are not available a priori, even when there are disturbances in the kinetic parameters. Experimental results on digital phantoms, Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantoms have demonstrated the superior performance.

  12. Gas Flows in Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julia M.; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George C.; Nevin, Becky

    2018-06-01

    Dual Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the Rosetta stone to understand the role of galaxy mergers in triggering nuclear activity and regulating black hole (BH) and galaxy growth. But very little is known about the physical processes required to effectively trigger AGN activity and regulate the growth of the two BHs. The work I will present here characterizes for the first time the properties of the stars, gas (molecular, ionized, and highly-ionized) and dust in all the confirmed dual AGN at z < 0.05, using Keck/OSIRIS, VLT/SINFONI, SOFIA/FORCAST, and HST data. I will focus on the interplay between the several complex processes observed in dual AGN, using as an example the prototypical merger system NGC 6240: vigorous star formation, two AGNs, outflowing winds of ionized gas, rippling dust and gas lanes, and tidal tails. In this galaxy, we observe for the first time a dual outflow of different species of gas: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. This shows that stellar feedback and supermassive black hole feedback can work in tandem to regulate the stellar growth of a galaxy after a merger event. These results open a new door to studies of dual AGN and AGN pairs in general, and enable dual AGN to be used, for the first time, for studies of galaxy evolution.

  13. Synergistic stress exacerbation in hippocampal neurons: Evidence favoring the dual hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Scott D.; Posimo, Jessica M.; Mason, Daniel M.; Hutchison, Daniel F.; Leak, Rehana K.

    2016-01-01

    The dual hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration states that severe stress sensitizes vulnerable cells to subsequent challenges so that the two hits are synergistic in their toxic effects. Although the hippocampus is vulnerable to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, there are no models of synergistic cell death in hippocampal neurons in response to combined proteotoxic and oxidative stressors, the two major characteristics of these diseases. Therefore, we developed a relatively high-throughput dual hit model of stress synergy in primary hippocampal neurons. In order to increase the rigor of our study and strengthen our interpretations, we employed three independent, unbiased viability assays at multiple timepoints. Stress synergy was elicited when hippocampal neurons were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 followed by exposure to the oxidative toxicant paraquat, but only after 48h. MG132 and paraquat only elicited additive effects 24h after the final hit and even loss of heat shock protein 70 activity and glutathione did not promote stress synergy at this early timepoint. Dual hits of MG132 elicited modest glutathione loss and slightly synergistic toxic effects 48h after the second hit, but only at some concentrations and only according to two viability assays (metabolic fitness and cytoskeletal integrity). The thiol N-acetyl cysteine protected hippocampal neurons against dual MG132/MG132 hits but not dual MG132/paraquat hits. Our findings support the view that proteotoxic and oxidative stress propel and propagate each other in hippocampal neurons, leading to synergistically toxic effects, but not as the default response and only after a delay. The neuronal stress synergy observed here lies in contrast to astrocytic responses to dual hits, because astrocytes that survive severe proteotoxic stress resist additional cell loss following second hits. In conclusion, we present a new model of hippocampal vulnerability in which to test therapies, because

  14. Ilmenite as Dual-Use Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A. A.; Pandey, R. K.; Fogarty, T. N.; Wilkins, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of dual-use space technology transfer of a novel, non-traditional material termed ilmenite, found in a large percentage in the moon rocks brought back by NASA's APOLLO missions. The paper is somewhat premature in the sense that though the material as a mineral has been known for a long time, very little is known about pure single crystal ilmenite and hence few applications have been demonstrated. Yet, in another sense, it is very timely due to the fact that ilmenite promises to be a very interesting competition to silicon, silicon carbide and other compound semiconductors, especially those that are employed in high power, high temperature and large data storage/retrieval applications. It seems to be an excellent example of a small investment-high return situation. While some of the applications of this material - for production of oxygen, for instance - have been well-known, electronic applications have received relatively little attention. One reason for this was the fact that growth of single crystal ilmenite requires precise process conditions and parameters. We believe for the first time these have been determined in the Center for Electronic Materials, Texas A&M University. The work being done at Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University (supported by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories and the Center for Space Power) indicates the excellent potential this material has in space as well as in terrestrial applications. To mention a few: as a wide band gap semiconductor it has applications in high temperature, high power situations, especially when heat dissipation is a problem such as may occur in the Space Station; the possibility of this material radiating in the blue region, it has immense applications in optoelectronics; as a material with a high density of highly directional d-bands, it lends itself to novel processing conditions and perhaps even to 'tunability' of physical parameters; as a potential

  15. Dual Treatments as Starting Point for Integrative Perceptions in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kërënxhi, Svjetllana; Gjoci, Pranvera

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we recommend mathematical teaching through dual treatments. The dual treatments notion, classified in dual interpretations, dual analyses, dual solutions, and dual formulations, is explained through concrete examples taken from mathematical textbooks of elementary education. Dual treatments provide opportunities for creating…

  16. Differences between Dual Users and Switchers Center around Vaping Behavior and Its Experiences Rather than Beliefs and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers. Before e-cig initiation, both groups smoked on average 22 cigarettes per day (CPD). After e-cig initiation, dual users decreased tobacco consumption by 82% and were low-to-moderately cigarette dependent. Both groups had been vaping for on average 22 months, were highly e-cig dependent, used state-of-the-art e-cigs, nicotine concentrations of 4–8 mg/mL and often flavors other than tobacco. Dual users used substantially less e-liquid per week than switchers but reported a similar number of puffs/day, experienced less e-cig efficacy, more practical problems, more negative and less positive consequences, and endorsed smoking reduction (rather than quitting) as a more important reason to start vaping. For both groups, e-cig risk perception was low and little stigmatization was experienced. Dual users preferred tobacco cigarettes in stressful situations and when rapid nicotine uptake is required. E-cigs were preferred where cigarettes are prohibited and to reduce second-hand smoke; (4) Conclusions: Differences between dual users and switchers center around variables proximal to the vaping behavior and its experienced effects rather than hinging on more general vaping-related beliefs and attitudes. PMID:29295483

  17. Differences between Dual Users and Switchers Center around Vaping Behavior and Its Experiences Rather than Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Karolien; Van Gucht, Dinska; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-12-23

    (1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers. Before e-cig initiation, both groups smoked on average 22 cigarettes per day (CPD). After e-cig initiation, dual users decreased tobacco consumption by 82% and were low-to-moderately cigarette dependent. Both groups had been vaping for on average 22 months, were highly e-cig dependent, used state-of-the-art e-cigs, nicotine concentrations of 4-8 mg/mL and often flavors other than tobacco. Dual users used substantially less e-liquid per week than switchers but reported a similar number of puffs/day, experienced less e-cig efficacy, more practical problems, more negative and less positive consequences, and endorsed smoking reduction (rather than quitting) as a more important reason to start vaping. For both groups, e-cig risk perception was low and little stigmatization was experienced. Dual users preferred tobacco cigarettes in stressful situations and when rapid nicotine uptake is required. E-cigs were preferred where cigarettes are prohibited and to reduce second-hand smoke; (4) Conclusions: Differences between dual users and switchers center around variables proximal to the vaping behavior and its experienced effects rather than hinging on more general vaping-related beliefs and attitudes.

  18. View generated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, James G.

    1992-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.

  19. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  20. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  1. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  2. Dual-surface dielectric depth detector for holographic millimeter-wave security scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Keller, Paul E.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is presently deploying millimeter-wave whole body scanners at over 20 airports in the United States. Threats that may be concealed on a person are displayed to the security operator of this scanner. "Passenger privacy is ensured through the anonymity of the image. The officer attending the passenger cannot view the image, and the officer viewing the image is remotely located and cannot see the passenger. Additionally, the image cannot be stored, transmitted or printed and is deleted immediately after being viewed. Finally, the facial area of the image has been blurred to further ensure privacy." Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) originated research into this novel security technology which has been independently commercialized by L-3 Communications, SafeView, Inc. PNNL continues to perform fundamental research into improved software techniques which are applicable to the field of holographic security screening technology. This includes performing significant research to remove human features from the imagery. Both physical and software imaging techniques have been employed. The physical imaging techniques include polarization diversity illumination and reception, dual frequency implementation, and high frequency imaging at 100 GHz. This paper will focus on a software privacy technique using a dual surface dielectric depth detector method.

  3. View - Caribbean Coast - Venezuela

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    S73-35079 (July-September 1973) --- A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolla. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate on the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shoreline features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Sand dunes and stream erosion have modified these features. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and water offshore. The EREP investigator Dr. Jose Antonio Galavis, of the Ministerio de Mines e Hidrocarburos, will use this information to map geology and coastal sedimentation in the Peninsula de Paraguana. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP projects are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. (Alternate number SL3-83-237) Photo credit: NASA

  4. A dual cone-beam CT system for image guided radiotherapy: initial performance characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Giles, William; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a recently developed benchtop dual cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system with two orthogonally placed tube∕detector sets. The benchtop dual CBCT system consists of two orthogonally placed 40 × 30 cm flat-panel detectors and two conventional x-ray tubes with two individual high-voltage generators sharing the same rotational axis. The x-ray source to detector distance is 150 cm and x-ray source to rotational axis distance is 100 cm for both subsystems. The objects are scanned through 200° of rotation. The dual CBCT system utilized 110° of projection data from one detector and 90° from the other while the two individual single CBCTs utilized 200° data from each detector. The system performance was characterized in terms of uniformity, contrast, spatial resolution, noise power spectrum, and CT number linearity. The uniformities, within the axial slice and along the longitudinal direction, and noise power spectrum were assessed by scanning a water bucket; the contrast and CT number linearity were measured using the Catphan phantom; and the spatial resolution was evaluated using a tungsten wire phantom. A skull phantom and a ham were also scanned to provide qualitative evaluation of high- and low-contrast resolution. Each measurement was compared between dual and single CBCT systems. Compared to single CBCT, the dual CBCT presented: (1) a decrease in uniformity by 1.9% in axial view and 1.1% in the longitudinal view, as averaged for four energies (80, 100, 125, and 150 kVp); (2) comparable or slightly better contrast (0∼25 HU) for low-contrast objects and comparable contrast for high-contrast objects; (3) comparable spatial resolution; (4) comparable CT number linearity with R(2) ≥ 0.99 for all four tested energies; (5) lower noise power spectrum in magnitude. Dual CBCT images of the skull phantom and the ham demonstrated both high-contrast resolution and good soft-tissue contrast. The

  5. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  6. Dual Career Couples in Academia, International Mobility and Dual Career Services in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzanakou, Charikleia

    2017-01-01

    The number of dual career couples in academia is growing due to the increasing proportion of women with a doctoral degree and the greater propensity of women to choose another academic as their partner. At the same time, international mobility is required for career advancement in academia, creating challenges for dual career couples where both…

  7. Data sharing and dual-use issues.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2013-03-01

    The concept of dual-use encapsulates the potential for well-intentioned, beneficial scientific research to also be misused by a third party for malicious ends. The concept of dual-use challenges scientists to look beyond the immediate outcomes of their research and to develop an awareness of possible future (mis)uses of scientific research. Since 2001 much attention has been paid to the possible need to regulate the dual-use potential of the life sciences. Regulation initiatives fall under two broad categories-those that develop the ethical education of scientists and foster an awareness and responsibility of dual-use issues, and those which assess the regulation of information being generated by current research. Both types of initiatives are premised on a cautious, risk-adverse philosophy which advocates careful examination of all future endpoints of research endeavors. This caution advocated within initiatives such as pre-publication review of journal articles contrasts to the obligation to share underpinning data sharing discussions. As the dual-use debate has yet to make a significant impact on data sharing discussions (and vice versa) it is possible that these two areas of knowledge control may present areas of ethical conflict for scientists, and thus need to be more closely examined. This paper examines the tension between the obligation to share exemplified by data sharing principles and the concerns raised by the risk-cautious culture of the dual-use debates. The paper concludes by reflecting on the issues of responsibility as raised by dual-use as relating to data sharing, such as the chain of custody for shared data.

  8. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Duijkers, Judith C L M; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-01-01

    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other's expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one's behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one's self-regulative abilities.

  9. Dual-energy contrast enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis: concept, method, and evaluation on phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puong, Sylvie; Patoureaux, Fanny; Iordache, Razvan; Bouchevreau, Xavier; Muller, Serge

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the development of dual-energy Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (CEDBT). A method to produce background clutter-free slices from a set of low and high-energy projections is introduced, along with a scheme for the determination of the optimal low and high-energy techniques. Our approach consists of a dual-energy recombination of the projections, with an algorithm that has proven its performance in Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography1 (CEDM), followed by an iterative volume reconstruction. The aim is to eliminate the anatomical background clutter and to reconstruct slices where the gray level is proportional to the local iodine volumetric concentration. Optimization of the low and high-energy techniques is performed by minimizing the total glandular dose to reach a target iodine Signal Difference to Noise Ratio (SDNR) in the slices. In this study, we proved that this optimization could be done on the projections, by consideration of the SDNR in the projections instead of the SDNR in the slices, and verified this with phantom measurements. We also discuss some limitations of dual-energy CEDBT, due to the restricted angular range for the projection views, and to the presence of scattered radiation. Experiments on textured phantoms with iodine inserts were conducted to assess the performance of dual-energy CEDBT. Texture contrast was nearly completely removed and the iodine signal was enhanced in the slices.

  10. Dual peer mentoring program for undergraduate medical students: exploring the perceptions of mentors and mentees.

    PubMed

    Abdolalizadeh, Parya; Pourhassan, Saeed; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Heidari, Farrokh; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the advantages of dual peer mentoring, there are a few reports of implementing and evaluating such programs for medical students. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of mentors and mentees about the dual peer mentoring program for the first year undergraduate medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at the end of the first year of implementing the mentoring program. All mentees and mentors were invited to participate in focus group discussions. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results: All mentors ( n= 12 ) and a group of mentees ( n= 21 ) participated in focus group discussion sessions. We provided a variety of supports for the mentees including academic and psychosocial support and positive relationship; as a result, some developments occurred to the mentors We also explored participants' views on some unique aspects of the program such as student-authorized, dual mentoring, and role model sessions. Conclusion: Our participants found the mentoring program beneficial in various academic achievements and psychosocial supports for both the mentors and the mentees. Dual peer mentoring program can be an alternative to school administered programs.

  11. Novel dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors: scaffolds and discovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Song, Anran; Yu, Haiqing; Wang, Changyuan; Zhu, Xingqi; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Searching for safe and effective treatments for HIV infection is still a great challenge worldwide in spite of the 27 marketed anti-HIV drugs and the powerful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As a promising prospect for generation of new HIV therapy drugs, multiple ligands (MDLs) were greatly focused on recently due to their lower toxicity, simplified dosing and patient adherence than single-target drugs. Till now, by disrupting two active sites or steps of HIV replications, a number of HIV dual inhibitors, such as CD4-gssucap120 inhibitors, CXCR4-gp20 inhibitors, RT-CXCR4 inhibitors, RT-protease inhibitors, RT-integrase inhibitors, and RTassociated functions inhibitors have been identified. Generally, these dual inhibitors were discovered mainly through screening approaches and design strategies. Of these compounds, the molecules bearing small skeletons exhibited strong anti-HIV activity and aroused great attention recently. Reviewing the progress of the dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors from the point of view of their scaffolds and discovery strategies will provide valuable information for producing more effective anti-HIV drugs. In this regard, novel dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors were illustrated, and their discovery paradigms as the major contents were also summarized in this manuscript.

  12. Dual peer mentoring program for undergraduate medical students: exploring the perceptions of mentors and mentees

    PubMed Central

    Abdolalizadeh, Parya; Pourhassan, Saeed; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Heidari, Farrokh; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the advantages of dual peer mentoring, there are a few reports of implementing and evaluating such programs for medical students. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of mentors and mentees about the dual peer mentoring program for the first year undergraduate medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at the end of the first year of implementing the mentoring program. All mentees and mentors were invited to participate in focus group discussions. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results: All mentors (n= 12) and a group of mentees (n= 21) participated in focus group discussion sessions. We provided a variety of supports for the mentees including academic and psychosocial support and positive relationship; as a result, some developments occurred to the mentors We also explored participants’ views on some unique aspects of the program such as student-authorized, dual mentoring, and role model sessions. Conclusion: Our participants found the mentoring program beneficial in various academic achievements and psychosocial supports for both the mentors and the mentees. Dual peer mentoring program can be an alternative to school administered programs. PMID:28638809

  13. General medical training in gastroenterology: views from specialist trainees on the challenges of dual accreditation.

    PubMed

    Neale, James R; Basford, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Higher specialist training in general internal medicine (GIM) and the medical specialties has been subject to many changes and increasing subspecialisation in recent years. The 'Shape of Training' review proposes 'broad-based specialty training', shortening of training by one year, and subspecialisation to be undertaken after the certificate of specialty training is obtained. All higher level gastroenterology trainees based in the UK were invited to complete an online survey between July and September 2012 to assess their experience of gastroenterology and GIM training. Overall, 72.7% of trainees expressed satisfaction with their training in gastroenterology but significantly fewer (43.5%) expressed satisfaction with their training in GIM. Satisfaction with gastroenterology training thus is good, but satisfaction with GIM training is lower and levels of dissatisfaction have increased significantly since 2008. Up to 50% of trainees are not achieving the minimum recommended number of colonoscopy procedures for their stage of training. Experience in GIM is seen as service orientated, with a lack of training opportunities. There is a worrying difficulty in gaining the minimum required experience in endoscopy. If the length of specialist training is shortened and generalised, training in key core specialist skills such as endoscopy may be compromised further. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  14. Feasibility Study for a Dual Field of View-Single Detector Array Infrared System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    for 525 TV. Per Channelt C. DC. Ainlog& Dgitl Tretrs b~ td ~Secial multipleaed. Organ- 500 li1 cani be organized CAC nlg Dgia eprtr.Untdt 80 lioal...coupled transport phenomenon: charge coupled device (CCD) and bucket brigade device U ( BBD ). These devices are basically dynamic shift registers that...can be connected to form the serial in-serial uut memory. Both the CCD and BBD function by wanipulating char-e along a series of electrodes without

  15. Shifting views and building bonds: Narratives of internationally adopted children about their dual culture.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Laelia; Harf, Aurélie; Sarmiento, Laura; Skandrani, Sara; Moro, Marie Rose

    2018-06-01

    American literature on international adoption suggests that adoptees' pride in the culture of their birth country improves their self-esteem and helps them to cope with experiences of racism. Parents are therefore encouraged to teach their adopted children multicultural skills to improve their psychological well-being. French psychologists, on the contrary, suggest that adoptees should feel fully members of their adoptive country and families. These practices shed light on the respective multicultural and universalist paradigms in the US and France. Few papers, however, consider the opinions of adoptees. This study explores internationally adopted children raised in France and their spontaneous curiosity about their birth country. The present study used semi-structured interviews with 19 adoptees aged 8-18 years old, to explore their attitudes towards the culture of their birth country. Transcripts of recorded interviews were analyzed according to interpretative phenomenological analysis. While there was striking consistency of interest in birth countries, adoptees' expression of curiosity varied across time. Children described distinctive goals: knowing more about their history, finding relatives, becoming a multicultural citizen, or simply helping people. Their parents' involvement was thus seen as helpful, but adoptees stress the need to feel ready and may prefer independent ways of learning about their birth country. Adoptees' multiple feelings of belonging derive not only from multicultural training but from a lifelong construction of self. Professionals and parents may need to adapt to adoptees' individual development, distinctive time frames, and ways of learning to provide better support to them.

  16. Automatic Ability Attribution after Failure: A Dual Process View of Achievement Attribution

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou

    2013-01-01

    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people automatically attribute their achievement failure to their ability, but reduce the ability attribution in a controlled manner. To address this hypothesis, we measured participants’ causal attribution belief for their task failure either under the cognitive load (load condition) or with full attention (no-load condition). Across two studies, participants attributed task performance to their ability more in the load than in the no-load condition. The increased ability attribution under cognitive load further affected intrinsic motivation. These results indicate that cognitive resources available after feedback play crucial roles in determining causal attribution belief, as well as achievement motivations. PMID:23667576

  17. Automatic ability attribution after failure: a dual process view of achievement attribution.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou

    2013-01-01

    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people automatically attribute their achievement failure to their ability, but reduce the ability attribution in a controlled manner. To address this hypothesis, we measured participants' causal attribution belief for their task failure either under the cognitive load (load condition) or with full attention (no-load condition). Across two studies, participants attributed task performance to their ability more in the load than in the no-load condition. The increased ability attribution under cognitive load further affected intrinsic motivation. These results indicate that cognitive resources available after feedback play crucial roles in determining causal attribution belief, as well as achievement motivations.

  18. Public Television Viewing in a Dual Channel Market: Some Big Surprises! Info. Packets No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David; LeRoy, Judith

    In a recent study of the Tampa (Florida) market, TRAC Media Services acquired some interesting information about the market's response to its two public television stations. WEDU is a VHF-signal community station that reaches about 745,000 households in a week, and WUSF is a university-licensed UHF station that reaches about 547,000. Month-long…

  19. Views from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.

  20. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  1. Dual infections with different Legionella strains.

    PubMed

    Wewalka, G; Schmid, D; Harrison, T G; Uldum, S A; Lück, C

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a case of a dual infection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and sg 3 was identified by culture of a blood sample collected from a female Austrian patient with septic pneumonia. Subsequently all 35 European National Legionella Reference Laboratories were interviewed regarding the frequency of dual infections in legionellosis. The Reference Laboratories in Denmark, the UK and Germany reported the detection of another 14 cases of dual infections with different Legionella strains between 2002 and 2012. Among the 15 cases, there were four cases with different Legionella species, six cases with different L. pneumophila serogroups, and five cases of dual infections with L. pneumophila sg 1 with different MAb-types. The median age of the 15 cases was 56 years and the male to female ratio 1:1.14. Six of the 15 patients were receiving immunosuppressive treatment following organ transplantation (n = 3) or for underlying haematological and solid malignancies (n = 3). Five of the 15 cases died within 30 days following diagnosis. Efforts to detect dual infections with different Legionella strains will improve our ability to correctly elucidate the causative sources of infection and enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of Legionella infections. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Dual adaptive control: Design principles and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookerjee, Purusottam

    1988-01-01

    The design of an actively adaptive dual controller based on an approximation of the stochastic dynamic programming equation for a multi-step horizon is presented. A dual controller that can enhance identification of the system while controlling it at the same time is derived for multi-dimensional problems. This dual controller uses sensitivity functions of the expected future cost with respect to the parameter uncertainties. A passively adaptive cautious controller and the actively adaptive dual controller are examined. In many instances, the cautious controller is seen to turn off while the latter avoids the turn-off of the control and the slow convergence of the parameter estimates, characteristic of the cautious controller. The algorithms have been applied to a multi-variable static model which represents a simplified linear version of the relationship between the vibration output and the higher harmonic control input for a helicopter. Monte Carlo comparisons based on parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis indicate the superiority of the dual controller over the baseline controller.

  3. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter). By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found. PMID:28491270

  4. Parent Involvement and Views of School Success: The Role of Parents' Latino and White American Cultural Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Carey S.; Casas, Juan F.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette O.; Nero, Collette

    2010-01-01

    We examined ethnicity and cultural orientation as predictors of parents' views of and involvement in children's education, using data gathered from the Latino (n = 74) and non-Latino (17 White and 13 ethnic minority) parents of children in an elementary school's dual-language program. Parents completed a questionnaire that assessed Latino and…

  5. Galaxy with a view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    This little-known galaxy, officially named J04542829-6625280, but most often referred to as LEDA 89996, is a classic example of a spiral galaxy. The galaxy is much like our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The disc-shaped galaxy is seen face on, revealing the winding structure of the spiral arms. Dark patches in these spiral arms are in fact dust and gas — the raw materials for new stars. The many young stars that form in these regions make the spiral arms appear bright and bluish. The galaxy sits in a vibrant area of the night sky within the constellation of Dorado (The Swordfish), and appears very close to the Large Magellanic Cloud  — one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. The observations were carried out with the high resolution channel of Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. This instrument has delivered some of the sharpest views of the Universe so far achieved by mankind. This image covers only a tiny patch of sky — about the size of a one cent euro coin held 100 metres away! A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by flickr user c.claude.

  6. Phobos Viewed from Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-09-11

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. The first two images in this sequence show gradual enhancements in the surface detail of Mars' largest moon, Phobos, made possible through a combination technique known as "stacking." In "stacking," scientists use a mathematical process known as Laplacian sharpening to reinforce features that appear consistently in repetitive images and minimize features that show up only intermittently. In this view of Phobos, the large crater named Stickney is just out of sight on the moon's upper right limb. Spirit acquired the first two images with the panoramic camera on the night of sol 585 (Aug. 26,2005). The far right image of Phobos, for comparison, was taken by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express, a European Space Agency orbiter. The third image in this sequence was derived from the far right image by making it blurrier for comparison with the panoramic camera images to the left http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06335

  7. FWCW: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Li, A S

    1995-12-01

    The personal experiences at the Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum were described by a Chinese American veterinarian. The author became aware that women were primarily the persons living in poverty in the world. Business and government appeared more concerned with economic growth. As a consequence, developed countries with 20% of world population consume 80% of the world's resources. The privilege of money secures a position of power in the world, power to buy up the resources of the world. This process is unsustainable and inequitable. Women are viewed as key players in shifting the balance in favor of a higher quality of life. The NGO workshops on Women in Livestock Development (WILD) was run by women veterinarians, who worked at the local level with women in poor areas. WILD operates out of offices in Arkansas in the USA. WILD women work in Sichuan, China, among the Han and Tibetans in increasing family income through heifer and livestock production. Conference participants from WILD programs talked about their experiences with increased income and loans to other women. The World Women's Veterinary Association members, who attended the conference, visited a small animal clinic in Beijing run by the Agriculture Ministry, and Beijing Agricultural University and its Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Demonstrations were given of small animal acupuncture. The author found the conference to be a success and found that press reports misrepresented the energy generated by the meeting.

  8. Three Views of Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    New Horizons' Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) obtained these three images of Pluto between July 1-3 ,2015, as the spacecraft closed in on its July 14 encounter with the dwarf planet and its moons. The left image shows, on the right side of the disk, a large bright area on the hemisphere opposite Charon; this is the side of Pluto that will be seen in close-up by New Horizons on July 14. The three images together show the full extent of a continuous swath of dark terrain that wraps around Pluto's equatorial region between longitudes 40° and 160°. The western end of the swath, west of longitude 40°, breaks up into a series of striking dark regularly-spaced spots on the anti-Charon hemisphere (right image) that were first noted in New Horizons images taken on Pluto's previous rotation. Intriguing details are beginning to emerge in the bright material north of the dark region, in particular a series of bright and dark patches that are conspicuous just below the center of the disk in the right-hand image. In all three black-and-white views, the apparent jagged bottom edge of Pluto is the result of image processing. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19698

  9. MODIS Views North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image over the North Pole was acquired by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard the Terra spacecraft, on May 5, 2000. The scene was received and processed by Norway's MODIS Direct Broadcast data receiving station, located in Svalbard, within seconds of photons hitting the sensor's detectors. (Click for more details about MODIS Direct Broadcast data.) In this image, the sea ice appears white and areas of open water, or recently refrozen sea surface, appear black. The irregular whitish shapes toward the bottom of the image are clouds, which are often difficult to distinguish from the white Arctic surface. Notice the considerable number of cracks, or 'leads,' in the ice that appear as dark networks of lines. Throughout the region within the Arctic Circle leads are continually opening and closing due to the direction and intensity of shifting wind and ocean currents. Leads are particularly common during the summer, when temperatures are higher and the ice is thinner. In this image, each pixel is one square kilometer. Such true-color views of the North Pole are quite rare, as most of the time much of the region within the Arctic Circle is cloaked in clouds. Image by Allen Lunsford, NASA GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory; Data courtesy Tromso receiving station, Svalbard, Norway

  10. New Paranal Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Last year saw very good progress at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The third and fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, MELIPAL and YEPUN had "First Light" (cf. PR 01/00 and PR 18/00 ), while the first two, ANTU and KUEYEN , were busy collecting first-class data for hundreds of astronomers. Meanwhile, work continued towards the next phase of the VLT project, the combination of the telescopes into the VLT Interferometer. The test instrument, VINCI (cf. PR 22/00 ) is now being installed in the VLTI Laboratory at the centre of the observing platform on the top of Paranal. Below is a new collection of video sequences and photos that illustrate the latest developments at the Paranal Observatory. The were obtained by the EPR Video Team in December 2000. The photos are available in different formats, including "high-resolution" that is suitable for reproduction purposes. A related ESO Video News Reel for professional broadcasters will soon become available and will be announced via the usual channels. Overview Paranal Observatory (Dec. 2000) Video Clip 02a/01 [MPEG - 4.5Mb] ESO PR Video Clip 02a/01 "Paranal Observatory (December 2000)" (4875 frames/3:15 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 4.5Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 13.5 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 02a/01 shows some of the construction activities at the Paranal Observatory in December 2000, beginning with a general view of the site. Then follow views of the Residencia , a building that has been designed by Architects Auer and Weber in Munich - it integrates very well into the desert, creating a welcome recreational site for staff and visitors in this harsh environment. The next scenes focus on the "stations" for the auxiliary telescopes for the VLTI and the installation of two delay lines in the 140-m long underground tunnel. The following part of the video clip shows the start-up of the excavation work for the 2.6-m VLT Survey

  11. Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Yang, Qi-Fan; Yang, Ki Youl; Yi, Xu; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of optical and vibrational spectra with high resolution provides a way to identify chemical species in cluttered environments and is of general importance in many fields. Dual-comb spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful approach for acquiring nearly instantaneous Raman and optical spectra with unprecedented resolution. Spectra are generated directly in the electrical domain, without the need for bulky mechanical spectrometers. We demonstrate a miniature soliton-based dual-comb system that can potentially transfer the approach to a chip platform. These devices achieve high-coherence pulsed mode locking. They also feature broad, reproducible spectral envelopes, an essential feature for dual-comb spectroscopy. Our work shows the potential for integrated spectroscopy with high signal-to-noise ratios and fast acquisition rates.

  12. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    DOE PAGES

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-12

    In this study, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-likemore » to the causal completion of the region.« less

  13. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    In this study, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-likemore » to the causal completion of the region.« less

  14. The Grassmannian origin of dual superconformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Cheung, Clifford

    2010-03-01

    A dual formulation of the S Matrix for mathcal {N} = 4 SYM has recently been presented, where all leading singularities of n-particle N k-2MHV amplitudes are given as an integral over the Grassmannian G( k, n), with cyclic symmetry, parity and superconformal invariance manifest. In this short note we show that the dual superconformal invariance of this object is also manifest. The geometry naturally suggests a partial integration and simple change of variable to an integral over G( k - 2, n). This change of variable precisely corresponds to the mapping between usual momentum variables and the “momentum twistors” introduced by Hodges, and yields an elementary derivation of the momentumtwistor space formula very recently presented by Mason and Skinner, which is manifestly dual superconformal invariant. Thus the G( k, n) Grassmannian formulation allows a direct understanding of all the important symmetries of mathcal {N} = 4 SYM scattering amplitudes.

  15. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  16. The OhioView Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio View Consortium is a group of universities, colleges, K-12 schools, libraries, and local and State government agencies in the State of Ohio working with the USGS and NASA to provide affordable, integrated access to and delivery of U.S. Government satellite and geospatial data. The Ohio View Project is a pilot project that combines the USGS activities in providing an integrated information access and delivery capability with the activities of the Ohio View Consortium 

  17. Familiarity Breeds Attempts: A Critical Review of Dual-Process Theories of Recognition.

    PubMed

    Mandler, George

    2008-09-01

    Recognition memory and recall/recollection are the major divisions of the psychology of human memory. Theories of recognition have shifted from a "strength" approach to a dual-process view, which distinguishes between knowing that one has experienced an object before and knowing what it was. In this article, I discuss the history of this approach and the two processes of familiarity and recollection and locate their origin in pattern matching and organization. I evaluate various theories in terms of their basic requirements and their defining research and propose the extension of the original two process theory to domains such as pictorial recognition. Finally, I present the main phenomena that a dual-process theory of recognition must account for and discuss future needs and directions of research and development. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  18. PRIMA: study for a dual-beam instrument for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Daigne, Gerard; Hofmann, Karl H.; Hofmann, Reiner; Lattanzi, Mario; Osterbart, R.; Le Poole, Rudolf S.; Queloz, Didier; Vakili, Farrokh

    1998-07-01

    PRIMA is a conceptual study for a single-baseline dual-feed instrument for the very large telescope interferometer, which is under construction by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in Chile. The goals of PRIMA include narrow-angle astrometry with a precision of 10 (mu) as over an arc of 10 inches, and imaging of faint sources with the full sensitivity of the 8m telescopes in the VLT array. Key scientific programs that can be carried out with PRIMA in imaging mode include observations of active galactic nuclei, the Galactic Center, stars, and circumstellar matter. Scientific drivers for the astrometry are searches for planets and low-mass stellar companions, binary stars, dynamics of clusters, and parallaxes. We list the main performance requirements for PRIMA, present system architectures for the dual-beam system, and discuss limitations of the interferometric field-of-view.

  19. An integrated treatment model for dual diagnosis of psychosis and addiction.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, K

    1989-10-01

    A model that integrates the treatment of patients with a dual diagnosis of psychosis and addiction has been developed on a general hospital psychiatric unit. The model emphasizes the parallels between the standard biopsychosocial illness-and-rehabilitation model for treatment of serious psychiatric disorders and the 12-step disease-and-recovery model of Alcoholics Anonymous for treatment of addiction. Dual-diagnosis patients are viewed as having two primary, chronic, biologic mental illnesses, each requiring specific treatment to stabilize acute symptoms and engage the patient in a recovery process. An integrated treatment program is described, as are the steps taken to alleviate psychiatric clinicians' concerns about patient involvement in AA and addiction clinicians' discomfort with patients' use of medication.

  20. Confocal fluorescence microscope with dual-axis architecture and biaxial postobjective scanning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Thomas D.; Contag, Christopher H.; Mandella, Michael J.; Chan, Ning Y.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel confocal microscope that has dual-axis architecture and biaxial postobjective scanning for the collection of fluorescence images from biological specimens. This design uses two low-numerical-aperture lenses to achieve high axial resolution and long working distance, and the scanning mirror located distal to the lenses rotates along the orthogonal axes to produce arc-surface images over a large field of view (FOV). With fiber optic coupling, this microscope can potentially be scaled down to millimeter dimensions via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We demonstrate a benchtop prototype with a spatial resolution ≤4.4 μm that collects fluorescence images with a high SNR and a good contrast ratio from specimens expressing GFP. Furthermore, the scanning mechanism produces only small differences in aberrations over the image FOV. These results demonstrate proof of concept of the dual-axis confocal architecture for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging. PMID:15250760

  1. Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

  2. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  3. Langley's views on NEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The views of the Langley Research Center regarding the NASA Equipment Management System (EMS) are discussed. One of Langley's greatest concerns is with the reconciliation between NEMS and the General Ledger. Langley's accounting system tracks cost data to the penny level. NEMS deals in whole dollar amounts. Therefore, Langley has no way of reconciling the two. The only approach that is acceptable to Langley, unless requirements for reconciliation are changed, is for the NEMS files and the reports involved in the process be at the penny level. All other NEMS reports can remain whole dollars. Also to reconcile, Langley needs data to show the difference between the previous cost and the new cost for the month. On an input record, the adjustment amount is added to the cost and recorded as total amount. The adjusted cost is not captured. In order to establish a control between the prior months and the current month, a new field needs to be added to capture the adjusted cost (debits And credits). Langley has not reconciled the Equipment account with the General Ledger since February 1984. Problems with NEMS regular production runs cause concern. Production at Langley is run on the second and/or third shift. If a run(s) terminates and/or abends in a particular module, Langley must wait until the next day to resolve NEMS problems after consultation with Headquarters personnel. For a successful installation, Langley must have a good data base to convert to NEMS and users and the data processing staff must work together.

  4. Dual Motor-Cognitive Virtual Reality Training Impacts Dual-Task Performance in Freezing of Gait.

    PubMed

    Killane, Isabelle; Fearon, Conor; Newman, Louise; McDonnell, Conor; Waechter, Saskia M; Sons, Kristian; Lynch, Timothy; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG), an episodic gait disturbance characterized by the inability to generate effective stepping, occurs in more than half of Parkinson's disease patients. It is associated with both executive dysfunction and attention and becomes most evident during dual tasking (performing two tasks simultaneously). This study examined the effect of dual motor-cognitive virtual reality training on dual-task performance in FOG. Twenty community dwelling participants with Parkinson's disease (13 with FOG, 7 without FOG) participated in a pre-assessment, eight 20-minute intervention sessions, and a post-assessment. The intervention consisted of a virtual reality maze (DFKI, Germany) through which participants navigated by stepping-in-place on a balance board (Nintendo, Japan) under time pressure. This was combined with a cognitive task (Stroop test), which repeatedly divided participants' attention. The primary outcome measures were pre- and post-intervention differences in motor (stepping time, symmetry, rhythmicity) and cognitive (accuracy, reaction time) performance during single- and dual-tasks. Both assessments consisted of 1) a single cognitive task 2) a single motor task, and 3) a dual motor-cognitive task. Following the intervention, there was significant improvement in dual-task cognitive and motor parameters (stepping time and rhythmicity), dual-task effect for those with FOG and a noteworthy improvement in FOG episodes. These improvements were less significant for those without FOG. This is the first study to show benefit of a dual motor-cognitive approach on dual-task performance in FOG. Advances in such virtual reality interventions for home use could substantially improve the quality of life for patients who experience FOG.

  5. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adverse effects in dual-feed interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colavita, M. Mark

    2009-11-01

    Narrow-angle dual-star interferometric astrometry can provide very high accuracy in the presence of the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. However, to exploit the high atmospherically-limited accuracy requires control of systematic errors in measurement of the interferometer baseline, internal OPDs, and fringe phase. In addition, as high photometric SNR is required, care must be taken to maximize throughput and coherence to obtain high accuracy on faint stars. This article reviews the key aspects of the dual-star approach and implementation, the main contributors to the systematic error budget, and the coherence terms in the photometric error budget.

  7. Adverse Effects in Dual-Star Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colavita, M. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Narrow-angle dual-star interferometric astrometry can provide very high accuracy in the presence of the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. However, to exploit the high atmospherically-limited accuracy requires control of systematic errors in measurement of the interferometer baseline, internal OPDs, and fringe phase. In addition, as high photometric SNR is required, care must be taken to maximize throughput and coherence to obtain high accuracy on faint stars. This article reviews: the keys aspects of the dual-star approach and implementation; the main contributors to the

  8. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  9. Community engagement research and dual diagnosis anonymous.

    PubMed

    Roush, Sean; Monica, Corbett; Pavlovich, Danny; Drake, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Community engagement research is widely discussed but rarely implemented. This article describes the implementation of a community engagement research project on Dual Diagnosis Anonymous, a rapidly spreading peer support program in Oregon for people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. After three years of discussions, overcoming barriers, and involving several institutions, this grassroots research project has been implemented and is expanding. Active participants in Dual Diagnosis Anonymous inspired and instructed policy makers, professionals, and students. Community engagement research requires frontline participants, community members, and professional collaborators to overcome multiple barriers with persistence and steadfastness. Building trust, collaboration, and structures for community engagement research takes time and a community effort.

  10. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  11. Animal Modeling and Neurocircuitry of Dual Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Dual diagnosis is a problem of tremendous depth and scope, spanning many classes of mental disorders and addictive drugs. Animal models of psychiatric disorders studied in addiction paradigms suggest a unitary nature of mental illness and addiction vulnerability both on the neurocircuit and clinical-behavioral levels. These models provide platforms for exploring the interactive roles of biological, environmental and developmental factors on neurocircuits commonly involved in psychiatric and addiction diseases. While suggestive of the artifice of segregated research, training, and clinical cultures between psychiatric and addiction fields, this research may lead to more parsimonious, integrative and preventative treatments for dual diagnosis. PMID:20585464

  12. 16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 29, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5049, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 28, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5046, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July 5, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #3988, 7/5/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View to southeast, June 2, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5054, 6/7/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September 8, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4229, 9/6/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March 9, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4801, 3/9/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 5, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4930, 5/5/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MISSILE TUBE AT THE GROUND FLOOR LEVEL. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 28. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. VIEW OVER TOP OF TRUSS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. VIEW OVER TOP OF TRUSS FROM CONTROL CABIN DECK. Photographer unknown, August 1947 (Note that frame for electrical power cables is still in place, though the bridge was converted to hand operation almost ten years earlier.) - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  2. 161. GENERAL VIEW OF BASE. VIEW SOUTH FROM DOG PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. GENERAL VIEW OF BASE. VIEW SOUTH FROM DOG PATCH BEACH SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, THE AIRFIELD, BULKHEAD, BUILDING 64, 61, 3,4,5,6, STRUCTURE 68 (WATER TOWER), BUILDING 11 AND STRUCTURE 67 (WATER TOWER). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  3. Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking north to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking north to fireplace and mantel; note; partially blocked door opening to family dining room west of fireplace and iron railing at door to south entry hall - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  4. Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Second of three sequential views ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Second of three sequential views (from west to east) of the buildings in relation to the surrounding geography. Ranch house and trading post/barn on left. Note approximate location of Overland Trail crossing left to right. Camera facing north. - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

  5. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Morning view, contextual view of the exterior west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view of the exterior west side of the north wall along the unpaved road; camera facing west, positioned in road approximately 8 posts west of the gate. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  7. Impacts of wildlife viewing at Dixville Notch Wildlife Viewing Area

    Treesearch

    Judith K. Silverberg; Peter J. Pekins; Robert A. Robertson

    2002-01-01

    Dixville Notch Wildlife Viewing Area provided an opportunity to examine the motivations, knowledge level and attitudes of wildlife viewers as well as the response of wildlife to observation and other human caused stimuli at a designated wildlife viewing site. Using integrated social science and biological information allowed recommendations to be made for managing...

  8. 3. VIEW NORTH, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING CANAL, DRAIN GATE GATEHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING CANAL, DRAIN GATE GATEHOUSE ON RIGHT, HEADGATES AND GATEHOUSE IN DISTANCE - Norwich Water Power Company, West bank of Shetucket River beginning opposite Second Street & extending .8 mile northward, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  9. VIEW OF FRONT, RECESSED ENTRY SHOWING FRONT WALK. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT, RECESSED ENTRY SHOWING FRONT WALK. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW WITH STREET ON RIGHT HAND SIDE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW WITH STREET ON RIGHT HAND SIDE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. MAIN STREET FACING VIEW OF THE HOUSE. THIS VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN STREET FACING VIEW OF THE HOUSE. THIS VIEW IS FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. REAR OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING OPEN GRASSY REAR YARD. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING OPEN GRASSY REAR YARD. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. VIEW OF LIVING ROOM DOORS SHOWN IN CLOSED POSITION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIVING ROOM DOORS SHOWN IN CLOSED POSITION. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW OF FRONT, RECESSED ENTRY. VIEW FACING EAST Camp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT, RECESSED ENTRY. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW SHOWING STORAGE AREA IN CARPORT. VIEW FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING STORAGE AREA IN CARPORT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW OF HALLWAY, LOOKING TOWARDS BEDROOMS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HALLWAY, LOOKING TOWARDS BEDROOMS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTH. THIS VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTH. THIS VIEW SHOWS THE PRIVACY FENCE AND AMOUNT OF COMMON AREA BETWEEN THE HOUSES - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. Contextual oblique view of north side and east rear, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual oblique view of north side and east rear, view to southwest from Franklin Street showing partially cleared freeway right-of-way, and line of mature deodar cedar trees along North Fulton Avenue - Ira H. Brooks House, 350 North Fulton Avenue, Fresno, Fresno County, CA

  20. 5. Oblique view, west end and south side, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view, west end and south side, view to northeast. Shed-roofed entries on south side of lean-to will be replaced in this project to provide handicap access. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ACROSS CANAL PRISM, FROM ROUTE 146 EMBANKMENT. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  4. 1. General oblique view of the context, view to northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General oblique view of the context, view to northeast, showing vehicle bays at west end and overhead doors at east end - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Company Maintenance Shop & Arms Room, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  5. View looking north to the base of the monument; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking north to the base of the monument; view includes the (1924) Lafayette Statue, a memorial to the French and American soldiers who died in World War I, and the Methodist Church - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Clinical Views: Object-Oriented Views for Clinical Databases

    PubMed Central

    Portoni, Luisa; Combi, Carlo; Pinciroli, Francesco

    1998-01-01

    We present here a prototype of a clinical information system for the archiving and the management of multimedia and temporally-oriented clinical data related to PTCA patients. The system is based on an object-oriented DBMS and supports multiple views and view schemas on patients' data. Remote data access is supported too.

  12. 34. TIOGA ROAD, VIEW EAST OF OLMSTEAD POINT. SAME VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. TIOGA ROAD, VIEW EAST OF OLMSTEAD POINT. SAME VIEW AS CA-149-18. LOOKING NNW. GIS: N-37 48 46.8 / W-119 28 58.4 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. Interior view, detail view of the burnished aluminum and goldleaf ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view of the burnished aluminum and gold-leaf bracket lamps mounted on the limestone walls of the auditorium; the lamps were designed by Arthur Brown - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view on the fourth floor. A view looking northwest showing a typical arrangement of lease space offices, with glass door, lavatory and clothes closets. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  15. 5. Oblique view of east side as viewed from shore. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of east side as viewed from shore. This photo forms a panorama with photo WA-131-G-1, which shows the west dock from the same location. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Oil-Creosote Unloading Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. First of three sequential views ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. First of three sequential views (from west to east) of the buildings in relation to the surrounding geography. Ranch House on right. Note approximate locations of Overland Trail on right and San Diego cutoff branching off to left. Camera facing northwest. - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

  17. Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Third of three sequential views ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Third of three sequential views (from west to east) of the buildings in relation to the surrounding geography. Note approximate location of Overland Trail crossing left to right. Camera facing northeast - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

  18. 14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel for load-out belt conveyor system located below tanks. Square, numbered spouts gravity-feed grain from overhead bins onto belt. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  19. Detail view of substructure, view looking south at the center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of substructure, view looking south at the center in-water frame bent - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  20. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrines, Off Avenue C, at Repair Basins B13, B15-B18 & B20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Exploring dual commitment among physician executives in managed care.

    PubMed

    Hoff, T J

    2001-01-01

    The growth of a medical management specialty is a significant event associated with managed care. Physician executives are lauded for their potential in bridging the clinical and managerial realms. They also serve as a countervailing force to help the medical profession and patients maintain a strong voice in healthcare decision making at the strategic level. However, little is known about their work loyalties. These attitudes are important to explore because they speak to whose interests physician executives consider and represent in their everyday management roles. If physician executives are to maximize their effectiveness in the healthcare workplace, both physicians and organizations must view them as credible sources of authority. This study examines organizational and professional commitment among a national sample of physician executives employed in managed care settings. Data used for the analysis come from a national survey conducted through the American College of Physician Executives in 1996. The findings support the notion that physician executives can and do express simultaneous loyalty to organizational and professional interests. This dual commitment is related to other work attitudes that contribute to success in the management role. In addition, it appears that situational factors increase the chances for dual commitment. These factors derive from a favorable work environment that includes both organizational and professional socialization in the management role. The results of the study are useful in specifying the training and socialization needs of physicians who wish to do management work. They also provide a rationale for collaboration between healthcare organizations and rank-and-file physicians aimed at cultivating physician executives who are credible leaders within the healthcare system.

  3. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  4. View from industry.

    PubMed

    Guezuraga, Robert M; Steinbring, Denise Y

    2004-12-01

    The transformation of the cardiothoracic specialty requires a complete mind-set and skill-set change such that the specialty repositions itself in this era of complex cardiac disease, increased competition, technology innovation, financial constraints, rationed access to technology and increased scrutiny on clinical outcomes. The future offers a variety of surgical treatment options for patients suffering from disease states that have traditionally not been treated by cardiothoracic surgeons such as ablation for atrial fibrillation and cell therapy for heart failure. In addition, patient expectations for prolonged and quality-improved years are higher as they educate themselves on options that are less invasive. Failure to build a new repertoire of skills will mean diminished access to patients because referrals will be made to those cardiothoracic surgeons who are seen as innovators. Time is of the essence, as market dynamics are taking their toll. Cardiothoracic surgery today is still one of the most profitable specialties within the hospital and therefore, hospitals should be willing to support and differentiate their heart programs through new technology adoption. But cardiothoracic surgeons need to be open to explore new methods for treating cardiac disease and to work with industry in proving the efficacy and patient benefits of new procedures. At a higher level, pan-European approaches to new technology adoption need to focus on increased governmental spending on healthcare and on reimbursement strategies that make this possible. The medical device industry continues to invest heavily in new techniques and technologies and should be viewed as a strategic partner by individual surgeons as well as by the surgical societies. As industry continues to focus on areas such as research, product development, market development, professional and resident education, reimbursement, and patient access issues, it is imperative for surgeons to work collaboratively with

  5. Optical design and athermalization analysis of infrared dual band refractive-diffractive telephoto objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianing; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the remote target detection ability of infrared (IR) images effectively, an infrared telephoto objective for 3μm 5μm and 8μm 12μm dual wave-band is designed for 640 pixel×512 pixel infrared CCD detector. The effects of the surrounding environmental temperature are analyzed and the refractive diffractive hybrid thermal compensation is discussed. The focal length of the system is 200mm, the relative aperture is 1:2.2 and the field of view is 7°. The infrared dual band telephoto system with small volume and compact structure is designed in a large range of temperature. The system is composed of four lenses with only three materials of zinc sulfide, zinc selenide and germanium to compensate for the temperature. The image quality of the system is evaluated by ZEMAX optical design software. The results show that the modulation transfer function (MTF) for each field of view at cut-off frequency of 17 lp/mm are respectively greater than 0.6 and 0.4 which approaches the diffraction limit. The telephoto objective has favorable performance at the working temperature of -40°C +60°C. The relative aperture, field of view, and focal length are same for both spectral regions. The system meets the requirements of technical specification.

  6. Wildlands management for wildlife viewing

    Treesearch

    Tamsie Cooper; William W. Shaw

    1979-01-01

    Wildlife in general and wildlife viewing in particular play significant roles in enriching the aesthetic experiences of visitors to wildlands. Effective management of wildlife for viewing must be based on human as well as biological information. The integration of the principles and techniques developed for game management with information on the human dimensions of...

  7. George Saintbury's View of Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostettler, Gordon F.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the career of George Edward Bateman Saintsbury (1845-1933), the eighth Regius Professor at the University of Edinburgh. Outlines his position as a literary critic, reviews and analyzes his views of rhetoric and rhetoricians, and offers assessments of his views. (MH)

  8. Oblique view of Copernicus crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-145-22287 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- An oblique view of the large crater Copernicus on the lunar nearside, as photographed from the Apollo 17 spacecraft in lunar orbit. This view is looking generally southwest toward the crater on the horizon. The coordinates of the center of Copernicus are approximately 20 degrees west longitude and 9.5 degrees north latitude.

  9. Critical Viewing and Participatory Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jodi R.

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates ways that the work of some communication scholars with resistant, oppositional, and critical audiences does not, however, endorse active public life. Attempts to realign the language of critical viewing with the goals of participatory democracy by suggesting qualities of critical viewing that are conducive to achieving and maintaining…

  10. Interior View in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-15

    Interior view looking starboard (STBD) and aft in the Harmony Node 2, taken during the crew's sleep period (main lights are turned off). Hatches into the Columbus European Laboratory and Destiny U.S. Laboratory are in view. The pink glow comes from the Vegetable Production System (Veggie) greenhouse, housed in Columbus.

  11. INFLIGHT (EARTH VIEWS) - STS-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-11-16

    Onboard views by the STS-2 Crew of the Payload Bay with Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 Payload, the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) and Earth views of: Korea, China and Columbia. Also available in 4x5 BW 1. REAGAN, RONALD PRESIDENT - MOCR (STS-2) JSC, HOUSTON, TX Also available in 4x5 BW, 35 CN, 35 BW

  12. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles...

  13. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles...

  14. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles...

  15. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage...

  16. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage...

  17. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage...

  18. 46 CFR 129.326 - Dual-voltage generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual-voltage generators. 129.326 Section 129.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.326 Dual-voltage generators. If a dual-voltage...

  19. 14 CFR 23.399 - Dual control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dual control system. 23.399 Section 23.399 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Loads § 23.399 Dual control system. (a) Each dual control system must be designed to withstand the force...

  20. 14 CFR 23.399 - Dual control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dual control system. 23.399 Section 23.399 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Loads § 23.399 Dual control system. (a) Each dual control system must be designed to withstand the force...